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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634495/choking-hazards-are-current-product-testing-methods-for-small-parts-adequate
#1
Athena Neofotistos, Nancy Cowles, Ragini Sharma
Choking on small parts remains one of the leading causes of death and injury in infants and toddlers. The current method of testing for small parts, created by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), has become outdated and has yet to be changed despite the many deaths and injuries of children. The method uses a device called the small parts test fixture (SPTF) that is supposed to mimic the size of a fully expanded throat of a toddler. If a product does not fit inside the cavity of the SPTF, then it is deemed safe to play with because it "will not fit" in the esophagus of a child...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631578/the-journey-to-autism-insights-from-neuroimaging-studies-of-infants-and-toddlers
#2
Jason J Wolff, Suma Jacob, Jed T Elison
By definition, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that emerges during early childhood. It is during this time that infants and toddlers transition from appearing typical across multiple domains to exhibiting the behavioral phenotype of ASD. Neuroimaging studies focused on this period of development have provided crucial knowledge pertaining to this process, including possible mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of the disorder and offering the possibility of prodromal or presymptomatic prediction of risk...
June 20, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628971/occurrence-of-phthalate-diesters-in-indoor-air-from-several-northern-cities-in-vietnam-and-its-implication-for-human-exposure
#3
Tri Manh Tran, Hanh Thi Le, Tu Binh Minh, Kurunthachalam Kannan
Phthalates are used as plasticizers to impart flexibility of plastics. Because of their toxicity, human exposure to phthalates is a concern. Little is known on the occurrence of and inhalation exposure to phthalates in indoor air. In this study, ten phthalates were measured in 97 indoor air samples collected from Northern Vietnam during September 2016 to January 2017. The mean concentrations of total phthalates (i.e., sum of ten phthalates) in particulate and gas phases ranged from 95.2 to 13,100μgg(-1) and from 57...
June 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628773/temperament-and-behavior-in-toddlers-born-preterm-with-related-clinical-problems
#4
Rafaela Guilherme Monte Cassiano, Claudia Maria Gaspardo, Ricardo Augusto de Deus Faciroli, Francisco Eulógio Martinez, Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare temperament and behavior profiles among groups of preterm toddlers differentiated by level of prematurity and the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), controlling for neonatal clinical conditions and chronological age. METHOD: The sample comprised 100 preterm toddlers segregated according to level of prematurity (75 very preterm and 25 moderate/late preterm) and presence of BPD (n=36) and ROP (n=63)...
June 16, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628487/do-toddler-s-fractures-of-the-tibia-require-evaluation-and-management-by-an-orthopaedic-surgeon-routinely
#5
John S Adamich, Mark W Camp
OBJECTIVE: The majority of uncomplicated toddler fractures of the tibia (toddler's fractures) do not need an orthopaedic surgeon's intervention or follow-up. However, inexperienced emergency room physicians, general practitioners and orthopaedic trainees and surgeons understandably defer to a cautious approach of referral and subsequent frequent clinical and radiographic follow-up. An evidence-based pathway can help prevent this overtreatment, reduce unnecessary radiation exposure and decrease the financial burden on families and the healthcare system...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625208/parenting-cognitions-%C3%A2-parenting-practices-%C3%A2-child-adjustment-the-standard-model
#6
Marc H Bornstein, Diane L Putnick, Joan T D Suwalsky
In a large-scale (N = 317) prospective 8-year longitudinal multiage, multidomain, multivariate, multisource study, we tested a conservative three-term model linking parenting cognitions in toddlerhood to parenting practices in preschool to classroom externalizing behavior in middle childhood, controlling for earlier parenting practices and child externalizing behavior. Mothers who were more knowledgeable, satisfied, and attributed successes in their parenting to themselves when their toddlers were 20 months of age engaged in increased supportive parenting during joint activity tasks 2 years later when their children were 4 years of age, and 6 years after that their 10-year-olds were rated by teachers as having fewer classroom externalizing behavior problems...
June 19, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623778/are-there-signature-limits-in-early-theory-of-mind
#7
Ella Fizke, Stephen Butterfill, Lea van de Loo, Eva Reindl, Hannes Rakoczy
Current theory-of-mind research faces the challenge of reconciling two sets of seemingly incompatible findings: Whereas children come to solve explicit verbal false belief (FB) tasks from around 4years of age, recent studies with various less explicit measures such as looking time, anticipatory looking, and spontaneous behavior suggest that even infants can succeed on some FB tasks. In response to this tension, two-systems theories propose to distinguish between an early-developing system, tracking simple forms of mental states, and a later-developing system, based on fully developed concepts of belief and other propositional attitudes...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623417/a-validated-clinical-mri-injury-scoring-system-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#8
Shamik B Trivedi, Zachary A Vesoulis, Rakesh Rao, Steve M Liao, Joshua S Shimony, Robert C McKinstry, Amit M Mathur
BACKGROUND: Deep nuclear gray matter injury in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcomes. We previously published a qualitative MRI injury scoring system utilizing serial T1-weighted, T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), weighted for deep nuclear gray matter injury. OBJECTIVES: To establish the validity of the MRI scoring system with neurodevelopmental outcome at 18-24 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI scans from neonates with moderate to severe HIE treated with therapeutic hypothermia were evaluated...
June 16, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623349/human-bipedalism-and-body-mass-index
#9
Su Do Yi, Jae Dong Noh, Petter Minnhagen, Mi-Young Song, Tae-Soo Chon, Beom Jun Kim
Body-mass index, abbreviated as BMI and given by M/H (2) with the mass M and the height H, has been widely used as a useful proxy to measure a general health status of a human individual. We generalise BMI in the form of M/H (p) and pursue to answer the question of the value of p for populations of animal species including human. We compare values of p for several different datasets for human populations with the ones obtained for other animal populations of fish, whales, and land mammals. All animal populations but humans analyzed in our work are shown to have p ≈ 3 unanimously...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622782/-prevalence-of-iron-deficiency
#10
C Dupont
Studies of prévalence in iron deficiency separate iron depletion (defined as decreased blood ferritin) and iron deficiency anemia (defined as blood decrease in both ferritin and hemoglobin). In Europe, most studies are outdated. Prevalence of iron depletion varies from 7 to 18 % and 24 to 36% in toddlers and adolescents, respectively. Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia varies from 2 to 8.5% and 7 to 10% in toddlers and adolescents. In French speaking African countries, Demography Health Surveys show that 80% of children aged 0 to 2 years are anemic, severely for 5 to 9% of them...
May 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622589/improving-outcomes-for-babies-and-toddlers-in-child-welfare-a-model-for-infant-mental-health-intervention-and-collaboration
#11
Susan Chinitz, Hazel Guzman, Ellen Amstutz, Joaniko Kohchi, Miriam Alkon
Children under three comprise a sizable and growing proportion of foster care placements. Very young children who enter the child welfare system experience disruptions of critical attachments that are essential to this formative stage of brain development, as well as other traumatic events, leaving them at great risk for lifelong impairments. To reverse these concerning outcomes, babies who have been removed from their homes require intensive, relationship-based interventions that promote secure attachment to a primary caregiver and holistic attention the child's developmental needs...
June 13, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620554/clinical-phenotype-in-a-toddler-with-a-novel-heterozygous-mutation-of-the-vitamin-d-receptor
#12
Preneet Cheema Brar, Elena Dingle, John Pappas, Manish Raisingani
We present the clinical phenotype of a toddler who presented with vitamin D-resistant rickets, with one of the highest initial levels of alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels reported in the literature. The toddler had novel compound heterozygous mutations in the ligand-binding site of the vitamin D receptor and had an excellent response to calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D).
2017: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613954/comparison-of-sleep-characteristics-pattern-and-problems-in-young-children-within-the-southeast-asian-region
#13
Kim Dy Daban, Daniel Yt Goh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Optimal sleeping habits are important for health development of infants. The role of culture on sleep habits cannot be underestimated. We aimed to characterize sleep patterns, sleep practices and sleep problems; and assess the sleep settings and parental perceptions of sleep problems in children from birth to 36 months in countries in the Southeast Asian (SEA) region. PARTICIPANTS: Parents and caregivers of infants and toddlers (birth to 36 months old) from countries in Southeast Asia participated in this study...
June 14, 2017: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611578/prefrontal-hemodynamics-in-toddlers-at-rest-a-pilot-study-of-developmental-variability
#14
Afrouz A Anderson, Elizabeth Smith, Fatima A Chowdhry, Audrey Thurm, Emma Condy, Lauren Swineford, Stacy S Manwaring, Franck Amyot, Dennis Matthews, Amir H Gandjbakhche
Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive functional neuroimaging modality. Although, it is amenable to use in infants and young children, there is a lack of fNIRS research within the toddler age range. In this study, we used fNIRS to measure cerebral hemodynamics in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in 18-36 months old toddlers (n = 29) as part of a longitudinal study that enrolled typically-developing toddlers as well as those "at risk" for language and other delays based on presence of early language delays...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609691/foundations-for-screening-adverse-childhood-experiences-exploring-patterns-of-exposure-through-infancy-and-toddlerhood
#15
Lorraine M McKelvey, James P Selig, Leanne Whiteside-Mansell
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have lifetime consequences for health and development. Identification of ACEs early in childhood provides the potential to intervene before health and development are impaired. This study examined the timing and duration of exposure to ACEs experienced by children from low-income families from ages one to three years to identify whether there were patterns of exposure when infants and toddlers were most vulnerable. We were able to confirm the early negative consequences on cognitive, health, and behavior outcomes previously reported in young children using a national, longitudinal data set of parents and children from low-income households (N=2250)...
June 10, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608168/a-unique-path-to-callous-unemotional-traits-for-children-who-are-temperamentally-fearless-and-unconcerned-about-transgressions-a-longitudinal-study-of-typically-developing-children-from-age-2-to-12
#16
Kathryn C Goffin, Lea J Boldt, Sanghag Kim, Grazyna Kochanska
Despite the acknowledged significance of callous-unemotional (CU) traits in developmental psychopathology, few studies have examined their early antecedents in typically developing children, in long-term longitudinal designs, using observational measures. In 102 community mothers, fathers, and children (N = 51 girls), we examined main and interactive effects of children's fearless temperament and low concern about transgressions from toddler to early school age as predictors of CU traits in middle childhood and early preadolescence...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607943/poor-adherence-with-medication-refill-and-medical-supplies-maintenance-as-risk-factors-for-inpatient-asthma-admission-in-children
#17
Pavadee Poowuttikul, Benjamin Hart, Ronald Thomas, Elizabeth Secord
Background. Asthma results in significant pediatric hospitalizations in the inner city. Many asthmatic children were admitted to our hospital as a result of lack of medications or medical supplies that had been previously prescribed ("ran out," "broken," or "lost"). Objective. To identify the incidence of children admitted for asthma because of lack of prescribed medications/supplies and to assess risk factors for poor adherence between groups. Methods. This was a prospective chart review of 200 asthmatic children admitted to Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607853/pachyonychia-congenita-in-a-toddler
#18
Max Mandelbaum, Jerry W Chao, Gary F Rogers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604131/micronutrient-intake-and-the-contribution-of-dietary-supplements-in-hispanic-infants
#19
Kiara Amaro-Rivera, Andrea López-Cepero, Beatriz Diaz, Jae Eun Lee, Cristina Palacios
To calculate micronutrient adequacy among infants and toddlers and to determine the contribution of dietary supplements to this adequacy, micronutrient intake was assessed using two nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls in a sample of 296 infants aged 0-24 months. Micronutrient intake was calculated from foods and beverages and from supplements and compared between nonusers and users of supplements. Percentages of children below the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) and above the tolerable upper limit intake (UL) were also compared between groups...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600160/family-based-obesity-prevention-for-infants-design-of-the-mothers-others-randomized-trial
#20
Heather M Wasser, Amanda L Thompson, Chirayath M Suchindran, Eric A Hodges, Barbara D Goldman, Eliana M Perrin, Myles S Faith, Cynthia M Bulik, M Jane Heinig, Margaret E Bentley
OBJECTIVE: Our goal is to test the efficacy of a family-based, multi-component intervention focused on infants of African-American (AA) mothers and families, a minority population at elevated risk for pediatric obesity, versus a child safety attention-control group to promote healthy weight gain patterns during the first two years of life. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND METHODS: The design is a two-group randomized controlled trial among 468 AA pregnant women in central North Carolina...
June 6, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
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