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Feng Zhang, Bo Yang, Kailiang Zhang, Mei-Ling Hou, Xue-Chun Lu, Yu-Xin Li
Amifostine (AMF), 2-(3-Aminopropyl) aminoethyl phosphorothioate is a broad-spectrum cytoprotective agent used to treat nuclear radiation and chemical weapon injuries. Recently, amifostine has been shown to have a profound biological influence on tumor cells. In order to examine the effects and mechanisms underlying the effects of amifostine on human acute megakaryocytic leukemia, we evaluated the efficacy of amifostine against Dami cells and observed a cell cycle arrest in G2 /M phase. Amifostine treatment also induced cell apoptosis of Dami cells which corresponds to formal studies...
October 19, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Jorrit W van As, Henk van den Berg, Elvira C van Dalen
BACKGROUND: Platinum-based therapy, including cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin or a combination of these, is used to treat a variety of paediatric malignancies. One of the most important adverse effects is the occurrence of hearing loss or ototoxicity. In an effort to prevent this ototoxicity, different otoprotective medical interventions have been studied. This review is the second update of a previously published Cochrane review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of medical interventions to prevent hearing loss and to determine possible effects of these interventions on anti-tumour efficacy, toxicities other than hearing loss and quality of life in children with cancer treated with platinum-based therapy...
September 27, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Gerhard G Grabenbauer, Göbel Holger
Possible toxic effects following radiation and chemotherapy of gastrointestinal tumours may cause a depletion of the mucosal barrier within the radiation volumes with severe mucositis. Diarrhoea, nausea, emesis and severe malabsorption followed by infections with dehydration and electrolyte disorders have to be encountered. For prevention and treatment of oropharyngeal mucositis an oral care protocol, oral cryotherapy together with benzydamine mouthwash may be recommended. Lower gastrointestinal diarrhoea is best treated by Octreotide (>100 μg s...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Gulgun Cakmak, Mete Severcan, Faruk Zorlu, Feride Severcan
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of whole body ionizing radiation at a sublethal dose on rat brain homogenate membranes and the protective effects of amifostine on these systems at molecular level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats, in the absence and presence of amifostine, were whole-body irradiated at a single dose of 8 Gy and decapitated after 24 h. The brain homogenate membranes of these rats were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy...
September 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Vijay K Singh, Oluseyi O Fatanmi, Stephen Y Wise, Victoria L Newman, Patricia L P Romaine, Thomas M Seed
This study was designed to evaluate the possible potentiation of survival protection afforded by relatively low-dose amifostine prophylaxis against total body irradiation in combination with a protective, less toxic agent, gamma-tocotrienol (GT3). Mice were administered amifostine and/or GT3, then exposed to 9.2 Gy (60)Co γ-irradiation and monitored for survival for 30 days. To investigate cytokine stimulation, mice were administered amifostine or GT3; serum samples were collected and analyzed for cytokines...
August 19, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Michael I Koukourakis, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Christos E Zois, Dimitra Kalamida, Stamatia Pouliliou, Ilias V Karagounis, Tzu-Lan Yeh, Martine I Abboud, Timothy D W Claridge, Christopher J Schofield, Efthimios Sivridis, Costantinos Simopoulos, Savvas P Tokmakidis, Adrian L Harris
The mechanism of Amifostine (WR-2721) mediated radioprotection is poorly understood. The effects of amifostine on human basal metabolism, mouse liver metabolism and on normal and tumor hepatic cells were studied. Indirect calorimetric canopy tests showed significant reductions in oxygen consumption and of carbon dioxide emission in cancer patients receiving amifostine. Glucose levels significantly decreased and lactate levels increased in patient venous blood. Although amifostine in vitro did not inhibit the activity of the prolyl-hydroxylase PHD2, experiments with mouse liver showed that on a short timescale WR-1065 induced expression of the Hypoxia Inducible Factor HIF1α, lactate dehydrogenase LDH5, glucose transporter GLUT2, phosphorylated pyruvate dehydrogenase pPDH and PDH-kinase...
2016: Scientific Reports
Can Ozgur Yalcin, Yuksel Aliyazicioglu, Selim Demir, Ibrahim Turan, Zumrut Bahat, Sema Misir, Orhan Deger
AIM OF STUDY: Propolis is a resinous bee product, rich of polyphenolic compounds and flavonoids. It is known that in different geographic zones its chemical composition varies due to the different plant sources. Many biological properties including antimicrobial, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, cytostatic activities have been ascribed to propolis. These biological effects are predominantly attributed to its content of polyphenols. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Turkish propolis...
April 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Magdalena Szejk, Joanna Kołodziejczyk-Czepas, Halina Małgorzata Żbikowska
Radiotherapy, in addition to chemotherapy, is currently the primary method of cancer treatment based on destruction of malignant cells by ionizing radiation. Unfortunately, it also affects normal cells, which is associated with negative consequences for a patient. Radioprotectors are compounds used to prevent/protect the non-tumor cells from the harmful effects of radiation. To play their role these compounds should meet several criteria; among others, they should significantly protect normal cells from radiation without changing the tumor cell radiosensitivity...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Jianru Pan, Huocong He, Ying Su, Guangjin Zheng, Junxin Wu, Shutao Liu, Pingfan Rao
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) fusion of TAT was proved to be radioprotective in our previous work. On that basis, a bifunctional recombinant protein which was the fusion of glutathione S-transferase (GST), SOD, and TAT was constructed and named GST-TAT-SOD. Herein we report the investigation of the cytotoxicity, cell-penetrating activity, and in vitro radioprotective effect of GST-TAT-SOD compared with wild SOD, single-function recombinant protein SOD-TAT, and amifostine. We demonstrated that wild SOD had little radioprotective effect on irradiated L-02 and Hep G2 cells while amifostine was protective to both cell lines...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Hai-Tao Wang, Bo Yang, Bo Hu, Xiao-Hua Chi, Long-Long Luo, Hong-Qi Yang, Xiao-Ling Lang, Jing Geng, Chun-Xia Qiao, Yan Li, Xiao-Xiong Wu, Hong-Li Zhu, Ming Lv, Xue-Chun Lu
Amifostine is a cytoprotective drug that was initially used to control and treat nuclear radiation injury and is currently used to provide organ protection in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Clinical studies have also found that amifostine has some efficacy in the treatment of cytopenia caused by conditions such as myelodysplastic syndrome and immune thrombocytopenia, both of which involve megakaryocyte maturation defects. We hypothesized that amifostine induced the differentiation of megakaryocytes and investigated this by exposing the human Dami megakaryocyte leukemia cell line to amifostine (1 mmol/L)...
August 2016: Cancer Medicine
Jeong-Seok Choi, Hye-Young An, In Suh Park, Seok-Ki Kim, Young-Mo Kim, Jae-Yol Lim
OBJECTIVES: Radioiodine (RI) therapy is known to subject cellular components of salivary glands (SG) to oxidative stress leading to SG dysfunction. However, the protective effects of antioxidants on RI-induced SG damage have not been well investigated. The authors investigated the morphometric and functional effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) administered prior to RI therapy and compared this with the effects of amifostine (a well-known antioxidant) in a murine model of RI sialadenitis...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
Esra Kavaz, Ufuk Perişanoğlu, Neslihan Ekinci, Yüksel Özdemır
PURPOSE: Recently, there has been an increase in interest into research into radioprotective agents. Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given orally (through drinking water) prior to radiation exposure. The purpose is to achieve preferred protection of normal tissues against injury inflicted by ionizing radiation used to treat tumors. The main aim of this work is to investigate energy absorption (EABF) and exposure buildup factors (EBF) of commonly used some radioprotective agents...
July 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Ioannis Bougioukas, Vassilios Didilis, Jenny Emigholz, Regina Waldmann-Beushausen, Tom Stojanovic, Christian Mühlfeld, Friedrich A Schoendube, Bernhard C Danner
OBJECTIVES: Lung ischaemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI) frequently occurs after lung transplantation or cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, thus increasing postoperative morbidity and mortality. As LIRI is associated with the release of reactive oxygen species and a subsequent inflammatory reaction, we tested whether amifostine, a thiol and free radical scavenger, has a beneficial effect on LIRI. METHODS: A total number of 72 Wistar rats were subjected to LIRI with or without a single or double dose of amifostine (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally)...
August 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Laura A Monson, Noah S Nelson, Alexis Donneys, Aaron S Farberg, Catherine N Tchanque-Fossuo, Sagar S Deshpande, Steven R Buchman
According to the American Society of Clinical Oncology, in 2012, more than 53,000 new cases of head and neck cancers (HNCs) were reported in the United States alone and nearly 12,000 deaths occurred relating to HNC. Although radiotherapy (XRT) has increased survival, the adverse effects can be unrelenting and their management is rarely remedial. Current treatment dictates surgical mandibular reconstruction using free tissue transfer. These complex operations entail extended hospitalizations and attendant complications often lead to delays in initiation of adjuvant therapy, jeopardizing prognosis as well as quality of life...
August 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Sameer N Goyal, Umesh B Mahajan, Govind Chandrayan, Vivek S Kumawat, Sarika Kamble, Pradip Patil, Yogeeta O Agrawal, Chandragouda R Patil, Shreesh Ojha
The prevention of doxorubicin (Dox) induced cardiotoxicity may be co-operative to recover future Dox treatment. The aim of this study was to explore the cardioprotective effects of oleanolic acid (OA), an antioxidant agent, on Dox induced cardiotoxicity. OA is a triterpenoid compound, which exist widely in plant kingdom in free acid form or as a glycosidic triterpenoids saponins. Cardiotoxicity was induced in Wistar rats with single intravenous injection of doxorubicin at dose of 67.75 mg/kg i.v for 48 hrs...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Zelal Ünlü Çakir, Can Demirel, Sevil Cagiran Kilciksiz, Serkan Gürgül, S Burhanedtin Zincircioğlu, Nurten Erdal
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effects of melatonin on the biomechanical properties of bone in comparison to amifostine (WR-2721). Forty Sprague Dawley rats were divided equally into 5 groups namely; control (C), irradiation (R; single dose of 50 Gy), irradiation + WR-2721 (R + WR-2721; irradiation + 200 mg/kg WR-2721) radiation + melatonin 25 mg/kg (R + M25; irradiation + 25 mg/kg melatonin), and radiation + melatonin 50 mg/kg (R + M50; irradiation + 50 mg/kg melatonin)...
June 2016: Inflammation
Sukru Tas, Faruk Ozkul, Muhammet Kasim Arik, Asli Kiraz, Ahmet Vural
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of amifostine on bacterial translocation and overgrowth in colonic flora after acute radiation enteritis in a rat model. METHODS: Thirty-two female Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: Group-1 (n=8): only normal saline was administered intraperitoneally. Group-2 (n=8): first serum saline was administered intraperitoneally and 30 minutes later 20 Gy radiation was applied to abdominopelvic region. Group-3 (n=8): only amifostine 200 ml/kg was administered intraperitoneally and radiation was not applied...
March 2016: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
Begonya Chaveli-López, José V Bagán-Sebastián
INTRODUCTION: The management of oral mucositis is a challenge, due to its complex biological nature. Over the last 10 years, different strategies have been developed for the management of oral mucositis caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An exhaustive search was made of the PubMed-Medline, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases, crossing the key words "oral mucositis", "prevention" and "treatment" with the terms "chemotherapy" and "radiotherapy" by means of the boolean operators "AND" and "NOT"...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Michal Hofer, Martin Falk, Denisa Komůrková, Iva Falková, Alena Bačíková, Bořivoj Klejdus, Eva Pagáčová, Lenka Štefančíková, Lenka Weiterová, Karel J Angelis, Stanislav Kozubek, Ladislav Dušek, Štefan Galbavý
Amifostine protects normal cells from DNA damage induction by ionizing radiation or chemotherapeutics, whereas cancer cells typically remain uninfluenced. While confirming this phenomenon, we have revealed by comet assay and currently the most sensitive method of DNA double strand break (DSB) quantification (based on γH2AX/53BP1 high-resolution immunofluorescence microscopy) that amifostine treatment supports DSB repair in γ-irradiated normal NHDF fibroblasts but alters it in MCF7 carcinoma cells. These effects follow from the significantly lower activity of alkaline phosphatase measured in MCF7 cells and their supernatants as compared with NHDF fibroblasts...
April 14, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Xiao Yang, Yanping Ding, Tianjiao Ji, Xiao Zhao, Hai Wang, Xiaozheng Zhao, Ruifang Zhao, Jingyan Wei, Sheng Qi, Guangjun Nie
Amifostine, an organic thiophosphate prodrug, has been clinically utilized for selective protection of normal tissues with high expression of alkaline phosphatase from oxidative damage elicited by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. However, the patients receiving amifostine suffer from severe dose-dependent adverse effects. Strategies for improvement of the protective efficacy and toxicity profile of amifostine are urgently required. Here we constructed a PEGylated amifostine (PEG-amifostine) through conjugation of amifostine to the 4-arm PEG (5000 Da) by a mild one-step reaction...
May 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
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