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Yutaka Miura, Yoshitaka Iwazu, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Tetsu Akimoto, Kazuhiko Kotani, Masahiko Kurabayashi, Hiroshi Kurosu, Makoto Kuro-O
Calciprotein particles (CPP) are solid-phase calcium-phosphate bound to serum protein fetuin-A and dispersed as colloids in the blood. Recent clinical studies indicated that serum CPP levels were increased with decline of renal function and associated with inflammation and vascular calcification. However, CPP assays used in these studies measured only a part of CPP over a certain particle size and density. Here we show that such CPP are mostly artifacts generated during processing of serum samples in vitro...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Neus Vilanova, Isja de Feijter, Abraham J P Teunissen, Ilja K Voets
To tailor the properties of colloidal materials, precise control over the self-assembly of their constituents is a prerequisite. Here, we govern the assembly of silica particles by functionalization with supramolecular moieties which interact with each other via directional and reversible hydrogen bonding. Through a generally applicable synthesis protocol, two different types of self-complementary hydrogen bonding moieties, BTA- and UPy-derivatives, are anchored to silica particles. Their self-assembly is initiated by the UV-induced removal of a photolabile protecting group, allowing the formation of hydrogen bonds between tethered molecules...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Majid Nasiriboroumand, Majid Montazer, Hossein Barani
The potential application of any nanoparticles, including silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), strongly depends on their stability against aggregation. In the current study, an aqueous extract of pomegranate peel was used as a stabilizer during synthesis of AgNPs. Nanoparticles have been prepared by the chemical reduction method from an aqueous solution of silver nitrate in the presence of sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. The AgNPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta-potential measurements, UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Caspar Schreuer, Stijn Vandewiele, Filip Strubbe, Kristiaan Neyts, Filip Beunis
HYPOTHESIS: Colloidal particles in a pure nonpolar solvent are expected to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium where a particle's charge fluctuates around a stable mean value. However, we find that PHSA-coated PMMA microparticles in dodecane gain positive charge over time. We hypothesize that this phenomenon is prompted by the high electric field (∼1 V/µm) that is applied in these measurements. Hence, we expect the reaction rate at which charge builds up on the particle to change when modifying the measurement parameters...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Elyssia Mayhead, Alla Silkina, Carole A Llewellyn, Claudio Fuentes-Grünewald
The nutrient removal efficiency of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in domestic wastewater was investigated, along with the potential to use membrane filtration as a pre-treatment tool during the wastewater treatment process. Chlorella vulgaris was batch cultivated for 12 days in a bubble column system with two different wastewater treatments. Maximum uptake of 94.18% ammonium (NH₄-N) and 97.69% ortho-phosphate (PO₄-P) occurred in 0.2 μm membrane filtered primary wastewater. Membrane filtration enhanced the nutrient uptake performance of C...
January 19, 2018: Biology
Caitlin E Cash, Jeremy Wang, Maya M Martirossyan, B Kemper Ludlow, Alejandro E Baptista, Nina M Brown, Eli J Weissler, Jatin Abacousnac, Sharon J Gerbode
We find that laser-induced local melting attracts and deforms grain boundaries in 2D colloidal crystals. When a melted region in contact with the edge of a crystal grain recrystallizes, it deforms the grain boundary-this attraction is driven by the multiplicity of deformed grain boundary configurations. Furthermore, the attraction provides a method to fabricate artificial colloidal crystal grains of arbitrary shape, enabling new experimental studies of grain boundary dynamics and ultimately hinting at a novel approach for fabricating materials with designer microstructures...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Renji Bian, Ruizhi Lin, Guilin Wang, Gang Lu, Weiqiang Zhi, Shanglin Xiang, Tingwei Wang, Paul S Clegg, Dongyu Cai, Wei Huang
MXene is an emerging class of 2D materials exfoliated from ternary carbide and nitride ceramics. The exfoliation process, which is an acid etching approach, functionalizes the MXene surface with -OH, -O and -F groups. These functional groups offer significant opportunities for tuning the colloidal properties of the MXene nanoblocks; importantly, this tunability points the way towards a facile route for assembling these nanoblocks into 3D architectures that are in demand for many applications. This route, presented for the first time here, uses water/oil interfaces for assembling Ti3C2-MXene in 3D architectures...
January 19, 2018: Nanoscale
Katherine R Phillips, Tanya Shirman, Elijah Shirman, Anna V Shneidman, Theresa M Kay, Joanna Aizenberg
Inorganic microstructured materials are ubiquitous in nature. However, their formation in artificial self-assembly systems is challenging as it involves a complex interplay of competing forces during and after assembly. For example, colloidal assembly requires fine-tuning of factors such as the size and surface charge of the particles and electrolyte strength of the solvent to enable successful self-assembly and minimize crack formation. Co-assembly of templating colloidal particles together with a sol-gel matrix precursor material helps to release stresses that accumulate during drying and solidification, as previously shown for the formation of high-quality inverse opal (IO) films out of amorphous silica...
January 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
Changling Ji, Liang Meng, Hualin Wang
In this study, a composite remediation material for the enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) in aqueous solution was prepared. This material was comprised of biochar as the carrier and adsorbent, and carrageenan (CG) as the embedding medium to entrap the organic carbon sources and zero-valent iron (ZVI). We determined the suitable biochar dosage and organic carbon source in the composite alongside the optimal preparation conditions. Furthermore, using an anaerobic microcosm study, we discussed the performance and possible mechanisms of the composite on 1,1,1-TCA removal in aqueous solution...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
V Meester, D J Kraft
We investigate the mechanisms underlying the reconfiguration of random aggregates of spheres through capillary interactions, the so-called "colloidal recycling" method, to fabricate a wide variety of patchy particles. We explore the influence of capillary forces on clusters of deformable seed particles by systematically varying the crosslink density of the spherical seeds. Spheres with a poorly crosslinked polymer network strongly deform due to capillary forces and merge into large spheres. With increasing crosslink density and therefore rigidity, the shape of the spheres is increasingly preserved during reconfiguration, yielding patchy particles of well-defined shape for up to five spheres...
January 19, 2018: Soft Matter
Qing-Yuan Lin, Jarad A Mason, Zhongyang Li, Wenjie Zhou, Matthew N O'Brien, Keith A Brown, Matthew R Jones, Serkan Butun, Byeongdu Lee, Vinayak P Dravid, Koray Aydin, Chad A Mirkin
DNA programmable assembly has been combined with top-down lithography to construct superlattices of discrete, reconfigurable nanoparticle architectures on a gold surface over large areas. Specifically, the assembly of individual colloidal plasmonic nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes is controlled by oligonucleotides containing "locked" nucleic acids and confined environments provided by polymer pores to yield oriented architectures that feature tunable arrangements and independently controllable distances at both nanometer and micrometer length scales...
January 18, 2018: Science
Yanbing Niu, Defu Wang, Liyan Cui, Baoxia Wang, Xiaojing Pang, Peixia Yu
BACKGROUND: Tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV), a new species of genus Tospovirus, caused significant losses in yield and problems in quality of many important vegetables and ornamentals in Southwest China and posed a serious threat to important economic crops for the local farmers. A convenient and reliable method was urgently needed for rapid detection and surveillance of TZSV. METHODS: The nucleocapsid protein (N) of TZSV was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified, and was used as the antigen to immunize BALB/c mice...
January 18, 2018: Virology Journal
Shuvojit Paul, Abhrajit Laskar, Rajesh Singh, Basudev Roy, R Adhikari, Ayan Banerjee
The fluctuation-dissipation relation, a central result in nonequilibrium statistical physics, relates equilibrium fluctuations in a system to its linear response to external forces. Here we provide a direct experimental verification of this relation for viscously coupled oscillators, as realized by a pair of optically trapped colloidal particles. A theoretical analysis, in which interactions mediated by slow viscous flow are represented by nonlocal friction tensors, matches experimental results and reveals a frequency maximum in the amplitude of the mutual response which is a sensitive function of the trap stiffnesses and the friction tensors...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Martin Girard, Trung Dac Nguyen, Monica Olvera de la Cruz
Coarse-grained potentials are ubiquitous in mesoscale simulations. While various methods to compute effective interactions for spherically symmetric particles exist, anisotropic interactions are seldom used, due to their complexity. Here we describe a general formulation, based on a spatial decomposition of the density fields around the particles, akin to atomic orbitals. We show that anisotropic potentials can be efficiently computed in numerical simulations using Fourier-based methods. We validate the field formulation and characterize its computational efficiency with a system of colloids that have Gaussian surface charge distributions...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Aykut Argun, Jalpa Soni, Lennart Dabelow, Stefano Bo, Giuseppe Pesce, Ralf Eichhorn, Giovanni Volpe
Microscopic heat engines are microscale systems that convert energy flows between heat reservoirs into work or systematic motion. We have experimentally realized a minimal microscopic heat engine. It consists of a colloidal Brownian particle optically trapped in an elliptical potential well and simultaneously coupled to two heat baths at different temperatures acting along perpendicular directions. For a generic arrangement of the principal directions of the baths and the potential, the symmetry of the system is broken, such that the heat flow drives a systematic gyrating motion of the particle around the potential minimum...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Yiwei Wang, Pingwen Zhang, Jeff Z Y Chen
We present numerical solutions to the Landau-de Gennes free-energy model under the one-constant approximation for systems of single and double spherical colloidal particles immersed in an otherwise uniformly aligned nematic liquid crystal. A perfect homeotropic surface anchoring of liquid-crystal molecules on the spherical surface is considered. A large parameter space is carefully examined, including those in the free-energy model and those describing the dimer configurations and the background liquid-crystal orientation...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Mpumelelo Matse, Mykyta V Chubynsky, John Bechhoefer
The mechanism of diffusing diffusivity predicts that, in environments where the diffusivity changes gradually, the displacement distribution becomes non-Gaussian, even though the mean-square displacement grows linearly with time. Here, we report single-particle tracking measurements of the diffusion of colloidal spheres near a planar substrate. Because the local effective diffusivity is known, we have been able to carry out a direct test of this mechanism for diffusion in inhomogeneous media.
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Andrew P Hammond, Eric I Corwin
A thermal colloid suspended in a liquid will transition from a short-time ballistic motion to a long-time diffusive motion. However, the transition between ballistic and diffusive motion is highly dependent on the properties and structure of the particular liquid. We directly observe a free floating tracer particle's ballistic motion and its transition to the long-time regime in both a Newtonian fluid and a viscoelastic Maxwell fluid. We examine the motion of the free particle in a Newtonian fluid and demonstrate a high degree of agreement with the accepted Clercx-Schram model for motion in a dense fluid...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Alexandre Morin, David Lopes Cardozo, Vijayakumar Chikkadi, Denis Bartolo
Combining experiments and theory, we address the dynamics of self-propelled particles in crowded environments. We first demonstrate that motile colloids cruising at constant speed through random lattices undergo a smooth transition from diffusive to subdiffusive to localized dynamics upon increasing the obstacle density. We then elucidate the nature of these transitions by performing extensive simulations constructed from a detailed analysis of the colloid-obstacle interactions. We evidence that repulsion at a distance and hard-core interactions both contribute to slowing down the long-time diffusion of the colloids...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Baojin Chu, David R Salem
Modified drop weight impact tests were performed on SiO_{2}-ethylene glycol concentrated suspensions. Counterintuitive impact-induced solidlike behavior and elasticity, causing significant deceleration and rebound of the impactor, were observed. We provide evidence that the observed large deceleration force on the impactor mainly originates from the hydrodynamic force, and that the elasticity arises from the short-range repulsive force of a solvation layer on the particle surface. This study presents key experimental results to help understand the mechanisms underlying various stress-induced solidification phenomena...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
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