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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868219/appraisal-of-biochemical-classes-of-radioprotectors-evidence-current-status-and-guidelines-for-future-development
#1
REVIEW
Krishnanand Mishra, Ghazi Alsbeih
The search for efficient radioprotective agents to protect from radiation-induced toxicity, due to planned or accidental radiation exposure, is still ongoing worldwide. Despite decades of research and development of widely different biochemical classes of natural and derivative compounds, a safe and effective radioprotector is largely unmet. In this comprehensive review, we evaluated the evidence for the radioprotective performance of classical thiols, vitamins, minerals, dietary antioxidants, phytochemicals, botanical and bacterial preparations, DNA-binding agents, cytokines, and chelators including adaptogens...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841172/zytoprotektion-mit-amifostin-ethyol-%C3%A2-in-der-chemotherapie-meta-analyse-zum-pharmakokinetischen-interaktionspotential-mit-zytostatika
#2
Martin Czejka, Johannes Schüller, Heidemarie Kletzl
The cytoprotective agent amifostine (AMI) is capable to protect healthy cells (contrary to tumor cells) due to higher activity of alkaline phosphatase at the membrane site of normal cells. In seven clinical trials the influence of AMI on the pharmacokinetics of different cytostatics was investigated. Preadministration of AMI increased Cmax of doxorubicin (+ 44 %, p < 0.06), epirubicin (+ 31 %, P < 0.08), mitomycin C (+ 41 %, p < 0.01) and docetaxel (+ 31 % and + 17 %, not significant). In contrary, the peak concentration of pirarubicin , the tetrahydropyranyl-prodrug of doxorubicin was decreased (- 50 %, P < 0...
August 25, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804533/in-vivo-radioprotective-activity-of-cell-permeable-bifunctional-antioxidant-enzyme-gst-tat-sod-against-whole-body-ionizing-irradiation-in-mice
#3
Jianru Pan, Huocong He, Ying Su, Guangjin Zheng, Junxin Wu, Shutao Liu, Pingfan Rao
GST-TAT-SOD was the fusion of superoxide dismutase (SOD), cell-permeable peptide TAT, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). It was proved to be a potential selective radioprotector in vitro in our previous work. This study evaluated the in vivo radioprotective activity of GST-TAT-SOD against whole-body irradiation. We demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml GST-TAT-SOD (2 kU/ml) 2 h before the 6 Gy whole-body irradiation in mice almost completely prevented the splenic damage. It could significantly enhance the splenic antioxidant activity which kept the number of splenic white pulp and consequently resisted the shrinkage of the spleen...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790138/amifostine-does-not-protect-thyroid-cancer-cells-in-dna-damaging-in-vitro-models
#4
Joanna Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, John Costello, Kirk Jensen, Aneeta Patel, Rok Tkavc, Douglas Van Nostrand, Kenneth D Burman, Leonard Wartofsky, Vasyl Vasko
BACKGROUND: Amifostine is a potent scavenger of reactive oxygen species that is used for the salivary gland protection during therapy with radioactive iodine for thyroid cancer. There are no data on the potential effect of amifostine on thyroid cancer cells. METHODS: We investigated the effects of the active form of amifostine (WR-1065) on the response of thyroid cancer cells to treatment with DNA-damaging agents. WR-1065 was examined in human thyroid cancer cell lines (FTC133, TPC1, BCPAP and C643) and embryonic fibroblast cells NIH3T3...
October 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766757/sesamol-ameliorates-radiation-induced-dna-damage-in-hematopoietic-system-of-whole-body-%C3%AE-irradiated-mice
#5
Arun Kumar, Sandeep Choudhary, Jawahar S Adhikari, Nabo K Chaudhury
Ionizing radiation exposure is harmful and at high doses can lead to acute hematopoietic radiation syndrome. Therefore, agents that can protect hematopoietic system are important for development of radioprotector. Sesamol is a potential molecule for development of radioprotector due to its strong free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. In the present study, sesamol was evaluated for its role in DNA damage and repair in hematopoietic system of γ-irradiated CB57BL/6 mice and compared with amifostine...
August 2, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759701/pharmacological-interventions-for-preventing-dry-mouth-and-salivary-gland-dysfunction-following-radiotherapy
#6
REVIEW
Philip Riley, Anne-Marie Glenny, Fang Hua, Helen V Worthington
BACKGROUND: Salivary gland dysfunction is an 'umbrella' term for the presence of either xerostomia (subjective sensation of dryness), or salivary gland hypofunction (reduction in saliva production). It is a predictable side effect of radiotherapy to the head and neck region, and is associated with a significant impairment of quality of life. A wide range of pharmacological interventions, with varying mechanisms of action, have been used for the prevention of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction...
July 31, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642731/efficacy-of-drug-interventions-for-chemotherapy-induced-chronic-peripheral-neurotoxicity-a-network-meta-analysis
#7
Xiying Fu, Huijie Wu, Jinyao Li, Can Wang, Ming Li, Qianqian Ma, Wei Yang
Peripheral neurotoxicity is a disturbing issue for cancer patients who are treated with chemotherapy. Several medications have been developed for preventing chemotherapy-induced chronic neurotoxicity (CICNT) however; their relative efficacies have not yet been studied. In this study, we conducted a network meta-analysis to give intervention recommendations. The literature was searched in a variety of databases and eligible studies were chosen based on predefined criteria. Data extraction and statistical analysis was performed, and the results are displayed using the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% credible intervals (CrI) with respect to overall and severe neurotoxicity...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635637/a-short-term-biological-indicator-for-long-term-kidney-damage-after-radionuclide-therapy-in-mice
#8
Giovanni Pellegrini, Klaudia Siwowska, Stephanie Haller, Daniel J Antoine, Roger Schibli, Anja Kipar, Cristina Müller
Folate receptor (FR)-targeted radionuclide therapy using folate radioconjugates is of interest due to the expression of the FR in a variety of tumor types. The high renal accumulation of radiofolates presents, however, a risk of radionephropathy. A potential option to address this challenge would be to use radioprotectants, such as amifostine. Methods for early detection of kidney damage that-in this case-cannot be predicted based on dose estimations, would facilitate the development of novel therapies. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess potentially changing levels of plasma and urine biomarkers and to determine DNA damage at an early stage after radiofolate application...
June 21, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596060/-medical-prevention-and-treatment-of-radiation-induced-pulmonary-complications
#9
REVIEW
A Vallard, C Rancoule, H Le Floch, J-B Guy, S Espenel, C Le Péchoux, É Deutsch, N Magné, C Chargari
Radiation-induced lung injuries mainly include the (acute or sub-acute) radiation pneumonitis, the lung fibrosis and the bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). The present review aims at describing the diagnostic process, the current physiopathological knowledge, and the available (non dosimetric) preventive and curative treatments. Radiation-induced lung injury is a diagnosis of exclusion, since clinical, radiological, or biological pathognomonic evidences do not exist. Investigations should necessarily include a thoracic high resolution CT-scan and lung function tests with a diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide...
August 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584395/effect-of-amifostine-a-radiation-protecting-drug-on-oxygen-concentration-in-tissue-measured-by-epr-oximetry-and-imaging
#10
Megumi Ueno, Shingo Matsumoto, Atsuko Matsumoto, Sushma Manda, Ikuo Nakanishi, Ken-Ichiro Matsumoto, James B Mitchell, Murali C Krishna, Kazunori Anzai
Effect of amifostine, a radiation-protecting drug, on muscle tissue partial pressure of oxygen was investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. When amifostine was administered intraperitoneally or intravenously to mice, the linewidth of the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the lithium octa-n-butoxy-substituted naphthalocyanine implanted in the mouse leg muscle decreased. Electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry using a lithium octa-n-butoxy-substituted naphthalocyanine probe and electron paramagnetic resonance oxygen mapping using a triarylmethyl radical paramagnetic probe was useful to quantify pressure of oxygen in the tissues of living mice...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392886/amifostine-pretreatment-attenuates-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-inhibiting-apoptosis-and-oxidative-stress
#11
Shao-Ze Wu, Lu-Yuan Tao, Jiao-Ni Wang, Zhi-Qiang Xu, Jie Wang, Yang-Jing Xue, Kai-Yu Huang, Jia-Feng Lin, Lei Li, Kang-Ting Ji
The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of amifostine on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of mice and H9c2 cells cultured with TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). The results showed that pretreatment with amifostine significantly attenuated cell apoptosis and death, accompanied by decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lower mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm). In vivo, amifostine pretreatment alleviated I/R injury and decreased myocardial apoptosis and infarct area, which was paralleled by increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) in myocardial tissues, increased Bcl2 expression, decreased Bax expression, lower cleaved caspase-3 level, fewer TUNEL positive cells, and fewer DHE-positive cells in heart...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298070/pulmonary-injury-associated-with-radiation-therapy-assessment-complications-and-therapeutic-targets
#12
REVIEW
Rasmi Rajan Radha, Guruvayoorappan Chandrasekharan
Pulmonary injury is more common in patients undergoing radiation therapy for lungs and other thoracic malignancies. Recently with the use of most-advanced technologies powerful doses of radiation can be delivered directly to tumor site with exquisite precision. The awareness of technical and clinical parameters that influence the chance of radiation induced lung injury is important to guide patient selection and toxicity minimization strategies. At the cellular level, radiation activates free radical production, leading to DNA damage, apoptosis, cell cycle changes, and reduced cell survival...
May 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207794/protected-graft-copolymer-formulated-fibroblast-growth-factors-mitigate-the-lethality-of-partial-body-irradiation-injury
#13
Gerardo M Castillo, Akiko Nishimoto-Ashfield, Cynthia C Jones, Kasim K Kabirov, Alexander Zakharov, Alexander V Lyubimov
We evaluated the mitigating effects of fibroblast growth factor 4 and 7 (FGF4 and FGF7, respectively) in comparison with long acting protected graft copolymer (PGC)-formulated FGF4 and 7 (PF4 and PF7, respectively) administered to C57BL/6J mice a day after exposure to LD50/30 (15.7 Gy) partial body irradiation (PBI) which targeted the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The PGC that we developed increased the bioavailability of FGF4 and FGF7 by 5- and 250-fold compared to without PGC, respectively, and also sustained a 24 hr presence in the blood after a single subcutaneous administration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079819/efficacy-and-toxicity-of-different-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-regimens-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-cervical-cancer-a-network-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Zhan-Zhao Fu, Kun Li, Yong Peng, Yue Zheng, Li-Yan Cao, Yun-Jie Zhang, Yong-Mei Sun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and toxicity of different concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) regimens in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer (CC) by adopting a network meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library from the inception of these databases to September 2016, and all cohort studies (CSs) related to different CCRT regimens in the treatment of CC were included. A network analysis was adopted to compare the combination of direct and indirect evidence, to analyze the odds ratio (OR), and to draw a surface under the cumulative ranking curve of the efficacy and toxicity of different CCRT regimens for CC...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000945/histopathological-and-biochemical-comparisons-of-the-protective-effects-of-amifostine-and-l-carnitine-against-radiation-induced-acute-testicular-toxicity-in-rats
#15
T Aktoz, M Caloglu, V Yurut-Caloglu, O Yalcin, N Aydogdu, D Nurlu, E Arda, O Inci
The aim of this study was to compare the radioprotective efficacies of amifostine (AMI) and l-carnitine (LC) against radiation-induced acute testicular damage. Thirty Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups: control (n = 6), AMI plus radiotherapy (RT) (n = 8), LC plus RT (n = 8) and RT group (n = 8). The rats were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy to the scrotal field. LC (300 mg/kg) and AMI (200 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally 30 min before irradiation. The mean seminiferous tubule diameters (MSTDs) were calculated...
December 21, 2016: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916064/-clinical-analysis-of-renal-dysfunction-in-59-patients-with-gynecological-malignant-tumor-during-chemotherapy
#16
N Li, X P Li, Y Wang, H Cui, J L Wang, L H Wei
Objective: To analysis the patients with gynecological malignant tumor and gynecologic malignant tumor complicated with kidney diseases appeared renal dysfunction during chemotherapy, and protect the residual renal function. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 59 patients with gynecological malignant tumor with abnormal renal function during chemotherapy in Peking University People's Hospital from May 2000 to April 2016. According to whether or not complicated with kidney diseases and renal dysfunction before chemotherapy, all cases were divided into two groups...
November 25, 2016: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855533/sustained-release-microspheres-of-amifostine-for-improved-radio-protection-patient-compliance-and-reduced-side-effects
#17
Hong-Yu Wu, Zhen-Hua Hu, Tuo Jin
A biweekly administration of sustained-release microsphere dosage form of amifostine, a radioprotective drug used in radiotherapy, was performed to examine the feasibility to minimize injection frequency and blood concentration-associated side effects. Model animal trials indicated that this subcutaneously injecting microspheres, 50-100 μm in diameter, achieved bi-weekly prolonged radio-protective efficacy and, at the same time, significantly reduced skin irritation than the solution form of amifostine given by the same administration route...
November 2016: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771991/protective-effect-of-amifostine-on-busulfan-induced-dna-damage-in-human-hepatoma-cells
#18
Nasrin Ghassemi-Barghi, Mahmoud Etebari, Abbas Jafarian-Dehkordi
Busulfan is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, as a bifunctional alkylating agent, during clinical use several side effects may occur. In addition, several in vivo and in vitro studies of busulfan have shown a range of genotoxic effects including DNA strand break and inhibition of DNA synthesis. Amifostine, an organic thiophosphate compound, has been shown to exert an important cyto-protective effect in many tissues. The aim of this study was to explore whether amifostine protects against busulfan-induced genotoxicity in HepG2 cell line...
January 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762064/ccnd1-bcl2-gene-network-a-direct-target-of-amifostine-in-human-acute-megakaryocytic-leukemia-cells
#19
Feng Zhang, Bo Yang, Kailiang Zhang, Mei-Ling Hou, Xue-Chun Lu, Yu-Xin Li
Amifostine, 2-(3-aminopropyl) aminoethyl phosphorothioate, is a broad-spectrum cytoprotective agent used to treat nuclear radiation and chemical weapon injuries. Recently, amifostine has been shown to have a profound biological influence on tumor cells. To examine the effects and mechanisms underlying the effects of amifostine on human acute megakaryocytic leukemia, we evaluated the efficacy of amifostine against Dami cells and observed a cell cycle arrest in G2 /M phase. Amifostine treatment also induced cell apoptosis of Dami cells which corresponds to formal studies...
May 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669661/medical-interventions-for-the-prevention-of-platinum-induced-hearing-loss-in-children-with-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Jorrit W van As, Henk van den Berg, Elvira C van Dalen
BACKGROUND: Platinum-based therapy, including cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin or a combination of these, is used to treat a variety of paediatric malignancies. One of the most important adverse effects is the occurrence of hearing loss or ototoxicity. In an effort to prevent this ototoxicity, different otoprotective medical interventions have been studied. This review is the second update of a previously published Cochrane review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of medical interventions to prevent hearing loss and to determine possible effects of these interventions on anti-tumour efficacy, toxicities other than hearing loss and quality of life in children with cancer treated with platinum-based therapy...
September 27, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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