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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146359/determination-of-tryptophan-derivatives-in-kynurenine-pathway-in-fermented-foods-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#1
Cemile Yılmaz, Vural Gökmen
This study aimed to develop an analytical method for the determination of tryptophan and its derivatives in kynurenine pathway using tandem mass spectrometry in various fermented food products (bread, beer, red wine, white cheese, yoghurt, kefir and cocoa powder). The method entails an aqueous extraction and reversed phase chromatographic separation using pentafluorophenyl (PFP) column. It allowed quantitation of low ppb levels of tryptophan and its derivatives in different fermented food matrices. It was found that beer samples were found to contain kynurenine within the range of 28...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126791/the-cardioprotective-effects-of-epicatechin-are-mediated-through-arginase-activity-inhibition-in-a-murine-model-of-ischemia-reperfusion
#2
Pilar Ortiz-Vilchis, Miguel Ortiz-Flores, Marcela Pacheco, Israel Ramirez-Sanchez, Aldo Moreno-Ulloa, Lourdes Vega, Alicia Ortiz, Francisco Villarreal, Ivan Rubio-Gayosso, Nayelli Najera, Eduardo Meaney, Guillermo Ceballos
The production of nitric oxide (NO) by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) depends on the bioavailability of L-arginine as NOS competes with arginase for this common substrate. As arginase activity increases, less NO is produced and adverse cardiovascular consequences can emerge. (-)-Epicatechin (EPI), the most abundant flavonoid in cacao, has been reported to stimulate endothelial and neuronal NOS expression and function leading to enhanced vascular function and cardioprotective effects. However, little is known about the effects of EPI on myocardial arginase activity...
November 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126366/bioactive-compounds-and-antioxidant-potential-for-polyphenol-rich-cocoa-extract-obtained-by-agroindustrial-residue
#3
Taís Vanessa Gabbay Alves, Russany Silva da Costa, Bahar Aliakbarian, Alessandro Alberto Casazza, Patrizia Perego, Mara Silvia Pinheiro Arruda, José Otávio Carréra Silva Júnior, Attilio Converti, Roseane Maria Ribeiro Costa
Processing of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans responsible for agricultural exports leads to large amounts of solid waste that were discarded, however, this one presents high contents of metabolites with biological activities. The major objective of this study was to valorise cocoa agroindustrial residue obtained by hydraulic pressing for extract rich in antioxidants. For it, the centesimal composition of residue was investigated, the green extraction was carried out from the residue after, the bioactive compounds, sugar contents and screaming by HPTLC were quantified for extract...
November 10, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119920/polyphenols-inflammation
#4
Midori Natsume
BACKGROUND: Polyphenols widely distributed in plants, fruits and vegetables have received considerable attention on account of their physiological functions, including their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Some antioxidant components of cacao liquor prepared from fermented and roasted cacao beans, which is a major ingredient of cocoa and chocolate products, have been characterized as flavan-3-ols and procyanidin oligomers Methods: This review focuses on a specific group of (-)-epicatechins and their oligomers, the procyanidins, in cacao products...
November 8, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111715/environmental-growing-conditions-in-five-production-systems-induce-stress-response-and-affect-chemical-composition-of-cocoa-theobroma-cacao-l-beans
#5
Wiebke Niether, Inga Smit, Laura Armengot, Monika Schneider, Gerhard Gerold, Elke Pawelzik
Cocoa beans are produced all across the humid tropics under different environmental conditions provided by the region but also by the season and the type of production system. Agroforestry systems compared to monocultures buffer climate extremes and therefore provide less stressful environment for the understory cocoa, especially under seasonally varying conditions. We measured element concentration as well as abiotic stress indicators (polyamines and total phenolic content) in beans deriving from five different production systems comparing monocultures and agroforestry systems and from two harvesting seasons...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090642/aflatoxins-and-ochratoxin-a-in-different-cocoa-clones-theobroma-cacao-l-developed-in-the-southern-region-of-bahia-brazil
#6
Leonardo Fonseca Maciel, Ana Lúcia de Souza Madureira Felício, Lucas Caldeirão Rodrigues Miranda, Tassia Cavalcante Pires, Eliete da Silva Bispo, Elisa Yoko Hirooka
Brazil is the sixth largest producer of cocoa beans in the world, after Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Indonesia, Nigeria and Cameroon. The southern region of Bahia stands out as the country's largest producer, accounting for approximately 60% of production. Due to damage caused by infestation of the cocoa crop with the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes "witch's broom disease", research in cocoa beans has led to the cloning of species that are resistant to the disease, however, there is little information about the development of other fungal genera in these clones, Aspergillus for example, which do not represent a phytopathogenicity problem but which can grow during the pre-processing of cocoa beans and produce mycotoxins...
November 1, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084273/genome-wide-identification-and-characterization-of-cacao-wrky-transcription-factors-and-analysis-of-their-expression-in-response-to-witches-broom-disease
#7
Dayanne Silva Monteiro de Almeida, Daniel Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Luiz-Eduardo Del-Bem, Emily Bronze Dos Santos, Raner José Santana Silva, Karina Peres Gramacho, Michel Vincentz, Fabienne Micheli
Transcriptional regulation, led by transcription factors (TFs) such as those of the WRKY family, is a mechanism used by the organism to enhance or repress gene expression in response to stimuli. Here, we report on the genome-wide analysis of the Theobroma cacao WRKY TF family and also investigate the expression of WRKY genes in cacao infected by the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa. In the cacao genome, 61 non-redundant WRKY sequences were found and classified in three groups (I to III) according to the WRKY and zinc-finger motif types...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080363/genomics-meets-applied-ecology-characterizing-habitat-quality-for-sloths-in-a-tropical-agro-ecosystem
#8
Emily D Fountain, Jung Koo Kang, Douglas J Tempel, Per J Palsbøll, Jonathan N Pauli, M Zachariah Peery
Understanding how habitat quality in heterogeneous landscapes governs the distribution and fitness of individuals is a fundamental aspect of ecology. While mean individual fitness is generally considered a key to assessing habitat quality, a comprehensive understanding of habitat quality in heterogeneous landscapes requires estimates of dispersal rates among habitat types. The increasing accessibility of genomic approaches, combined with field-based demographic methods, provides novel opportunities for incorporating dispersal estimation into assessments of habitat quality...
October 28, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052506/the-proposed-new-species-cacao-red-vein-virus-and-three-previously-recognized-badnavirus-species-are-associated-with-cacao-swollen-shoot-disease
#9
Nomatter Chingandu, Koffie Kouakou, Romain Aka, George Ameyaw, Osman A Gutierrez, Hans-Werner Herrmann, Judith K Brown
BACKGROUND: Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV), Cacao swollen shoot CD virus (CSSCDV), and Cacao swollen shoot Togo A virus (CSSTAV) cause cacao swollen shoot disease (CSSD) in West Africa. During 2000-2003, leaf and shoot-swelling symptoms and rapid tree death were observed in cacao in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana. Molecular tests showed positive infection in only ~50-60% of symptomatic trees, suggesting the possible emergence of an unknown badnavirus. METHODS: The DNA virome was determined from symptomatic cacao samples using Illumina-Hi Seq, and sequence accuracy was verified by Sanger sequencing...
October 19, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048566/deciphering-the-theobroma-cacao-self-incompatibility-system-from-genomics-to-diagnostic-markers-for-self-compatibility
#10
Claire Lanaud, Olivier Fouet, Thierry Legavre, Uilson Lopes, Olivier Sounigo, Marie Claire Eyango, Benoit Mermaz, Marcos Ramos Da Silva, Rey Gaston Loor Solorzano, Xavier Argout, Gabor Gyapay, Herman Ebai Ebaiarrey, Kelly Colonges, Christine Sanier, Ronan Rivallan, Géraldine Mastin, Nicholas Cryer, Michel Boccara, Jean-Luc Verdeil, Ives Bruno Efombagn Mousseni, Karina Peres Gramacho, Didier Clément, Zoe Wilson
Cocoa self-compatibility is an important yield factor and has been described as being controlled by a late gameto-sporophytic system expressed only at the level of the embryo sac. It results in gametic non-fusion and involves several loci. In this work, we identified two loci, located on chromosomes 1 and 4 (CH1 and CH4), involved in cocoa self-incompatibility by two different processes. Both loci are responsible for gametic selection, but only one (the CH4 locus) is involved in the main fruit drop. The CH1 locus acts prior to the gamete fusion step and independently of the CH4 locus...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043662/stryphnodendron-adstringens-barbatim%C3%A3-o-leaf-fraction-chemical-characterization-antioxidant-activity-and-cytotoxicity-towards-human-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#11
A P L Sabino, L M S Eustáquio, A C F Miranda, C Biojone, T N Mariosa, Cibele Marli Cação Paiva Gouvêa
We evaluated the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and antitumor potential of a fraction that was isolated from Stryphnodendron adstringens (barbatimão) leaf aqueous extract. Fraction is composed by gallic acid, procyanidin dimer B1, and (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate and it exhibits antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Fraction was cytotoxic against two human breast cancer cell lines, ER (+) and MCF-7 and the triple-negative, MDA-MB-435. The sulforhodamine B assay showed that, as compared to normal control cells, the fraction significantly (P < 0...
October 17, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042440/plant-pathogenesis-related-proteins-of-the-cacao-fungal-pathogen-moniliophthora-perniciosa-differ-in-their-lipid-binding-specificities
#12
Rabih Darwiche, Ola El Atab, Renata Moro Baroni, Paulo J P L Teixeira, Jorge M C Mondego, Gonçalo A G Pereira, Roger Schneiter
Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causative agent of witches' broom disease, which devastates cacao cultures in South America. This pathogenic fungus infects meristematic tissues and derives nutrients from the plant apoplast during an unusually long-lasting biotrophic stage. In order to survive, the fungus produces proteins to suppress the plant immune response. Proteins of the Pathogenesis Related 1 (PR-1)/CAP superfamily have been implicated in fungal virulence and immune suppression. The genome of M. perniciosa encodes eleven homologues of plant PR-1 proteins, designated MpPR-1 proteins, but their precise mode of action is poorly understood...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023007/optimization-of-culture-medium-for-the-growth-of-candida-sp-and-blastobotrys-sp-as-starter-culture-in-fermentation-of-cocoa-beans-theobroma-cacao-using-response-surface-methodology-rsm
#13
N H Mahazar, Z Zakuan, H Norhayati, A S MeorHussin, Y Rukayadi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Inoculation of starter culture in cocoa bean fermentation produces consistent, predictable and high quality of fermented cocoa beans. It is important to produce healthy inoculum in cocoa bean fermentation for better fermented products. Inoculum could minimize the length of the lag phase in fermentation. The purpose of this study was to optimize the component of culture medium for the maximum cultivation of Candida sp. and Blastobotrys sp. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Molasses and yeast extract were chosen as medium composition and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was then employed to optimize the molasses and yeast extract...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985014/cacao-biotechnology-current-status-and-future-prospects
#14
REVIEW
Anushka M Wickramasuriya, Jim M Dunwell
Theobroma cacao - The Food of the Gods, provides the raw material for the multi-billion dollar chocolate industry, and is also the main source of income for about 6 million smallholders around the world. Additionally, cocoa beans have a number of other non-food uses in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Specifically, the potential health benefits of cocoa have received increasing attention as it is rich in polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. At present, the demand for cocoa and cocoa-based products in Asia is growing particularly rapidly and chocolate manufacturers are increasing investment in this region...
October 6, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972981/effects-of-microclimatic-variables-on-the-symptoms-and-signs-onset-of-moniliophthora-roreri-causal-agent-of-moniliophthora-pod-rot-in-cacao
#15
Mariela E Leandro-Muñoz, Philippe Tixier, Amandine Germon, Veromanitra Rakotobe, Wilbert Phillips-Mora, Siela Maximova, Jacques Avelino
Moniliophthora Pod Rot (MPR) caused by the fungus Moniliophthora roreri (Cif.) Evans et al., is one of the main limiting factors of cocoa production in Latin America. Currently insufficient information on the biology and epidemiology of the pathogen limits the development of efficient management options to control MPR. This research aims to elucidate MPR development through the following daily microclimatic variables: minimum and maximum temperatures, wetness frequency, average temperature and relative humidity in the highly susceptible cacao clone Pound-7 (incidence = 86% 2008-2013 average)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965824/theobromine-suppresses-adipogenesis-through-enhancement-of-ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-%C3%AE-degradation-by-adenosine-receptor-a1
#16
Takakazu Mitani, Shun Watanabe, Yasukiyo Yoshioka, Shigeru Katayama, Soichiro Nakamura, Hitoshi Ashida
Theobromine, a methylxanthine derived from cacao beans, reportedly has various health-promoting properties but molecular mechanism by which effects of theobromine on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to clarify the molecular mechanisms of the anti-adipogenic effect of theobromine in vitro and in vivo. ICR mice (4week-old) were administered with theobromine (0.1g/kg) for 7days. Theobromine administration attenuated gains in body and epididymal adipose tissue weights in mice and suppressed expression of adipogenic-associated genes in mouse adipose tissue...
December 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955758/doxorubicin-induced-neuro-and-cardiotoxicities-in-experimental-rats-protection-against-oxidative-damage-by-theobroma-cacao-stem-bark
#17
A M Kosoko, O J Olurinde, O A Akinloye
80 rats, randomly selected, were divided into 3 treatment groups: pre-, co- and post-treatment; consisting of 6 sub-groups each (5 rats per sub-group): baseline, normal saline (2 mL), α-lipoic acid (20 mg/kg body weight), 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg body weight Theobroma cacao stem bark aqueous extract (TCAE). All rats except for baseline group were intoxicated with 20 mg/kg body weight doxorubicin (DOX) intraperitoneally. The animals in pre- or post-treatment group received a single dose of DOX (20 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally 24 h before or after 7 days' oral administration with TCAE respectively while those in co-treatment group were co-administered 2...
July 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946303/substantial-equivalence-analysis-in-fruits-from-three-theobroma-species-through-chemical-composition-and-protein-profiling
#18
Walter Pérez-Mora, Jesús V Jorrin-Novo, Luz Marina Melgarejo
Substantial equivalence studies were performed in three Theobroma spp., cacao, bicolor and grandiflorum through chemical composition analysis and protein profiling of fruit (pulp juice and seeds). Principal component analysis of sugar, organic acid, and phenol content in pulp juice revealed equivalence among the three species, with differences in some of the compounds that may result in different organoleptic properties. Proteins were extracted from seeds and pulp juice, resolved by two dimensional electrophoresis and major spots subjected to mass spectrometry analysis and identification...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915793/the-cacao-criollo-genome-v2-0-an-improved-version-of-the-genome-for-genetic-and-functional-genomic-studies
#19
X Argout, G Martin, G Droc, O Fouet, K Labadie, E Rivals, J M Aury, C Lanaud
BACKGROUND: Theobroma cacao L., native to the Amazonian basin of South America, is an economically important fruit tree crop for tropical countries as a source of chocolate. The first draft genome of the species, from a Criollo cultivar, was published in 2011. Although a useful resource, some improvements are possible, including identifying misassemblies, reducing the number of scaffolds and gaps, and anchoring un-anchored sequences to the 10 chromosomes. METHODS: We used a NGS-based approach to significantly improve the assembly of the Belizian Criollo B97-61/B2 genome...
September 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858747/soil-cadmium-uptake-by-cocoa-in-honduras
#20
A Gramlich, S Tandy, C Gauggel, M López, D Perla, V Gonzalez, R Schulin
Cadmium (Cd) is a trace metal without essential biological functions that is toxic to plants, animals and humans at low concentrations. It occurs naturally in soils, but inputs from anthropogenic sources have increased soil Cd contents worldwide. Cadmium uptake by cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) has recently attracted attention, after the European Union (EU) decided to bring into force values for maximum Cd concentrations in cocoa products that would be exceeded by current products of various provenances from Latin America...
January 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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