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Ailuropoda melanoleuca

L Fu, Y L Hou, X Ding, Y J Du, H Q Zhu, N Zhang, W R Hou
The complementary DNA (cDNA) of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) ferritin light polypeptide (FTL) gene was successfully cloned using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technology. We constructed a recombinant expression vector containing FTL cDNA and overexpressed it in Escherichia coli using pET28a plasmids. The expressed protein was then purified by nickel chelate affinity chromatography. The cloned cDNA fragment was 580 bp long and contained an open reading frame of 525 bp. The deduced protein sequence was composed of 175 amino acids and had an estimated molecular weight of 19...
August 30, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
He Huang, Shangmian Yie, Yuliang Liu, Chengdong Wang, Zhigang Cai, Wenping Zhang, Jingchao Lan, Xiangming Huang, Li Luo, Kailai Cai, Rong Hou, Zhihe Zhang
The functional adaptive changes in cyanide detoxification in giant panda appear to be response to dietary transition from typical carnivore to herbivorous bear. We tested the absorption of cyanide contained in bamboo/bamboo shoots with a feeding trial in 20 adult giant pandas. We determined total cyanide content in bamboo shoots and giant panda's feces, levels of urinary thiocyanate and tissue rhodanese activity using color reactions with a spectrophotometer. Rhodanese expression in liver and kidney at transcription and translation levels were measured using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Vanessa Hull, Jindong Zhang, Jinyan Huang, Shiqiang Zhou, Andrés Viña, Ashton Shortridge, Rengui Li, Dian Liu, Weihua Xu, Zhiyun Ouyang, Hemin Zhang, Jianguo Liu
Animals make choices about where to spend their time in complex and dynamic landscapes, choices that reveal information about their biology that in turn can be used to guide their conservation. Using GPS collars, we conducted a novel individual-based analysis of habitat use and selection by the elusive and endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). We constructed spatial autoregressive resource utilization functions (RUF) to model the relationship between the pandas' utilization distributions and various habitat characteristics over a continuous space across seasons...
2016: PloS One
Gregor Kalinkat, Juliano S Cabral, William Darwall, G Francesco Ficetola, Judith L Fisher, Darren P Giling, Marie-Pierre Gosselin, Hans-Peter Grossart, Sonja C Jähnig, Jonathan M Jeschke, Klaus Knopf, Stefano Larsen, Gabriela Onandia, Marlene Paetzig, Wolf-Christian Saul, Gabriel Singer, Erik Sperfeld, Ivan Jarić
Despite a long-standing debate about the utility of species-centered conservation approaches (Roberge & Angelstam 2004), surrogate species remain popular by providing useful-or even necessary-"shortcuts" for successful conservation programs (Caro 2010). Flagship species, as one prime example of surrogates, are primarily intended to promote public awareness and to raise funds for conservation (Veríssimo et al. 2011). In contrast, the protection of umbrella species is expected to benefit a wide range of co-occurring species (Roberge & Angelstam 2004; Caro 2010)...
August 25, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Tian-Pei Guan, Jacob R Owens, Ming-Hao Gong, Gang Liu, Zhi-Yun Ouyang, Yan-Ling Song
The creation of nature reserves is the most direct way to save endangered species populations and their habitat. Development of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) nature reserve network in China was initiated in the 1960s, though the effort to create new reserves boomed considerably after the year 2000. Given this rapid development of protected areas in panda habitats, and the potential conflicting interests between conservation administrations and local economic development, it is essential to assess the role of new nature reserves in the overall giant panda conservation effort and reserve network...
2016: PloS One
Ying-Juan Zheng, Yi-Ping Chen, Lorraine Maltby, Xue-Lin Jin
The Qinling panda subspecies (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis) is highly endangered with fewer than 350 individuals inhabiting the Qinling Mountains. Previous studies have indicated that giant pandas are exposed to heavy metals, and a possible source is vehicle emission. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg, and As in soil samples collected from sites along a major highway bisecting the panda's habitat were analyzed to investigate whether the highway was an important source of metal contamination...
August 6, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xin Yang, Jiang Yang, Hongning Wang, Caiwu Li, Yongguo He, SenYan Jin, Hemin Zhang, Desheng Li, Pengyan Wang, Yuesong Xu, Changwen Xu, Chengyun Fan, Lulai Xu, Shan Huang, Chunmao Qu, Guo Li
To study the typical vaginal bacterial flora of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), we took vaginal swabs for the sake of bacterial isolation, from 24 healthy female giant pandas. A total of 203 isolates were identified, representing a total of 17 bacterial species. The most common bacteria isolated were Lactobacillus spp. (54.2%, 13/24), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (41.7%, 10/24) and Escherichia coli (33.3%, 8/24). Some opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, such as Peptostreptococcus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Proteus mirabilis , were also isolated but showed no pathology...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Yao-Dong Hu, Hui-Zhong Pang, De-Sheng Li, Shan-Shan Ling, Dan Lan, Ye Wang, Yun Zhu, Di-Yan Li, Rong-Ping Wei, He-Min Zhang, Cheng-Dong Wang
As the rate-limiting enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) plays a crucial role in biological metabolism. "Living fossil" giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is well-known for its special bamboo diet. In an effort to explore functional variation of COX1 in the energy metabolism behind giant panda's low-energy bamboo diet, we looked at genetic variation of COX1 gene in giant panda, and tested for its selection effect. In 1545 base pairs of the gene from 15 samples, 9 positions were variable and 1 mutation leaded to an amino acid sequence change...
November 5, 2016: Gene
Yan Lv, Tao Yu, Sihai Lu, Cheng Tian, Junqing Li, Fang K Du
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: There is a need for microsatellite primers to analyze genetic parameters of Fargesia denudata (Poaceae), the staple-food bamboo of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). METHODS AND RESULTS: Using next-generation sequencing technology, we obtained a 75-Mb assembled sequence of F. denudata and identified 182 microsatellites. Primer pairs for 70 candidate microsatellite markers were selected and validated in four individuals, and 42 primer pairs generated reliable amplicons...
June 2016: Applications in Plant Sciences
Na Feng, Yicong Yu, Tiecheng Wang, Peter Wilker, Jianzhong Wang, Yuanguo Li, Zhe Sun, Yuwei Gao, Xianzhu Xia
We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection among endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Five of six CDV infected giant pandas died. The surviving giant panda was previously vaccinated against CDV. Genomic sequencing of CDV isolated from one of the infected pandas (giant panda/SX/2014) suggests it belongs to the Asia-1 cluster. The hemagglutinin protein of the isolated virus and virus sequenced from lung samples originating from deceased giant pandas all possessed the substitutions V26M, T213A, K281R, S300N, P340Q, and Y549H...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yue Yan, Jiabo Deng, Lili Niu, Qiang Wang, Jianqiu Yu, Huanhuan Shao, Qinghua Cao, Yizheng Zhang, Xuemei Tan
The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is an endangered species. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) plays an important role in the innate and adaptive immune responses by inducing IFN-γ. IL-18 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) is an intrinsic inhibitor of IL-18 that possesses higher affinity to IL-18. In this study, we cloned and characterized IL-18BP in giant panda (AmIL-18BP) from the spleen. The amino acid sequence of giant panda IL-18BP ORF shared about 65% identities with other species...
June 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Candace L Williams, Kimberly A Dill-McFarland, Michael W Vandewege, Darrell L Sparks, Scott T Willard, Andrew J Kouba, Garret Suen, Ashli E Brown
Dietary shifts can result in changes to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota, leading to negative outcomes for the host, including inflammation. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are physiologically classified as carnivores; however, they consume an herbivorous diet with dramatic seasonal dietary shifts and episodes of chronic GIT distress with symptoms including abdominal pain, loss of appetite and the excretion of mucous stools (mucoids). These episodes adversely affect the overall nutritional and health status of giant pandas...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Han Han, Wei Wei, Yonggang Nie, Wenliang Zhou, Yibo Hu, Qi Wu, Fuwen Wei
Stable isotope analysis is very useful in animal ecology, especially in diet reconstruction and trophic studies. Differences in isotope ratios between consumers and their diet, termed discrimination factors, are essential for studies of stable isotope ecology and are species- and tissue-specific. Given the specialized bamboo diet and clear foraging behavior, here, we calculated discrimination factors for carbon and nitrogen isotopes from diet to tissues (tooth enamel, hair keratin and bone collagen) for the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), a species derived from meat-eating ancestors...
May 2, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Xuhao Song, Fujun Shen, Jie Huang, Yan Huang, Lianming Du, Chengdong Wang, Zhenxin Fan, Rong Hou, Bisong Yue, Xiuyue Zhang
Recently, an increasing number of microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been found and characterized from transcriptomes. Such SSRs can be employed as putative functional markers to easily tag corresponding genes, which play an important role in biomedical studies and genetic analysis. However, the transcriptome-derived SSRs for giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are not yet available. In this work, we identified and characterized 20 tetranucleotide microsatellite loci from a transcript database generated from the blood of giant panda...
September 2016: Journal of Heredity
Zhirong Peng, Dong Zeng, Qiang Wang, Lili Niu, Xueqin Ni, Fuqin Zou, Mingyue Yang, Hao Sun, Yi Zhou, Qian Liu, Zhongqiong Yin, Kangcheng Pan, Bo Jing
It has been established beyond doubt that giant panda genome lacks lignin-degrading related enzyme, gastrointestinal microbes may play a vital role in digestion of highly fibrous bamboo diet. However, there is not much information available about the intestinal bacteria composition in captive giant pandas with different ages. In this study, we compared the intestinal bacterial community of 12 captive giant pandas from three different age groups (subadults, adults, and geriatrics) through PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR analysis...
May 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Xin Yang, Jiang Yang, Hongning Wang, Caiwu Li, Yongguo He, SenYan Jin, Hemin Zhang, Desheng Li, Pengyan Wang, Yuesong Xu, Changwen Xu, Chengyun Fan, Lulai Xu, Shan Huang, Chunmao Qu, Guo Li
In order to study the typical vaginal bacterial flora of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), we took vaginal swabs for the sake of bacterial isolation, from 24 healthy female giant pandas. A total of 203 isolates were identified, representing a total of 17 bacterial species. The most common bacteria isolated were Lactobacillus spp. (54.2%, 13 of 24), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (41.7%, 10 of 24) and Escherichia coli (33.3%, 8 of 24). Some opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, such as Peptostreptococcus spp...
March 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Nimal Fernando, Elke Wu, Cissy Kou, Paolo Martelli, Lee Foo Khong, Kathy Larson
In 2002 a 23-yr-old female giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) presented with left hind limb lameness presumably due to osteoarthritis. For the next five years, arthritic episodes were managed with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) carprofen at 2 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d., then reduced to 1 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d. and withdrawn. Radiographs revealed osteoarthritis in various joints and lumbar spondylosis. In 2007 glucosamine and chondroitin at 1.65 g p.o. b.i.d. and a polyunsaturated fatty acid at 1 capsule p...
March 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Thomas Connor, Vanessa Hull, Jianguo Liu
Telemetry studies that track animals through space and time can lead to advances in scientific understanding that are vital in conservation efforts. For example, telemetry studies of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) have shed light on many aspects of panda biology, but small sample sizes in each separate study make it difficult to draw broad conclusions. To overcome this problem we conducted the first synthesis of all 5 panda telemetry studies conducted to date. Using these data we investigated patterns in 6 main topics: home range, space-use interactions, core areas, movement patterns, seasonal migration and natal dispersal...
July 2016: Integrative Zoology
Mao-Ning Tuanmu, Andrés Viña, Wu Yang, Xiaodong Chen, Ashton M Shortridge, Jianguo Liu
Conflicts between local people's livelihoods and conservation have led to many unsuccessful conservation efforts and have stimulated debates on policies that might simultaneously promote sustainable management of protected areas and improve the living conditions of local people. Many government-sponsored payments-for-ecosystem-services (PES) schemes have been implemented around the world. However, few empirical assessments of their effectiveness have been conducted, and even fewer assessments have directly measured their effects on ecosystem services...
August 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Zhihe Zhang, Rong Hou, Jingchao Lan, Hairui Wang, Hiroyuki Kurokawa, Zenta Takatsu, Toyokazu Kobayashi, Hiroshi Koie, Hiroshi Kamata, Kiichi Kanayama, Toshi Watanabe
The first milk substitute for giant panda cubs was developed in 1988 based on limited data about giant panda breast milk and that of certain types of bear. Mixtures of other formulas have also been fed to cubs at some facilities. However, they are not of sufficient nutritional quality for promoting growth in panda cubs. Here, we report analysis of giant panda breast milk and propose new milk substitutes for cubs, which were developed based on the results of our analysis. The Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding obtained breast milk samples from three giant pandas...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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