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Ailuropoda melanoleuca

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776696/single-layer-centrifugation-improves-the-quality-of-frozen-thawed-sperm-of-giant-panda-ailuropoda-melanoleuca
#1
Z G Cai, J H An, Y L Liu, S M Yie, Y Zhang, F P Li, J S Chen, X Wang, J M Morrell, R Hou
The reproductive capacity of captive giant pandas is poor and sperm cryopreservation is necessary for the reproduction and conservation of this species. Cryopreservation, however, leads to a significant decrease in sperm quality, including sperm motility, acrosome integrity and DNA integrity. In the present study, a method was developed based on colloid single layer centrifugation that could significantly improve frozen-thawed sperm quality. Two colloids were compared for post-thaw giant panda sperm preparation; the sperm samples had greater total motility (Colloid 1: 44...
May 15, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741998/serotype-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-feces-of-wild-giant-pandas-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-in-sichuan-province-china
#2
Danyu Chen, Wencheng Zou, Shengze Xie, Linghan Kong, Yanpeng Chen, Xiuzhong Zhang, Jianan Li, Hongning Wang, Guangyang Cheng, Yue Qin, Xingyu Mu, Xin Yang
Escherichia coli is a major pathogen leading to systemic and enteric illnesses in wild giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca). To investigate the characteristics and distribution of E. coli in wild giant pandas across four different nature reserves in Sichuan, Republic of China, we researched serotypes, phylogenetic groups, antimicrobial resistance, and resistance genes of E. coli not previously reported for wild giant pandas. A total of 82 E. coli isolates were identified from 40 fecal samples in August 2016 to May 2017...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700370/human-pathogenic-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-in-captive-giant-pandas-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-in-china
#3
Wei Li, Zhijun Zhong, Yuan Song, Chao Gong, Lei Deng, Yuying Cao, Ziyao Zhou, Xuefeng Cao, Yinan Tian, Haozhou Li, Fan Feng, Yue Zhang, Chengdong Wang, Caiwu Li, Haidi Yang, Xiangming Huang, Hualin Fu, Yi Geng, Zhihua Ren, Kongju Wu, Guangneng Peng
Human and animal infections of Enterocytozoon bieneusi (E. bieneusi) have consistently been reported worldwide, garnering public attention; however, the molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi in the giant panda remains limited. We surveyed captive giant pandas in China for the presence of E. bieneusi by using PCR and sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) revealing a 34.5% positive rate, with seven known genotypes (SC02, EpbC, CHB1, SC01, D, F, and Peru 6) and five novel genotypes (SC04, SC05, SC06, SC07, and SC08) identified...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671712/detection-of-multi-drug-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-a-giant-panda-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-with-extraintestinal-polyinfection
#4
Wei Zhou, Lingwei Zhu, Min Jia, Tiecheng Wang, Bing Liang, Xue Ji, Yang Sun, Jun Liu, Xuejun Guo
Multi-drug-resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis were isolated from the tissue samples of a giant panda. The E. coli strain SH-YH-DH that we isolated carried a self-transferable plasmid associated with multi-drug-resistant genes ( blaCTX-M-55 , blaTEM-1 , sul1, floR, strB, aac(6')-Ib, and tetA/R). This strain exhibited phenotypic resistance to gentamicin, cefotaxime, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. We report the participation of multi-drug-resistant E...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664122/effects-of-changes-in-photoperiod-and-temperature-on-the-estrous-cycle-of-a-captive-female-giant-panda-ailuropoda-melanoleuca
#5
Trisha T N Tay, Desheng Li, Yan Huang, Pengyan Wang, Tasha Tahar, Josephine Kawi
The female giant panda's estrus is known to be photoperiod sensitive, triggered by increasing day length. A pair of giant pandas was brought to Singapore in September 2012 and exposed to a constant temperature and photoperiod during the first 2 years. The female did not show any signs of estrus during that period. In November 2014, photoperiod and temperature were manipulated to simulate seasonal changes, to investigate the effects of environmental factors on the sexual behavior of the giant pandas. This paper documents the changes and observations carried out from 2012 to 2016, in the attempt to breed this vulnerable species...
March 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642393/ancient-dna-from-giant-panda-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-of-south-western-china-reveals-genetic-diversity-loss-during-the-holocene
#6
Gui-Lian Sheng, Axel Barlow, Alan Cooper, Xin-Dong Hou, Xue-Ping Ji, Nina G Jablonski, Bo-Jian Zhong, Hong Liu, Lawrence J Flynn, Jun-Xia Yuan, Li-Rui Wang, Nikolas Basler, Michael V Westbury, Michael Hofreiter, Xu-Long Lai
The giant panda was widely distributed in China and south-eastern Asia during the middle to late Pleistocene, prior to its habitat becoming rapidly reduced in the Holocene. While conservation reserves have been established and population numbers of the giant panda have recently increased, the interpretation of its genetic diversity remains controversial. Previous analyses, surprisingly, have indicated relatively high levels of genetic diversity raising issues concerning the efficiency and usefulness of reintroducing individuals from captive populations...
April 6, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503636/metagenomic-study-suggests-that-the-gut-microbiota-of-the-giant-panda-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-may-not-be-specialized-for-fiber-fermentation
#7
Wei Guo, Sudhanshu Mishra, Jiangchao Zhao, Jingsi Tang, Bo Zeng, Fanli Kong, Ruihong Ning, Miao Li, Hengzhi Zhang, Yutian Zeng, Yuanliangzi Tian, Yihang Zhong, Hongdi Luo, Yunhan Liu, Jiandong Yang, Mingyao Yang, Mingwang Zhang, Yan Li, Qingyong Ni, Caiwu Li, Chengdong Wang, Desheng Li, Hemin Zhang, Zhili Zuo, Ying Li
Bamboo-eating giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ) is an enigmatic species, which possesses a carnivore-like short and simple gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Despite the remarkable studies on giant panda, its diet adaptability status continues to be a matter of debate. To resolve this puzzle, we investigated the functional potential of the giant panda gut microbiome using shotgun metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples. We also compared our data with similar data from other animal species representing herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores from current and earlier studies...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456508/the-molecular-determinants-of-small-molecule-ligand-binding-at-p2x-receptors
#8
Gaia Pasqualetto, Andrea Brancale, Mark T Young
P2X receptors are trimeric eukaryotic ATP-gated cation channels. Extracellular ATP-their physiological ligand-is released as a neurotransmitter and in conditions of cell damage such as inflammation, and substantial evidence implicates P2X receptors in diseases including neuropathic pain, cancer, and arthritis. In 2009, the first P2X crystal structure, Danio rerio P2X4 in the apo - state, was published, and this was followed in 2012 by the ATP-bound structure. These structures transformed our understanding of the conformational changes induced by ATP binding and the mechanism of ligand specificity, and enabled homology modeling of mammalian P2X receptors for ligand docking and rational design of receptor modulators...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414607/frequency-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-integron-gene-cassettes-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-giant-pandas-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-in-china
#9
Wencheng Zou, Caiwu Li, Xin Yang, Yongxiang Wang, Guangyang Cheng, Jinxin Zeng, Xiuzhong Zhang, Yanpeng Chen, Run Cai, Qianru Huang, Lan Feng, Hongning Wang, Desheng Li, Guiquan Zhang, Yanxi Chen, Zhizhong Zhang, Heming Zhang
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is considered as a common opportunistic pathogen, which causes seriously intestinal infections to giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and other animals. The aim of this investigation was to characterize the antimicrobial resistance and integron gene cassettes in E. coli isolated from the faeces of giant pandas in China. A total of 89 E. coli were isolated, after diagnosis of isolates and genomes were extracted. All the isolates were screened for the presence of related drug-resistance genes and integron gene cassettes through the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequencing...
March 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371956/canine-distemper-viral-infection-threatens-the-giant-panda-population-in-china
#10
Yipeng Jin, Xinke Zhang, Yisheng Ma, Yanchao Qiao, Xiaobin Liu, Kaihui Zhao, Chenglin Zhang, Degui Lin, Xuelian Fu, Xinrong Xu, Yiwei Wang, Huanan Wang
We evaluated exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) in eight wild giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ) and 125 unvaccinated domestic dogs living in and around Foping National Nature Reserve (FNNR), China. Seventy-two percent of unvaccinated domestic dogs (mixed breed) had neutralizing antibodies for CDV due to exposure to the disease. The eight wild giant pandas were naïve to CDV and carried no positive antibody titer. RT-PCR assays for hemagglutinin ( H ) gene confirmed the presence of CDV in 31 clinically ill dogs from several areas near FNNR...
December 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322387/giant-panda-foraging-and-movement-patterns-in-response-to-bamboo-shoot-growth
#11
Mingchun Zhang, Zhizhong Zhang, Zhong Li, Mingsheng Hong, Xiaoping Zhou, Shiqiang Zhou, Jindong Zhang, Vanessa Hull, Jinyan Huang, Hemin Zhang
Diet plays a pivotal role in dictating behavioral patterns of herbivorous animals, particularly specialist species. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is well-known as a bamboo specialist. In the present study, the response of giant pandas to spatiotemporal variation of bamboo shoots was explored using field surveys and GPS collar tracking. Results show the dynamics in panda-bamboo space-time relationships that have not been previously articulated. For instance, we found a higher bamboo stump height of foraged bamboo with increasing elevation, places where pandas foraged later in spring when bamboo shoots become more fibrous and woody...
March 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297826/hematology-serum-biochemistry-and-urinalysis-values-in-the-adult-giant-panda-ailuropoda-melanoleuca
#12
Caitlin Burrell, Hemin Zhang, Desheng Li, Chengdong Wang, Caiwu Li, Copper Aitken-Palmer
The giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a high-profile threatened species with individuals in captivity worldwide. As a result of advances in captive animal management and veterinary medicine, the ex situ giant panda population is aging, and improved understanding of age-related changes is necessary. Urine and blood samples were collected in April and July 2015 and analyzed for complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and biochemical and microscopic urine analysis for all individuals sampled ( n = 7, 7-16 yr of age) from giant panda housed at the China Research and Conservation Centre for the Giant Panda in Bifengxia, Sichuan Province, China...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251797/an-ecophysiological-perspective-on-likely-giant-panda-habitat-responses-to-climate-change
#13
Yuke Zhang, Paul D Mathewson, Qiongyue Zhang, Warren P Porter, Jianghong Ran
Threatened and endangered species are more vulnerable to climate change due to small population and specific geographical distribution. Therefore, identifying and incorporating the biological processes underlying a species' adaptation to its environment are important for determining whether they can persist in situ. Correlative models are widely used to predict species' distribution changes, but generally fail to capture the buffering capacity of organisms. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) live in topographically complex mountains and are known to avoid heat stress...
April 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188302/bamboo-specialists-from-two-mammalian-orders-primates-carnivora-share-a-high-number-of-low-abundance-gut-microbes
#14
Erin A McKenney, Michael Maslanka, Allen Rodrigo, Anne D Yoder
Bamboo specialization is one of the most extreme examples of convergent herbivory, yet it is unclear how this specific high-fiber diet might selectively shape the composition of the gut microbiome compared to host phylogeny. To address these questions, we used deep sequencing to investigate the nature and comparative impact of phylogenetic and dietary selection for specific gut microbial membership in three bamboo specialists-the bamboo lemur (Hapalemur griseus, Primates: Lemuridae), giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, Carnivora: Ursidae), and red panda (Ailurus fulgens, Carnivora: Musteloideadae), as well as two phylogenetic controls-the ringtail lemur (Lemur catta) and the Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus)...
November 29, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185223/role-of-nature-reserves-in-giant-panda-protection
#15
Dongwei Kang, Junqing Li
Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a flagship species in nature conservation of the world; to protect this species, 67 nature reserves have been established in China. To evaluate the protection effect of giant panda nature reserves, we analyzed the variation of giant panda number and habitat area of 23 giant panda nature reserves of Sichuan province based on the national survey data released by State Forestry Administration and Sichuan Forestry Department. Results showed that from the third national survey to the fourth, giant panda number and habitat area of 23 giant panda nature reserves of Sichuan province failed to realize the significant increase...
February 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177695/blood-lead-levels-in-captive-giant-pandas
#16
Nathan J P Wintle, Meghan S Martin-Wintle, Xiaoping Zhou, Hemin Zhang
Fifteen giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from the Chinese Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda (CCRCGP) in Bifengxia, Sichuan, China were analyzed for blood lead concentrations (Pb-B) during the 2017 breeding season. Thirteen of the 15 bears showed Pb-B below the method detection limit (MDL) of 3.3 µg/dL. The two remaining bears, although above the MDL, contained very low concentrations of lead of 3.9 and 4.5 µg/dL. All 15 giant pandas in this analysis had Pb-B concentrations that were within normal background concentrations for mammals in uncontaminated environments...
January 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168616/lineage-specific-evolution-of-bitter-taste-receptor-genes-in-the-giant-and-red-pandas-implies-dietary-adaptation
#17
Lei Shan, Qi Wu, Le Wang, Lei Zhang, Fuwen Wei
Taste 2 receptors (TAS2R) mediate bitterness perception in mammals, thus are called bitter taste receptors. It is believed that these genes evolved in response to species-specific diets. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens styani) in the order Carnivora are specialized herbivores with an almost exclusive bamboo diet (>90% bamboo). Because bamboo is full of bitter tasting compounds, we hypothesized that adaptive evolution has occurred at TAS2R genes in giant and red pandas throughout the course of their dietary shift...
March 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157237/isolation-and-identification-of-culturable-fungi-from-the-genitals-and-semen-of-healthy-giant-pandas-ailuropoda-melanoleuca
#18
Xiaoping Ma, Changcheng Li, Jiafa Hou, Yu Gu
BACKGROUND: In order to better understand the possible role of fungi in giant panda reproduction and overall health, it is important to provide a baseline for the normal fungal composition in the reproductive system. Using morphology and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis, we systematically isolated and identified fungal species from the vagina, foreskin, and semen of 21 (11 males and 10 females) healthy giant pandas to understand the normal fungal flora of the genital tracts...
November 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107552/feeding-ecology-and-morphology-make-a-bamboo-specialist-vulnerable-to-climate-change
#19
Jussi T Eronen, Sarah Zohdy, Alistair R Evans, Stacey R Tecot, Patricia C Wright, Jukka Jernvall
Animals with dietary specializations can be used to link climate to specific ecological drivers of endangerment. Only two mammals, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Asia and the greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus) in Madagascar, consume the nutritionally poor and mechanically challenging culm or trunk of woody bamboos [1-3]. Even though the greater bamboo lemur is critically endangered, paleontological evidence shows that it was once broadly distributed [4, 5]. Here, integrating morphological, paleontological, and ecological evidence, we project the effects of climate change on greater bamboo lemurs...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078783/a-novel-polyomavirus-from-the-nasal-cavity-of-a-giant-panda-ailuropoda-melanoleuca
#20
Dunwu Qi, Tongling Shan, Zhijian Liu, Xutao Deng, Zhihe Zhang, Wenlei Bi, Jacob Robert Owens, Feifei Feng, Lisong Zheng, Feng Huang, Eric Delwart, Rong Hou, Wen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Polyomaviruses infect a wide variety of mammalian and avian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction. METHODS: Viral metagenomics and general PCR methods were used to detected viral nucleic acid in the samples from a diseased and healthy giant pandas. RESULTS: A novel polyomavirus, the giant panda polyomavirus 1 (GPPyV1) from the nasal cavity of a dead giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) was characterized...
October 27, 2017: Virology Journal
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