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Noemí León-Roque, Mohamed Abderrahim, Luis Nuñez-Alejos, Silvia M Arribas, Luis Condezo-Hoyos
Several procedures are currently used to assess fermentation index (FI) of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) for quality control. However, all of them present several drawbacks. The aim of the present work was to develop and validate a simple image based quantitative procedure, using color measurement and artificial neural network (ANNs). ANN models based on color measurements were tested to predict fermentation index (FI) of fermented cocoa beans. The RGB values were measured from surface and center region of fermented beans in images obtained by camera and desktop scanner...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Lingxi Li, Shuting Zhang, Yan Cui, Yuanyuan Li, Lanxin Luo, Peiyu Zhou, Baoshan Sun
In this work, an efficient method for preparative separation of procyanidins from raw cacao bean extract by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was developed. Under the optimized solvent system of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-water (1:50:50, v/v/v) with a combination of head-tail and tail-head elution modes, various procyanidins fractions with different polymerization degrees were successfully separated. UPLC, QTOF-MS and (1)H NMR analysis verified that these fractions contained monomer up to pentamer respectively...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
C Hernández-Hernández, Procopio Alejandro López-Andrade, Miguel A Ramírez-Guillermo, Diana Guerra Ramírez, Juan F Caballero Pérez
The aim of this research was to evaluate four different cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) fermentation conditions and their effect on fermented bean quality, in order to be able to recommend the most suitable condition to producers in the municipality of Huimanguillo, Tabasco, Mexico. Fermentations were carried out in square wooden boxes with capacity for 1000, 300, and 100 kg of fresh beans, as well as a rotary drum with capacity for 500 kg thereof. The fermentation process was carried out for 7 days, and the response variables measured were mass temperature, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, and acidity...
September 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
Evans Dawoe, Winston Asante, Emmanuel Acheampong, Paul Bosu
BACKGROUND: The promotion of cacao agroforestry is one of the ways of diversifying farmer income and creating incentives through their inclusion in REDD+ interventions. We estimated the aboveground carbon stocks in cacao and shade trees, determined the floristic diversity of shade trees and explored the possibility of implementing REDD+ interventions in cacao landscapes. Using replicated multi-site transect approach, data were collected from nine 1-ha plots established on 5 km long transects in ten cacao growing districts in Ghana West Africa...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
Andrew S Fister, Luis C Mejia, Yufan Zhang, Edward Allen Herre, Siela N Maximova, Mark J Guiltinan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMC Genomics
Heerim Kang, Chang Hyung Lee, Jong Rhan Kim, Jung Yeon Kwon, Myoung-Jin Son, Jong-Eun Kim, Ki Won Lee
Cacao beans from Theobroma cacao are an abundant source of polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. Previous studies demonstrated that cacao flavanols decrease pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in the alleviation of allergic symptoms. We sought to investigate the effects of cacao extract (CE) on Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like symptoms. CE attenuated DFE-induced AD-like symptoms as assessed by skin lesion analyses, dermatitis score, and skin thickness. Histopathological analysis revealed that CE suppressed DFE-induced immune cell infiltration into the skin...
February 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
I Baiges, L Arola
BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism with conserved aging pathways. Yeast chronological lifespan experiments mimic the processes involved in human non-dividing tissues, such as the nervous system or skeletal muscle, and can speed up the search for biomolecules with potential anti-aging effects before proceeding to animal studies. OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of a cocoa polyphenol-rich extract (CPE) in expanding the S. cerevisiae chronological lifespan in two conditions: in the stationary phase reached after glucose depletion and under severe caloric restriction...
2016: Journal of Frailty & Aging
Lambert A Motilal, Dapeng Zhang, Sue Mischke, Lyndel W Meinhardt, Michel Boccara, Olivier Fouet, Claire Lanaud, Pathmanathan Umaharan
Microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism markers that could be used in marker assisted breeding of cacao were identified for number of filled seeds, black pod resistance and witches' broom disease resistance. An association mapping approach was employed to identify markers for seed number and resistance to black pod and witches' broom disease (WBD) in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Ninety-five microsatellites (SSRs) and 775 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed on 483 unique trees in the International Cocoa Genebank Trinidad (ICGT)...
December 2016: Planta
Juliana C Amorim, Lucia Cristina Vriesmann, Carmen L O Petkowicz, Glaucia Regina Martinez, Guilhermina R Noleto
In vitro effects of acetylated pectin (OP) isolated from cacao pod husks (Theobroma cacao L.), its partially deacetylated and de-esterified form (MOP), and a commercial homogalacturonan (PG) were investigated on murine peritoneal macrophages. MOP stood out among the studied pectins. After 48h of incubation, compared with the control group, it was able to promote significant macrophage morphological differentiation from resident to activated stage and also stimulated nitric oxide production, which reached a level of 85% of that of LPS stimulus...
November 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Emerson Alves Dos Santos, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Dario Ahnert, Marcia Christina da Silva Branco, Raúl René Valle, Virupax C Baligar
This study aimed to estimate the combining ability, of T. cacao genotypes preselected for drought tolerance through diallel crosses. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Cacao Research Center (CEPEC), Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, in a completely randomized block design, in an experimental arrangement 21 x 2 [21 complete diallel crosses and two water regimes (control and stressed)]. In the control, soil moisture was kept close to field capacity, with predawn leaf water potential (ΨWL) ranging from -0...
2016: PloS One
Neelika Roy Chowdhury, Melanie MacGregor-Ramiasa, Peter Zilm, Peter Majewski, Krasimir Vasilev
HYPOTHESIS: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have emerged as a powerful weapon against antibiotic resistant microorganisms. However, most conventional AgNPs syntheses require the use of hazardous chemicals and generate toxic organic waste. Hence, in recent year's, plant derived and biomolecule based synthetics have has gained much attention. Cacao has been used for years for its medicinal benefits and contains a powerful reducing agent - oxalic acid. We hypothesized that, due to the presence of oxalic acid, cacao extract is capable of reducing silver nitrate (AgNO3) to produce AgNPs...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
André Drenth, David I Guest
The tropics produce a range of fruit from tree crops that cannot be grown in colder climates. Bananas, mangos, several nuts, spices, coffee, and cacao are widely traded and much sought after around the world. However, the sustainable production of these tropical tree fruit crops faces significant challenges. Among these, losses due to pests and diseases play a large part in reducing yields, quality, and profitability. Using bananas and cacao as key examples, we outline some of the reasons fungal and oomycete diseases cause such significant losses to tropical tree crops...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Shruti Sanjay Taparia, Aparna Khanna
Over the last four centuries, cocoa and chocolate have been described as having potential medicinal value. As of today, Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae) and its products are consumed worldwide. They are of great research interest because of the concentration dependent antioxidant as well as pro-oxidant properties of some of their polyphenolic constituents, specially procyanidins and flavan-3-ols such as catechin. This study was aimed at investigating the cellular and molecular changes associated with cytotoxicity, caused due pro-oxidant activity of cocoa catechins and procyanidins, in ovarian cancer cell lines...
June 24, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Danielle Camargo Scotton, Mariana da Silva Azevedo, Ivan Sestari, Jamille Santos da Silva, Lucas Anjos Souza, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres, Gildemberg Amorim Leal, Antonio Figueira
Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a key role in plant responses to pathogens, determining the success of infection depending on the pathogen lifestyle and on which participant of the interaction triggers cell death. The hemibiotrophic basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of the witches' broom disease of Theobroma cacao L (cacao), a serious constraint for production in South America and Caribbean. It has been hypothesized that M. perniciosa pathogenesis involves PCD, initially as a plant defense mechanism, which is diverted by the fungus to induce necrosis during the dikaryotic phase of the mycelia...
July 25, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Raphael Adu-Gyamfi, Andy Wetten, Carlos Marcelino Rodríguez López
UNLABELLED: While cocoa plants regenerated from cryopreserved somatic embryos can demonstrate high levels of phenotypic variability, little is known about the sources of the observed variability. Previous studies have shown that the encapsulation-dehydration cryopreservation methodology imposes no significant extra mutational load since embryos carrying high levels of genetic variability are selected against during protracted culture. Also, the use of secondary rather than primary somatic embryos has been shown to further reduce the incidence of genetic somaclonal variation...
2016: PloS One
Helen Spafford, Alexander Ching, Megan Manley, Chelsea Hardin, Harry Bittenbender
The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai'i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field...
2016: Insects
S Suresh
In this study the adsorption of Basic Violet, 14 from aqueous solution onto sulphuric acid activated materials prepared from Calophyllum inophyllum (CS) and Theobroma cacao (TS) shells were investigated. The experimental data were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The results showed that CS has a superior adsorption capacity compared to the TS. The adsorption capacity was found to be 1416.43 mg/g for CS and 980.39 mg/g for TS. The kinetic data results at different concentrations were analysed using pseudo first-order and pseudo-second order model...
2016: SpringerPlus
B S Andrade, C S Souza, G Santos, A Góes-Neto
The filamentous fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is a basidiomycota that causes the witches' broom disease in cocoa trees (Theobroma cacao L.). The mitochondrial DNA polymerase of M. perniciosa (MpmitDNApol) is classified within the B family of DNA polymerases, which can be found in viruses and cellular organelles. Using virtual screening processes, accessing KEGG, PubChem, and ZINC databases, we selected the 27 best putative nucleoside viral-like polymerase inhibitors to test against MpmitDNApol. We used Autodock Vina to perform docking simulations of the selected molecules and to return energy values in several ligand conformations...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Tatiana Setenta Basso, Evelyn Vita-Santos, Gabriele Marisco, Martin- Brendel, Cristina Pungartnik
Moniliophthora perniciosa is a basidiomycete fungus that causes witches' broom disease in Theobroma cacao We analyzed the morphology and survival of fungal hyphae and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) remodeling in either glucose- or glycerol-grown M. perniciosa after treatment with ER stress-inducing chemicals dithiothreitol (DTT) or tunicamycin (TM). Changes in intracellular redox potential can cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress due to diminished efficiency in protein folding that could in turn reduce cell survival...
June 13, 2016: Mycologia
Paul Vargas Jentzsch, Valerian Ciobotă, Wilson Salinas, Bernd Kampe, Pedro M Aponte, Petra Rösch, Jürgen Popp, Luis A Ramos
Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a crop of economic importance. In Ecuador, there are two predominant cocoa varieties: National and CCN-51. The National variety is the most demanded, since its cocoa beans are used to produce the finest chocolates. Raman measurements of fermented, dried and unpeeled cocoa beans were performed using a handheld spectrometer. Samples of the National and CCN-51 varieties were collected from different provinces and studied in this work. For each sample, 25 cocoa beans were considered and each bean was measured at 4 different spots...
November 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
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