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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918508/metabolic-engineering-of-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-to-produce-punicic-acid-a-conjugated-fatty-acid-with-nutraceutic-properties
#1
Martina Garaiova, Elzbieta Mietkiewska, Randall J Weselake, Roman Holic
Punicic acid (PuA) is a conjugated linolenic acid (C18:3Δ(9c,11t,13c)) with a wide range of nutraceutic effects with the potential to reduce the incidence of a number of health disorders including diabetes, obesity, and cancer. It is the main component of seed oil from Punica granatum and Trichosanthes kirilowii. Previously, production of relatively high levels of this unusual fatty acid in the seed oil of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plant was accomplished by the use of A. thaliana fad3/fae1 mutant high in linoleic acid (18:2∆(9c,12c)) and by co-expression of P...
September 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918468/constraints-affecting-dairy-goats-milk-production-in-kenya
#2
C M Mbindyo, C G Gitao, S G Peter
In Kenya, the population of dairy goats is about 200,000 and 80% of these are reared in Mount Kenya region. They provide a quick source of milk for consumption or sale, which has an immense value especially to poor households. The small land sizes required for their rearing are especially useful in these highly populated areas. Although much research has been done on problems faced by dairy cattle farmers, limited information is available on problems faced by dairy goat farmers. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the constraints affecting dairy goat production in Mount Kenya region...
September 16, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918401/return-to-work-and-lost-earnings-after-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-5-year-prospective-longitudinal-study-of-long-term-survivors
#3
Biren B Kamdar, Kristin A Sepulveda, Alexandra Chong, Robert K Lord, Victor D Dinglas, Pedro A Mendez-Tellez, Carl Shanholtz, Elizabeth Colantuoni, Till M von Wachter, Peter J Pronovost, Dale M Needham
BACKGROUND: Delayed return to work is common after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but has undergone little detailed evaluation. We examined factors associated with the timing of return to work after ARDS, along with lost earnings and shifts in healthcare coverage. METHODS: Five-year, multisite prospective, longitudinal cohort study of 138 2-year ARDS survivors hospitalised between 2004 and 2007. Employment and healthcare coverage were collected via structured interview...
September 16, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918346/anaerobic-digestion-for-bioenergy-production-global-status-environmental-and-techno-economic-implications-and-government-policies
#4
REVIEW
Juliana Vasco-Correa, Sami Khanal, Ashish Manandhar, Ajay Shah
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that can transform organic matter into a bioenergy source - biogas (composed mainly of methane and carbon dioxide), while stabilizing waste. AD implementation around the world varies significantly, from small-scale household digesters in developing countries to large farm-scale or centralized digesters in developed countries. These differences in the implementation of AD technology are due to a complex set of conditions, including economic and environmental implications of the AD technology, and stimulus provided by a variety of polices and incentives related to agricultural systems, waste management, and renewable energy production...
September 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918000/nitric-oxide-prevents-aft1-activation-and-metabolic-remodeling-in-frataxin-deficient-yeast
#5
David Alsina, Joaquim Ros, Jordi Tamarit
Yeast frataxin homolog (Yfh1) is the orthologue of human frataxin, a mitochondrial protein whose deficiency causes Friedreich Ataxia. Yfh1 deficiency activates Aft1, a transcription factor governing iron homeostasis in yeast cells. Although the mechanisms causing this activation are not completely understood, it is assumed that it may be caused by iron-sulfur deficiency. However, several evidences indicate that activation of Aft1 occurs in the absence of iron-sulfur deficiency. Besides, Yfh1 deficiency also leads to metabolic remodeling (mainly consisting in a shift from respiratory to fermentative metabolism) and to induction of Yhb1, a nitric oxide (NO) detoxifying enzyme...
September 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917875/collagen-and-hyaluronic-acid-hydrogel-in-water-in-oil-microemulsion-delivery-systems
#6
Sylwia Kupper, Ilona Kłosowska-Chomiczewska, Patrycja Szumała
The increase in skin related health issues has promoted interest in research on the efficacy of microemulsion in dermal and transdermal delivery of active ingredients. Here, we assessed the water-in-oil microemulsion capacity to incorporate two natural polymers, i.e. collagen and hyaluronic acid with low and high molecular weight. Systems were extensively characterized in terms of conductivity, phase inversion studies, droplet diameter, polydispersity index and rheological properties. The results of this research indicate that the structure and extent of water phase in microemulsions is governed by ratio and amount of surfactant mixture (sorbitan ester derivatives)...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917579/microcirculation-in-the-murine-liver-a-computational-fluid-dynamic-model-based-on-3d-reconstruction-from-in-vivo-microscopy
#7
Monica Piergiovanni, Elena Bianchi, Giada Capitani, Irene Li Piani, Lucia Ganzer, Luca G Guidotti, Matteo Iannacone, Gabriele Dubini
The liver is organized in hexagonal functional units - termed lobules - characterized by a rather peculiar blood microcirculation, due to the presence of a tangled network of capillaries - termed sinusoids. A better understanding of the hemodynamics that governs liver microcirculation is relevant to clinical and biological studies aimed at improving our management of liver diseases and transplantation. Herein, we built a CFD model of a 3D sinusoidal network, based on in vivo images of a physiological mouse liver obtained with a 2-photon microscope...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917202/mechanisms-of-maguk-mediated-cellular-junctional-complex-organization
#8
REVIEW
Fei Ye, Menglong Zeng, Mingjie Zhang
Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) are a family of scaffold proteins that are enriched in cellular junctions and essential for tissue development and homeostasis. Mutations of MAGUKs are linked to many human diseases including cancers, psychiatric disorders, and intellectual disabilities. MAGUKs share a common PDZ-SH3-GK tandem domain organization at the C-terminal end. In this review, we summarize the mechanistic basis governing target recognition and regulations of this binding by the PDZ-SH3-GK tandem of various MAGUKs...
September 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917179/emission-reduction-potentials-of-improved-cookstoves-and-their-issues-in-adoption-an-indian-outlook
#9
REVIEW
Monikankana Sharma, S Dasappa
Biomass as a fuel for cooking is a common practice in rural India, and about 700 million people use traditional stoves to meet their energy demand. However, the thermal and the combustion efficiencies of these stoves are very low, leading to an inefficient use of biomass, and also, resulting in significant indoor air pollution. Research development has however led to the development of some improved stoves viz., natural draft and forced draft for both domestic as well as large scale cooking applications and government is trying to promote them...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917121/a-formal-description-of-middle-ear-pressure-regulation
#10
William J Doyle
INTRODUCTION: Middle ear (ME) pressure-regulation (MEPR) is a homeostatic mechanism that maintains the ME-environment pressure-gradient (MEEPG) within a range optimized for "normal" hearing. OBJECTIVE: Describe MEPR using equations applicable to passive, inter-compartmental gas-exchange and determine if the predictions of that description include the increasing ME pressure observed under certain conditions and interpreted by some as evidencing gas-production by the ME mucosa...
August 24, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916756/identification-of-the-s100-fused-type-protein-hornerin-as-a-regulator-of-tumor-vascularity
#11
Michael F Gutknecht, Marc E Seaman, Bo Ning, Daniel Auger Cornejo, Emily Mugler, Patrick F Antkowiak, Christopher A Moskaluk, Song Hu, Frederick H Epstein, Kimberly A Kelly
Sustained angiogenesis is essential for the development of solid tumors and metastatic disease. Disruption of signaling pathways that govern tumor vascularity provide a potential avenue to thwart cancer progression. Through phage display-based functional proteomics, immunohistochemical analysis of human pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDAC) specimens, and in vitro validation, we reveal that hornerin, an S100 fused-type protein, is highly expressed on pancreatic tumor endothelium in a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-independent manner...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916751/understanding-cry2-interactions-for-optical-control-of-intracellular-signaling
#12
Liting Duan, Jen Hope, Qunxiang Ong, Hsin-Ya Lou, Namdoo Kim, Comfrey McCarthy, Victor Acero, Michael Z Lin, Bianxiao Cui
Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) can simultaneously undergo light-dependent CRY2-CRY2 homo-oligomerization and CRY2-CIB1 hetero-dimerization, both of which have been widely used to optically control intracellular processes. Applications using CRY2-CIB1 interaction desire minimal CRY2 homo-oligomerization to avoid unintended complications, while those utilizing CRY2-CRY2 interaction prefer robust homo-oligomerization. However, selecting the type of CRY2 interaction has not been possible as the molecular mechanisms underlying CRY2 interactions are unknown...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916530/elucidation-of-the-impact-of-p-glycoprotein-and-breast-cancer-resistance-protein-on-the-brain-distribution-of-catechol-o-methyltransferase-inhibitors
#13
Joana Bicker, Ana Fortuna, Gilberto Alves, Patricio Soares-da-Silva, Amilcar Falcao
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are clinically important efflux transporters that act cooperatively at the blood-brain barrier, limiting the entry of several drugs into the CNS and affecting their pharmacokinetics, therapeutic efficacy and safety. In the present study, the interactions of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors (BIA 9-1059, BIA 9-1079, entacapone, nebicapone, opicapone and tolcapone) with P-gp and BCRP were investigated in order to determine the contribution of these transporters in their access to the brain...
September 15, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916263/autophagy-dependent-generation-of-free-fatty-acids-is-critical-for-normal-neutrophil-differentiation
#14
Thomas Riffelmacher, Alexander Clarke, Felix C Richter, Amanda Stranks, Sumeet Pandey, Sara Danielli, Philip Hublitz, Zhanru Yu, Errin Johnson, Tobias Schwerd, James McCullagh, Holm Uhlig, Sten Eirik W Jacobsen, Anna Katharina Simon
Neutrophils are critical and short-lived mediators of innate immunity that require constant replenishment. Their differentiation in the bone marrow requires extensive cytoplasmic and nuclear remodeling, but the processes governing these energy-consuming changes are unknown. While previous studies show that autophagy is required for differentiation of other blood cell lineages, its function during granulopoiesis has remained elusive. Here, we have shown that metabolism and autophagy are developmentally programmed and essential for neutrophil differentiation in vivo...
September 1, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915837/professional-groups-driving-change-toward-patient-centred-care-interprofessional-working-in-stroke-rehabilitation-in-denmark
#15
Viola Burau, Kathrine Carstensen, Stina Lou, Ellen Kuhlmann
BACKGROUND: Patient-centred care based on needs has been gaining momentum in health policy and the workforce. This creates new demand for interprofessional teams and redefining roles and tasks of professionals, yet little is known on how to implement new health policies more effectively. Our aim was to analyse the role and capacity of health professions in driving organisational change in interprofessional working and patient-centred care. METHODS: A case study of the introduction of interprofessional, early discharge teams in stroke rehabilitation in Denmark was conducted with focus on day-to-day coordination of care tasks and the professional groups' interests and strategies...
September 16, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915613/alternative-promotion-and-suppression-of-metastasis-by-jnk2-governed-by-its-phosphorylation
#16
Sike Hu, Xiaoli Dong, Wenjuan Gao, Dwayne Stupack, Yanhua Liu, Rong Xiang, Na Li
Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra1) has been proposed as a gatekeeper of the mesenchymal-epithelial transition to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Here, we showed that de-phosphorylated JNK2 increased the expression of Fra1 by promoting the expression of c-Jun and Jun-B. Conversely, phosphorylated JNK2 suppressed its expression via enhancing the ubiquitination of c-Jun and Jun-B. These data provided insights into the regulatory mechanism of JNK2 on the expression of Fra1. Our study thus demonstrated that the conversion of JNK2 from its phosphorylation to de-phosphorylation status promoted the switch of breast cancer cells from mesenchymal-epithelial transition to epithelial-mesenchymal transition...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915586/hepatitis-c-virus-core-protein-targets-4e-bp1-expression-and-phosphorylation-and-potentiates-myc-induced-liver-carcinogenesis-in-transgenic-mice
#17
Cosette Abdallah, Charlène Lejamtel, Nassima Benzoubir, Serena Battaglia, Nazha Sidahmed-Adrar, Christophe Desterke, Matthieu Lemasson, Arielle R Rosenberg, Didier Samuel, Christian Bréchot, Delphine Pflieger, François Le Naour, Marie-Françoise Bourgeade
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver diseases including the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Particularly, core protein has been involved in HCV-related liver pathologies. However, the impact of HCV core on signaling pathways supporting the genesis of HCC remains largely elusive. To decipher the host cell signaling pathways involved in the oncogenic potential of HCV core, a global quantitative phosphoproteomic approach was carried out. This study shed light on novel differentially phosphorylated proteins, in particular several components involved in translation...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915503/availability-and-consistency-of-health-and-non-health-data-for-road-traffic-fatality-analysis-of-data-from-195-countries-1985-2013
#18
Helai Huang, Qingyi Yin, David C Schwebel, Peishan Ning, Guoqing Hu
High-quality data are critical for validly monitoring progress toward global initiatives related to road traffic crash prevention. We assessed the availability and consistency of road traffic mortality data from health and non-health departments in national governments, plus changes in data consistency over time from 1985 to 2013. Using freely accessible data, we systematically assessed availability and consistency of health and non-health data from 1985 to 2013 in 195 countries. Data availability was reflected by the presence of data on motor vehicle mortality rates in that country at any points between 1985 and 2013...
September 12, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915435/an-overview-of-systematic-reviews-on-the-public-health-consequences-of-social-isolation-and-loneliness
#19
REVIEW
N Leigh-Hunt, D Bagguley, K Bash, V Turner, S Turnbull, N Valtorta, W Caan
OBJECTIVES: Social isolation and loneliness have been associated with ill health and are common in the developed world. A clear understanding of their implications for morbidity and mortality is needed to gauge the extent of the associated public health challenge and the potential benefit of intervention. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of systematic reviews (systematic overview) was undertaken to determine the wider consequences of social isolation and loneliness, identify any differences between the two, determine differences from findings of non-systematic reviews and to clarify the direction of causality...
September 12, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915337/the-cost-and-cost-effectiveness-of-childhood-cancer-treatment-in-el-salvador-central-america-a-report-from-the-childhood-cancer-2030-network
#20
Soad Fuentes-Alabi, Nickhill Bhakta, Roberto Franklin Vasquez, Sumit Gupta, Susan E Horton
BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have examined the cost of treating individual childhood cancers in low-income and middle-income countries, to the authors' knowledge none has examined the overall cost and cost-effectiveness of operating a childhood cancer treatment center. Herein, the authors examined the cost and sources of financing of a pediatric cancer unit in Hospital Nacional de Ninos Benjamin Bloom in El Salvador, and make estimates of cost-effectiveness. METHODS: Administrative data regarding costs and volumes of inputs were obtained for 2016 for the pediatric cancer unit...
September 15, 2017: Cancer
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