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Ivan Ezquerra-Romano, Angel Ezquerra
Temperature maintenance and detection are essential for the survival and perpetuation of any species. This review is focused on thermosensation; thus a detailed and traced explanation of the anatomical and physiological characteristics of each component of this sensation is given. First, the proteins that react to temperature changes are identified; next, the nature of the neurons involved in thermosensation is described; and then, the pathways from the skin through the spinal cord to the brain are outlined...
October 18, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Yen-Chih Chen, Hung-Jhen Chen, Wei-Chin Tseng, Jiun-Min Hsu, Tzu-Ting Huang, Chun-Hao Chen, Chun-Liang Pan
Sensory perception, including thermosensation, shapes longevity in diverse organisms, but longevity-modulating signals from the sensory neurons are largely obscure. Here we show that CRH-1/CREB activation by CMK-1/CaMKI in the AFD thermosensory neuron is a key mechanism that maintains lifespan at warm temperatures in C. elegans. In response to temperature rise and crh-1 activation, the AFD neurons produce and secrete the FMRFamide neuropeptide FLP-6. Both CRH-1 and FLP-6 are necessary and sufficient for longevity at warm temperatures...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Cell
Виталий С Кузь, Валентин Н Дворник, Александра И Тесленко, Гельфира М Кузь, Игорь Н Мартыненко
INTRODUCTION: The effectiveness of orthopedic treatment of edentulous patients depends on the properties of the basic materials. The main group of materials for manufacturing of such structures are acrylic plastics of thermal polymerization. However, many years of experience in the use of plastics has revealed a number of shortcomings. One of the main is insufficient functional durability of prostheses, and as a consequence - the fragility of acrylic constructions. At present, more and more dentists use nonacrylic thermoplastics, which can improve the functional quality of full removable dentures, as well as, avoid the above disadvantages of acrylic basic plastic...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Eun Jin Kim, Hyoung Il Kwon, Un Cheol Yeo, Joo Yeon Ko
As demand for a youthful appearance has increased, various techniques for face lifting and contouring have been used to reduce excess fat deposition and improve skin laxity. Recently, radiofrequency (RF)-assisted lipolysis and liposuction (RFAL) has been introduced for body and face contouring. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical improvement and safety of a new RFAL device for face lifting and contouring. A prospective study was conducted in 20 Korean patients who underwent an internal real-time thermosensing monopolar RFAL procedure...
September 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
Spencer S Gang, Elissa A Hallem
The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries [1]. Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year [1]. Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration [1]...
July 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Makoto Mizunami, Hiroshi Nishino, Fumio Yokohari
Thermosensation is critically important for survival of all animals. In the cockroach Periplaneta americana, thermoreceptor neurons on antennae and thermosensory interneurons in the antennal lobe have been characterized electrophysiologically, and recent studies using advanced transgenic technologies in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster have added much to the knowledge of these neurons, enabling us to discuss common principles of thermosensory processing systems in insects. Cockroaches and many other insects possess only one type of thermoreceptor neurons on antennae that are excited by cooling and inhibited by warming...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Jennifer Thies, Vanessa Neutzler, Fidelma O'Leary, He Liu
TRPA and TRPV ion channels are members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel superfamily, which mediates various sensory transductions. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the TRPV channels are known to affect chemosensation, while the TRPA-1 channel is associated with thermosensation and mechanosensation. We examined thermosensation, chemosensation, and osmosensation in strains lacking TRPA-1 or TRPV channels. We found that TRPV channel knockout worms exhibited similar behavioral deficits associated with thermotaxis as the TRPA-1 channel knockout, suggesting a dual role for TRPV channels...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Lu O Sun, Ben A Barres
Glial cells are essential components of the nervous system. In this issue, Singhvi et al. uncover cellular and molecular mechanisms through which C. elegans glia shape sensory neuron terminals and thus control animal thermosensing behaviors.
May 5, 2016: Cell
Hyo Jo Han, Seung Wook Lee, Gyu-Tae Kim, Eun-Jin Kim, Byeonghun Kwon, Dawon Kang, Hyun Jeong Kim, Kwang-Suk Seo
Neuropathic pain is a complex state showing increased pain response with dysfunctional inhibitory neurotransmission. The TREK family, one of the two pore domain K⁺ (K2P) channel subgroups were focused among various mechanisms of neuropathic pain. These channels influence neuronal excitability and are thought to be related in mechano/thermosensation. However, only a little is known about the expression and role of TREK-1 and TREK-2, in neuropathic pain. It is performed to know whether TREK-1 and/ or 2 are positively related in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of a mouse neuropathic pain model, the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model...
May 1, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Lina Ni, Mason Klein, Kathryn V Svec, Gonzalo Budelli, Elaine C Chang, Anggie J Ferrer, Richard Benton, Aravinthan Dt Samuel, Paul A Garrity
Animals rely on highly sensitive thermoreceptors to seek out optimal temperatures, but the molecular mechanisms of thermosensing are not well understood. The Dorsal Organ Cool Cells (DOCCs) of the Drosophila larva are a set of exceptionally thermosensitive neurons critical for larval cool avoidance. Here, we show that DOCC cool-sensing is mediated by Ionotropic Receptors (IRs), a family of sensory receptors widely studied in invertebrate chemical sensing. We find that two IRs, IR21a and IR25a, are required to mediate DOCC responses to cooling and are required for cool avoidance behavior...
2016: ELife
Guang Yu, Niuniu Yang, Fengxian Li, Meijuan Chen, Changxiong J Guo, Changming Wang, Danyou Hu, Yan Yang, Chan Zhu, Zhongli Wang, Hao Shi, Tana Gegen, Ming Tang, Qian He, Qin Liu, Zongxiang Tang
Chronic itch (pruritus) is an important clinical problem. However, the underlying molecular basis has yet to be understood. The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 channel is a heat-sensitive cation channel expressed in primary sensory neurons and involved in both thermosensation and pain, but its role in chronic itch remains elusive. Here, we for the first time revealed an increased innervation density of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1-expressing sensory fibers in the skin afflicted with chronic itch...
2016: Molecular Pain
T Najnin, K S Siddiqui, T Taha, N Elkaid, G Kornfeld, P M G Curmi, R Cavicchioli
Cold environments dominate the Earth's biosphere and the resident microorganisms play critical roles in fulfilling global biogeochemical cycles. However, only few studies have examined the molecular basis of thermosensing; an ability that microorganisms must possess in order to respond to environmental temperature and regulate cellular processes. Two component regulatory systems have been inferred to function in thermal regulation of gene expression, but biochemical studies assessing these systems in Bacteria are rare, and none have been performed in Archaea or psychrophiles...
2016: Scientific Reports
Asuka Takeishi, Yanxun V Yu, Vera M Hapiak, Harold W Bell, Timothy O'Leary, Piali Sengupta
Thermosensation is critical for optimal regulation of physiology and behavior. C. elegans acclimates to its cultivation temperature (Tc) and exhibits thermosensitive behaviors at temperatures relative to Tc. These behaviors are mediated primarily by the AFD sensory neurons, which are extraordinarily thermosensitive and respond to thermal fluctuations at temperatures above a Tc-determined threshold. Although cGMP signaling is necessary for thermotransduction, the thermosensors in AFD are unknown. We show that AFD-specific receptor guanylyl cyclases (rGCs) are instructive for thermosensation...
April 20, 2016: Neuron
Shigeru Saito, Masashi Ohkita, Claire T Saito, Kenji Takahashi, Makoto Tominaga, Toshio Ohta
Temperature is one of the most critical environmental factors affecting survival, and thus species that inhabit different thermal niches have evolved thermal sensitivities suitable for their respective habitats. During the process of shifting thermal niches, various types of genes expressed in diverse tissues, including those of the peripheral to central nervous systems, are potentially involved in the evolutionary changes in thermosensation. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the evolution of thermosensation, thermal responses were compared between two species of clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis) adapted to different thermal environments...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sen Wang, John Joseph, Luda Diatchenko, Jin Y Ro, Man-Kyo Chung
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a polymodal receptor activated by capsaicin, heat, and acid, which plays critical roles in thermosensation and pain. In addition, TRPV1 also contributes to multiple pathophysiological states in respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic, and renal systems. These contributions are further supported by evidence that variations in the human TRPV1 (hTRPV1) gene are associated with various physiological and pathological phenotypes. However, it is not well understood how the variations in hTRPV1 affect channel functions...
July 2016: Pain
N Belanger-Willoughby, V Linehan, M Hirasawa
In homeotherms, the hypothalamus controls thermoregulatory and adaptive mechanisms in energy balance, sleep-wake and locomotor activity to maintain optimal body temperature. Orexin neurons may be involved in these functions as they promote thermogenesis, food intake and behavioral arousal, and are sensitive to temperature and metabolic status. How thermal and energy balance signals are integrated in these neurons is unknown. Thus, we investigated the cellular mechanisms of thermosensing in orexin neurons and their response to a change in energy status using whole-cell patch clamp on rat brain slices...
June 2, 2016: Neuroscience
Sitt Wai Fong, Hsiu-Chen Lin, Meng-Fang Wu, Chih-Cheng Chen, Yi-Shuian Huang
Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 3 (CPEB3) is a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein that downregulates translation of multiple plasticity-related proteins (PRPs) at the glutamatergic synapses. Activity-induced synthesis of PRPs maintains long-lasting synaptic changes that are critical for memory consolidation and chronic pain manifestation. CPEB3-knockout (KO) mice show aberrant hippocampus-related plasticity and memory, so we investigated whether CPEB3 might have a role in nociception-associated plasticity...
2016: PloS One
Igor A Yakovlev, Elena Carneros, YeonKyeong Lee, Jorunn E Olsen, Carl Gunnar Fossdal
A significant number of epigenetic regulators were differentially expressed during embryogenesis at different epitype-inducing conditions. Our results support that methylation of DNA and histones, as well as sRNAs, are pivotal for the establishment of the epigenetic memory. As a forest tree species with long generation times, Norway spruce is remarkably well adapted to local environmental conditions despite having recently, from an evolutionary perspective, recolonized large areas following the last glaciation...
May 2016: Planta
Shin-Ichiro Terada, Daisuke Matsubara, Koun Onodera, Masanori Matsuzaki, Tadashi Uemura, Tadao Usui
Adequate responses to noxious stimuli causing tissue damages are essential for organismal survival. Class IV neurons in Drosophila larvae are polymodal nociceptors responsible for thermal, mechanical, and light sensation. Importantly, activation of Class IV provoked distinct avoidance behaviors, depending on the inputs. We found that noxious thermal stimuli, but not blue light stimulation, caused a unique pattern of Class IV, which were composed of pauses after high-frequency spike trains and a large Ca(2+) rise in the dendrite (the Ca(2+) transient)...
2016: ELife
Chanhyung Bae, Claudio Anselmi, Jeet Kalia, Andres Jara-Oseguera, Charles D Schwieters, Dmitriy Krepkiy, Chul Won Lee, Eun-Hee Kim, Jae Il Kim, José D Faraldo-Gómez, Kenton J Swartz
Venom toxins are invaluable tools for exploring the structure and mechanisms of ion channels. Here, we solve the structure of double-knot toxin (DkTx), a tarantula toxin that activates the heat-activated TRPV1 channel. We also provide improved structures of TRPV1 with and without the toxin bound, and investigate the interactions of DkTx with the channel and membranes. We find that DkTx binds to the outer edge of the external pore of TRPV1 in a counterclockwise configuration, using a limited protein-protein interface and inserting hydrophobic residues into the bilayer...
2016: ELife
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