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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351314/species-richness-of-eurasian-zephyrus-hairstreaks-lepidoptera-lycaenidae-theclini-with-implications-on-historical-biogeography-an-ndm-vndm-approach
#1
Hailing Zhuang, Masaya Yago, Josef Settele, Xiushan Li, Rei Ueshima, Nick V Grishin, Min Wang
AIM: A database based on distributional records of Eurasian Zephyrus hairstreaks (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Theclini) was compiled to analyse their areas of endemism (AoEs), species richness and distribution patterns, to explore their locations of past glacial refugia and dispersal routes. METHODS: Over 2000 Zephyrus hairstreaks occurrences are analysed using the NDM/VNDM algorithm, for the recognition of AoEs. Species richness was calculated by using the option 'Number of different classes' to count the different classes of a variable presented in each 3...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350475/water-deficit-disrupts-male-gametophyte-development-in-quercus-ilex
#2
Olga Bykova, Jean-Marc Limousin, Jean-Marc Ourcival, Isabelle Chuine
Tree species distribution, and hence forest biodiversity, rely on the reproductive capacity of trees which is currently affected by climate change. Drought-induced pollen sterility could increase as a consequence of more intense and more frequent droughts projected for temperate and Mediterranean regions and threaten the sexual regeneration of trees in these regions. To evaluate this possibility, we examined the effect of long-term partial rainfall exclusion (-27% of precipitation) on male reproductive development in holm oak, Quercus ilex, one of the most important and widespread tree species of the Mediterranean region...
January 19, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350248/natural-variation-and-genetic-make-up-of-leaf-blade-area-in-spring-barley
#3
Ahmad M Alqudah, Helmy M Youssef, Andreas Graner, Thorsten Schnurbusch
GWAS analysis for leaf blade area (LA) revealed intriguing genomic regions associated with putatively novel QTL and known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. Despite long-standing studies in the morpho-physiological characters of leaf blade area (LA) in cereal crops, advanced genetic studies to explore its natural variation are lacking. The importance of modifying LA in improving cereal grain yield and the genes controlling leaf traits have been well studied in rice but not in temperate cereals...
January 19, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347752/noise-driven-current-reversal-and-stabilization-in-the-tilted-ratchet-potential-subject-to-tempered-stable-l%C3%A3-vy-noise
#4
Mathew L Zuparic, Alexander C Kalloniatis, Dale O Roberts
We consider motion of a particle in a one-dimensional tilted ratchet potential subject to two-sided tempered stable Lévy noise characterized by strength Ω, fractional index α, skew θ, and tempering λ. We derive analytic solutions to the corresponding Fokker-Planck Lévy equations for the probability density. Due to the periodicity of the potential, we carry out reduction to a compact domain and solve for the analog of steady-state solutions which we represent as wrapped probability density functions. By solving for the expected value of the current associated with the particle motion, we are able to determine thresholds for metastability of the system, namely when the particle stabilizes in a well of the potential and when the particle is in motion, for example as a consequence of the tilt of the potential...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347481/effective-optimization-using-sample-persistence-a-case-study-on-quantum-annealers-and-various-monte-carlo-optimization-methods
#5
Hamed Karimi, Gili Rosenberg, Helmut G Katzgraber
We present and apply a general-purpose, multistart algorithm for improving the performance of low-energy samplers used for solving optimization problems. The algorithm iteratively fixes the value of a large portion of the variables to values that have a high probability of being optimal. The resulting problems are smaller and less connected, and samplers tend to give better low-energy samples for these problems. The algorithm is trivially parallelizable since each start in the multistart algorithm is independent, and could be applied to any heuristic solver that can be run multiple times to give a sample...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347413/off-diagonal-expansion-quantum-monte-carlo
#6
Tameem Albash, Gene Wagenbreth, Itay Hen
We propose a Monte Carlo algorithm designed to simulate quantum as well as classical systems at equilibrium, bridging the algorithmic gap between quantum and classical thermal simulation algorithms. The method is based on a decomposition of the quantum partition function that can be viewed as a series expansion about its classical part. We argue that the algorithm not only provides a theoretical advancement in the field of quantum Monte Carlo simulations, but is optimally suited to tackle quantum many-body systems that exhibit a range of behaviors from "fully quantum" to "fully classical," in contrast to many existing methods...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347382/aging-in-mortal-superdiffusive-l%C3%A3-vy-walkers
#7
Helena Stage
A growing body of literature examines the effects of superdiffusive subballistic movement premeasurement (aging or time lag) on observations arising from single-particle tracking. A neglected aspect is the finite lifetime of these Lévy walkers, be they proteins, cells, or larger structures. We examine the effects of aging on the motility of mortal walkers, and discuss the means by which permanent stopping of walkers may be categorized as arising from "natural" death or experimental artifacts such as low photostability or radiation damage...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345344/differential-outcomes-of-tlr2-engagement-in-inflammation-induced-preterm-birth
#8
Monica Cappelletti, Matthew J Lawson, Calvin C Chan, Adrienne N Wilburn, Senad Divanovic
Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of neonatal mortality worldwide. Infection and inflammation are considered main causes of PTB. Among multiple pathogens, Gram-positive bacteria are commonly linked with induction of PTB. Although activation of innate immune responses, via TLR2 engagement, by Gram-positive bacteria is a likely cause, whether induction of PTB depends on the potency of specific microbial components to induce Toll-like receptor (TLR)2-driven inflammation has not been elucidated. Here, we show that TLR2 activation by synthetic lipopeptides, Pam2Cys, and Pam3Cys specifically, variably influenced inflammation and subsequent induction of PTB...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345224/therapy-interventions-for-children-with-neurodisabilities-a-qualitative-scoping-study
#9
Bryony Beresford, Susan Clarke, Jane Maddison
BACKGROUND: Therapy interventions emerged four times in the top 10 research priorities in a James Lind Alliance research prioritisation exercise for children with neurodisabilities (Morris C, Simkiss D, Busk M, Morris M, Allard A, Denness J, et al. Setting research priorities to improve the health of children and young people with neurodisability: a British Academy of Childhood Disability-James Lind Alliance Research Priority Setting Partnership. BMJ Open 2015;5:e006233). The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) commissioned this study as part of an information-gathering exercise in response to this...
January 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345091/the-responses-of-microbial-temperature-relationships-to-seasonal-change-and-winter-warming-in-a-temperate-grassland-soil
#10
Johanna Birgander, Pål Axel Olsson, Johannes Rousk
Microorganisms dominate the decomposition of organic matter and their activities are strongly influenced by temperature. As the carbon (C) flux from soil to the atmosphere due to microbial activity is substantial, understanding temperature relationships of microbial processes is critical. It has been shown that microbial temperature relationships in soil correlate with the climate, and microorganisms in field experiments become more warm-tolerant in response to chronic warming. It is also known that microbial temperature relationships reflect the seasons in aquatic ecosystems, but to date this has not been investigated in soil...
January 18, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345034/precipitation-frequency-alters-peatland-ecosystem-structure-and-co2-exchange-contrasting-effects-on-moss-sedge-and-shrub-communities
#11
Danielle D Radu, Tim P Duval
Climate projections forecast a redistribution of seasonal precipitation for much of the globe into fewer, larger events spaced between longer dry periods, with negligible changes in seasonal rainfall totals. This intensification of the rainfall regime is expected to alter near-surface water availability, which will affect plant performance and carbon uptake. This could be especially important in peatland systems, where large stores of carbon are tightly coupled to water surpluses limiting decomposition. Here, we examined the role of precipitation frequency on vegetation growth and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) balances for communities dominated by a Sphagnum moss, a sedge, and an ericaceous shrub in a cool temperate poor fen...
January 18, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345019/a-vascular-mechanism-to-explain-thermally-mediated-variations-in-deep-body-cooling-rates-during-the-immersion-of-profoundly-hyperthermic-individuals
#12
Joanne N Caldwell, Anne M J van den Heuvel, Pete Kerry, Mitchell J Clark, Gregory E Peoples, Nigel A S Taylor
Physiologically trivial time differences for cooling the intrathoracic viscera of hyperthermic individuals have been reported between cold- and temperate-water immersion treatments. One explanation for that observation is reduced convective heat delivery to the skin during cold immersion, and this experiment was designed to test both the validity of that observation, and its underlying hypothesis. Eight healthy males participated in four head-out, water immersions: two when normothermic, and two following exercise-induced, moderate-profound hyperthermia...
January 18, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344527/medical-students-experiences-and-perspective-on-unprofessional-behavior-in-clinical-practice
#13
Zeinab Jamalabadi, Sedigheh Ebrahimi
Introduction: Recognition of professional and unprofessional behaviors is the most important and fundamental factor which affects the relationships between the doctors and patients. Therefore, in order to progress in their professional life, doctors are supposed to understand and follow these behaviors. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive analytical study. All students in teaching hospital of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were eligible to participate (374 individuals with census method)...
January 2018: Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342194/tolerance-to-mild-salinity-stress-in-japonica-rice-a-genome-wide-association-mapping-study-highlights-calcium-signaling-and-metabolism-genes
#14
Julien Frouin, Antoine Languillaume, Justine Mas, Delphine Mieulet, Arnaud Boisnard, Axel Labeyrie, Mathilde Bettembourg, Charlotte Bureau, Eve Lorenzini, Muriel Portefaix, Patricia Turquay, Aurore Vernet, Christophe Périn, Nourollah Ahmadi, Brigitte Courtois
Salinity tolerance is an important quality for European rice grown in river deltas. We evaluated the salinity tolerance of a panel of 235 temperate japonica rice accessions genotyped with 30,000 SNP markers. The panel was exposed to mild salt stress (50 mM NaCl; conductivity of 6 dS m-1) at the seedling stage. Eight different root and shoot growth parameters were measured for both the control and stressed treatments. The Na+ and K+ mass fractions of the stressed plants were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341311/decreased-thermal-sweating-of-central-sudomotor-mechanism-in-african-and-korean-men
#15
Jeong Beom Lee, Jeong Ho Kim
OBJECTIVE: Tropical natives sweat less and preserve more body fluid than temperate natives, tolerating heat stress. However, the mechanisms involved in such sweating reduction have not been fully elucidated. We examined the sudomotor responses of men of African (n = 36) and Korean (n = 41) ancestry during hot water (43 °C) leg immersion (central sudomotor response). Correlations between mean body temperature, basal metabolic rate (BMR), and sweat rate were also examined. METHODS: All procedures were done in an automated climate chamber...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340714/taxonomical-resolution-and-distribution-of-bacterioplankton-along-the-vertical-gradient-reveals-pronounced-spatiotemporal-patterns-in-contrasted-temperate-freshwater-lakes
#16
J Keshri, A S Pradeep Ram, P A Nana, T Sime-Ngando
We examined the relationship between viruses and co-occurring bacterial communities across spatiotemporal scale in two contrasting freshwater lakes, namely meromictic Lake Pavin and dimictic Lake Aydat (Central France). Next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA genes suggested distinct patterns in bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) between the lakes over depths and seasons. BCC were generally dominated by members of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes covering about 95% of all sequences...
January 16, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340255/habitat-use-in-south-west-european-skinks-genus-chalcides
#17
Daniel Escoriza, Guillem Pascual, Alberto Sánchez-Vialas
Background: Congeneric species of reptiles frequently exhibit partitioning in terms of their use of habitats or trophic resources in order to reduce competition. In this study, we investigated habitat use by two species of European skinks: Chalcides bedriagai and Chalcides striatus, based on 49 records from southern France, Spain, and Portugal. Methods: We measured three levels of niche descriptors: macroscale (climate, topography, and substrate), mesoscale (plant associations), and microscale (vegetation cover and shelters)...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339343/an-integrated-evaluation-of-some-faecal-indicator-bacteria-fib-and-chemical-markers-as-potential-tools-for-monitoring-sewage-contamination-in-subtropical-estuaries
#18
Ana Caroline Cabral, Jonathan S Stark, Hedda E Kolm, César C Martins
Sewage input and the relationship between chemical markers (linear alkylbenzenes and coprostanol) and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB, Escherichia coli and enterococci), were evaluated in order to establish thresholds values for chemical markers in suspended particulate matter (SPM) as indicators of sewage contamination in two subtropical estuaries in South Atlantic Brazil. Both chemical markers presented no linear relationship with FIB due to high spatial microbiological variability, however, microbiological water quality was related to coprostanol values when analyzed by logistic regression, indicating that linear models may not be the best representation of the relationship between both classes of indicators...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338052/correction-diversification-dynamics-species-sorting-and-changes-in-the-functional-diversity-of-marine-benthic-gastropods-during-the-pliocene-quaternary-at-temperate-western-south-america
#19
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337868/bacteriophage-gc1-a-novel-tectivirus-infecting-gluconobacter-cerinus-an-acetic-acid-bacterium-associated-with-wine-making
#20
Cécile Philippe, Mart Krupovic, Fety Jaomanjaka, Olivier Claisse, Melina Petrel, Claire le Marrec
The Gluconobacter phage GC1 is a novel member of the Tectiviridae family isolated from a juice sample collected during dry white wine making. The bacteriophage infects Gluconobacter cerinus, an acetic acid bacterium which represents a spoilage microorganism during wine making, mainly because it is able to produce ethyl alcohol and transform it into acetic acid. Transmission electron microscopy revealed tail-less icosahedral particles with a diameter of ~78 nm. The linear double-stranded DNA genome of GC1 (16,523 base pairs) contains terminal inverted repeats and carries 36 open reading frames, only a handful of which could be functionally annotated...
January 16, 2018: Viruses
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