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Alisa L Gallant, Walt Sadinski, Jesslyn F Brown, Gabriel B Senay, Mark F Roth
Assessing climate-related ecological changes across spatiotemporal scales meaningful to resource managers is challenging because no one method reliably produces essential data at both fine and broad scales. We recently confronted such challenges while integrating data from ground- and satellite-based sensors for an assessment of four wetland-rich study areas in the U.S. Midwest. We examined relations between temperature and precipitation and a set of variables measured on the ground at individual wetlands and another set measured via satellite sensors within surrounding 4 km² landscape blocks...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Joseph M Kasper, David B Williams-Young, Eugene Vecharynski, Chao Yang, Xiaosong Li
The time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) equations allow one to probe electronic resonances of a system quickly and cheaply. However, the iterative solution of the eigenvalue problem can be challenging or impossible to converge with standard methods such as the Davidson algorithm for spectrally dense regions in the interior of the spectrum as are common in X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). More robust solvers such as the generalized preconditioned locally harmonic residual (GPLHR) method can alleviate this problem, but at the expense of higher average computational cost...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Ian Hewson, Kalia S I Bistolas, Jason B Button, Elliot W Jackson
Decades of research have demonstrated the crucial importance of viruses in freshwater ecosystems. However, few studies have focused on the seasonal dynamics and potential hosts of RNA viruses. We surveyed microbial-sized (i.e. 5-0.2 μm) mixed community plankton transcriptomes for RNA viral genomes and investigated their distribution between microbial and macrobial plankton over a seasonal cycle across three temperate lakes by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). A total of 30 contigs bearing similarity to RNA viral genomes were recovered from a global assembly of 30 plankton RNA libraries...
2018: PloS One
Masatoshi Matsunami, Daiji Endo, Naruya Saitou, Hitoshi Suzuki, Manabu Onuma
The wood mouse (genus Apodemus ) is one of the most common rodents in broad-leaf forests in the temperate zone of the Palaearctic region. Molecular studies of wood mice have critically enhanced the understanding of their evolution and ancestral biogeographic events. However, their molecular data are currently only limited to partial mitochondrial sequences and a few genes. Therefore, we sequenced the wood mouse genome to facilitate the acquisition of useful resources for inferring their molecular evolution...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Anita Lwanga, Michael Anis, Mohamed Ayoubi, Jaya Sharma, Pam Khosla
Myiasis is the infestation of humans with dipterous larvae. Traditionally, myiasis was thought to affect individuals living in tropical regions, however, several cases in temperate zones have been reported. We encountered two patients with histories of malignancies that presented with complaints of myiasis, in Chicago, in the spring and summer of 2016. The first patient, a 54-year-old female with a history of breast cancer, presented with complaints of maggots infesting her postsurgical chest wounds. She was diagnosed with sepsis, cellulitis, and wound myiasis...
January 10, 2018: Curēus
Yan Shen, Neil McLaughlin, Xiaoping Zhang, Minggang Xu, Aizhen Liang
Crop residue return is imperative to maintain soil health and productivity but some farmers resist adopting conservation tillage systems with residue return fearing reduced soil temperature following planting and crop yield. Soil temperatures were measured at 10 cm depth for one month following planting from 2004 to 2007 in a field experiment in Northeast China. Tillage treatments included mouldboard plough (MP), no till (NT), and ridge till (RT) with maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max Merr.) crops...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Silvia Zingg, Patrick Dolle, Maarten Jeroen Voordouw, Maren Kern
BACKGROUND: Ticks and tick-borne pathogens are a global problem for the health of humans and their livestock. Wood ants are important ecosystem engineers in forests worldwide. Although both taxa are well studied, little is known about their interactions under natural conditions. The purpose of the present field study was to test whether European red wood ants (Formica polyctena) influence the abundance of Ixodes tick populations in temperate forests. METHODS: Data collection took place in 130 sampling plots located at 26 ant nest sites paired with 26 control sites in northwestern Switzerland...
March 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Mai-He Li, Yong Jiang, Ao Wang, Xiaobin Li, Wanze Zhu, Cai-Feng Yan, Zhong Du, Zheng Shi, Jingpin Lei, Leonie Schönbeck, Peng He, Fei-Hai Yu, Xue Wang
The low-temperature limited alpine treeline is one of the most obvious boundaries in mountain landscapes. The question of whether resource limitation is the physiological mechanism for the formation of the alpine treeline is still waiting for conclusive evidence and answers. We therefore examined non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and nitrogen (N) in treeline trees (TATs) and low-elevation trees (LETs) in both summer and winter in 11 alpine treeline cases ranging from subtropical monsoon to temperate continental climates across Eurasia...
March 12, 2018: Tree Physiology
Tomasz Stępkowski, Joanna Banasiewicz, Camille E Granada, Mitchell Andrews, Luciane M P Passaglia
The legume tribe Genisteae comprises 618, predominantly temperate species, showing an amphi-Atlantic distribution that was caused by several long-distance dispersal events. Seven out of the 16 authenticated rhizobial genera can nodulate particular Genisteae species. Bradyrhizobium predominates among rhizobia nodulating Genisteae legumes. Bradyrhizobium strains that infect Genisteae species belong to both the Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii superclades. In symbiotic gene phylogenies, Genisteae bradyrhizobia are scattered among several distinct clades, comprising strains that originate from phylogenetically distant legumes...
March 14, 2018: Genes
Antoine Lecocq, Amelia A Green, Érika Cristina Pinheiro De Castro, Carl Erik Olsen, Annette B Jensen, Mika Zagrobelny
Honeybees ( Apis mellifera ) pollinate flowers and collect nectar from many important crops. White clover ( Trifolium repens ) is widely grown as a temperate forage crop, and requires honeybee pollination for seed set. In this study, using a quantitative LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) assay, we show that the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin are present in the leaves, sepals, petals, anthers, and nectar of T. repens . Cyanogenic glucosides are generally thought to be defense compounds, releasing toxic hydrogen cyanide upon degradation...
March 13, 2018: Insects
Masaki Kobayashi, Douglas W Zochodne
Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) continues to be generally considered as a "microvascular" complication of diabetes mellitus alongside nephropathy and retinopathy. The microvascular hypothesis, however, may be tempered by the concept that diabetes directly targets dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons. This neuron specific concept, supported by accumulating evidence, might account for important features of DPN, such as its early sensory neuron degeneration. Diabetic sensory neurons develop neuronal atrophy alongside a series of mRNA changes related to declines in structural proteins, increases in heat shock protein (HSP), increases in the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), declines in growth factor signaling and other changes...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Eva Rothäusler, Hannes Reinwald, Boris A López, Fadia Tala, Martin Thiel
The persistence of floating seaweeds, which depends on abiotic conditions but also herbivory, had previously been mostly tested in outdoor mesocosm experiments. In order to investigate if the obtained mesocosm results of high seaweed persistence under natural environmental conditions and under grazing pressure can be extrapolated to field situations, we conducted in situ experiments. During two summers (2007 and 2008), Macrocystis pyrifera was tethered (for 14 days) to lines in the presence and absence of the amphipod Peramphithoe femorata at three sites (Iquique, Coquimbo, Calfuco)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Jihua Ding, Henrik Böhlenius, Mark Georg Rühl, Peng Chen, Shashank Sane, Jose A Zambrano, Bo Zheng, Maria E Eriksson, Ove Nilsson
Survival of trees growing in temperate zones requires cycling between active growth and dormancy. This involves growth cessation in the autumn triggered by a photoperiod shorter than the critical day length. Variations in GIGANTEA (GI)-like genes have been associated with phenology in a range of different tree species, but characterization of the functions of these genes in the process is still lacking. We describe the identification of the Populus orthologs of GI and their critical role in short-day-induced growth cessation...
March 13, 2018: New Phytologist
Anushree Sanyal, Jonathan Lenoir, Carmel O'Neill, Frederic Dubois, Guillaume Decocq
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Nearly all seed plants rely on stored seed reserves before photosynthesis can commence. Natural selection for seed oil traits must have occurred over 319 million years of evolution since the first seed plant ancestor. Accounting for the biogeographic distribution of seed oil traits is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of adaptive evolution in seed plants. However, the evolution of seed oils is poorly understood. We provide evidence of the adaptive nature of seed oil traits at the intraspecific and interspecific levels in Brassicaceae-an oilseed-rich and economically important plant family...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
Amanda S Gallinat, Luca Russo, Eli K Melaas, Charles G Willis, Richard B Primack
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Patterns of fruiting phenology in temperate ecosystems are poorly understood, despite the ecological importance of fruiting for animal nutrition and seed dispersal. Herbarium specimens represent an under-utilized resource for investigating geographical and climatic factors affecting fruiting times within species, patterns in fruiting times among species, and differences between native and non-native invasive species. METHODS: We examined over 15,000 herbarium specimens, collected and housed across New England, and found 3159 specimens with ripe fruits, collected from 1849-2013...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
Noémie Graignic, Francine Tremblay, Yves Bergeron
Due to climate change, the ranges of many North American tree species are expected to shift northward. Sugar maple ( Acer saccharum Marshall) reaches its northern continuous distributional limit in northeastern North America at the transition between boreal mixed-wood and temperate deciduous forests. We hypothesized that marginal fragmented northern populations from the boreal mixed wood would have a distinct pattern of genetic structure and diversity. We analyzed variation at 18 microsatellite loci from 23 populations distributed along three latitudinal transects (west, central, and east) that encompass the continuous-discontinuous species range...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Mathieu Santonja, Laura Pellan, Christophe Piscart
Plant litter decomposition is an essential ecosystem function that contributes to carbon and nutrient cycling in streams. Aquatic shredders, mainly macroinvertebrates, can affect this process in various ways; they consume leaf litter, breaking it down into fragments and creating suitable habitats or resources for other organisms through the production of fine particulate organic matter (FPOM). However, measures of litter-feeding traits across a wide range of aquatic macroinvertebrates are still rare. Here, we assessed the contributions of 11 species of freshwater macroinvertebrates to litter decomposition, by measuring consumption rate, FPOM production, and assimilation rate of highly decomposable ( Alnus glutinosa ) or poorly decomposable ( Quercus robur ) leaf litter types...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Hideyuki Miyazawa, Hiroaki Nakano
Placozoans, flat free-living marine invertebrates, possess an extremely simple bauplan lacking neurons and muscle cells and represent one of the earliest-branching metazoan phyla. They are widely distributed from temperate to tropical oceans. Based on mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequences, 19 haplotypes forming seven distinct clades have been reported in placozoans to date. In Japan, placozoans have been found at nine locations, but 16S genotyping has been performed at only two of these locations. Here, we propose a new processing protocol, "ethanol-treated substrate sampling," for collecting placozoans from natural environments...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
MinHui Hao, Chunyu Zhang, Xiuhai Zhao, Klaus von Gadow
Understanding the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem productivity has become a central issue in ecology and conservation biology studies, particularly when these relationships are connected with global climate change and species extinction. However, which facets of biodiversity (i.e. taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity) account most for variations in productivity are still not understood very well. This is especially true with regard to temperate forest ecosystems. In this study, we used a dataset from a stem-mapped permanent forest plot in northeastern China exploring the relationships between biodiversity and productivity at different spatial scales (20 × 20 m; 40 × 40 m; and 60 × 60 m)...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Jeffrey D Bryant, Michael C Brown, Mikhail I Dobrikov, Elena Y Dobrikova, Sarah L Gemberling, Qing Zhang, Matthias Gromeier
Death associated protein 5 (DAP5) is an atypical isoform of the translation initiation scaffolds eukaryotic initiation factors 4GI and II (eIF4GI/II), which recruit mRNAs to ribosomes in mammals. Unlike eIF4GI/II, DAP5 binds eIF2β, a subunit of the eIF2 complex that delivers methionyl-tRNA to ribosomes. We discovered that DAP5:eIF2β binding depends on specific stimuli, e.g. protein kinase C (PKC)-Raf-ERK1/2 signals, and determines DAP5's influence on global and template-specific translation. DAP5 depletion caused an unanticipated surge of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), the transcription factor and master switch of the hypoxia response...
March 12, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
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