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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430024/cacao-phylloplane-the-first-battlefield-against-moniliophthora-perniciosa-the-causal-agent-of-witches-broom-disease
#1
Dayanne Silva Monteiro Almeida, Karina Peres Gramacho, Thyago H Santana Cardoso, Fabienne Micheli, Fátima Cerqueira Alvim, Carlos Priminho Priminho Pirovani
The phylloplane is the first contact surface between Theobroma cacao and the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes witches' broom disease (WBD). We evaluated the index of short glandular trichomes (SGTs) in the cacao phylloplane and the effect of irrigation on the disease index of cacao genotypes with/without resistance to WBD, and identified proteins present in the phylloplane. The resistant and susceptible genotype CCN51 and Catongo presented a mean index of 1600 and 700 SGTs•cm-2, respectively...
April 21, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414099/molecular-evolution-of-the-plastid-genome-during-diversification-of-the-cotton-genus
#2
Zhiwen Chen, Corrinne E Grover, Pengbo Li, Yumei Wang, Hushuai Nie, Yanpeng Zhao, Meiyan Wang, Fang Liu, Zhongli Zhou, Xingxing Wang, Xiaoyan Cai, Kunbo Wang, Jonathan F Wendel, Jinping Hua
Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is commonly grouped into eight diploid genomic groups, designated A-G and K, and one tetraploid genomic group, namely AD. To gain insight into the phylogeny of Gossypium and molecular evolution of the chloroplast genome duringdiversification, chloroplast genomes (cpDNA) from 6 D-genome and 2 G-genome species of Gossypium (G. armourianum D2-1, G. harknessii D2-2, G. davidsonii D3-d, G. klotzschianum D3-k, G. aridum D4, G. trilobum D8, and G. australe G2, G. nelsonii G3) were newly reported here...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384199/areas-of-improvement-in-anticoagulant-safety-data-from-the-cacao-study-a-cohort-in-general-practice
#3
Paul Frappé, Joël Cogneau, Yoann Gaboreau, Nathan Abenhaïm, Marc Bayen, Matthieu Calafiore, Claude Guichard, Jean-Pierre Jacquet, François Lacoin, Laurent Bertoletti
BACKGROUND: Real-world studies on anticoagulants are mostly performed on health insurance databases, limited to reported events, and sometimes far from every-day issues in family practice. We assess the presence of data for safe monitoring of oral anticoagulants in general practice, and compare patients' knowledge of taking an anticoagulant between vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and direct anticoagulants (DOAC), and the general practitioner's perception of their adherence to anticoagulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372593/goldman-score-but-not-detsky-or-lee-indices-predicts-mortality-6%C3%A2-months-after-hip-fracture
#4
Paula Schmidt Azevedo, David Nicoletti Gumieiro, Bertha Furlan Polegato, Gilberto José Cação Pereira, Igor Almonfrey Silva, Stephan Milhorini Pio, Cacionor Pereira Cunha Junior, Edson Luiz Favero Junior, Sergio Alberto Rupp de Paiva, Marcos Ferreira Minicucci, Leonardo Antonio Mamede Zornoff
BACKGROUND: Over the past years, several cardiac risk indices were evaluated and modified, including Goldman, Detsky, and Lee scores. The predictive capacity of these scores in hip fracture patients is lacking. Thus, our objective was to compare the Goldman, Detsky, and Lee scores as predictors of mortality in 6 months after hip fracture. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 80 consecutive patients with hip fractures, over the age of 65 admitted to an orthopedic ward at Botucatu Medical School...
April 4, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357641/-distribution-of-species-and-kdr-gene-frequency-among-anopheles-gambiae-s-s-and-anopheles-coluzzii-populations-in-five-agricultural-sites-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#5
E Tia, M Chouaibou, C N G Gbalégba, A M O Boby, M Koné, A K Kadjo
The resistance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to insecticides constitutes a concern for the programs of malaria control because it can be an obstacle to effective control of the vectors. The follow-up of this resistance is a priority to work out strategies of management and to preserve the means of that major malaria vector control activities. The general objective of this study is to identify the species within An. gambiae s.l., and to determine the frequency of the Kdr gene in An. gambiae s.s. and An. coluzzii in five agricultural sites in Ivory Coast: an urban site, two semirural sites (coffee-trees/cacao-trees, orchard) and two rural sites (rice site and a traditional village without agricultural insecticide)...
March 29, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322947/cacao-pod-husks-as-a-source-of-low-methoxyl-highly-acetylated-pectins-able-to-gel-in-acidic-media
#6
Lúcia Cristina Vriesmann, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira Petkowicz
Cacao pod husks, the main by-product from cocoa production, have been investigated for pectin isolation. In the present study, the rheological properties of two low-methoxyl (LM) pectins isolated from cacao pod husks using different extraction conditions were evaluated. One pectin was obtained from optimized conditions employing aqueous nitric acid as an extractant, and the other one was extracted with boiling water. Pectin gels (0.99% galacturonic acid equivalent, w/w) were prepared at pH 2.5-3.0 in the presence of 60% sucrose (w/w) and subjected to rheological analysis...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299408/differential-gene-expression-of-longan-under-simulated-acid-rain-stress
#7
Shan Zheng, Tengfei Pan, Cuilan Ma, Dongliang Qiu
Differential gene expression profile was studied in Dimocarpus longan Lour. in response to treatments of simulated acid rain with pH 2.5, 3.5, and a control (pH 5.6) using differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR). Results showed that mRNA differential display conditions were optimized to find an expressed sequence tag (EST) related with acid rain stress. The potential encoding products had 80% similarity with a transcription initiation factor IIF of Gossypium raimondii and 81% similarity with a protein product of Theobroma cacao...
March 16, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288552/microencapsulation-of-theobroma-cacao-l-waste-extract-optimization-using-response-surface-methodology
#8
Taís Vanessa Gabbay Alves, Russany Silva da Costa, Bahar Aliakbarian, Alessandro Alberto Casazza, Patrizia Perego, José Otávio Carréra Silva Júnior, Roseane Maria Ribeiro Costa, Attilio Converti
The cocoa extract (Theobroma cacao L.) has a significant amount of polyphenols (TP) with potent antioxidant activity (AA). This study aims to optimise microencapsulation of the extract of cocoa waste using chitosan and maltodextrin. Microencapsulation tests were performed according to a Box-Behnken factorial design, and the results were evaluated by response surface methodology with temperature, maltodextrin concentration (MD) and extract flowrate (EF) as independent variables, and the fraction of encapsulated TP, TP encapsulation yield, AA, yield of drying and solubility index as responses...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273779/concurrent-autoimmune-hepatitis-in-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Gonçalo Cação, Ernestina Santos, Ana Martins Silva
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a rare and chronic inflammatory disorder associated with extrahepatic autoimmune diseases, including, infrequently, multiple sclerosis (MS). Short Reports: We report five cases of MS and AIH association. One patient developed AIH while under interferon beta-1b and the remaining while off disease-modifying therapy, although after methylprednisolone bolus in three. All presented a liver biopsy compatible with AIH. Hepatitis resolution was achieved with immunosuppressive treatment, but one patient died after a fulminant hepatitis requiring liver transplant...
February 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264305/two-new-eriophyoid-mite-species-trombidiformes-eriophyoidea-from-the-cocoa-tree-and-a-note-on-i-shevtchenkella-i-i-biseta-i-nalepa
#10
Daniela F S Rodrigues, Denise Navia, Anibal R Oliveira, Francisco Ferragut, Carlos H W Flechtmann
Two new eriophyoid mite species are described from the cocoa tree, Theobroma cacao L. (Malvaceae) - the Diptilomiopidae Davisella trevisani n. sp. Rodrigues, Navia & Oliveira, from Brazil; and the Eriophyidae Tetra theobromae n. sp. Rodrigues, Navia & Oliveira, from Costa Rica. The new Davisella species presents an enlarged subcylindrical tubercle bearing pedipalp genual seta d, a novel structure for eriophyoid mites; its functional morphology was discussed. The new Tetra species is the third in this genus described from plants of the Malvaceae...
February 26, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261234/phytophthora-megakarya-and-p-palmivora-causal-agents-of-black-pod-rot-induce-similar-plant-defense-responses-late-during-infection-of-susceptible-cacao-pods
#11
Shahin S Ali, Jonathan Shao, David J Lary, Mary D Strem, Lyndel W Meinhardt, Bryan A Bailey
Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) cause black pod rot of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao). Of these two clade 4 species, Pmeg is more virulent and is displacing Ppal in many cacao production areas in Africa. Symptoms and species specific sporangia production were compared when the two species were co-inoculated onto pod pieces in staggered 24 h time intervals. Pmeg sporangia were predominantly recovered from pod pieces with unwounded surfaces even when inoculated 24 h after Ppal. On wounded surfaces, sporangia of Ppal were predominantly recovered if the two species were simultaneously applied or Ppal was applied first but not if Pmeg was applied first...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260703/streptomyces-cameroonensis-sp-nov-a-geldanamycin-producer-that-promotes-theobroma-cacao-growth
#12
Thaddée Boudjeko, Romaric Armel Mouafo Tchinda, Mina Zitouni, Joëlle Aimée Vera Tchatchou Nana, Sylvain Lerat, Carole Beaulieu
The taxonomy of an actinobacterial strain, designated JJY4(T), was established using a polyphasic approach. JJY4(T) was isolated from the rhizosphere of Chromolaena odorata in Yaoundé (Cameroon) during a project for the selection of biological control agents. Strain JJY4(T) exhibited antimicrobial activities against bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes. Strain JJY4(T) also exhibited the traits of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria such as the solubilization of inorganic phosphate, production of siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity...
March 31, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251656/influences-of-superheated-steam-roasting-on-changes-in-sugar-amino-acid-and-flavor-active-components-of-cocoa-bean-theobroma-cacao
#13
Wahidu Zzaman, Rajeev Bhat, Tajul Aris Yang, Azhar Mat Easa
BACKGROUND: Roasting is one of the important unit operations in the cocoa base industries that develop unique flavor in products. Cocoa beans were subjected to roast at different temperature and time using superheated steam. Influence of roasting temperature (150-250 °C) and time (10-50 min) on sugars, free amino acids and volatile flavoring compounds were investigated. RESULTS: The concentration of total reducing sugars was reduced up to 64.61, 77.22 and 82...
March 2, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208630/cocoa-and-grape-seed-byproducts-as-a-source-of-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-proanthocyanidins
#14
María De La Luz Cádiz-Gurrea, Isabel Borrás-Linares, Jesús Lozano-Sánchez, Jorge Joven, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Antonio Segura-Carretero
Phenolic compounds, which are secondary plant metabolites, are considered an integral part of the human diet. Physiological properties of dietary polyphenols have come to the attention in recent years. Especially, proanthocyanidins (ranging from dimers to decamers) have demonstrated potential interactions with biological systems, such as antiviral, antibacterial, molluscicidal, enzyme-inhibiting, antioxidant, and radical-scavenging properties. Agroindustry produces a considerable amount of phenolic-rich sources, and the ability of polyphenolic structures to interacts with other molecules in living organisms confers their beneficial properties...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192967/direct-analysis-of-xanthine-stimulants-in-archaeological-vessels-by-laser-desorption-resonance-enhanced-multiphoton-ionization
#15
Shawn C Owens, Jacob A Berenbeim, Marshall R Ligare, Lisa E Gulian, Faady M Siouri, Samuel Boldissar, Stuart Tyson-Smith, Gregory Wilson, Anabel Ford, Mattanjah S de Vries
Resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy (REMPI) generates simultaneous vibronic spectroscopy and fragment free mass spectrometry to identify molecules within a complex matrix. We combined laser desorption with REMPI spectroscopy to study organic residues within pottery sherds from Maya vessels (600-900 CE) and Mississippian vessels (1100-1200 CE), successfully detecting three molecular markers, caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline, associated with the use of cacao. This analytical approach provides a high molecular specificity, based on both wavelength and mass identification...
February 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187131/genome-size-cytogenetic-data-and-transferability-of-est-ssrs-markers-in-wild-and-cultivated-species-of-the-genus-theobroma-l-byttnerioideae-malvaceae
#16
Rangeline Azevedo da Silva, Gustavo Souza, Lívia Santos Lima Lemos, Uilson Vanderlei Lopes, Nara Geórgia Ribeiro Braz Patrocínio, Rafael Moysés Alves, Lucília Helena Marcellino, Didier Clement, Fabienne Micheli, Karina Peres Gramacho
The genus Theobroma comprises several trees species native to the Amazon. Theobroma cacao L. plays a key economic role mainly in the chocolate industry. Both cultivated and wild forms are described within the genus. Variations in genome size and chromosome number have been used for prediction purposes including the frequency of interspecific hybridization or inference about evolutionary relationships. In this study, the nuclear DNA content, karyotype and genetic diversity using functional microsatellites (EST-SSR) of seven Theobroma species were characterized...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186564/phytophthora-megakarya-and-p-palmivora-closely-related-causal-agents-of-cacao-black-pod-rot-underwent-increases-in-genome-sizes-and-gene-numbers-by-different-mechanisms
#17
Shahin S Ali, Jonathan Shao, David J Lary, Brent Kronmiller, Danyu Shen, Mary D Strem, Ishmael Amoako-Attah, Andrew Yaw Akrofi, B A Didier Begoude, G Martijn Ten Hoopen, Klotioloma Coulibaly, Boubacar Ismaël Kebe, Rachel L Melnick, Mark J Guiltinan, Brett M Tyler, Lyndel W Meinhardt, Bryan A Bailey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128718/prehispanic-functional-foods-and-nutraceuticals-in-the-treatment-of-dyslipidemia-associated-to-cardiovascular-disease-a-mini-review
#18
Alejandro Ríos-Hoyo, Alejandra Romo-Araiza, Marcos Meneses-Mayo, Gabriela Guttiérrez-Salmeán
Dyslipidemia is an important modifi able risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, which are responsible for a large number of mortality and disability cases around the globe. Different strategies have been used within the treatment of dyslipidemia, including lifestyle modifi cations, pharmacologic therapy, as well as functional foods and nutraceuticals. Functional foods have been used worldwide since ancient times, particularly, the prehispanic civilizations utilized several as medicinal foods...
January 27, 2017: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124143/molecular-characterization-of-previously-elusive-badnaviruses-associated-with-symptomatic-cacao-in-the-new-world
#19
Nomatter Chingandu, Muhammad Zia-Ur-Rehman, Thyail N Sreenivasan, Surendra Surujdeo-Maharaj, Pathmanathan Umaharan, Osman A Gutierrez, Judith K Brown
Suspected virus-like symptoms were observed in cacao plants in Trinidad during 1943, and the viruses associated with these symptoms were designated as strains A and B of cacao Trinidad virus (CTV). However, viral etiology has not been demonstrated for either phenotype. Total DNA was isolated from symptomatic cacao leaves exhibiting the CTV A and B phenotypes and subjected to Illumina HiSeq and Sanger DNA sequencing. Based on de novo assembly, two apparently full-length badnavirus genomes of 7,533 and 7,454 nucleotides (nt) were associated with CTV strain A and B, respectively...
May 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087663/evolution-and-structural-diversification-of-nictaba-like-lectin-genes-in-food-crops-with-a-focus-on-soybean-glycine-max
#20
Sofie Van Holle, Pierre Rougé, Els J M Van Damme
Background and Aims: The Nictaba family groups all proteins that show homology to Nictaba, the tobacco lectin. So far, Nictaba and an Arabidopsis thaliana homologue have been shown to be implicated in the plant stress response. The availability of more than 50 sequenced plant genomes provided the opportunity for a genome-wide identification of Nictaba -like genes in 15 species, representing members of the Fabaceae, Poaceae, Solanaceae, Musaceae, Arecaceae, Malvaceae and Rubiaceae. Additionally, phylogenetic relationships between the different species were explored...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
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