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Min Ma, Fuwei Pi, Jiasheng Wang, Jian Ji, Xiulan Sun
Humans are most likely to be exposed to microcystins (MCs) combined with other water pollutants rather than to individual compounds through the consumption of contaminated drinking water or through recreational activities, such as swimming. However, the combined effects of MC-LR, estradiol (EST), and ractopamine (RAC) have not been extensively researched. The goal of this study was to investigate the combined effects of these compounds. For this purpose, cytotoxicity was evaluated in HepG2 cells treated with single or combined doses of MC-LR, EST, and RAC based on concentration addition (CA), independent action (IA), and Chou-Talalay's combination-index (CI) methods...
October 23, 2016: Chemosphere
Yuanyao Ye, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Yiwen Liu, Jixiang Li, Yi Liu, Xinbo Zhang, Hui Jia
Phosphate plays an irreplaceable role in the production of fertilizers. However, its finite availability may not be enough to satisfy increasing demands for the fertilizer production worldwide. In this scenario, phosphate recovery can effectively alleviate this problem. Municipal wastewater has received high priority to recover phosphate because its quantity is considerable. Therefore, phosphate recovery from municipal wastewater can bring many benefits such as relieving the burden of increasing production of fertilizers and reduction in occurrence of eutrophication caused by the excessive concentration of phosphate in the released effluent...
October 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Leszek Kubin
Upper airway muscles subserve many essential for survival orofacial behaviors, including their important role as accessory respiratory muscles. In the face of certain predisposition of craniofacial anatomy, both tonic and phasic inspiratory activation of upper airway muscles is necessary to protect the upper airway against collapse. This protective action is adequate during wakefulness, but fails during sleep which results in recurrent episodes of hypopneas and apneas, a condition known as the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA)...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Christine L Latham, Harsimran Singh, Karen K Ringl
BACKGROUND: A structured peer-mentoring program for diverse nursing students culminated in shared governance meetings between mentors and program coordinators to address mentees' concerns and issues. METHOD: After informed consent, mentees reviewed mentor profiles online and selected mentors. Baseline data were collected on ethnic identity, lifestyle, social support, and academic habits. Outcome data included mentors' self-reflective journal themes and student satisfaction surveys and focus group evaluation of the program...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Education
Anahi Guedes de Mello
Anthropology has increasingly questioned the hegemony of biomedical knowledge in ethical review processes of social research projects prevailing in Brazil, which was governed until 2012 by the Human Research Ethics Committee of each institution under the auspices of the National Research Ethics Commission (CONEP). This was mandated through Resolution No. 196/1996 prevailing in 2012 when this field research was conducted. The scope of this study is to recount and reflect upon the barriers to obtaining approval in 2012 for my master's research project from the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Santa Catarina (CEP/UFSC) in Florianopolis...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Mayara Caroline Barbieri, Gabriela Van Der Zwaan Broekman, Renata Olzon Dionysio de Souza, Regina Aparecida Garcia de Lima, Monika Wernet, Giselle Dupas
This study aimed to understand the interactions established between social support networks and families that have children and adolescents with visual impairment, in two different cities in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. This was a qualitative, descriptive study with symbolic interactionism as a theoretical framework. A genogram, ecomap and semi-structured interviews with 18 families were used. The method adopted for data analysis was narrative analysis. Two themes were found: potentials derived from the relationship with the support network, and, counterpoints in the support network...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Jose Gonçalo Pais Estrela da Silveira Zúquete, Edinilsa Ramos de Souza, Suely Ferreira Deslandes
This study focuses on concepts involved in women trafficking for sexual exploitation according to representatives of government and nongovernmental institutions working with policies to confront and prevent trafficking and assist victims in Brazil and Portugal. An exploratory qualitative study was performed to identify the institutional discourses on women trafficking using thematic analysis. Interviewees displayed conceptual imprecision concerning women trafficking, sometimes ignoring the rights of sex workers to migrate and work in other countries...
October 20, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Erica Mayumi Guskuma, Aline Alves Dos Santos Dullius, Mônica La Salette da Costa Godinho, Maria Silvana Totti Costa, Fábio de Souza Terra
Objective: report the experience of international academic mobility in Ireland through the program Science Without Borders during undergraduate education in nursing. Method: a report of experience presented in chronological order, with a descriptive nature. Results: the opportunity to know and be able to discuss questions regarding health and nursing in Ireland allowed the review of concepts and a more reflective perspective regarding nursing practices...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Michel Tchuenche, Vibhuti Haté, Dacia McPherson, Eurica Palmer, Ananthy Thambinayagam, Dayanund Loykissoonlal, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli, Steven Forsythe
In 2010, South Africa launched a countrywide effort to scale up its voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program on the basis of compelling evidence that circumcision reduces men's risk of acquiring HIV through heterosexual intercourse. Even though VMMC is free there, clients can incur indirect out-of-pocket costs (for example transportation cost or foregone income). Because these costs can be barriers to increasing the uptake of VMMC services, we assessed them from a client perspective, to inform VMMC demand creation policies...
2016: PloS One
Michel Tchuenche, Eurica Palmer, Vibhuti Haté, Ananthy Thambinayagam, Dayanund Loykissoonlal, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli, Steven Forsythe
Given compelling evidence associating voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) with men's reduced HIV acquisition through heterosexual intercourse, South Africa in 2010 began scaling up VMMC. To project the resources needed to complete 4.3 million circumcisions between 2010 and 2016, we (1) estimated the unit cost to provide VMMC; (2) assessed cost drivers and cost variances across eight provinces and VMMC service delivery modes; and (3) evaluated the costs associated with mobilize and motivate men and boys to access VMMC services...
2016: PloS One
Carlo Signorelli, Veronica Ciorba, Federica Pezzetti, Anna Odone, Armando Gozzini, Antonello Zangrandi
Health authorities, medical directors and managers are called to face increasing and inter-related challenges regarding the ongoing financial crisis, aging of the population and the need to acquire innovative medical technologies. These challenges need to be tackled in order to ensure sustainability of the healthcare systems and appropriateness and quality of healthcare services. In Italy, the role of medical directors has progressively evolved over the years and now requires strengthened managerial skills and additional professional expertise and skills to plan, implement and evaluate the new systems of government...
July 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
Shivani K Mhatre, Omar Serna, Shubhada Sansgiry, Marc L Fleming, E James Essien, Sujit S Sansgiry
BACKGROUND: Low adherence to oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) in the Medicare population can greatly reduce Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) star ratings for managed care organizations (MCOs). OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a risk assessment tool (Prescription Medication Adherence Prediction Tool for Diabetes Medications [RxAPT-D]) to predict nonadherence to OADs using Medicare claims data. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, claims data for members enrolled in a Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug (MA-PD) program in Houston, Texas, were used...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Claudiu T Supuran
The enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC is found in numerous organisms across the tree of life, with seven distinct classes known to date. CA inhibition can be exploited for the treatment of edema, glaucoma, seizures, obesity, cancer and infectious diseases. A myriad of CA inhibitor (CAI) classes and inhibition mechanisms have been identified over the past decade, mainly through structure-based drug design approaches. Five different CA inhibition mechanisms are presently known. Areas covered: Recent advances in structure-based CAI design are reviewed, with periodic table-based organization of inhibitor classes...
October 26, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Scott Monteith, Tasha Glenn
Automated decision-making by computer algorithms based on data from our behaviors is fundamental to the digital economy. Automated decisions impact everyone, occurring routinely in education, employment, health care, credit, and government services. Technologies that generate tracking data, including smartphones, credit cards, websites, social media, and sensors, offer unprecedented benefits. However, people are vulnerable to errors and biases in the underlying data and algorithms, especially those with mental illness...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Jesse Yu-Chen Lan
The paper discusses the expansion of the universal health coverage (UHC) in Taiwan through the establishment of National Health Insurance (NHI), and the fiscal crisis it caused. Two key questions are addressed: How did the NHI gradually achieve universal coverage, and yet cause Taiwanese health spending to escalate to fiscal crisis? What measures have been taken to reform the NHI finance and achieve moderate success to date? The main argument of this paper is that the Taiwanese Government did try to implement various reforms to save costs and had moderate success, but the path-dependent process of reform does not allow increasing contribution rates significantly and thereby makes sustainability challenging...
October 25, 2016: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Linhai Wu, Guoyan Xu, Qingguang Li, Bo Hou, Wuyang Hu, Jianhua Wang
Dead pigs are a major waste by-product of pig farming. Thus, safe disposal of dead pigs is important to the protection of consumer health and the ecological environment by preventing marketing of slaughtered and processed dead pigs and improper dumping of dead pigs. In this study, a probability model was constructed for the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers by selecting factors affecting disposal. To that end, we drew on the definition and meaning of behavior probability based on survey data collected from 654 pig farmers in Funing County, Jiangsu Province, China...
October 26, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
S E Abd Elhafez, H A Hamad, A A Zaatout, G F Malash
In the last decades, Egypt has been suffering from the phenomenon of black cloud resulting from burning rice husk and increasing the demand for water leading to the water crisis. An alternative, low-value and surplus agricultural byproduct (rice husk, RH) has an enormous potential for the removal of Cu(II) ions from water. The present study focuses on the chance of the use of rice husk as a bio-adsorbent without any chemical treatment instead of burning it and soiling the environment. The elemental, structural, morphological, surface functional, thermal, and textural characteristics of RH are determined by XRF, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TGA, and BET surface area, respectively, and contributed to the understanding of the adsorption mechanism of Cu(II) ions in aqueous solution...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Adelazil de Brito Fabricio Neta, Clístenes Williams Araújo do Nascimento, Caroline Miranda Biondi, Peter van Straaten, Sheila Maria Bretas Bittar
Fernando de Noronha is a small volcanic archipelago in the Southern Atlantic, some 350 km NE of the city of Natal in NE Brazil. These remote volcanic islands represent a largely pristine environment, distant from sources of anthropogenic contamination. This study was carried out to determine the natural concentrations of Ag, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn in the A and B horizons of soils of Fernando de Noronha. The aims of the study were twofold: determine whether there is a relationship between the bedrock geology and soils and to establish quality reference values for soils from Fernando de Noronha...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Saowalak Kalapanulak, Treenut Saithong, Chinae Thammarongtham
To understand how biological processes work, it is necessary to explore the systematic regulation governing the behaviour of the processes. Not only driving the normal behavior of organisms, the systematic regulation evidently underlies the temporal responses to surrounding environments (dynamics) and long-term phenotypic adaptation (evolution). The systematic regulation is, in effect, formulated from the regulatory components which collaboratively work together as a network. In the drive to decipher such a code of lives, a spectrum of technologies has continuously been developed in the post-genomic era...
October 26, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Michel Garenne, Mark A Collinson, Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, F Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen Tollman
BACKGROUND: Completeness of vital registration remains very low in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in rural areas. OBJECTIVES: To investigate trends and factors in completeness of birth and death registration in Agincourt, a rural area of South Africa covering a population of about 110,000 persons, under demographic surveillance since 1992. The population belongs to the Shangaan ethnic group and hosts a sizeable community of Mozambican refugees. DESIGN: Statistical analysis of birth and death registration over time in a 22-year perspective (1992-2014)...
2016: Global Health Action
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