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Ailuropoda melanoleuca

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107552/feeding-ecology-and-morphology-make-a-bamboo-specialist-vulnerable-to-climate-change
#1
Jussi T Eronen, Sarah Zohdy, Alistair R Evans, Stacey R Tecot, Patricia C Wright, Jukka Jernvall
Animals with dietary specializations can be used to link climate to specific ecological drivers of endangerment. Only two mammals, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Asia and the greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus) in Madagascar, consume the nutritionally poor and mechanically challenging culm or trunk of woody bamboos [1-3]. Even though the greater bamboo lemur is critically endangered, paleontological evidence shows that it was once broadly distributed [4, 5]. Here, integrating morphological, paleontological, and ecological evidence, we project the effects of climate change on greater bamboo lemurs...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078783/a-novel-polyomavirus-from-the-nasal-cavity-of-a-giant-panda-ailuropoda-melanoleuca
#2
Dunwu Qi, Tongling Shan, Zhijian Liu, Xutao Deng, Zhihe Zhang, Wenlei Bi, Jacob Robert Owens, Feifei Feng, Lisong Zheng, Feng Huang, Eric Delwart, Rong Hou, Wen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Polyomaviruses infect a wide variety of mammalian and avian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction. METHODS: Viral metagenomics and general PCR methods were used to detected viral nucleic acid in the samples from a diseased and healthy giant pandas. RESULTS: A novel polyomavirus, the giant panda polyomavirus 1 (GPPyV1) from the nasal cavity of a dead giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) was characterized...
October 27, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078359/reverse-chemical-ecology-olfactory-proteins-from-the-giant-panda-and-their-interactions-with-putative-pheromones-and-bamboo-volatiles
#3
Jiao Zhu, Simona Arena, Silvia Spinelli, Dingzhen Liu, Guiquan Zhang, Rongping Wei, Christian Cambillau, Andrea Scaloni, Guirong Wang, Paolo Pelosi
The giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca belongs to the family of Ursidae; however, it is not carnivorous, feeding almost exclusively on bamboo. Being equipped with a typical carnivorous digestive apparatus, the giant panda cannot get enough energy for an active life and spends most of its time digesting food or sleeping. Feeding and mating are both regulated by odors and pheromones; therefore, a better knowledge of olfaction at the molecular level can help in designing strategies for the conservation of this species...
October 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062136/resting-site-use-of-giant-pandas-in-wanglang-nature-reserve
#4
Dongwei Kang, Xiaorong Wang, Junqing Li
Little is known about the resting sites used by the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), which restricts our understanding of their resting habits and limits conservation efforts. To enhance our understanding of resting site requirements and factors affecting the resting time of giant pandas, we investigated the characteristics of resting sites in the Wanglang Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China. The results indicated that the resting sites of giant pandas were characterised by a mean slope of 21°, mean nearest tree size of 53...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018435/lactobacillus-plantarum-bsgp201683-isolated-from-giant-panda-feces-attenuated-inflammation-and-improved-gut-microflora-in-mice-challenged-with-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli
#5
Qian Liu, Xueqin Ni, Qiang Wang, Zhirong Peng, Lili Niu, Hengsong Wang, Yi Zhou, Hao Sun, Kangcheng Pan, Bo Jing, Dong Zeng
In this work, we searched for an effective probiotic that can help control intestinal infection, particularly enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (ETEC) invasion, in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). As a potential probiotic strain, Lactobacillus plantarum BSGP201683 (L. plantarum G83) was isolated from the feces of giant panda and proven beneficial in vitro. This study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of L. plantarum G83 in mice challenged with ETEC. The mice were orally administered with 0...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814756/giant-pandas-can-discriminate-the-emotions-of-human-facial-pictures
#6
Youxu Li, Qiang Dai, Rong Hou, Zhihe Zhang, Peng Chen, Rui Xue, Feifei Feng, Chao Chen, Jiabin Liu, Xiaodong Gu, Zejun Zhang, Dunwu Qi
Previous studies have shown that giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) can discriminate face-like shapes, but little is known about their cognitive ability with respect to the emotional expressions of humans. We tested whether adult giant pandas can discriminate expressions from pictures of half of a face and found that pandas can learn to discriminate between angry and happy expressions based on global information from the whole face. Young adult pandas (5-7 years old) learned to discriminate expressions more quickly than older individuals (8-16 years old), but no significant differences were found between females and males...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780905/virome-comparisons-in-wild-diseased-and-healthy-captive-giant-pandas
#7
Wen Zhang, Shixing Yang, Tongling Shan, Rong Hou, Zhijian Liu, Wang Li, Lianghua Guo, Yan Wang, Peng Chen, Xiaochun Wang, Feifei Feng, Hua Wang, Chao Chen, Quan Shen, Chenglin Zhou, Xiuguo Hua, Li Cui, Xutao Deng, Zhihe Zhang, Dunwu Qi, Eric Delwart
BACKGROUND: The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a vulnerable mammal herbivore living wild in central China. Viral infections have become a potential threat to the health of these endangered animals, but limited information related to these infections is available. METHODS: Using a viral metagenomic approach, we surveyed viruses in the feces, nasopharyngeal secretions, blood, and different tissues from a wild giant panda that died from an unknown disease, a healthy wild giant panda, and 46 healthy captive animals...
August 7, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768568/changes-in-urinary-androgen-concentration-indicate-that-male-giant-pandas-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-respond-to-impending-female-oestrus-during-and-outside-the-typical-spring-breeding-season
#8
Barbara L Gocinski, Katrina K Knott, Beth M Roberts, Janine L Brown, Carrie K Vance, Andrew J Kouba
Giant pandas have been described as mono-oestrus spring breeders, yet males exposed to aseasonal oestrous females in the autumn or winter exhibit breeding behaviours and interest in mating. In the present study, urinary androgens and sperm parameters were quantified for males exposed to females expressing oestrus during spring, autumn or winter to examine plasticity of reproductive seasonality in giant pandas. Monthly average androgen concentrations for two males exposed to females in either seasonal or aseasonal oestrus were greater (P<0...
August 3, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700323/baylisascaris-schroederi-infection-in-giant-pandas-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-in-foping-national-nature-reserve-china
#9
Zhiwei Peng, Changsheng Zhang, Meiying Shen, Heng Bao, Zhijun Hou, Shaowen He, Yuping Hua
The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is the most iconic endangered species in the world, but there is little information about the spatial and temporal distribution of parasites in the wild giant panda population. In total, 193 fecal samples from giant pandas in the Foping National Nature Reserve, People's Republic of China, were analyzed for parasite eggs using a modification of the McMaster technique. The morphology and size of Baylisascaris schroederi eggs were observed under an optical microscope. The prevalence and intensity of B...
October 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616195/assessing-vulnerability-of-giant-pandas-to-climate-change-in-the-qinling-mountains-of-china
#10
Jia Li, Fang Liu, Yadong Xue, Yu Zhang, Diqiang Li
Climate change might pose an additional threat to the already vulnerable giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Effective conservation efforts require projections of vulnerability of the giant panda in facing climate change and proactive strategies to reduce emerging climate-related threats. We used the maximum entropy model to assess the vulnerability of giant panda to climate change in the Qinling Mountains of China. The results of modeling included the following findings: (1) the area of suitable habitat for giant pandas was projected to decrease by 281 km(2) from climate change by the 2050s; (2) the mean elevation of suitable habitat of giant panda was predicted to shift 30 m higher due to climate change over this period; (3) the network of nature reserves protect 61...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615713/exosomal-micrornas-in-giant-panda-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-breast-milk-potential-maternal-regulators-for-the-development-of-newborn-cubs
#11
Jideng Ma, Chengdong Wang, Keren Long, Hemin Zhang, Jinwei Zhang, Long Jin, Qianzi Tang, Anan Jiang, Xun Wang, Shilin Tian, Li Chen, Dafang He, Desheng Li, Shan Huang, Zhi Jiang, Mingzhou Li
The physiological role of miRNAs is widely understood to include fine-tuning the post-transcriptional regulation of a wide array of biological processes. Extensive studies have indicated that exosomal miRNAs in the bodily fluids of various organisms can be transferred between living cells for the delivery of gene silencing signals. Here, we illustrated the expression characteristics of exosomal miRNAs in giant panda breast milk during distinct lactation periods and highlighted the enrichment of immune- and development-related endogenous miRNAs in colostral and mature giant panda milk...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614359/phenological-changes-in-bamboo-carbohydrates-explain-the-preference-for-culm-over-leaves-by-giant-pandas-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-during-spring
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Katrina K Knott, Amelia L Christian, Josephine F Falcone, Carrie K Vance, Laura L Bauer, George C Fahey, Andrew J Kouba
Seasonal changes in the foodscape force herbivores to select different plant species or plant parts to meet nutritional requirements. We examined whether the search for calorie-rich carbohydrates explained giant panda's selection for bamboo culm over leaves during spring. Leaves and culms were collected from four Phyllostachys bamboos (P. aurea, P. aureosulcata, P. glauca, and P. nuda) once per month over 18-27 months. Monthly changes in annual plant part nutrients were examined, and compared to seasonal foraging behaviors of captive giant pandas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611401/a-diet-diverse-in-bamboo-parts-is-important-for-giant-panda-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-metabolism-and-health
#13
Hairui Wang, Heju Zhong, Rong Hou, James Ayala, Guangmang Liu, Shibin Yuan, Zheng Yan, Wenping Zhang, Yuliang Liu, Kailai Cai, Zhigang Cai, He Huang, Zhihe Zhang, De Wu
The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic response in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) to the consumption of certain parts of bamboo above ground growth. Giant pandas were provisioned with three species of bamboo: Phyllostachys bissetii, of which they only consume the culm (culm group); Bashania fargesii, of which they only consume the leaves (leaf group); and Qiongzhuea opienensis, of which they only consume the shoots (shoot group). The "culm" group absorbed the highest amount of calories and fiber, but was in short energy supply (depressed tricarboxylic acid cycle activity), and high fiber level diet might reduce the digestibility of protein...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454704/the-normal-vaginal-and-uterine-bacterial-microbiome-in-giant-pandas-ailuropoda-melanoleuca
#14
Xin Yang, Guangyang Cheng, Caiwu Li, Jiang Yang, Jianan Li, Danyu Chen, Wencheng Zou, SenYan Jin, Hemin Zhang, Desheng Li, Yongguo He, Chengdong Wang, Min Wang, Hongning Wang
While the health effects of the colonization of the reproductive tracts of mammals by bacterial communities are widely known, there is a dearth of knowledge specifically in relation to giant panda microbiomes. In order to investigate the vaginal and uterine bacterial diversity of healthy giant pandas, we used high-throughput sequence analysis of portions of the 16S rRNA gene, based on samples taken from the vaginas (GPV group) and uteri (GPU group) of these animals. Results showed that the four most abundant phyla, which contained in excess of 98% of the total sequences, were Proteobacteria (59...
June 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431316/pbdes-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pose-a-risk-to-captive-giant-pandas
#15
Yi-Ping Chen, Ying-Juan Zheng, Qiang Liu, Aaron M Ellison, Yan Zhao, Qing-Yi Ma
The Qinling subspecies of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis), is highly endangered; fewer than 350 individuals still inhabit Qinling Mountains. Previous research revealed captive pandas were exposed to bromine, so we hypothesized that captive pandas were exposed to and affected by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). To test this hypothesis, we tested blood and feces of captive and wild pandas, their drinking water, food (bamboo leaves) from SWARC (Shaanxi Wild Animal Research Center)and FNNR (Foping National Nature Reserve) and supplemental feedstuff given to captive panda at SWARC...
July 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428848/modeling-activity-patterns-of-wildlife-using-time-series-analysis
#16
Jindong Zhang, Vanessa Hull, Zhiyun Ouyang, Liang He, Thomas Connor, Hongbo Yang, Jinyan Huang, Shiqiang Zhou, Zejun Zhang, Caiquan Zhou, Hemin Zhang, Jianguo Liu
The study of wildlife activity patterns is an effective approach to understanding fundamental ecological and evolutionary processes. However, traditional statistical approaches used to conduct quantitative analysis have thus far had limited success in revealing underlying mechanisms driving activity patterns. Here, we combine wavelet analysis, a type of frequency-based time-series analysis, with high-resolution activity data from accelerometers embedded in GPS collars to explore the effects of internal states (e...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306740/metabolic-rate-of-the-red-panda-ailurus-fulgens-a-dietary-bamboo-specialist
#17
Yuxiang Fei, Rong Hou, James R Spotila, Frank V Paladino, Dunwu Qi, Zhihe Zhang
The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) has a similar diet, primarily bamboo, and shares the same habitat as the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca. There are considerable efforts underway to understand the ecology of the red panda and to increase its populations in natural reserves. Yet it is difficult to design an effective strategy for red panda reintroduction if we do not understand its basic biology. Here we report the resting metabolic rate of the red panda and find that it is higher than previously measured on animals from a zoo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281076/withered-on-the-stem-is-bamboo-a-seasonally-limiting-resource-for-giant-pandas
#18
Youxu Li, Ronald R Swaisgood, Wei Wei, Yonggang Nie, Yibo Hu, Xuyu Yang, Xiaodong Gu, Zejun Zhang
In response to seasonal variation in quality and quantity of available plant biomass, herbivorous foragers may alternate among different plant resources to meet nutritional requirements. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are reliant almost exclusively on bamboo which appears omnipresent in most occupied habitat, but subtle temporal variation in bamboo quality may still govern foraging strategies, with population-level effects. In this paper, we investigated the possibility that temporal variation in the quality of this resource is involved in population regulation and examined pandas' adaptive foraging strategies in response to temporal variation in bamboo quality...
April 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206772/cytotoxic-fusicoccane-type-diterpenoids-from-streptomyces-violascens-isolated-from-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-feces
#19
Dan Zheng, Li Han, Xiaodan Qu, Xiu Chen, Jialiang Zhong, Xiaoxu Bi, Jiang Liu, Yi Jiang, Chenglin Jiang, Xueshi Huang
Six new fusicoccane-type diterpenoids (2-7) were isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces violascens, which was isolated from Ailuropoda melanoleuca (giant panda) feces. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated by a detailed spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compounds 5-7 demonstrated cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 3.5 ± 0.7 to 14.1 ± 0.8 μM. Cell adhesion, migration, and invasion assays showed that 6 inhibited the migration and invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC7721 cells in a dose-dependent manner...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128409/analysis-of-the-cytochrome-c-oxidase-subunit-ii-cox2-gene-in-giant-panda-ailuropoda-melanoleuca
#20
S S Ling, Y Zhu, D Lan, D S Li, H Z Pang, Y Wang, D Y Li, R P Wei, H M Zhang, C D Wang, Y D Hu
The giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca (Ursidae), has a unique bamboo-based diet; however, this low-energy intake has been sufficient to maintain the metabolic processes of this species since the fourth ice age. As mitochondria are the main sites for energy metabolism in animals, the protein-coding genes involved in mitochondrial respiratory chains, particularly cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COX2), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in electron transfer, could play an important role in giant panda metabolism...
January 23, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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