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Chii J Chan, Wenhong Li, Gheorghe Cojoc, Jochen Guck
Understanding the physical mechanisms governing nuclear mechanics is important as it can impact gene expression and development. However, how cell nuclei respond to external cues such as heat is not well understood. Here, we studied the material properties of isolated nuclei in suspension using an optical stretcher. We demonstrate that isolated nuclei regulate their volume in a highly temperature-sensitive manner. At constant temperature, isolated nuclei behaved like passive, elastic and incompressible objects, whose volume depended on the pH and ionic conditions...
March 28, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Francesca Fardo, Mikkel C Vinding, Micah Allen, Troels Staehelin Jensen, Nanna Brix Finnerup
Cold-sensitive and nociceptive neural pathways interact to shape the quality and intensity of thermal and pain perception. Yet, the central processing of cold-thermosensation in the human brain has not yet been extensively studied. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) in healthy volunteers, to investigate the time course (evoked fields and potentials) and oscillatory activity associated with the perception of cold temperature changes. Non-noxious cold stimuli consisting of Δ3°C and Δ5°C decrements from an adapting temperature of 35°C were delivered on the dorsum of the left hand via a contact thermode...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Shuai Zhao, Rong Zhu
A multifunctional electronic skin (e-skin) with multimodal sensing capabilities of perceiving mechanical and thermal stimuli, discriminating matter type, and sensing wind is developed using the thermosensation of a platinum ribbon array, whose temperature varies with conductive or convective heat transfer toward the surroundings. Pressure is perceived by a porous elastomer covering on the heated platinum ribbon, which bears mechanical-thermal conversion to allow high integration with other sensors.
April 2017: Advanced Materials
Carolin Delker, Martijn van Zanten, Marcel Quint
Understanding the molecular networks driving plant responses to high ambient temperatures is crucial for developing crop cultivars resistant to global warming. Although several factors involved in temperature signalling are known, a thermosensing mechanism had remained elusive. However, two recent publications demonstrate that the photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB) also acts as a thermosensor.
March 2017: Trends in Plant Science
Anne Must, Enno Merivee, Karin Nurme, Ivar Sibul, Maurizio Muzzi, Andrea Di Giulio, Ingrid Williams, Ene Tooming
Despite thermosensation being crucial in effective thermoregulation behaviour, it is poorly studied in insects. Very little is known about encoding of noxious high temperatures by peripheral thermoreceptor neurons. In carabids, thermo- and hygrosensitive neurons innervate antennal dome-shaped sensilla (DSS). In this study, we demonstrate that several essential fine structural features of dendritic outer segments of the sensory neurons in the DSS and the classical model of insect thermo- and hygrosensitive sensilla differ fundamentally...
December 28, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Aaron Mischa Nuss, Franziska Schuster, Louisa Roselius, Johannes Klein, René Bücker, Katharina Herbst, Ann Kathrin Heroven, Fabio Pisano, Christoph Wittmann, Richard Münch, Johannes Müller, Dieter Jahn, Petra Dersch
Different biomolecules have been identified in bacterial pathogens that sense changes in temperature and trigger expression of virulence programs upon host entry. However, the dynamics and quantitative outcome of this response in individual cells of a population, and how this influences pathogenicity are unknown. Here, we address these questions using a thermosensing virulence regulator of an intestinal pathogen (RovA of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis) as a model. We reveal that this regulator is part of a novel thermoresponsive bistable switch, which leads to high- and low-invasive subpopulations within a narrow temperature range...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Kun Li, Zhefeng Gong
Sensing environmental temperature is crucial for animal life. The model animal, Drosophila melanogaster, can be investigated with a large number of genetic tools, which have greatly facilitated studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of thermal sensing. At the molecular level, a group of proteins, including Transient Receptor Potential channels and ionotropic receptors, have been characterized as potential thermal sensors in both larval and adult Drosophila. At the cellular and circuit levels, peripheral and central thermosensory neurons have been identified...
December 19, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Abhishek Narayan, Luis A Campos, Sandhya Bhatia, David Fushman, Athi N Naganathan
Thermosensing is critical for the expression of virulence genes in pathogenic bacteria that infect warm-blooded hosts. Proteins of the Hha-family, conserved among enterobacteriaceae, have been implicated in dynamically regulating the expression of a large number of genes upon temperature shifts. However, there is little mechanistic evidence at the molecular level as to how changes in temperature are transduced into structural changes and hence the functional outcome. In this study, we delineate the conformational behavior of Cnu, a putative molecular thermosensor, employing diverse spectroscopic, calorimetric and hydrodynamic measurements...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Shujiang Shang, Feipeng Zhu, Bin Liu, Zuying Chai, Qihui Wu, Meiqin Hu, Yuan Wang, Rong Huang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Xi Wu, Lei Sun, Yeshi Wang, Li Wang, Huadong Xu, Sasa Teng, Bing Liu, Lianghong Zheng, Chen Zhang, Fukang Zhang, Xinghua Feng, Desheng Zhu, Changhe Wang, Tao Liu, Michael X Zhu, Zhuan Zhou
Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is a nonselective cation channel implicated in thermosensation and inflammatory pain. In this study, we show that TRPA1 (activated by allyl isothiocyanate, acrolein, and 4-hydroxynonenal) elevates the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca(2+) Pharmacological and immunocytochemical analyses revealed the presence of TRPA1 channels both on the plasma membrane and in endolysosomes...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
Ivan Ezquerra-Romano, Angel Ezquerra
Temperature maintenance and detection are essential for the survival and perpetuation of any species. This review is focused on thermosensation; thus a detailed and traced explanation of the anatomical and physiological characteristics of each component of this sensation is given. First, the proteins that react to temperature changes are identified; next, the nature of the neurons involved in thermosensation is described; and then, the pathways from the skin through the spinal cord to the brain are outlined...
January 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Yen-Chih Chen, Hung-Jhen Chen, Wei-Chin Tseng, Jiun-Min Hsu, Tzu-Ting Huang, Chun-Hao Chen, Chun-Liang Pan
Sensory perception, including thermosensation, shapes longevity in diverse organisms, but longevity-modulating signals from the sensory neurons are largely obscure. Here we show that CRH-1/CREB activation by CMK-1/CaMKI in the AFD thermosensory neuron is a key mechanism that maintains lifespan at warm temperatures in C. elegans. In response to temperature rise and crh-1 activation, the AFD neurons produce and secrete the FMRFamide neuropeptide FLP-6. Both CRH-1 and FLP-6 are necessary and sufficient for longevity at warm temperatures...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Cell
Виталий С Кузь, Валентин Н Дворник, Александра И Тесленко, Гельфира М Кузь, Игорь Н Мартыненко
INTRODUCTION: The effectiveness of orthopedic treatment of edentulous patients depends on the properties of the basic materials. The main group of materials for manufacturing of such structures are acrylic plastics of thermal polymerization. However, many years of experience in the use of plastics has revealed a number of shortcomings. One of the main is insufficient functional durability of prostheses, and as a consequence - the fragility of acrylic constructions. At present, more and more dentists use nonacrylic thermoplastics, which can improve the functional quality of full removable dentures, as well as, avoid the above disadvantages of acrylic basic plastic...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Eun Jin Kim, Hyoung Il Kwon, Un Cheol Yeo, Joo Yeon Ko
As demand for a youthful appearance has increased, various techniques for face lifting and contouring have been used to reduce excess fat deposition and improve skin laxity. Recently, radiofrequency (RF)-assisted lipolysis and liposuction (RFAL) has been introduced for body and face contouring. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical improvement and safety of a new RFAL device for face lifting and contouring. A prospective study was conducted in 20 Korean patients who underwent an internal real-time thermosensing monopolar RFAL procedure...
September 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
Spencer S Gang, Elissa A Hallem
The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries [1]. Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year [1]. Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration [1]...
July 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Makoto Mizunami, Hiroshi Nishino, Fumio Yokohari
Thermosensation is critically important for survival of all animals. In the cockroach Periplaneta americana, thermoreceptor neurons on antennae and thermosensory interneurons in the antennal lobe have been characterized electrophysiologically, and recent studies using advanced transgenic technologies in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster have added much to the knowledge of these neurons, enabling us to discuss common principles of thermosensory processing systems in insects. Cockroaches and many other insects possess only one type of thermoreceptor neurons on antennae that are excited by cooling and inhibited by warming...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Jennifer Thies, Vanessa Neutzler, Fidelma O'Leary, He Liu
TRPA and TRPV ion channels are members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel superfamily, which mediates various sensory transductions. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the TRPV channels are known to affect chemosensation, while the TRPA-1 channel is associated with thermosensation and mechanosensation. We examined thermosensation, chemosensation, and osmosensation in strains lacking TRPA-1 or TRPV channels. We found that TRPV channel knockout worms exhibited similar behavioral deficits associated with thermotaxis as the TRPA-1 channel knockout, suggesting a dual role for TRPV channels...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Lu O Sun, Ben A Barres
Glial cells are essential components of the nervous system. In this issue, Singhvi et al. uncover cellular and molecular mechanisms through which C. elegans glia shape sensory neuron terminals and thus control animal thermosensing behaviors.
May 5, 2016: Cell
Hyo Jo Han, Seung Wook Lee, Gyu-Tae Kim, Eun-Jin Kim, Byeonghun Kwon, Dawon Kang, Hyun Jeong Kim, Kwang-Suk Seo
Neuropathic pain is a complex state showing increased pain response with dysfunctional inhibitory neurotransmission. The TREK family, one of the two pore domain K⁺ (K2P) channel subgroups were focused among various mechanisms of neuropathic pain. These channels influence neuronal excitability and are thought to be related in mechano/thermosensation. However, only a little is known about the expression and role of TREK-1 and TREK-2, in neuropathic pain. It is performed to know whether TREK-1 and/ or 2 are positively related in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of a mouse neuropathic pain model, the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model...
May 1, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Lina Ni, Mason Klein, Kathryn V Svec, Gonzalo Budelli, Elaine C Chang, Anggie J Ferrer, Richard Benton, Aravinthan Dt Samuel, Paul A Garrity
Animals rely on highly sensitive thermoreceptors to seek out optimal temperatures, but the molecular mechanisms of thermosensing are not well understood. The Dorsal Organ Cool Cells (DOCCs) of the Drosophila larva are a set of exceptionally thermosensitive neurons critical for larval cool avoidance. Here, we show that DOCC cool-sensing is mediated by Ionotropic Receptors (IRs), a family of sensory receptors widely studied in invertebrate chemical sensing. We find that two IRs, IR21a and IR25a, are required to mediate DOCC responses to cooling and are required for cool avoidance behavior...
2016: ELife
Guang Yu, Niuniu Yang, Fengxian Li, Meijuan Chen, Changxiong J Guo, Changming Wang, Danyou Hu, Yan Yang, Chan Zhu, Zhongli Wang, Hao Shi, Tana Gegen, Ming Tang, Qian He, Qin Liu, Zongxiang Tang
Chronic itch (pruritus) is an important clinical problem. However, the underlying molecular basis has yet to be understood. The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 channel is a heat-sensitive cation channel expressed in primary sensory neurons and involved in both thermosensation and pain, but its role in chronic itch remains elusive. Here, we for the first time revealed an increased innervation density of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1-expressing sensory fibers in the skin afflicted with chronic itch...
2016: Molecular Pain
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