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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914796/convection-enhanced-delivery-for-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma-a-single-centre-dose-escalation-phase-1-trial
#1
Mark M Souweidane, Kim Kramer, Neeta Pandit-Taskar, Zhiping Zhou, Sofia Haque, Pat Zanzonico, Jorge A Carrasquillo, Serge K Lyashchenko, Sunitha B Thakur, Maria Donzelli, Ryan S Turner, Jason S Lewis, Nai-Kong V Cheung, Steven M Larson, Ira J Dunkel
BACKGROUND: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma is one of the deadliest central nervous system tumours of childhood, with a median overall survival of less than 12 months. Convection-enhanced delivery has been proposed as a means to efficiently deliver therapeutic agents directly into the brainstem while minimising systemic exposure and associated toxic effects. We did this study to evaluate the safety of convection-enhanced delivery of a radioimmunotherapy agent targeting the glioma-associated B7-H3 antigen in children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma...
June 15, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912645/use-of-a-modified-bubble-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-bcpap-device-for-children-in-respiratory-distress-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-safety-study
#2
Ashley R Bjorklund, Beatrice Odongkara Mpora, Marie E Steiner, Gwenyth Fischer, Cynthia S Davey, Tina M Slusher
BACKGROUND: While bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is commonly used in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to support neonates with respiratory distress, there are limited non-invasive support options for non-neonatal children. AIM: To demonstrate safety of a new device designed to support children during respiratory distress in LMIC. METHODS: A paediatric bCPAP device was designed called SEAL-bCPAP (Simplified Ear-plug Adapted-bCPAP)...
June 18, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884572/treatment-and-secondary-prophylaxis-with-ethanol-lock-therapy-for-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection-in-paediatric-cancer-a-randomised-double-blind-controlled-trial
#3
Joshua Wolf, Tom G Connell, Kim J Allison, Li Tang, Julie Richardson, Kristen Branum, Eloise Borello, Jeffrey E Rubnitz, Aditya H Gaur, Hana Hakim, Yin Su, Sara M Federico, Francoise Mechinaud, Randall T Hayden, Paul Monagle, Leon J Worth, Nigel Curtis, Patricia M Flynn
BACKGROUND: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) affect about 25% of children with cancer, and treatment failure is common. Adjunctive ethanol lock therapy might prevent treatment failure but high-quality evidence is scarce. We evaluated ethanol lock therapy as treatment and secondary prophylaxis for CLABSI in children with cancer or haematological disorders. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled superiority trial, with two interim futility and efficacy analyses (done when the first 46 and 92 evaluable participants completed study requirements), was done at two paediatric hospitals in the USA and Australia...
June 5, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884168/mortality-in-children-with-classic-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-and-21-hydroxylase-deficiency-cah-in-germany
#4
Helmuth G Dörr, Hartmut A Wollmann, Berthold P Hauffa, Joachim Woelfle
BACKGROUND: Adrenal crises in children with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (CAH) are life-threatening and have the potential to death. METHODS: A survey was performed among Paediatric Endocrinologists in Germany to report on deceased children with CAH. Our survey covered the whole of Germany. RESULTS: The participating centres reported 14 cases of death (9 female, 5 male) from 1973 until 2004, but no deaths thereafter...
June 8, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883232/emerging-problems-in-the-treatment-of-paediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia
#5
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains one of the most common reasons for paediatric morbidity and accounts for about 16% of all the deaths occurring in children less than 5 years of age. Areas covered: The main aim of this paper is to discuss the emerging problems for CAP treatment in paediatric age. Expert commentary: Official recommendations for therapeutic approaches to paediatric CAP, despite being not very recent, seem still to be the best solution to assure the highest probabilities of cure for children with this disease living in industrialized countries...
June 8, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882486/fabricated-or-induced-illness-in-twins-associated-with-insertion-of-trocar-needles-into-their-bodies
#6
Yasmine Houas, Fatma Fitouri, Mourad Hamzaoui
Fabricated and/or induced illness (previously known as Munchausen syndrome by proxy) is a form of child abuse in which the perpetrator induces, exaggerates or fabricates illness in his/her child. Two-month-old twins were referred to the paediatric surgery centre with trocar needles lodged in different organs. A radiograph undertaken in one of them because of acute respiratory distress demonstrated needles in the heart and diaphragm which were removed surgically. The second twin, referred one week after his brother, had a needle deep in his liver and it was decided not to operate owing to the possibility of haemorrhage but, sadly, he died unexpectedly and the autopsy concluded that it was owing to sudden infant death syndrome...
June 8, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880053/indications-and-complications-of-inpatient-parenteral-nutrition-prescribed-to-children-in-a-large-tertiary-referral-hospital
#7
C Mantegazza, N Landy, G V Zuccotti, J Köglmeier
BACKGROUND: Parenteral Nutrition (PN) is prescribed to children with intestinal failure. Although life saving, complications are common. Recommendations for indications and constituents of PN are made in the 2005 guidelines by the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). The aim of this study was to establish if the indications for prescribing PN in a tertiary children's hospital were appropriate, and to identify complications encountered. Data were compared to those published by the National Confidential Enquiry into patient outcome and death (NCEPOD) carried out in the United Kingdom in 2010...
June 8, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875345/spondylodiscitis-in-paediatric-patients-the-importance-of-early-diagnosis-and-prolonged-therapy
#8
Sonia Bianchini, Andrea Esposito, Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Background: Spondylodiscitis (SD), the concurrent infection of a vertebral disc and the adjacent vertebral bodies, is a very severe disease that can lead to death or cause spinal deformities, segmental instabilities, and chronic pain, which significantly reduces the quality of life for affected patients. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential in order to reduce the risk of negative outcomes. The two cases of SD that are described in this paper might be useful for informing paediatric approaches to children with SD...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850551/serum-s100b-levels-can-predict-computed-tomography-findings-in-paediatric-patients-with-mild-head-injury
#9
Fatos M Kelmendi, Arsim A Morina, Agon Y Mekaj, Afrim Blyta, Ridvan Alimehmeti, Shefki Dragusha, Feti Ahmeti, Qamile Morina, Afrim Kotori
Introduction: Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are very common in paediatric populations, in which they are also a leading cause of death. Computed tomography (CT) overuse in these populations results in ionization radiation exposure, which can lead to lethal malignancies. The aims of this study were to investigate the accuracy of serum S100B levels with respect to the detection of cranial injury in children with mild TBI and to determine whether decisions regarding the performance of CT can be made based on biomarker levels alone...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846731/get-the-basics-right-a-description-of-the-key-priorities-for-establishing-a-neonatal-service-in-a-resource-limited-setting-in-cambodia
#10
Shivani Fox-Lewis, Wyatt Genasci Smith, Vary Lor, Gregor McKellar, Chea Phal, Andrew Fox-Lewis, Paul Turner, Leakhena Neou, Claudia Turner
Background: Worldwide, reduction in under-five mortality has not sufficiently included neonates, who represent 45% of deaths in children of age under five years. The least progress has been observed in resource-limited settings. Methods: This mixed methods study conducted at a Cambodian non-governmental paediatric hospital described the key priorities of the ongoing neonatal service. Routinely collected data from the hospital and microbiology databases included the number of admissions, discharges and deaths and the number of cases of bacteraemias (2011-2016)...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808263/renal-allograft-survival-rates-in-kidneys-initially-declined-for-paediatric-transplantation
#11
Matko Marlais, Laura Pankhurst, Kate Martin, Lisa Mumford, E Jane Tizard, Stephen D Marks
BACKGROUND: The outcome of organs which have been declined for paediatric recipients is not known. This study aimed to determine the outcome of kidneys initially declined for paediatric recipients and establish renal allograft survival in kidneys that were eventually transplanted. METHODS: Data were obtained from the UK Transplant Registry for all donation after brain death (DBD) kidneys offered and declined to paediatric recipients (< 18 years) in the UK from 2009 to 2014...
May 28, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807673/long-term-outcomes-of-en-bloc-renal-transplantation-from-paediatric-donors-into-adult-recipients
#12
S W Considine, N F Davis, L C McLoughlin, P Mohan, J C Forde, R Power, G Smyth, D M Little
INTRODUCTION: Transplant units are exploring strategies to increase the availability of donor kidneys. The use of en-bloc kidney transplantation (EBKT) from paediatric donors represents one potential solution. We present our long-term experience with paediatric EBKT among adult recipients. METHODS: Twenty-three paediatric to adult EBKTs were performed by the Irish National Kidney Transplant Service between 1990 and 2016. The primary outcome variable was long-term en-bloc allograft survival rate...
May 25, 2018: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802930/oral-administration-of-edelfosine-encapsulated-lipid-nanoparticles-causes-regression-of-lung-metastases-in-pre-clinical-models-of-osteosarcoma
#13
Yolanda González-Fernández, Hannah K Brown, Ana Patiño-García, Dominique Heymann, María J Blanco-Prieto
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent paediatric bone cancer, responsible for 9% of all cancer-related deaths in children. In this paper, a new strategy based on delivering edelfosine (ET) in lipid nanoparticles (LN) was explored in order to target the primary tumour and eliminate metastases. The in vitro and in vivo efficacy of the free drug, drug loaded into lipid nanoparticles (ET-LN) and doxorubicin (DOX) against osteosarcoma (OS) cells was analysed. ET and ET-LN decreased the growth of OS cells in vitro in a time- and dose-dependent manner...
August 28, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790845/guidelines-for-the-treatment-of-dysentery-shigellosis-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#14
Phoebe C M Williams, James A Berkley
BACKGROUND: Shigella remains the primary cause of diarrhoea in paediatric patients worldwide and accounts for up to 40,000 deaths per year. Current guidelines for the treatment of shigellosis are based on data which are over a decade old. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, an updated review of the appropriate empirical therapy for shigellosis in children is necessary, taking into account susceptibility patterns, cost and the risk of adverse events. METHODS: A systematic review of the current published literature on the treatment of shigella dysentery was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790844/antibiotic-use-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-neonates-and-children-who-evidence-review
#15
Shrey Mathur, Aline Fuchs, Julia Bielicki, Johannes Van Den Anker, Mike Sharland
Background Pneumonia is the most common cause of death in children worldwide, accounting for 15% of all deaths of children under 5 years of age. This review summarises the evidence for the empirical antibiotic treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in neonates and children and puts emphasis on publications since the release of the previous WHO Evidence Summary report published in 2014. Methods A systematic search for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia was conducted between 1 January 2013 and 10 November 2016...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790841/guidelines-for-the-management-of-paediatric-cholera-infection-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#16
Phoebe C M Williams, James A Berkley
Background Vibrio cholerae is a highly motile Gram-negative bacterium which is responsible for 3 million cases of diarrhoeal illness and up to 100,000 deaths per year, with an increasing burden documented over the past decade. Current WHO guidelines for the treatment of paediatric cholera infection (tetracycline 12.5 mg/kg four times daily for 3 days) are based on data which are over a decade old. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, updated review of the appropriate empirical therapy for cholera infection in children (taking account of susceptibility patterns, cost and the risk of adverse events) is necessary...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788956/building-bridges-paediatric-palliative-care-in-belgium-a-secondary-data-analysis-of-annual-paediatric-liaison-team-reports-from-2010-to-2014
#17
Marie Friedel, Bénédicte Brichard, Christine Fonteyne, Marleen Renard, Jean-Paul Misson, Els Vandecruys, Corinne Tonon, Françoise Verfaillie, Georgette Hendrijckx, Nathalie Andersson, Ilse Ruysseveldt, Katrien Moens, Jean-Marie Degryse, Isabelle Aujoulat
BACKGROUND: Although continuity of care in paediatric palliative care (PPC) is considered to be an essential element of quality of care, it's implementation is challenging. In Belgium, five paediatric liaison teams (PLTs) deliver palliative care. A Royal Decree issued in 2010 provides the legal framework that defines the PLTs' missions, as ensuring continuity of curative and palliative care between the hospital and home for children diagnosed with life-limiting conditions. This national study describes how PLTs ensure continuity of care by describing their activities and the characteristics of the children they cared for from 2010 to 2014...
May 22, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783991/admission-eeg-findings-in-diverse-paediatric-cerebral-malaria-populations-predict-outcomes
#18
Douglas G Postels, Xiaoting Wu, Chenxi Li, Peter W Kaplan, Karl B Seydel, Terrie E Taylor, Youssef A Kousa, Richard Idro, Robert Opoka, Chandy C John, Gretchen L Birbeck
BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography at hospital presentation may offer important insights regarding prognosis that can inform understanding of cerebral malaria (CM) pathophysiology and potentially guide patient selection and risk stratification for future clinical trials. Electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in children with CM in Uganda and Malawi were compared and associations between admission EEG findings and outcome across this diverse population were assessed. Demographic, clinical and admission EEG data from Ugandan and Malawian children admitted from 2009 to 2012 with CM were gathered, and survivors assessed for neurological abnormalities at discharge...
May 22, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782544/mortality-and-other-outcomes-after-paediatric-hospital-admission-on-the-weekend-compared-to-weekday
#19
Rebecca Barwise-Munro, Maryam Al-Mahtot, Steve Turner
Mortality is higher for adults admitted to hospital and for babies born on weekends compared to weekdays. This study compares in-hospital mortality and in children admitted to hospital on weekends and weekdays. Details for all acute medical admissions to hospitals in Scotland for children aged ≤16 years between 1st January 2000 and 31st December 2013 were obtained. Death was linked to day of admission. There were 570,403 acute medical admissions and 334 children died, including 83 who died after an admission on Saturday or Sunday and 251 who died following admission between Monday and Friday...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769515/complications-following-general-anaesthesia-in-paediatric-patients
#20
A K Khan, S R Quddus, H K Khan, M S Ali, M Kamruzzaman, M R Hasan, M Hasan, R H Moon
Complications in paediatric anaesthesia can be conveniently classified as minor or major. Major morbidity includes cardiac arrest, brain damage and death. Minor morbidity can be assessed by clinical audits with smell patient samples. Major morbidity is rare. It is best assessed by very large clinical studies and by review of cases malpractice claims. Both minor & major complication occurs most commonly in infants and children under three especially those with severe co-morbidities. Knowledge of risk profiles in paediatric anaesthesia is a starting point for the reduction of risk complication...
April 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
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