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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915793/the-cacao-criollo-genome-v2-0-an-improved-version-of-the-genome-for-genetic-and-functional-genomic-studies
#1
X Argout, G Martin, G Droc, O Fouet, K Labadie, E Rivals, J M Aury, C Lanaud
BACKGROUND: Theobroma cacao L., native to the Amazonian basin of South America, is an economically important fruit tree crop for tropical countries as a source of chocolate. The first draft genome of the species, from a Criollo cultivar, was published in 2011. Although a useful resource, some improvements are possible, including identifying misassemblies, reducing the number of scaffolds and gaps, and anchoring un-anchored sequences to the 10 chromosomes. METHODS: We used a NGS-based approach to significantly improve the assembly of the Belizian Criollo B97-61/B2 genome...
September 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858747/soil-cadmium-uptake-by-cocoa-in-honduras
#2
A Gramlich, S Tandy, C Gauggel, M López, D Perla, V Gonzalez, R Schulin
Cadmium (Cd) is a trace metal without essential biological functions that is toxic to plants, animals and humans at low concentrations. It occurs naturally in soils, but inputs from anthropogenic sources have increased soil Cd contents worldwide. Cadmium uptake by cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) has recently attracted attention, after the European Union (EU) decided to bring into force values for maximum Cd concentrations in cocoa products that would be exceeded by current products of various provenances from Latin America...
August 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818052/proteomic-analysis-during-of-spore-germination-of-moniliophthora-perniciosa-the-causal-agent-of-witches-broom-disease-in-cacao
#3
Joise Hander Mares, Karina Peres Gramacho, Everton Cruz Santos, André da Silva Santiago, Juliano Oliveira Santana, Aurizângela Oliveira de Sousa, Fátima Cerqueira Alvim, Carlos Priminho Pirovani
BACKGROUND: Moniliophthora perniciosa is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for witches' broom disease of cacao trees (Theobroma cacao L.). Understanding the molecular events during germination of the pathogen may enable the development of strategies for disease control in these economically important plants. In this study, we determined a comparative proteomic profile of M. perniciosa basidiospores during germination by two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A total of 316 proteins were identified...
August 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800846/saprotrophic-proteomes-of-biotypes-of-the-witches-broom-pathogen-moniliophthora-perniciosa
#4
Sandra Pierre, Gareth W Griffith, Russell M Morphew, Luis A J Mur, Ian M Scott
Nine geographically diverse Moniliophthora perniciosa (witches' broom disease pathogen) isolates were cultured in vitro. They included six C-biotypes differing in virulence on cacao (Theobroma cacao), two S-biotypes (solanaceous hosts), and an L-biotype (liana hosts). Mycelial growth rates and morphologies differed considerably, but no characters were observed to correlate with virulence or biotype. In plant inoculations using basidiospores, one C-biotype caused symptoms on tomato (an S-biotype host), adding to evidence of limited host adaptation in these biotypes...
September 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798297/crystal-structure-of-mppr-1i-a-scp-taps-protein-from-moniliophthora-perniciosa-the-fungus-that-causes-witches-broom-disease-of-cacao
#5
Renata M Baroni, Zhipu Luo, Rabih Darwiche, Elissa M Hudspeth, Roger Schneiter, Gonçalo A G Pereira, Jorge M C Mondego, Oluwatoyin A Asojo
The pathogenic fungi Moniliophthora perniciosa causes Witches' Broom Disease (WBD) of cacao. The structure of MpPR-1i, a protein expressed by M. perniciosa when it infects cacao, are presented. This is the first reported de novo structure determined by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing upon soaking with selenourea. Each monomer has flexible loop regions linking the core alpha-beta-alpha sandwich topology that comprise ~50% of the structure, making it difficult to generate an accurate homology model of the protein...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794213/brachial-and-cerebrovascular-functions-are-enhanced-in-postmenopausal-women-after-ingestion-of-chocolate-with-a-high-concentration-of-cocoa
#6
Channa E Marsh, Howard H Carter, Kym J Guelfi, Kurt J Smith, Kerryn E Pike, Louise H Naylor, Daniel J Green
Background: Cocoa contains polyphenols that are thought to be beneficial for vascular health.Objective: We assessed the impact of chocolate containing distinct concentrations of cocoa on cerebrovascular function and cognition.Methods: Using a counterbalanced within-subject design, we compared the acute impact of consumption of energy-matched chocolate containing 80%, 35%, and 0% single-origin cacao on vascular endothelial function, cognition, and cerebrovascular function in 12 healthy postmenopausal women (mean ± SD age: 57...
September 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781181/cadmium-bioaccumulation-and-gastric-bioaccessibility-in-cacao-a-field-study-in-areas-impacted-by-oil-activities-in-ecuador
#7
F Barraza, E Schreck, T Lévêque, G Uzu, F López, J Ruales, J Prunier, A Marquet, L Maurice
Cacao from South America is especially used to produce premium quality chocolate. Although the European Food Safety Authority has not established a limit for cadmium (Cd) in chocolate raw material, recent studies demonstrate that Cd concentrations in cacao beans can reach levels higher than the legal limits for dark chocolate (0.8 mg kg(-1), effective January 1st, 2019). Despite the fact that the presence of Cd in agricultural soils is related to contamination by fertilizers, other potential sources must be considered in Ecuador...
October 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774480/-effect-of-mixed-edaphic-bacterial-inoculants-in-the-early-development-of-improved-cocoa-cultivars-theobroma-cacao-l-in-a-traditional-agroforestry-system-of-oaxaca-mexico
#8
E Hipólito-Romero, M G Carcaño-Montiel, J M Ramos-Prado, E A Vázquez-Cabañas, L López-Reyes, J Ricaño-Rodríguez
Cocoa plant (Theobroma cacao L.) is native from South America and it represents one of the most significant "bio-cultural" resources of Mesoamerica, since it is a region where it was domesticated and had a relevance as ritual drink and as currency in many pre-hispanic cultures until the arrival of the Spaniards who spread its use worldwide, and became it one of the most consumed commodity goods. Through this research, an alternative is proposed to address the problem of cultivars through the introduction of a wide variety of cocoa plants in traditional agroforestry systems, in synergy with the inoculation of nitrogen-fixing and insoluble phosphor solubilizing edaphic bacterial consortia...
July 31, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762033/inducible-somatic-embryogenesis-in-theobroma-cacao-achieved-using-the-dex-activatable-transcription-factor-glucocorticoid-receptor-fusion
#9
Morgan E Shires, Sergio L Florez, Tina S Lai, Wayne R Curtis
OBJECTIVES: To carry out mass propagation of superior plants to improve agricultural and silvicultural production though advancements in plant cell totipotency, or the ability of differentiated somatic plant cells to regenerate an entire plant. RESULTS: The first demonstration of a titratable control over somatic embryo formation in a commercially relevant plant, Theobroma cacao (Chocolate tree), was achieved using a dexamethasone activatable chimeric transcription factor...
July 31, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716286/neurosarcoidosis-according-to-zajicek-and-scolding-criteria-15-probable-and-definite-cases-their-treatment-and-outcomes
#10
Gonçalo Cação, Ana Branco, Mariana Meireles, José Eduardo Alves, Andrea Mateus, Ana Martins Silva, Ernestina Santos
INTRODUCTION: Neurosarcoidosis occurs in about 5% to 15% of patients with sarcoidosis. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize a cohort of neurosarcoidosis patients and to review the largest previously reported neurosarcoidosis case series. METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled all patients with the diagnosis of probable or definitive neurosarcoidosis according to Zajicek and Scolding criteria, followed at the neurology department of a tertiary center in Portugal from January 1989 to December 2015...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712318/phylogenetic-studies-and-comparative-chloroplast-genome-analyses-elucidate-the-basal-position-of-halophyte-nitraria-sibirica-nitrariaceae-in-the-sapindales
#11
Lu Lu, Xia Li, Zhaodong Hao, Liming Yang, Jingbo Zhang, Ye Peng, Haibin Xu, Ye Lu, Jin Zhang, Jisen Shi, Jinhui Chen, Tielong Cheng
Nitraria sibirica is a halophyte and belongs to the family Nitrariaceae. The chloroplast genome of Nitraria sibirica (159,466 bp) has a quadripartite structure, which consists of a large single-copy (87,914 bp) region, a small single-copy (18,316 bp) region, and a pair of inverted repeats (26,618 bp). Sequencing analyses indicate that the chloroplast genome contains 113 distinct genes, including 79 peptide-coding genes, 30 transfer RNA genes, and 4 ribosomal RNA genes. We also identified 105 perfect simple sequence repeats, 12 most divergent non-coding regions, and 6 most divergent coding regions when compared to the chloroplast genomes of the Sapindales plants...
July 15, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702382/epidemiology-of-pelvic-ring-fractures-and-injuries
#12
Gilberto José Cação Pereira, Erick Ribeiro Damasceno, Daniel Innocenti Dinhane, Francisco Marques Bueno, Jaqueline Bartelega Rodrigues Leite, Bruno da Costa Ancheschi
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the pelvic ring fractures and injuries in patients admitted to and treated at this ward between August, 2012 and January, 2014. METHODS: 66 patients were submitted to treatment protocols according to their age, gender, skin color, injury mechanism, location of the trauma, classification of their injuries, emergency intervention, associated injuries, injured side of the body, treatment, and mortality. The most relevant data were classified according to statistic procedures, such as Goodman's association test...
May 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683423/heavy-metal-accumulation-in-leaves-and-beans-of-cacao-theobroma-cacao-l-in-major-cacao-growing-regions-in-peru
#13
Enrique Arévalo-Gardini, Cesar O Arévalo-Hernández, Virupax C Baligar, Zhenli L He
Peru is one of the leading exporters of organic cacao beans in the world. However, the accumulation of heavy metals in cacao beans represents a problem for cocoa bean export and chocolate quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in cacao leaves and cocoa beans in three major cacao growing regions of Peru. The study was conducted in cacao plantations of 10 to 15years old in three regions of Peru: North (Regions of Tumbes, Piura, Cajamarca, and Amazonas); Center (Regions of Huánuco and San Martin) and South (Junin and Cuzco)...
December 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682071/comprehensive-chemical-fingerprinting-of-high-quality-cocoa-at-early-stages-of-processing-effectiveness-of-combined-untargeted-and-targeted-approaches-for-classification-and-discrimination
#14
Federico Magagna, Alessandro Guglielmetti, Erica Liberto, Stephen E Reichenbach, Elena Allegrucci, Guido Gobino, Carlo Bicchi, Chiara Cordero
This study investigates chemical information of volatile fractions of high-quality cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Malvaceae) from different origins (Mexico, Ecuador, Venezuela, Columbia, Java, Trinidad, and Sao Tomè) produced for fine chocolate. This study explores the evolution of the entire pattern of volatiles in relation to cocoa processing (raw, roasted, steamed, and ground beans). Advanced chemical fingerprinting (e.g., combined untargeted and targeted fingerprinting) with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry allows advanced pattern recognition for classification, discrimination, and sensory-quality characterization...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679727/exposure-to-the-leaf-litter-microbiome-of-healthy-adults-protects-seedlings-from-pathogen-damage
#15
Natalie Christian, Edward Allen Herre, Luis C Mejia, Keith Clay
It is increasingly recognized that microbiota affect host health and physiology. However, it is unclear what factors shape microbiome community assembly in nature, and how microbiome assembly can be manipulated to improve host health. All plant leaves host foliar endophytic fungi, which make up a diverse, environmentally acquired fungal microbiota. Here, we experimentally manipulated assembly of the cacao tree (Theobroma cacao) fungal microbiome in nature and tested the effect of assembly outcome on host health...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646332/a-rational-approach-for-the-improvement-of-biomass-production-and-lipid-profile-in-cacao-cell-suspensions
#16
Adriana María Gallego Rúa, Luisa Fernanda Rojas, Aura Ines Urrea Trujillo, Oriana Parra Zuleta, Cristian David Correa Alvarez, Lucía Atehortúa Garcés
Cocoa butter (CB) is produced in the seeds of Theobroma cacao representing 50% of its dry weight. The lipid composition plays an important role in the physicochemical, rheological, and sensory properties of the CB, making this fat a valuable resource for the production of chocolates, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. In this paper, are described experimental strategies used for a rational improvement of biomass production and fatty acids in cacao cell suspension cultures. First, the lipid profile in four cacao varieties is characterized, and then, one variety is selected to induce cell suspensions using a direct method without previous establishment of a callus phase...
June 23, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628670/combining-ability-heritability-and-genotypic-relations-of-different-physiological-traits-in-cacao-hybrids
#17
Allan Silva Pereira, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Márcia Christina da Silva Branco, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso Costa, Dario Ahnert
Selecting parents and evaluating progenies is a very important step in breeding programs and involves approaches such as understanding the initial stages of growth and characterizing the variability among genotypes for different parameters, such as physiological, growth, biomass partitioning and nutrient translocation to the aerial part. In these cases, facilitating tools can be used to understand the involved gene dynamics, such as diallel crosses and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Our main hypothesis is that the contrasting phenotypes of these parental genotypes of cocoa used are due to genetic factors, and progenies derived from crosses of these parental genotypes are useful for breeding programs related to plant architecture, physiological parameters and translocation of mineral nutrients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614756/photosynthetic-antioxidative-molecular-and-ultrastructural-responses-of-young-cacao-plants-to-cd-toxicity-in-the-soil
#18
Romária Pereira de Araújo, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Lidiane Silva Pereira, Pedro A O Mangabeira, José Olimpio Souza, Carlos P Pirovani, Dário Ahnert, Virupax C Baligar
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic metal for plants, even at low concentrations in the soil. The annual production of world cocoa beans is approximately 4 million tons. Most of these fermented and dried beans are used in the manufacture of chocolate. Recent work has shown that the concentration of Cd in these beans has exceeded the critical level (0.6mgkg(-1) DM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of Cd in young plants of CCN 51 cacao genotype grown in soil with different concentrations of Cd (0, 0...
June 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600559/transcriptome-of-pterospermum-kingtungense-provides-implications-on-the-mechanism-underlying-its-rapid-vegetative-growth-and-limestone-adaption
#19
Yandong Ren, Yanan Zhu, Qi Wang, Hui Xiang, Boyi Wang
Pterospermum kingtungense C.Y.Wu ex Hsue is a typical tree species living in the relatively adverse limestone habitat. Due to its excellent wood quality and big size, it is an important timber resource which caused its endangered. We firstly provide the data resources by reporting an annotated transcriptome assembly. 203 million unique Illumina RNA-seq reads were produced with totally 50,333 transcripts, among which 48,778 transcripts were annotated. By a global comparison of homology between P. kingtungense and cacao, we identified 9,507 single copy orthologues and 990 P...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581254/tree-spacing-impacts-the-individual-incidence-of-moniliophthora-roreri-disease-in-cacao-agroforests
#20
Marie Ange Ngo Bieng, Laudine Alem, Chloé Curtet, Philippe Tixier
BACKGROUND: Using conventional pesticides in crop protection has raised serious environmental concerns and there is therefore a need for integrated pest management (IPM) methods. In this paper, we found that the spacing of trees can impact disease, which could result in a reduction in pesticide applications and may act as a potential IPM method. We studied Frosty Pod Rot (FPR) in 20 cacao agroforests in Costa Rica (Upala region). RESULTS: Using a generalized linear mixed model, we analyzed the impact of the neighborhood composition and distance from a studied cacao individual on its individual FPR incidence...
June 5, 2017: Pest Management Science
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