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Lydia J Hoffstaetter, Sviatoslav N Bagriantsev, Elena O Gracheva
The ability to sense temperature is crucial for the survival of an organism. Temperature influences all biological operations, from rates of metabolic reactions to protein folding, and broad behavioral functions, from feeding to breeding, and other seasonal activities. The evolution of specialized thermosensory adaptations has enabled animals to inhabit extreme temperature niches and to perform specific temperature-dependent behaviors. The function of sensory neurons depends on the participation of various types of ion channels...
February 27, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
George N Somero
The secondary and tertiary orders of RNA structure are crucial for a suite of RNA-related functions, including regulation of translation, gene expression and RNA turnover. The temperature sensitivity of RNA secondary and tertiary structures is exploited by bacteria to fabricate RNA thermosensing systems that allow a rapid adaptive response to temperature change. RNA thermometers (RNATs) present in non-coding regions of certain mRNAs of pathogenic bacteria enable rapid upregulation of translation of virulence proteins when the temperature of the bacterium rises after entering a mammalian host...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Zachary R Gallaher, Oswald Steward
Axons within the peripheral nervous system are capable of regeneration, but full functional recovery is rare. Recent work has shown that conditional deletion of two key signaling inhibitors of the PI3K and Jak/Stat pathways-phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3), respectively-promotes regeneration of normally non-regenerative central nervous system axons. Moreover, in studies of optic nerve regeneration, co-deletion of both PTEN and SOCS3 has an even greater effect...
February 16, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Jan Siemens, Gretel B Kamm
Temperature affects all aspects of life down to the diffusion rates of biologically active molecules and reaction rates of enzymes. The reciprocal argument holds true as well and every biological process down to enzymatic reactions influences temperature. In order to assure biological stability, mammalian organisms possess the remarkable ability to maintain internal body temperature within a narrow range, which in humans and mice is close to 37 °C, despite wide environmental temperature variations and different rates of internal heat production...
January 27, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Tian-Mei Dai, Yu-Sheng Wang, Wan-Xue Liu, Zhi-Chuang Lü, Fang-Hao Wan
Anthropogenic climate change and global warming are expected to alter the geographic distribution and abundance of many ectothermic species, which will increase the invasion of new areas by exotic species. To survive in variable or fluctuating temperature conditions, insects require sensitive thermal sensory mechanisms to detect external thermal stimuli and induce the appropriate behavioral and physiological responses. TRPA, a thermal-activated transient receptor potential (TRP) family ion channel, is essential for thermotaxis in insects...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Fan Yang, Guixu Chen, Sikai Zhou, Danhong Han, Jingjing Xu, Shengyong Xu
Thermosensation with thermoreceptors plays an important role in maintaining body temperature at an optimal state and avoiding potential damage caused by harmful hot or cold environmental temperatures. In this work, the locations of sensory spots for sensing moderate temperatures of 40-50 °C on the back of the hands of young Chinese people were mapped in a blind-test manner with a thermal probe of 1.0 mm spatial resolution. The number of sensory spots increased along with the testing temperature; however, the surface density of sensory spots was remarkably lower than those reported previously...
December 4, 2017: Sensors
Kei Yanagisawa, Yuichi Kitagawa, Takayuki Nakanishi, Tomohiro Seki, Koji Fushimi, Hajime Ito, Yasuchika Hasegawa
Temperature-dependent luminescence of a dinuclear EuIII /TbIII complex with a seven-coordinate structure is demonstrated. The dinuclear complex is composed of two lanthanide ions, six tetramethylheptanedionate ligands, and a bidentate phosphine oxide linker ligand. The dinuclear structure of the complex was characterized by single-crystal XRD. Intrinsic 4f-4f emission quantum yields of the dinuclear EuIII and TbIII complexes were 66 and 61 %, respectively. The luminescence color of the dinuclear EuIII /TbIII complex changed from red to green with increasing temperature...
February 6, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Bethany Huot, Christian Danve M Castroverde, André C Velásquez, Emily Hubbard, Jane A Pulman, Jian Yao, Kevin L Childs, Kenichi Tsuda, Beronda L Montgomery, Sheng Yang He
Environmental conditions profoundly affect plant disease development; however, the underlying molecular bases are not well understood. Here we show that elevated temperature significantly increases the susceptibility of Arabidopsis to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 independently of the phyB/PIF thermosensing pathway. Instead, elevated temperature promotes translocation of bacterial effector proteins into plant cells and causes a loss of ICS1-mediated salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis. Global transcriptome analysis reveals a major temperature-sensitive node of SA signalling, impacting ~60% of benzothiadiazole (BTH)-regulated genes, including ICS1 and the canonical SA marker gene, PR1...
November 27, 2017: Nature Communications
E Sethe Burgie, Adam N Bussell, Shu-Hui Lye, Tong Wang, Weiming Hu, Katrice E McLoughlin, Erin L Weber, Huilin Li, Richard D Vierstra
Phytochromes (Phys) encompass a diverse collection of bilin-containing photoreceptors that help plants and microorganisms perceive light through photointerconversion between red light (Pr) and far-red light (Pfr)-absorbing states. In addition, Pfr reverts thermally back to Pr via a highly enthalpic process that enables temperature sensation in plants and possibly other organisms. Through domain analysis of the Arabidopsis PhyB isoform assembled recombinantly, coupled with measurements of solution size, photoconversion, and thermal reversion, we identified both proximal and distal features that influence all three metrics...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Fabrizio Lombardo, Marco Salvemini, Carmine Fiorillo, Tony Nolan, Laurence J Zwiebel, José M Ribeiro, Bruno Arcà
BACKGROUND: The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is a highly invasive species and competent vector of several arboviruses (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, Zika) and parasites (e.g. dirofilaria) of public health importance. Compared to other mosquito species, Ae. albopictus females exhibit a generalist host seeking as well as a very aggressive biting behaviour that are responsible for its high degree of nuisance. Several complex mosquito behaviours such as host seeking, feeding, mating or oviposition rely on olfactory stimuli that target a range of sensory neurons localized mainly on specialized head appendages such as antennae, maxillary palps and the mouthparts...
October 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
S Rimal, Y Lee
Ionotropic receptors (IRs), which form ion channels, can be categorized into conserved 'antennal IRs', which define the first olfactory receptor family of insects, and species-specific 'divergent IRs', which are expressed in gustatory receptor neurones. These receptors are located primarily in cell bodies and dendrites, and are highly enriched in the tips of the dendritic terminals that convey sensory information to higher brain centres. Antennal IRs play important roles in odour and thermosensation, whereas divergent IRs are involved in other important biological processes such as taste sensation...
August 31, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
Samira K Lawton, Fengyun Xu, Alphonso Tran, Erika Wong, Arun Prakash, Mark Schumacher, Judith Hellman, Kevin Wilhelmsen
N-Arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) is an endogenous lipid that potently activates the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), which mediates pain and thermosensation. NADA is also an agonist of cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2. We have reported that NADA reduces the activation of cultured human endothelial cells by LPS and TNF-α. Thus far, in vivo studies using NADA have focused on its neurologic and behavioral roles. In this article, we show that NADA potently decreases in vivo systemic inflammatory responses and levels of the coagulation intermediary plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 in three mouse models of inflammation: LPS, bacterial lipopeptide, and polymicrobial intra-abdominal sepsis...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Kunitoshi Uchida, Katsuya Dezaki, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Tatsuo Watanabe, Jun Yamazaki, Masayuki Saito, Toshihiko Yada, Makoto Tominaga, Yusaku Iwasaki
To date, 11 thermosensitive transient receptor potential (thermo-TRP) channels have been identified. Recent studies have characterized the mechanism of thermosensing by thermo-TRPs and the physiological role of thermo-TRPs in energy metabolism. In this review, we highlight the role of various thermo-TRPs in energy metabolism and hormone secretion. In the pancreas, TRPM2 and other TRPs regulate insulin secretion. TRPV2 expressed in brown adipocytes contributes to differentiation and/or thermogenesis. Sensory nerves that express TRPV1 promote increased energy expenditure by activating sympathetic nerves and adrenaline secretion...
September 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Heather N Turner, Christian Landry, Michael J Galko
How organisms sense and respond to noxious temperatures is still poorly understood. Further, the mechanisms underlying sensitization of the sensory machinery, such as in patients experiencing peripheral neuropathy or injury-induced sensitization, are not well characterized. The genetically tractable Drosophila model has been used to study the cells and genes required for noxious heat detection, which has yielded multiple conserved genes of interest. Little is known however about the cells and receptors important for noxious cold sensing...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Chii J Chan, Wenhong Li, Gheorghe Cojoc, Jochen Guck
Understanding the physical mechanisms governing nuclear mechanics is important as it can impact gene expression and development. However, how cell nuclei respond to external cues such as heat is not well understood. Here, we studied the material properties of isolated nuclei in suspension using an optical stretcher. We demonstrate that isolated nuclei regulate their volume in a highly temperature-sensitive manner. At constant temperature, isolated nuclei behaved like passive, elastic and incompressible objects, whose volume depended on the pH and ionic conditions...
March 28, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Francesca Fardo, Mikkel C Vinding, Micah Allen, Troels Staehelin Jensen, Nanna Brix Finnerup
Cold-sensitive and nociceptive neural pathways interact to shape the quality and intensity of thermal and pain perception. Yet the central processing of cold thermosensation in the human brain has not been extensively studied. Here, we used magnetoencephalography and EEG in healthy volunteers to investigate the time course (evoked fields and potentials) and oscillatory activity associated with the perception of cold temperature changes. Nonnoxious cold stimuli consisting of Δ3°C and Δ5°C decrements from an adapting temperature of 35°C were delivered on the dorsum of the left hand via a contact thermode...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Shuai Zhao, Rong Zhu
A multifunctional electronic skin (e-skin) with multimodal sensing capabilities of perceiving mechanical and thermal stimuli, discriminating matter type, and sensing wind is developed using the thermosensation of a platinum ribbon array, whose temperature varies with conductive or convective heat transfer toward the surroundings. Pressure is perceived by a porous elastomer covering on the heated platinum ribbon, which bears mechanical-thermal conversion to allow high integration with other sensors.
April 2017: Advanced Materials
Carolin Delker, Martijn van Zanten, Marcel Quint
Understanding the molecular networks driving plant responses to high ambient temperatures is crucial for developing crop cultivars resistant to global warming. Although several factors involved in temperature signalling are known, a thermosensing mechanism had remained elusive. However, two recent publications demonstrate that the photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB) also acts as a thermosensor.
March 2017: Trends in Plant Science
Anne Must, Enno Merivee, Karin Nurme, Ivar Sibul, Maurizio Muzzi, Andrea Di Giulio, Ingrid Williams, Ene Tooming
Despite thermosensation being crucial in effective thermoregulation behaviour, it is poorly studied in insects. Very little is known about encoding of noxious high temperatures by peripheral thermoreceptor neurons. In carabids, thermo- and hygrosensitive neurons innervate antennal dome-shaped sensilla (DSS). In this study, we demonstrate that several essential fine structural features of dendritic outer segments of the sensory neurons in the DSS and the classical model of insect thermo- and hygrosensitive sensilla differ fundamentally...
April 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
Aaron Mischa Nuss, Franziska Schuster, Louisa Roselius, Johannes Klein, René Bücker, Katharina Herbst, Ann Kathrin Heroven, Fabio Pisano, Christoph Wittmann, Richard Münch, Johannes Müller, Dieter Jahn, Petra Dersch
Different biomolecules have been identified in bacterial pathogens that sense changes in temperature and trigger expression of virulence programs upon host entry. However, the dynamics and quantitative outcome of this response in individual cells of a population, and how this influences pathogenicity are unknown. Here, we address these questions using a thermosensing virulence regulator of an intestinal pathogen (RovA of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis) as a model. We reveal that this regulator is part of a novel thermoresponsive bistable switch, which leads to high- and low-invasive subpopulations within a narrow temperature range...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
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