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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106775/colloidal-fouling-of-nanofiltration-membranes-development-of-a-standard-operating-procedure
#1
Md Abdullaha Al Mamun, Subir Bhattacharjee, David Pernitsky, Mohtada Sadrzadeh
Fouling of nanofiltration (NF) membranes is the most significant obstacle to the development of a sustainable and energy-efficient NF process. Colloidal fouling and performance decline in NF processes is complex due to the combination of cake formation and salt concentration polarization effects, which are influenced by the properties of the colloids and the membrane, the operating conditions of the test, and the solution chemistry. Although numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of these parameters on the performance of the NF process, the importance of membrane preconditioning (e...
January 18, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106420/long-lived-neighbors-determine-the-rheological-response-of-glasses
#2
M Laurati, P Maßhoff, K J Mutch, S U Egelhaaf, A Zaccone
Glasses exhibit a liquidlike structure but a solidlike rheological response with plastic deformations only occurring beyond yielding. Thus, predicting the rheological behavior from the microscopic structure is difficult, but important for materials science. Here, we consider colloidal suspensions and propose to supplement the static structural information with the local dynamics, namely, the rearrangement and breaking of the cage of neighbors. This is quantified by the mean squared nonaffine displacement and the number of particles that remain nearest neighbors for a long time, i...
January 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106401/transmembrane-difference-in-colloid-osmotic-pressure-affects-the-lipid-membrane-fluidity-of-liposomes-encapsulating-a-concentrated-protein-solution
#3
Tomoko Kure, Hiromi Sakai
A hemoglobin vesicle (Hb-V) is an artificial oxygen carrier encapsulating a highly concentrated hemoglobin solution (40 g/dL) in a liposome. The in vivo safety and efficacy of Hb-V suspension as a transfusion alternative and structural stability during storage have been studied extensively. Because the intra-liposomal Hb aqueous solution can possess colloid osmotic pressure (COP, 200-300 Torr), which is much higher than that of blood plasma (20-25 Torr), a question arises of whether the lipid membrane senses the transmembrane difference in COP...
January 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106366/redox-properties-of-polyvinylamine-g-tempo-in-multilayer-films-with-sodium-poly-styrene-sulfonate
#4
Qiang Fu, Igor Zoudanov, Emil Gustafsson, Dong Yang, Leyla Soleymani, Robert H Pelton
Layer-by-layer (LbL) assemblies of polyvinylamine with grafted TEMPO moieties (PVAm-T) with sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) were prepared on gold-sulfonate surfaces and the redox properties were measured by cyclic voltammetry. LbL compositions were probed by quartz crystal microbalance (wet) and ellipsometric (dry) film measurements. Approximately 30% of the TEMPO moieties in the LbL assemblies were redox-active when the total TEMPO coverage was varied up to 6 mol/m2, by either varying the TEMPO content in PVAm-T or by varying the number of LbL bilayers...
January 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106271/mapping-the-intermediate-digestion-phases-of-human-healthy-intestinal-contents-from-distal-ileum-and-caecum-at-fasted-and-fed-state-conditions
#5
Thuy Tran, Dimitrios G Fatouros, Maria Vertzoni, Christos Reppas, Anette Müllertz
OBJECTIVES: To investigate at the ultrastructural level, the colloidal phases formed in the lumen of the distal ileum and caecum of healthy adults. METHODS: Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) was employed to image the intermediate colloidal phases of human intestinal contents collected from distal ileum and caecum of two healthy volunteers under fasted and fed state conditions. KEY FINDINGS: In samples collected both in the fasted and fed states, Cryo-TEM study revealed the presence of large spherical unilamellar and occasionally bi-lamellar and oligolamellar vesicles with diameters ranging from 50 to 200 nm for both volunteers in distal ileum and caecum...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106220/particle-impact-analysis-of-the-degree-of-cluster-formation-of-rutile-nanoparticles-in-aqueous-solution
#6
Kenichi Shimizu, Stanislav V Sokolov, Neil P Young, Richard G Compton
Cluster formation can profoundly influence the bioavailability and (bio)geochemical activity of nanoparticles in natural aquatic systems. While colloidal properties of nanoparticles are commonly investigated using light-scattering techniques, the requirement to dilute samples can affect the fundamental nature and extent of the cluster size. Hence, an alternative in situ approach that can cover a much higher and wider concentration range of particles is desirable. In this study, particle impact chronoamperometry is employed to probe the degree of cluster formation of Alizarin Red S modified rutile nanoparticles of diameter ca...
January 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106196/solubility-origin-at-the-nanoscale-enthalpic-and-entropic-contributions-in-polar-and-nonpolar-environments
#7
Eudes Fileti, Vitaly V Chaban
Nanostructures are known to be poorly soluble, irrespective of their elemental composition, shape, electronic structure, dipole moment, hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity and the employed solvent. The methods of colloid chemistry allow for preparing suspensions - metastable systems, the stabilities of which differ greatly from one another - but not real solutions. A systematic investigation of the solubility origin at the nanoscale is hereby reported in terms of its fundamental constituents: enthalpy and entropy...
January 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106182/influence-of-zn-on-the-photoluminescence-of-colloidal-agin-xzn2-1-x-s2-nanocrystals
#8
Dharmendar Kumar Sharma, Shuzo Hirata, Lukasz Bujak, Vasudevanpillai Biju, Tatsuya Kameyama, Marino Kishi, Tsukasa Torimoto, Martin Vacha
We study the effect of Zn on the photophysical properties of a family of group I-III-VI nanocrystals (NCs), namely in solid solutions of (AgIn)xZn2(1-x)S2 (ZAIS). We focus on the comparison of the photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZAIS NCs of comparable sizes and different amounts of Zn. This approach helps us to decouple the effects of size and varying chemical composition of the NCs which both influence the PL properties. We show that in the presence of Zn new radiative centers are generated which improve the NC quality in terms of PL quantum yield...
January 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106128/fabrication-of-au-ag-nanocage-nayf4-nayf4-yb-er-core-shell-hybrid-and-its-tunable-upconversion-enhancement
#9
Xu Chen, Donglei Zhou, Wen Xu, Jinyang Zhu, Gencai Pan, Ze Yin, He Wang, Yongsheng Zhu, Cui Shaobo, Hongwei Song
Localized electric filed enhancement by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of noble metal nanoparticles is an effective method to amplify the upconversion luminescence (UCL) strength of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), whereas the highly effective UCL enhancement of UCNPs in colloids has not been realized until now. Here, we designed and fabricated the colloidal Au-Ag nanocage@NaYF4@NaYF4:Yb,Er core-shell hybrid with different intermediate thickness (NaYF4) and tunable SPR peaks from visible wavelength region to NIR region...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106004/wetting-behavior-of-multi-walled-carbon-nanotube-nanofluids
#10
Adya Karthikeyan, Sylvain Coulombe, Anne-Marie Kietzig
Nanofluids - engineered colloidal suspensions in base liquids - have captivated the interest of researchers over the last two decades for various existing as well as emerging technological applications. The main impetus for the synthesis of such novel nanocomposite liquids is the potential to alter properties of the base liquid, such as its viscosity, thermal conductivity, and surface tension, and to introduce specific optical and magnetic properties. Numerous studies suggest trends and explanations for the effects associated with the addition of nanoparticles, and that deviation from the base liquid properties are dependent on nanoparticle concentration...
January 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105609/effect-of-zinc-and-copper-nanoparticles-on-drought-resistance-of-wheat-seedlings
#11
Nataliya Taran, Volodymyr Storozhenko, Nataliia Svietlova, Ludmila Batsmanova, Viktor Shvartau, Mariia Kovalenko
The effect of a colloidal solution of Cu,Zn-nanoparticles on pro-oxidative/antioxidative balance and content of photosynthetic pigments and leaf area of winter wheat plants of steppe (Acveduc) and forest-steppe (Stolichna) ecotypes was investigated in drought conditions. It has been shown that Cu,Zn-nanoparticles decreased the negative effect of drought action upon plants of steppe ecotype Acveduc. In particular, increased activity of antioxidative enzymes reduced the level of accumulation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and stabilized the content of photosynthetic pigments and increased relative water content in leaves...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104343/thyroid-pathology-in-deer-mice-peromyscus-maniculata-from-a-reclaimed-mine-site-on-the-athabasca-oil-sands
#12
Ahmad Movasseghi, Jaime Rodríguez-Estival, Judit E G Smits
Information on naturally occurring thyroid disease in wild animals in general and in small mammals specifically is extremely limited. In the present field-based work, we investigated the structure and function of thyroid glands of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculata) studied as sentinels of ecosystem sustainability on reclaimed areas post-mining on the oil sands of northeastern Alberta, because of their greater sensitivity to contaminants relative to meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) on the same sites. Extraction of bitumen in the oil sands of northeastern Alberta, results in the release of contaminants including polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), metals, and metalloids to the environment that have a measurable biological cost to wildlife living in the affected areas...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104025/-pathological-diagnosis-and-differential-diagnosis-for-primary-pulmonary-mucinous-epithelial-tumors
#13
Z Wang, E H Wang, D G Liu
The cell origin of primary pulmonary mucinous epithelial tumors includes goblet cells, tracheobronchial mucous glands, the mucous cell metaplasia of ciliated and Clara cells, etc.There are benign, low-grade malignant potential and malignant tumors in this category. The benign tumors encompass mucous gland adenoma and mucinous cystadenoma. Ciliated muconodular papillary tumors are thought to be of low grade malignant potential or uncertain malignant potential neoplasm, while colloid adenocarcinoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma are malignant tumors...
January 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103740/novel-functionalization-strategies-to-improve-drug-delivery-from-polymers
#14
Emanuele Mauri, Simonetta Papa, Maurizio Masi, Pietro Veglianese, Filippo Rossi
The utility of controlled and sustained release of drugs from polymeric systems, both bulk (hydrogels) and colloids (nanoparticles), is a key point that should be addressed. Unfortunately, classic delivery systems are essentially driven by diffusion, which is very quick due to the high concentration gradient present in the body. Area covered: This review provides an overview of functionalization strategies which have been used to reduce release rates by taking advantage of post-polymerization functionalization of polymers...
January 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103586/selective-area-growth-of-periodic-nanopyramid-light-emitting-diode-arrays-on-gan-sapphire-templates-patterned-by-multiple-exposure-colloidal-lithography
#15
Zhuo Xiong, Tongbo Wei, Yonghui Zhang, Xiang Zhang, Chao Yang, Zhiqiang Liu, Guodong Yuan, Jinmin Li, Junxi Wang
Gallium nitride-based nanopyramid light-emitting diodes are a promising technology to achieve highly efficient solid-state lighting and beyond. Here, periodic nanopyramid light-emitting diode arrays on gallium nitride/sapphire templates were fabricated by selective-area metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and multiple-exposure colloidal lithography. The electric field intensity distribution of incident light going through polystyrene microspheres and photoresist are simulated using finite-different time-domain method...
January 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103528/topical-vaccination-with-super-stable-ready-to-use-nanovesicles
#16
Ayelen Tatiana Caimi, Federico Parra, Marcelo Alexander de Farias, Rodrigo Villares Portugal, Ana Paula Perez, Eder Lilia Romero, Maria Jose Morilla
Ultradeformable archaeosomes (UDA) are nanovesicles made of total polar archaeolipids (TPA) from the archaea Halorubrum tebenquichense, soybean phosphatidylcholine and sodium cholate (3:3:1w/w). Fresh dispersions of UDA including different type of antigens are acknowledged as efficient topical vaccination agents. UDA dispersions however, if manufactured for pharmaceutical use, have to maintain colloidal stability upon liposomicidal processes such as sterilization and lyophilization (SLRUDA), needed to extend shelf life during storage...
December 26, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102964/plasmonic-chirality-imprinting-on-nucleobase-displaying-supramolecular-nanohelices-by-metal-nucleobase-recognition
#17
Yiyang Lin, E Thomas Pashuck, Michael R Thomas, Nadav Amdursky, Shih-Ting Wang, Lesley W Chow, Molly M Stevens
Supramolecular self-assembly is an important process that enables the conception of complex structures mimicking biological motifs. Herein, we constructed helical fibrils through chiral self-assembly of nucleobase-peptide conjugates (NPCs), where achiral nucleobases are helically displayed on the surface of fibrils, comparable to polymerized nucleic acids. Selective binding between DNA and the NPC fibrils was observed with fluorescence polarization. Taking advantage of metal-nucleobase recognition, we highlight the possibility of deposition/assembly of plasmonic nanoparticles onto the fibrillar constructs...
January 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102947/a-feasibility-study-of-an-integrated-nir-gamma-visible-imaging-system-for-endoscopic-sentinel-lymph-node-mapping
#18
Han Gyu Kang, Ho-Young Lee, Kyeong Min Kim, Seong-Hyun Song, Gun Chul Hong, Seong Jong Hong
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to integrate NIR, gamma, and visible imaging tools into a single endoscopic system to overcome the limitation of NIR using gamma imaging and to demonstrate the feasibility of endoscopic NIR/gamma/visible fusion imaging for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping with a small animal. METHODS: The endoscopic NIR/gamma/visible imaging system consists of a tungsten pinhole collimator, a plastic focusing lens, a BGO crystal (11 × 11 × 2 mm(3) ), a fiber-optic taper (front = 11 × 11 mm(2) , end = 4 × 4 mm(2) ), a 122-cm long endoscopic fiber bundle, an NIR emission filter, a relay lens, and a CCD camera...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102836/preparation-characterization-and-in-vitro-dosimetry-of-dispersed-engineered-nanomaterials
#19
Glen M DeLoid, Joel M Cohen, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Philip Demokritou
Evidence continues to grow of the importance of in vitro and in vivo dosimetry in the hazard assessment and ranking of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Accurate dose metrics are particularly important for in vitro cellular screening to assess the potential health risks or bioactivity of ENMs. To ensure meaningful and reproducible quantification of in vitro dose, with consistent measurement and reporting between laboratories, it is necessary to adopt standardized and integrated methodologies for (i) generation of stable ENM suspensions in cell culture media; (ii) colloidal characterization of suspended ENMs, particularly of properties that determine particle kinetics in an in vitro system (size distribution and formed agglomerate effective density); and (iii) robust numerical fate and transport modeling for accurate determination of the ENM dose delivered to cells over the course of the in vitro exposure...
February 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102403/janus-pegylated-gold-nanoparticles-a-robust-colorimetric-probe-for-sensing-nitrite-ions-in-complex-samples
#20
Yanmei Xiong, Mingmin Li, Huiqiao Liu, Zhihong Xuan, Jie Yang, Dingbin Liu
We presented a Janus PEGylated AuNP probe where PEGs and recognition ligands (e.g., 4-aminobenzenethiol, 4-ABT) were asymmetrically functionalized on an AuNP. With this design, the probes showed high colloidal stability, signal robustness, specificity, and sufficient sensitivity in the determination of NO2(-) in various complex samples.
January 19, 2017: Nanoscale
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