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Ailuropoda melanoleuca

Wei Guo, Sudhanshu Mishra, Jiangchao Zhao, Jingsi Tang, Bo Zeng, Fanli Kong, Ruihong Ning, Miao Li, Hengzhi Zhang, Yutian Zeng, Yuanliangzi Tian, Yihang Zhong, Hongdi Luo, Yunhan Liu, Jiandong Yang, Mingyao Yang, Mingwang Zhang, Yan Li, Qingyong Ni, Caiwu Li, Chengdong Wang, Desheng Li, Hemin Zhang, Zhili Zuo, Ying Li
Bamboo-eating giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ) is an enigmatic species, which possesses a carnivore-like short and simple gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Despite the remarkable studies on giant panda, its diet adaptability status continues to be a matter of debate. To resolve this puzzle, we investigated the functional potential of the giant panda gut microbiome using shotgun metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples. We also compared our data with similar data from other animal species representing herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores from current and earlier studies...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gaia Pasqualetto, Andrea Brancale, Mark T Young
P2X receptors are trimeric eukaryotic ATP-gated cation channels. Extracellular ATP-their physiological ligand-is released as a neurotransmitter and in conditions of cell damage such as inflammation, and substantial evidence implicates P2X receptors in diseases including neuropathic pain, cancer, and arthritis. In 2009, the first P2X crystal structure, Danio rerio P2X4 in the apo - state, was published, and this was followed in 2012 by the ATP-bound structure. These structures transformed our understanding of the conformational changes induced by ATP binding and the mechanism of ligand specificity, and enabled homology modeling of mammalian P2X receptors for ligand docking and rational design of receptor modulators...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Wencheng Zou, Caiwu Li, Xin Yang, Yongxiang Wang, Guangyang Cheng, Jinxin Zeng, Xiuzhong Zhang, Yanpeng Chen, Run Cai, Qianru Huang, Lan Feng, Hongning Wang, Desheng Li, Guiquan Zhang, Yanxi Chen, Zhizhong Zhang, Heming Zhang
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is considered as a common opportunistic pathogen, which causes seriously intestinal infections to giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and other animals. The aim of this investigation was to characterize the antimicrobial resistance and integron gene cassettes in E. coli isolated from the faeces of giant pandas in China. A total of 89 E. coli were isolated, after diagnosis of isolates and genomes were extracted. All the isolates were screened for the presence of related drug-resistance genes and integron gene cassettes through the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequencing...
January 25, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Yipeng Jin, Xinke Zhang, Yisheng Ma, Yanchao Qiao, Xiaobin Liu, Kaihui Zhao, Chenglin Zhang, Degui Lin, Xuelian Fu, Xinrong Xu, Yiwei Wang, Huanan Wang
We evaluated exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) in eight wild giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and 125 unvaccinated domestic dogs living in and around Foping National Nature Reserve (FNNR), China. Seventy-two percent of unvaccinated domestic dogs (mixed breed) had neutralizing antibodies for CDV due to exposure to the disease. The eight wild giant pandas were naïve to CDV and carried no positive antibody titer. RT-PCR assays for hemagglutinin (H) gene confirmed the presence of CDV in 31 clinically ill dogs from several areas near FNNR...
December 26, 2017: Oncotarget
Mingchun Zhang, Zhizhong Zhang, Zhong Li, Mingsheng Hong, Xiaoping Zhou, Shiqiang Zhou, Jindong Zhang, Vanessa Hull, Jinyan Huang, Hemin Zhang
Diet plays a pivotal role in dictating behavioral patterns of herbivorous animals, particularly specialist species. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is well-known as a bamboo specialist. In the present study, the response of giant pandas to spatiotemporal variation of bamboo shoots was explored using field surveys and GPS collar tracking. Results show the dynamics in panda-bamboo space-time relationships that have not been previously articulated. For instance, we found a higher bamboo stump height of foraged bamboo with increasing elevation, places where pandas foraged later in spring when bamboo shoots become more fibrous and woody...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Caitlin Burrell, Hemin Zhang, Desheng Li, Chengdong Wang, Caiwu Li, Copper Aitken-Palmer
The giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a high-profile threatened species with individuals in captivity worldwide. As a result of advances in captive animal management and veterinary medicine, the ex situ giant panda population is aging, and improved understanding of age-related changes is necessary. Urine and blood samples were collected in April and July 2015 and analyzed for complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and biochemical and microscopic urine analysis for all individuals sampled ( n = 7, 7-16 yr of age) from giant panda housed at the China Research and Conservation Centre for the Giant Panda in Bifengxia, Sichuan Province, China...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Yuke Zhang, Paul D Mathewson, Qiongyue Zhang, Warren P Porter, Jianghong Ran
Threatened and endangered species are more vulnerable to climate change due to small population and specific geographical distribution. Therefore, identifying and incorporating the biological processes underlying a species' adaptation to its environment are important for determining whether they can persist in situ. Correlative models are widely used to predict species' distribution changes, but generally fail to capture the buffering capacity of organisms. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) live in topographically complex mountains and are known to avoid heat stress...
December 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
Erin A McKenney, Michael Maslanka, Allen Rodrigo, Anne D Yoder
Bamboo specialization is one of the most extreme examples of convergent herbivory, yet it is unclear how this specific high-fiber diet might selectively shape the composition of the gut microbiome compared to host phylogeny. To address these questions, we used deep sequencing to investigate the nature and comparative impact of phylogenetic and dietary selection for specific gut microbial membership in three bamboo specialists-the bamboo lemur (Hapalemur griseus, Primates: Lemuridae), giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, Carnivora: Ursidae), and red panda (Ailurus fulgens, Carnivora: Musteloideadae), as well as two phylogenetic controls-the ringtail lemur (Lemur catta) and the Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus)...
November 29, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Dongwei Kang, Junqing Li
Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a flagship species in nature conservation of the world; to protect this species, 67 nature reserves have been established in China. To evaluate the protection effect of giant panda nature reserves, we analyzed the variation of giant panda number and habitat area of 23 giant panda nature reserves of Sichuan province based on the national survey data released by State Forestry Administration and Sichuan Forestry Department. Results showed that from the third national survey to the fourth, giant panda number and habitat area of 23 giant panda nature reserves of Sichuan province failed to realize the significant increase...
February 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nathan J P Wintle, Meghan S Martin-Wintle, Xiaoping Zhou, Hemin Zhang
Fifteen giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from the Chinese Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda (CCRCGP) in Bifengxia, Sichuan, China were analyzed for blood lead concentrations (Pb-B) during the 2017 breeding season. Thirteen of the 15 bears showed Pb-B below the method detection limit (MDL) of 3.3 µg/dL. The two remaining bears, although above the MDL, contained very low concentrations of lead of 3.9 and 4.5 µg/dL. All 15 giant pandas in this analysis had Pb-B concentrations that were within normal background concentrations for mammals in uncontaminated environments...
January 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Lei Shan, Qi Wu, Le Wang, Lei Zhang, Fuwen Wei
Bitter taste receptor genes (TAS2Rs) mediate bitterness perception in mammals. It is believed that these genes evolved in response to species-specific diets. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens styani) in the order Carnivora are specialized herbivores with an almost exclusive bamboo diet (>90% bamboo). Because bamboo is full of bitter tasting compounds, we hypothesized that adaptive evolution have occurred at TAS2R genes in giant and red pandas throughout the course of their dietary shift...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Xiaoping Ma, Changcheng Li, Jiafa Hou, Yu Gu
BACKGROUND: In order to better understand the possible role of fungi in giant panda reproduction and overall health, it is important to provide a baseline for the normal fungal composition in the reproductive system. Using morphology and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis, we systematically isolated and identified fungal species from the vagina, foreskin, and semen of 21 (11 males and 10 females) healthy giant pandas to understand the normal fungal flora of the genital tracts...
November 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Jussi T Eronen, Sarah Zohdy, Alistair R Evans, Stacey R Tecot, Patricia C Wright, Jukka Jernvall
Animals with dietary specializations can be used to link climate to specific ecological drivers of endangerment. Only two mammals, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Asia and the greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus) in Madagascar, consume the nutritionally poor and mechanically challenging culm or trunk of woody bamboos [1-3]. Even though the greater bamboo lemur is critically endangered, paleontological evidence shows that it was once broadly distributed [4, 5]. Here, integrating morphological, paleontological, and ecological evidence, we project the effects of climate change on greater bamboo lemurs...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Dunwu Qi, Tongling Shan, Zhijian Liu, Xutao Deng, Zhihe Zhang, Wenlei Bi, Jacob Robert Owens, Feifei Feng, Lisong Zheng, Feng Huang, Eric Delwart, Rong Hou, Wen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Polyomaviruses infect a wide variety of mammalian and avian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction. METHODS: Viral metagenomics and general PCR methods were used to detected viral nucleic acid in the samples from a diseased and healthy giant pandas. RESULTS: A novel polyomavirus, the giant panda polyomavirus 1 (GPPyV1) from the nasal cavity of a dead giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) was characterized...
October 27, 2017: Virology Journal
Jiao Zhu, Simona Arena, Silvia Spinelli, Dingzhen Liu, Guiquan Zhang, Rongping Wei, Christian Cambillau, Andrea Scaloni, Guirong Wang, Paolo Pelosi
The giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca belongs to the family of Ursidae; however, it is not carnivorous, feeding almost exclusively on bamboo. Being equipped with a typical carnivorous digestive apparatus, the giant panda cannot get enough energy for an active life and spends most of its time digesting food or sleeping. Feeding and mating are both regulated by odors and pheromones; therefore, a better knowledge of olfaction at the molecular level can help in designing strategies for the conservation of this species...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dongwei Kang, Xiaorong Wang, Junqing Li
Little is known about the resting sites used by the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), which restricts our understanding of their resting habits and limits conservation efforts. To enhance our understanding of resting site requirements and factors affecting the resting time of giant pandas, we investigated the characteristics of resting sites in the Wanglang Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China. The results indicated that the resting sites of giant pandas were characterised by a mean slope of 21°, mean nearest tree size of 53...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Qian Liu, Xueqin Ni, Qiang Wang, Zhirong Peng, Lili Niu, Hengsong Wang, Yi Zhou, Hao Sun, Kangcheng Pan, Bo Jing, Dong Zeng
In this work, we searched for an effective probiotic that can help control intestinal infection, particularly enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (ETEC) invasion, in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). As a potential probiotic strain, Lactobacillus plantarum BSGP201683 (L. plantarum G83) was isolated from the feces of giant panda and proven beneficial in vitro. This study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of L. plantarum G83 in mice challenged with ETEC. The mice were orally administered with 0...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Youxu Li, Qiang Dai, Rong Hou, Zhihe Zhang, Peng Chen, Rui Xue, Feifei Feng, Chao Chen, Jiabin Liu, Xiaodong Gu, Zejun Zhang, Dunwu Qi
Previous studies have shown that giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) can discriminate face-like shapes, but little is known about their cognitive ability with respect to the emotional expressions of humans. We tested whether adult giant pandas can discriminate expressions from pictures of half of a face and found that pandas can learn to discriminate between angry and happy expressions based on global information from the whole face. Young adult pandas (5-7 years old) learned to discriminate expressions more quickly than older individuals (8-16 years old), but no significant differences were found between females and males...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wen Zhang, Shixing Yang, Tongling Shan, Rong Hou, Zhijian Liu, Wang Li, Lianghua Guo, Yan Wang, Peng Chen, Xiaochun Wang, Feifei Feng, Hua Wang, Chao Chen, Quan Shen, Chenglin Zhou, Xiuguo Hua, Li Cui, Xutao Deng, Zhihe Zhang, Dunwu Qi, Eric Delwart
BACKGROUND: The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a vulnerable mammal herbivore living wild in central China. Viral infections have become a potential threat to the health of these endangered animals, but limited information related to these infections is available. METHODS: Using a viral metagenomic approach, we surveyed viruses in the feces, nasopharyngeal secretions, blood, and different tissues from a wild giant panda that died from an unknown disease, a healthy wild giant panda, and 46 healthy captive animals...
August 7, 2017: Microbiome
Barbara L Gocinski, Katrina K Knott, Beth M Roberts, Janine L Brown, Carrie K Vance, Andrew J Kouba
Giant pandas have been described as mono-oestrus spring breeders, yet males exposed to aseasonal oestrous females in the autumn or winter exhibit breeding behaviours and interest in mating. In the present study, urinary androgens and sperm parameters were quantified for males exposed to females expressing oestrus during spring, autumn or winter to examine plasticity of reproductive seasonality in giant pandas. Monthly average androgen concentrations for two males exposed to females in either seasonal or aseasonal oestrus were greater (P<0...
August 3, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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