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Shao-Ze Wu, Lu-Yuan Tao, Jiao-Ni Wang, Zhi-Qiang Xu, Jie Wang, Yang-Jing Xue, Kai-Yu Huang, Jia-Feng Lin, Lei Li, Kang-Ting Ji
The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of amifostine on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of mice and H9c2 cells cultured with TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). The results showed that pretreatment with amifostine significantly attenuated cell apoptosis and death, accompanied by decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lower mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm). In vivo, amifostine pretreatment alleviated I/R injury and decreased myocardial apoptosis and infarct area, which was paralleled by increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) in myocardial tissues, increased Bcl2 expression, decreased Bax expression, lower cleaved caspase-3 level, fewer TUNEL positive cells, and fewer DHE-positive cells in heart...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Rasmi Rajan Radha, Guruvayoorappan Chandrasekharan
Pulmonary injury is more common in patients undergoing radiation therapy for lungs and other thoracic malignancies. Recently with the use of most-advanced technologies powerful doses of radiation can be delivered directly to tumor site with exquisite precision. The awareness of technical and clinical parameters that influence the chance of radiation induced lung injury is important to guide patient selection and toxicity minimization strategies. At the cellular level, radiation activates free radical production, leading to DNA damage, apoptosis, cell cycle changes, and reduced cell survival...
May 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Gerardo M Castillo, Akiko Nishimoto-Ashfield, Cynthia C Jones, Kasim K Kabirov, Alexander Zakharov, Alexander V Lyubimov
We evaluated the mitigating effects of fibroblast growth factor 4 and 7 (FGF4 and FGF7, respectively) in comparison with long acting protected graft copolymer (PGC)-formulated FGF4 and 7 (PF4 and PF7, respectively) administered to C57BL/6J mice a day after exposure to LD50/30 (15.7 Gy) partial body irradiation (PBI) which targeted the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The PGC that we developed increased the bioavailability of FGF4 and FGF7 by 5- and 250-fold compared to without PGC, respectively, and also sustained a 24 hr presence in the blood after a single subcutaneous administration...
2017: PloS One
Zhan-Zhao Fu, Kun Li, Yong Peng, Yue Zheng, Li-Yan Cao, Yun-Jie Zhang, Yong-Mei Sun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and toxicity of different concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) regimens in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer (CC) by adopting a network meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library from the inception of these databases to September 2016, and all cohort studies (CSs) related to different CCRT regimens in the treatment of CC were included. A network analysis was adopted to compare the combination of direct and indirect evidence, to analyze the odds ratio (OR), and to draw a surface under the cumulative ranking curve of the efficacy and toxicity of different CCRT regimens for CC...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
T Aktoz, M Caloglu, V Yurut-Caloglu, O Yalcin, N Aydogdu, D Nurlu, E Arda, O Inci
The aim of this study was to compare the radioprotective efficacies of amifostine (AMI) and l-carnitine (LC) against radiation-induced acute testicular damage. Thirty Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups: control (n = 6), AMI plus radiotherapy (RT) (n = 8), LC plus RT (n = 8) and RT group (n = 8). The rats were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy to the scrotal field. LC (300 mg/kg) and AMI (200 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally 30 min before irradiation. The mean seminiferous tubule diameters (MSTDs) were calculated...
December 21, 2016: Andrologia
N Li, X P Li, Y Wang, H Cui, J L Wang, L H Wei
Objective: To analysis the patients with gynecological malignant tumor and gynecologic malignant tumor complicated with kidney diseases appeared renal dysfunction during chemotherapy, and protect the residual renal function. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 59 patients with gynecological malignant tumor with abnormal renal function during chemotherapy in Peking University People's Hospital from May 2000 to April 2016. According to whether or not complicated with kidney diseases and renal dysfunction before chemotherapy, all cases were divided into two groups...
November 25, 2016: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
Hong-Yu Wu, Zhen-Hua Hu, Tuo Jin
A biweekly administration of sustained-release microsphere dosage form of amifostine, a radioprotective drug used in radiotherapy, was performed to examine the feasibility to minimize injection frequency and blood concentration-associated side effects. Model animal trials indicated that this subcutaneously injecting microspheres, 50-100 μm in diameter, achieved bi-weekly prolonged radio-protective efficacy and, at the same time, significantly reduced skin irritation than the solution form of amifostine given by the same administration route...
November 2016: Drug Delivery
Nasrin Ghassemi-Barghi, Mahmoud Etebari, Abbas Jafarian-Dehkordi
Busulfan is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, as a bifunctional alkylating agent, during clinical use several side effects may occur. In addition, several in vivo and in vitro studies of busulfan have shown a range of genotoxic effects including DNA strand break and inhibition of DNA synthesis. Amifostine, an organic thiophosphate compound, has been shown to exert an important cyto-protective effect in many tissues. The aim of this study was to explore whether amifostine protects against busulfan-induced genotoxicity in HepG2 cell line...
January 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Feng Zhang, Bo Yang, Kailiang Zhang, Mei-Ling Hou, Xue-Chun Lu, Yu-Xin Li
Amifostine, 2-(3-aminopropyl) aminoethyl phosphorothioate, is a broad-spectrum cytoprotective agent used to treat nuclear radiation and chemical weapon injuries. Recently, amifostine has been shown to have a profound biological influence on tumor cells. To examine the effects and mechanisms underlying the effects of amifostine on human acute megakaryocytic leukemia, we evaluated the efficacy of amifostine against Dami cells and observed a cell cycle arrest in G2 /M phase. Amifostine treatment also induced cell apoptosis of Dami cells which corresponds to formal studies...
May 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Jorrit W van As, Henk van den Berg, Elvira C van Dalen
BACKGROUND: Platinum-based therapy, including cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin or a combination of these, is used to treat a variety of paediatric malignancies. One of the most important adverse effects is the occurrence of hearing loss or ototoxicity. In an effort to prevent this ototoxicity, different otoprotective medical interventions have been studied. This review is the second update of a previously published Cochrane review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of medical interventions to prevent hearing loss and to determine possible effects of these interventions on anti-tumour efficacy, toxicities other than hearing loss and quality of life in children with cancer treated with platinum-based therapy...
September 27, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Gerhard G Grabenbauer, Göbel Holger
Possible toxic effects following radiation and chemotherapy of gastrointestinal tumours may cause a depletion of the mucosal barrier within the radiation volumes with severe mucositis. Diarrhoea, nausea, emesis and severe malabsorption followed by infections with dehydration and electrolyte disorders have to be encountered. For prevention and treatment of oropharyngeal mucositis an oral care protocol, oral cryotherapy together with benzydamine mouthwash may be recommended. Lower gastrointestinal diarrhoea is best treated by Octreotide (>100 μg s...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Gulgun Cakmak, Mete Severcan, Faruk Zorlu, Feride Severcan
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of whole body ionizing radiation at a sublethal dose on rat brain homogenate membranes and the protective effects of amifostine on these systems at molecular level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats, in the absence and presence of amifostine, were whole-body irradiated at a single dose of 8 Gy and decapitated after 24 h. The brain homogenate membranes of these rats were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Vijay K Singh, Oluseyi O Fatanmi, Stephen Y Wise, Victoria L Newman, Patricia L P Romaine, Thomas M Seed
This study was designed to evaluate the possible potentiation of survival protection afforded by relatively low-dose amifostine prophylaxis against total body irradiation in combination with a protective, less toxic agent, gamma-tocotrienol (GT3). Mice were administered amifostine and/or GT3, then exposed to 9.2 Gy (60)Co γ-irradiation and monitored for survival for 30 days. To investigate cytokine stimulation, mice were administered amifostine or GT3; serum samples were collected and analyzed for cytokines...
December 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Michael I Koukourakis, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Christos E Zois, Dimitra Kalamida, Stamatia Pouliliou, Ilias V Karagounis, Tzu-Lan Yeh, Martine I Abboud, Timothy D W Claridge, Christopher J Schofield, Efthimios Sivridis, Costantinos Simopoulos, Savvas P Tokmakidis, Adrian L Harris
The mechanism of Amifostine (WR-2721) mediated radioprotection is poorly understood. The effects of amifostine on human basal metabolism, mouse liver metabolism and on normal and tumor hepatic cells were studied. Indirect calorimetric canopy tests showed significant reductions in oxygen consumption and of carbon dioxide emission in cancer patients receiving amifostine. Glucose levels significantly decreased and lactate levels increased in patient venous blood. Although amifostine in vitro did not inhibit the activity of the prolyl-hydroxylase PHD2, experiments with mouse liver showed that on a short timescale WR-1065 induced expression of the Hypoxia Inducible Factor HIF1α, lactate dehydrogenase LDH5, glucose transporter GLUT2, phosphorylated pyruvate dehydrogenase pPDH and PDH-kinase...
2016: Scientific Reports
Can Ozgur Yalcin, Yuksel Aliyazicioglu, Selim Demir, Ibrahim Turan, Zumrut Bahat, Sema Misir, Orhan Deger
AIM OF STUDY: Propolis is a resinous bee product, rich of polyphenolic compounds and flavonoids. It is known that in different geographic zones its chemical composition varies due to the different plant sources. Many biological properties including antimicrobial, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, cytostatic activities have been ascribed to propolis. These biological effects are predominantly attributed to its content of polyphenols. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Turkish propolis...
April 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Magdalena Szejk, Joanna Kołodziejczyk-Czepas, Halina Małgorzata Żbikowska
Radiotherapy, in addition to chemotherapy, is currently the primary method of cancer treatment based on destruction of malignant cells by ionizing radiation. Unfortunately, it also affects normal cells, which is associated with negative consequences for a patient. Radioprotectors are compounds used to prevent/protect the non-tumor cells from the harmful effects of radiation. To play their role these compounds should meet several criteria; among others, they should significantly protect normal cells from radiation without changing the tumor cell radiosensitivity...
June 30, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Jianru Pan, Huocong He, Ying Su, Guangjin Zheng, Junxin Wu, Shutao Liu, Pingfan Rao
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) fusion of TAT was proved to be radioprotective in our previous work. On that basis, a bifunctional recombinant protein which was the fusion of glutathione S-transferase (GST), SOD, and TAT was constructed and named GST-TAT-SOD. Herein we report the investigation of the cytotoxicity, cell-penetrating activity, and in vitro radioprotective effect of GST-TAT-SOD compared with wild SOD, single-function recombinant protein SOD-TAT, and amifostine. We demonstrated that wild SOD had little radioprotective effect on irradiated L-02 and Hep G2 cells while amifostine was protective to both cell lines...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Hai-Tao Wang, Bo Yang, Bo Hu, Xiao-Hua Chi, Long-Long Luo, Hong-Qi Yang, Xiao-Ling Lang, Jing Geng, Chun-Xia Qiao, Yan Li, Xiao-Xiong Wu, Hong-Li Zhu, Ming Lv, Xue-Chun Lu
Amifostine is a cytoprotective drug that was initially used to control and treat nuclear radiation injury and is currently used to provide organ protection in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Clinical studies have also found that amifostine has some efficacy in the treatment of cytopenia caused by conditions such as myelodysplastic syndrome and immune thrombocytopenia, both of which involve megakaryocyte maturation defects. We hypothesized that amifostine induced the differentiation of megakaryocytes and investigated this by exposing the human Dami megakaryocyte leukemia cell line to amifostine (1 mmol/L)...
August 2016: Cancer Medicine
Jeong-Seok Choi, Hye-Young An, In Suh Park, Seok-Ki Kim, Young-Mo Kim, Jae-Yol Lim
OBJECTIVES: Radioiodine (RI) therapy is known to subject cellular components of salivary glands (SG) to oxidative stress leading to SG dysfunction. However, the protective effects of antioxidants on RI-induced SG damage have not been well investigated. The authors investigated the morphometric and functional effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) administered prior to RI therapy and compared this with the effects of amifostine (a well-known antioxidant) in a murine model of RI sialadenitis...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
Esra Kavaz, Ufuk Perişanoğlu, Neslihan Ekinci, Yüksel Özdemır
PURPOSE: Recently, there has been an increase in interest into research into radioprotective agents. Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given orally (through drinking water) prior to radiation exposure. The purpose is to achieve preferred protection of normal tissues against injury inflicted by ionizing radiation used to treat tumors. The main aim of this work is to investigate energy absorption (EABF) and exposure buildup factors (EBF) of commonly used some radioprotective agents...
July 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
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