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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729186/-tuberculosis-treatment-for-children-an-update
#1
María José Mellado Peña, Begoña Santiago García, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, David Moreno Pérez, Roi Piñeiro Pérez, Ana Méndez Echevarría, José Tomás Ramos Amador, David Gómez-Pastrana Durán, Antoni Noguera Julian
Tuberculosis (TB) is the most important infectious disease all over the world, with a high morbidity and mortality. Pediatric tuberculosis has been a neglected epidemic, due to the difficulties in assessing its global impact, reduced incidence and lower infectivity compared to adults. In 2015, the WHO reported 1 million cases of paediatric TB and 169,000 deaths. In Europe, the emergence of MDR TB is a major concern, representing 16% of the new diagnosis in Eastern Europe. In 2014, it was estimated that about 219,000 children were infected by MDR-TB-strains in Europe, and 2,120 developed the disease...
July 17, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720723/profile-and-outcomes-of-critically-ill-children-in-a-lower-middle-income-country
#2
Muhammad Irfan Habib, Khalid Mehmood A Khan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical profile and outcome of critically ill children presenting to a paediatric ED in a lower middle-income country. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of children (<14 years) presenting to the ED of the National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, between January and December 2014 who were assigned to acuity 1 (requiring immediate life-saving interventions) according to the Emergency Severity Index. Data included demographic variables, presenting complaints, interventions and outcomes in the ED...
July 18, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718941/child-understandings-of-the-causation-of-childhood-burn-injuries-child-activity-parental-domestic-demands-and-impoverished-settings
#3
N Titi, A van Niekerk, R Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Burns are a global public health problem. In South Africa, the rate of paediatric burn deaths is 5 times higher than other upper middle-income countries, with concentrations in impoverished settings. Globally, the majority of research focuses on expert and caregiver descriptions of burn occurrence, causation, and prevention, with limited consideration of children's perspectives. This study investigated children's understanding of the causation and prevention of childhood burns...
July 18, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705790/children-with-life-limiting-conditions-in-paediatric-intensive-care-units-a-national-cohort-data-linkage-study
#4
Lorna K Fraser, Roger Parslow
OBJECTIVE: To determine how many children are admitted to paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with life-limiting conditions (LLCs) and their outcomes. DESIGN: National cohort, data-linkage study. SETTING: PICUs in England. PATIENTS: Children admitted to a UK PICU (1 January 2004 and 31 March 2015) were identified in the Paediatric Intensive Care Audit Network dataset. Linkage to hospital episodes statistics enabled identification of children with a LLC using an International Classification of Diseases (ICD10) code list...
July 13, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698327/bubble-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-in-the-treatment-of-severe-paediatric-pneumonia-in-malawi-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#5
Teresa Bleakly Kortz, Benjamin Herzel, Elliot Marseille, James G Kahn
OBJECTIVES: Pneumonia is the largest infectious cause of death in children under 5 years globally, and limited resource settings bear an overwhelming proportion of this disease burden. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP), an accepted supportive therapy, is often thought of as cost-prohibitive in these settings. We hypothesise that bCPAP is a cost-effective intervention in a limited resource setting and this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of bCPAP, using Malawi as an example...
July 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693354/perinatal-outcomes-of-congenital-heart-disease-after-emergent-neonatal-cardiac-procedures
#6
Aline Wolter, Helene Holtmann, Andreea Kawecki, Jan Degenhardt, Christian Enzensberger, Oliver Graupner, Hakan Akintürk, Can Yerebakan, Markus Khalil, Dietmar Schranz, Roland Axt-Fliedner
PURPOSE: We compared outcome of neonates with prenatal and postnatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease presenting in our paediatric heart centre between 2005-05/2015 who underwent an emergent intervention within 48 hours postpartum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 52/111 (46.8%) with emergent intervention, congenital heart disease was diagnosed prenatally, in 59/111 (53.2%) with no specialized fetal echocardiography, diagnosis was made postnatally. In 98/111 (88...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693128/pediatric-haematopoiesis-and-related-malignancies
#7
Mingwei Jin, Shumei Xu, Qi An
Survival after acute paediatric (0-14 years), adolescent (15-19 years) and young adult (20-39 years) leukaemia has improved substantially over the last five decades, particularly for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute promyelocytic leukaemia. This progress represents one of the most successful achievements in the history of medicine and has been attributed to the development of effective chemotherapy regimens, improvement in supportive care, better risk stratification, use of targeted therapies, and advances in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691433/taking-a-critical-look-at-the-unaids-global-estimates-on-paediatric-and-adolescent-hiv-survival-and-death
#8
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691229/desmopressin-use-for-minimising-perioperative-blood-transfusion
#9
REVIEW
Michael J Desborough, Kathryn Oakland, Charlotte Brierley, Sean Bennett, Carolyn Doree, Marialena Trivella, Sally Hopewell, Simon J Stanworth, Lise J Estcourt
BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is administered during many types of surgery, but its efficacy and safety are increasingly questioned. Evaluation of the efficacy of agents, such as desmopressin (DDAVP; 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin), that may reduce perioperative blood loss is needed. OBJECTIVES: To examine the evidence for the efficacy of DDAVP in reducing perioperative blood loss and the need for red cell transfusion in people who do not have inherited bleeding disorders...
July 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688554/acute-pediatric-neck-infections-outcomes-in-a-seven-year-series
#10
Filipa Camacho Côrte, João Firmino-Machado, Carla Pinto Moura, Jorge Spratley, Margarida Santos
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyse the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic clues, as biochemical parameters and imaging studies, of children with acute neck infections (ANI) to identify possible independent prognostic factors leading to complications and prolonged hospitalization. METHODS: Records of children admitted to a tertiary university hospital from January 2008 to December 2014 with a diagnosis of ANIs were reviewed retrospectively...
August 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687558/seizure-management-in-children-requiring-palliative-care-a-review-of-current-practice
#11
Nicola Harris, Megumi Baba, Charlotte Mellor, Rebekah Rogers, Kirsty Taylor, Antonia Beringer, Peta Sharples
OBJECTIVES: Controlling seizures in children approaching death can be difficult, and there is a limited evidence base to guide best practice. We compared current practice against the guidance for seizure management produced by the Association of Paediatric Palliative Medicine (APPM). METHODS: Retrospective case note review of episodes of challenging seizure management in children receiving end-of-life care over a 10-year period (2006-2015) in the south-west region of England...
July 7, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681807/spectrum-of-diarrhoeagenic-escherichia-coli-in-paediatric-population-suffering-from-diarrhoea-and-as-commensals-in-healthy-children
#12
Taru Singh, Shukla Das, V G Ramachandran, Sajad Ahmad Dar, K Snehaa, Rumpa Saha, Dheeraj Shah
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is associated with early death of children in developing countries and are being identified now as an important evolving pathogen. The objective of this study was to perform multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for simultaneous detection of six categories of DEC in two sets of PCR reactions using 11 virulent genes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During 1-year study period, forty isolates each from outpatient, inpatient and healthy groups were collected from children...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681231/the-value-of-postmortem-computed-tomography-in-paediatric-natural-cause-of-death-a-dutch-observational-study
#13
Rick R van Rijn, Erik J Beek, Elise M van de Putte, Arianne H Teeuw, Peter G J Nikkels, Wilma L J M Duijst, Rutger-Jan A Nievelstein
BACKGROUND: Postmortem CT is a relatively new field of interest within paediatric radiology. This paper focusses on its value in cases of unexpected natural death. OBJECTIVE: We report on an observational Dutch study regarding the value of postmortem CT in children with an assumed natural unexpected death because postmortem CT is part of the Dutch NODO (additional investigations of cause of death) procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included consecutive children who fulfilled criteria for the NODO procedure and were therefore referred to one of the centres for the procedure...
July 5, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679172/potts-shunt-in-children-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-institutional-experience
#14
Sergey V Gorbachevsky, Anton A Shmalts, Irina Y Barishnikova, Sergey B Zaets
OBJECTIVES: Since 2004, different techniques for the Potts shunt have been used in patients with incurable pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the experience with these interventions in a single institution is limited. We present our series of Potts shunts in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. METHODS: Eight patients with suprasystemic pulmonary arterial hypertension (pulmonary artery-to-aorta mean pressure ratio of 1.39 ± 0.30) had a Potts shunt at the median age of 13...
June 29, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676256/neurotoxicity-of-propofol-on-rat-hypoglossal-motoneurons-in-vitro
#15
Laura Monni, Filippo Ghezzi, Silvia Corsini, Andrea Nistri
Although propofol is a widely used intravenous general anaesthetic, many studies report its toxic potential, particularly on the developing central nervous system. We investigated its action on hypoglossal motoneurons (HMs) that control two critical functions in neonates, namely tongue muscle activity and airway patency. Thus, clinically relevant concentrations of propofol (1 and 5μM) were applied (4h) to neonatal rat brainstem slices to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) as biomarker of toxicity...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674570/paediatric-otogenic-tetanus-an-evidence-of-poor-immunization-in-nigeria
#16
Segun Ayodeji Ogunkeyede, Adekunle Daniel, Omowonuola Ogundoyin
Suppurative otitis media is a common childhood infection that predisposes to otogenic tetanus. Tetanus is a vaccine preventable disease that is associated with high cost of care and mortality. This study highlights reasons for otogenic tetanus in Nigerian children and way of reducing the menace. This is a 5-year retrospective review of all patients managed for otogenic tetanus in at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University College Hospital, Ibadan. The data collected include demographic, clinical presentations, tetanus immunisation history, and duration of hospital admission, and management- outcome...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663066/successful-management-of-acute-liver-failure-in-italian-children-a-16-year-experience-at-a-referral-centre-for-paediatric-liver-transplantation
#17
A Di Giorgio, A Sonzogni, A Piccichè, G Alessio, E Bonanomi, M Colledan, L D'Antiga
BACKGROUND: Identifying the causes of acute liver failure (ALF) and predictors of death or liver transplantation (LTX) is crucial to decide its management. We aimed to describe features and outcome of ALF in Italian children. METHODS: Retrospective review of cases presenting between 1996-2012. ALF was defined by high transaminases, INR ≥2.0 regardless of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), no evidence of underlying chronic liver disease. RESULTS: 55 children (median age 2...
June 12, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653434/injury-from-falls-in-infants-under-one-year
#18
Christopher S Mulligan, Susan Adams, Dimitra Tzioumi, Julie Brown
AIM: Falls in infants are a common cause of injury. Compared to older children, infants under age one are likely to have distinctive causation and injury patterns, as they are pre-mobile or have limited independent mobility and falls are more directly the responsibility of the care giver. There is little known about the mechanistic factors, predictors of injury and injury patterns in this age group. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of infants under age one who presented after a fall to a paediatric trauma centre in Sydney, Australia...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646954/development-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-vaccines-for-infants
#19
Hannah E Gerretsen, Charles J Sande
2017 will mark the 60(th) anniversary since the first isolation of RSV in children. In spite of concerted efforts over all these years, the goal of developing an effective vaccine against paediatric RSV disease has remained elusive. One of the main hurdles standing in the way of an effective vaccine is the fact that the age incidence of severe disease peaks within the first 3 months of life, providing limited opportunity for intervention. In addition to this complexity, the spectre of failed historical vaccines, which increased the risk of illness and death upon subsequent natural infection, has substantially increased the safety criteria against which modern vaccines will be assessed...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641582/a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-of-levetiracetam-versus-phenytoin-for-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-children-protocol-convulsive-status-epilepticus-paediatric-trial-consept-a-predict-study
#20
Stuart R Dalziel, Jeremy Furyk, Megan Bonisch, Ed Oakley, Meredith Borland, Jocelyn Neutze, Susan Donath, Cynthia Sharpe, Simon Harvey, Andrew Davidson, Simon Craig, Natalie Phillips, Shane George, Arjun Rao, Nicholas Cheng, Michael Zhang, Kam Sinn, Amit Kochar, Christine Brabyn, Franz E Babl
BACKGROUND: Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is the most common life-threatening childhood neurological emergency. Despite this, there is a lack of high quality evidence supporting medication use after first line benzodiazepines, with current treatment protocols based solely on non-experimental evidence and expert opinion. The current standard of care, phenytoin, is only 60% effective, and associated with considerable adverse effects. A newer anti-convulsant, levetiracetam, can be given faster, is potentially more efficacious, with a more tolerable side effect profile...
June 22, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
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