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Andrew S Fister, Lena Landherr, Siela N Maximova, Mark J Guiltinan
Theobroma cacao , the source of cocoa, suffers significant losses to a variety of pathogens resulting in reduced incomes for millions of farmers in developing countries. Development of disease resistant cacao varieties is an essential strategy to combat this threat, but is limited by sources of genetic resistance and the slow generation time of this tropical tree crop. In this study, we present the first application of genome editing technology in cacao, using Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation to introduce CRISPR/Cas9 components into cacao leaves and cotyledon cells...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Min-Ho Oak, Cyril Auger, Eugenia Belcastro, Sin-Hee Park, Hyunho Lee, Valérie B Schini-Kerth
Epidemiological studies have indicated that regular intake of polyphenol-rich diets such as red wine and tea, are associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. The beneficial effect of polyphenol-rich products has been attributable, at least in part, to their direct action on the endothelial function. Indeed, polyphenols from tea, grapes, cacao, berries, and plants have been shown to activate endothelial cells to increase the formation of potent vasoprotective factors including nitric oxide (NO) and to delay endothelial ageing...
March 13, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Emmy Tuenter, Kenn Foubert, Luc Pieters
Cocoa and chocolate, prepared from cocoa beans that originate from the fruits of the cocoa tree Theobroma cacao , have a long-standing reputation as healthy food, including mood-enhancing effects. In spite of many clinical trials with chocolate, cocoa, or its constituents, the mechanisms of action on mood and cognition remain unclear. More in particular, it is still controversial which constituents may contribute to the psychopharmacological activities, ranging from the major cacao flavanols and methylxanthines to the minor amines, amides, and alkaloids...
March 14, 2018: Planta Medica
Rabia Latif
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review is to explore the effects of chocolate consumption during pregnancy on fetus and mother herself. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials/quasi-experimental/observational/controlled before and after studies involving chocolate/cocoa/cacao consumption (irrespective of type or dose, composition, exposure period, and method of administration) among pregnant women/animals; and measuring any outcome (beneficial or harmful) related to fetus or mother after chocolate exposure were included...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Brian Folt, Maureen A Donnelly, Craig Guyer
The conspecific attraction hypothesis predicts that individuals are attracted to conspecifics because conspecifics may be cues to quality habitat and/or colonists may benefit from living in aggregations. Poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) are aposematic, territorial, and visually oriented-three characteristics which make dendrobatids an appropriate model to test for conspecific attraction. In this study, we tested this hypothesis using an extensive mark-recapture dataset of the strawberry poison frog ( Oophaga pumilio ) from La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Filipa Ladeira, Gonçalo Cação, Ana P Correia, Pedro S Pinto, Sara Cavaco, Manuel Melo-Pires, Isabel Alonso, Ricardo Taipa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Leïla Bagny Beilhe, Cyril Piou, Zéphirin Tadu, Régis Babin
The use of ants for biological control of insect pests was the first reported case of conservation biological control. Direct and indirect community interactions between ants and pests lead to differential spatial pattern. We investigated spatial interactions between mirids, the major cocoa pest in West Africa and numerically dominant ant species, using bivariate point pattern analysis to identify potential biological control agents. We assume that potential biological control agents should display negative spatial interactions with mirids considering their niche overlap...
March 2, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Luciel Dos Santos Fernandes, Stefan Royaert, Fábio M Corrêa, Guiliana M Mustiga, Jean-Philippe Marelli, Ronan X Corrêa, Juan C Motamayor
Cacao is an important crop, its beans are key raw materials for the chocolate and cosmetic industries. Ceratocystis wilt of cacao (CWC) caused by Ceratocystis cacaofunesta is a lethal disease for the crop. Therefore, the selection of resistant cacao varieties is one of the viable ways to minimize losses in cacao production. In this paper, we described the identification of a major QTL associated with CWC in an F1 mapping population from a cross between a resistant, "TSH 1188," and a susceptible genotype, "CCN 51...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Bingliang Liu, Xueying Guan, Wenhua Liang, Jiedan Chen, Lei Fang, Yan Hu, Wangzhen Guo, Junkang Rong, Guohua Xu, Tianzhen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Polyploidy is considered a major driving force in genome expansion, yielding duplicated genes whose expression may be conserved or divergence as a consequence of polyploidization. RESULTS: We compared the genome sequences of tetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and its two diploid progenitors, G. arboreum and G. raimondii, and found that the bHLH genes were conserved over the polyploidization. Oppositely, the expression of the homeolgous gene pairs was diversified...
February 23, 2018: BMC Genomics
Simonetta Camandola, Natalie Plick, Mark P Mattson
Increasing evidence suggests that regular consumption of coffee, tea and dark chocolate (cacao) can promote brain health and may reduce the risk of age-related neurodegenerative disorders. However, the complex array of phytochemicals in coffee and cacao beans and tea leaves has hindered a clear understanding of the component(s) that affect neuronal plasticity and resilience. One class of phytochemicals present in relatively high amounts in coffee, tea and cacao are methylxanthines. Among such methylxanthines, caffeine has been the most widely studied and has clear effects on neuronal network activity, promotes sustained cognitive performance and can protect neurons against dysfunction and death in animal models of stroke, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease...
February 8, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Yanli Chen, Zhaoen Yang, Yanqing Xiao, Peng Wang, Ye Wang, Xiaoyang Ge, Chaojun Zhang, Xianlong Zhang, Fuguang Li
Members of the NF-YB transcription factor gene family play important roles in diverse processes related to plant growth and development, such as seed development, drought tolerance, and flowering time. However, the function of NF-YB genes in cotton remains unclear. A total of 23, 24, and 50 NF-YB genes were identified in Gossypium arboreum (G. arboreum), Gossypium raimondii (G. raimondii), and G. hirsutum, respectively. A systematic phylogenetic analysis was carried out in G. arboretum, G. raimondii, G. hirsutum, Arabidopsis thaliana, cacao, rice and, sorghum, where the 150 NF-YB genes were divided into five groups (α-ε)...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Emerson Alves Dos Santos, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Marcia Christina da Silva Branco, Ivanildes Conceição Dos Santos, Dario Ahnert, Virupax C Baligar, Raúl René Valle
Drought is worldwide considered one of the most limiting factors of Theobroma cacao production, which can be intensified by global climate changes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the phenotypic correlation among morphological characteristics of cacao progenies submitted to irrigation and drought conditions and their partitions into direct and indirect effects. Path analysis with phenotypic plasticity index was used as criteria for estimation of basic and explanatory variables. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Cacao Research Center (CEPEC), Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, in a randomized block 21 x 2 factorial arrangement [21 cacao progenies obtained from complete diallel crosses and two water regimes (control and drought)] and six replications...
2018: PloS One
Juan Carlos Suárez Salazar, Marie Ange Ngo Bieng, Luz Marina Melgarejo, Julio A Di Rienzo, Fernando Casanoves
AIM AND BACKGROUND: We present a typology of cacao agroforest systems in Colombian Amazonia. These systems had yet to be described in the literature, especially their potential in terms of biodiversity conservation. The systems studied are located in a post-conflict area, and a deforestation front in Colombian Amazonia. Cacao cropping systems are of key importance in Colombia: cacao plays a prime role in post conflict resolution, as cacao is a legal crop to replace illegal crops; cacao agroforests are expected to be a sustainable practice, promoting forest-friendly land use...
2018: PloS One
Seyed Kamran Kamrava, Maryam Jalessi, Shaghayegh Ebrahimnejad, Sahand Ghalehbaghi, Elahe Amini, Alimohamad Asghari, Farhad Rafiei, Mohammad Farhadi
Introduction: Processing odor information by the olfactory system depends greatly on the odor concentration. In order to use an odorant in a smell identification test (SIT), the minimum identification concentration (MIC) needs to be determined. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 60 healthy native individuals aged 20 to 60 years, selected from patients' companions in a tertiary hospital. In the first step, 25 odorants were presented to evaluate familiarity among the subjects...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Yongjun Wei, David Bergenholm, Michael Gossing, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) is the main raw material for chocolate production, but CB supply is insufficient due to the increased chocolate demand and limited CB production. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POS, C16:0-C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18:0). In general, Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces TAGs as storage lipids, which consist of C16 and C18 fatty acids...
January 25, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Evandro Pereira Palacio, Gilberto José Cação Pereira, Paulo Roberto de Almeida Silvares, Gabriel Guimarães Di Stasi, Caio de Andrade Staut, Trajano Sardenberg
Objective: Synthetic adhesives are used by various medical specialties, especially in surgery; however, studies reporting their use in orthopedic practice are scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the results in using ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate or butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in the treatment of fractures in rats. Methods: This was an experimental prospective controlled study in 90 rats, with humerus, femur, and tibia fractures, treated with ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate (SB group; n = 45) or butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (HA group; n = 45)...
January 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
Thalita Ravazo Tosarini, Priscila Zonzini Ramos, Gerson Profeta de Souza, Renata Moro Baroni, Katlin B Massirer, Rafael M Couñago, Jorge M C Mondego
The PR-1 proteins (pathogenesis-related protein 1) are involved in plant defense mechanisms against various pathogens. The genome of cacao (Theobroma cacao) encodes 14 PR-1 proteins, named TcPR-1a to TcPR-1n. Two of them, TcPR-1f and TcPR-1g, have a C-terminal expansion with high similarity to protein kinase domains, suggesting a receptor-like kinase (RLK) protein architecture. Moreover, TcPR-1g is highly expressed during cacao response to Witches' Broom Disease, caused by the fungus Moniliopthora perniciosa...
January 19, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Daniel Bravo, Sergio Pardo-Díaz, Javier Benavides-Erazo, Gersain Rengifo-Estrada, Olivier Braissant, Clara Leon-Moreno
AIMS: This research aims to assess total-cadmium soil content and microbiological aspects to understand the dynamics of culturable cadmium-tolerant bacteria (CdtB) in cacao soils from northeastern Colombia. METHODS AND RESULTS: An integration of inverted dish plating, Cd determination and a microcalorimetry assay (IMC) was carried out. A farm in Boyacá showed the highest level of total soil Cd (3.74 mg kg-1 ) followed by farms in Santander and Arauca (2.76 and 1...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Eddy Patricia Lopez Molano, Odalys García Cabrera, Juliana Jose, Leandro Costa do Nascimento, Marcelo Falsarella Carazzolle, Paulo José Pereira Lima Teixeira, Javier Correa Alvarez, Ricardo Augusto Tiburcio, Paulo Massanari Tokimatu Filho, Gustavo Machado Alvares de Lima, Rafael Victório Carvalho Guido, Thamy Lívia Ribeiro Corrêa, Adriana Franco Paes Leme, Piotr Mieczkowski, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães Pereira
BACKGROUND: The Ceratocystis genus harbors a large number of phytopathogenic fungi that cause xylem parenchyma degradation and vascular destruction on a broad range of economically important plants. Ceratocystis cacaofunesta is a necrotrophic fungus responsible for lethal wilt disease in cacao. The aim of this work is to analyze the genome of C. cacaofunesta through a comparative approach with genomes of other Sordariomycetes in order to better understand the molecular basis of pathogenicity in the Ceratocystis genus...
January 17, 2018: BMC Genomics
David Bergenholm, Michael Gossing, Yongjun Wei, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
Chain length and degree of saturation plays an important role for the characteristics of various products derived from fatty acids, such as fuels, cosmetics and food additives. The seeds of Theobroma cacao are the source of cocoa butter, a natural lipid of high interest for the food and cosmetics industry. Cocoa butter is rich in saturated fatty acids that are stored in the form of triacylglycerides (TAGs). One of the major TAG species of cocoa butter, consisting of two stearic acid molecules and one oleic acid molecule (stearic acid-oleic acid-stearic acid, sn-SOS), is particularly rare in nature as the saturated fatty acid stearic acid is typically found only in low abundance...
January 4, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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