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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107542/temporal-segregation-between-dung-inhabiting-beetle-and-fly-species
#1
Frantisek Xaver Jiri Sladecek, Simon Tristram Segar, Colin Lee, Richard Wall, Martin Konvicka
The coexistence of ecologically similar species (i.e. species utilizing the same resource) is a major topic in ecology. Communities are assembled either through the biotic interactions of ecologically similar species, e.g. competition, or by the abiotic separation of species along gradients of environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the temporal segregation, succession and seasonality of dung-inhabiting Coleoptera and Diptera that utilize an identical resource in exactly the same way. The data were collected from two temperate pastures, one in the United Kingdom and the second in the Czech Republic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106081/shigatoxin-encoding-bacteriophage-%C3%AF-24b-modulates-bacterial-metabolism-to-raise-antimicrobial-tolerance
#2
G S Holt, J K Lodge, A J McCarthy, A K Graham, G Young, S H Bridge, A K Brown, M Veses-Garcia, C V Lanyon, A Sails, H E Allison, D L Smith
How temperate bacteriophages play a role in microbial infection and disease progression is not fully understood. They do this in part by carrying genes that promote positive evolutionary selection for the lysogen. Using Biolog phenotype microarrays and comparative metabolite profiling we demonstrate the impact of the well-characterised Shiga toxin-prophage ϕ24B on its Escherichia coli host MC1061. As a lysogen, the prophage alters the bacterial physiology by increasing the rates of respiration and cell proliferation...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106080/morphological-physiological-and-anatomical-traits-of-plant-functional-types-in-temperate-grasslands-along-a-large-scale-aridity-gradient-in-northeastern-china
#3
Chengyuan Guo, Linna Ma, Shan Yuan, Renzhong Wang
At the species level, plants can respond to climate changes by changing their leaf traits; however, there is scant information regarding the responses of morphological, physiological and anatomical traits of plant functional types (PFTs) to aridity. Herein, the leaf traits of five PFTs representing 17 plant species in temperate grasslands were examined along a large-scale aridity gradient in northeastern China. The results show that leaf thickness in shrubs, perennial grasses and forbs increased with heightened aridity...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103523/anthropogenic-chemical-cues-can-alter-the-swimming-behaviour-of-juvenile-stages-of-a-temperate-fish
#4
Carlos Díaz-Gil, Lucy Cotgrove, Sarah Louise Smee, David Simón-Otegui, Hilmar Hinz, Amalia Grau, Miquel Palmer, Ignacio A Catalán
Human pressure on coastal areas is affecting essential ecosystems including fish nursery habitats. Among these anthropogenic uses, the seasonal increment in the pressure due to leisure activities such as coastal tourism and yachting is an important environmental stressor in many coastal zones. These pressures may elicit understudied impacts due to, for example, sunscreens or other seasonal pollutants. The island of Majorca, northwest Mediterranean Sea, experiences one of the highest number of tourist visits per capita in the world, thus the surrounding coastal habitat is subject to high anthropogenic seasonal stress...
January 6, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103054/interface-related-attributes-of-the-maillard-reaction-born-glycoproteins
#5
Mehri Karbasi, Ashkan Madadlou
Interfacial behavior of proteins which is a chief parameter to their emulsifying and foaming properties can be tailored through the Maillard reaction. The reaction can increase protein solubility at isoelectric point and ought to be controlled for example by high pressure processing to suppress melanoidins formation. Branched and long saccharides bring considerable steric hindrance which is associated with their site of conjugation to proteins. Conjugation with high molecular weight polysaccharides (such as 440 kDa dextran) may indeed increase the thickness of globular proteins interfacial film up to approximately 25 nm...
January 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102339/effects-of-increased-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-deposition-on-offspring-performance-of-two-dominant-species-in-a-temperate-steppe-ecosystem
#6
Yang Li, Longyu Hou, Bing Song, Liuyi Yang, Linghao Li
Plants adapt to environment by plastic growth which will be transferred to offspring through transgenerational effect. Performance and response of maternal and offspring plant will affect population dynamics and community composition. However, it is scarcely understood how maternal nutrient environment affect the performance and response of offspring through transgenerational effect. Here we studied the impacts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enrichment on maternal and offspring performances and responses of Stipa krylovii and Artemisia frigida...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101587/factors-limiting-formation-of-community-forestry-enterprises-in-the-southern-mixteca-region-of-oaxaca-mexico
#7
José Antonio Hernández-Aguilar, Héctor Sergio Cortina-Villar, Luis Enrique García-Barrios, Miguel Ángel Castillo-Santiago
Many studies have considered community-based forestry enterprises to be the best option for development of rural Mexican communities with forests. While some of Mexico's rural communities with forests receive significant economic and social benefits from having a community forestry enterprise, the majority have not formed such enterprises. The purpose of this article is to identify and describe factors limiting the formation of community forestry enterprise in rural communities with temperate forests in the Southern Mixteca region of Oaxaca, Mexico...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100826/biomechanical-properties-of-wheat-grains-the-implications-on-milling
#8
James E Hourston, Michael Ignatz, Martin Reith, Gerhard Leubner-Metzger, Tina Steinbrecher
Millennia of continuous innovation have driven ever increasing efficiency in the milling process. Mechanically characterizing wheat grains and discerning the structure and function of the wheat bran layers can contribute to continuing innovation. We present novel shear force and puncture force testing regimes to characterize different wheat grain cultivars. The forces endured by wheat grains during the milling process can be quantified, enabling us to measure the impact of commonly applied grain pretreatments, such as microwave heating, extended tempering, enzyme and hormone treatments on grains of different 'hardness'...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100027/moving-beyond-presence-and-absence-when-examining-changes-in-species-distributions
#9
Michael B Ashcroft, Diana H King, Ben Raymond, Johanna D Turnbull, Jane Wasley, Sharon A Robinson
Species distributions are often simplified to binary representations of the ranges where they are present and absent. It is then common to look for changes in these ranges as indicators of the effects of climate change, the expansion or control of invasive species or the impact of human land use changes. We argue that there are inherent problems with this approach, and more emphasis should be placed on species relative abundance rather than just presence. The sampling effort required to be confident of absence is often impractical to achieve, and estimates of species range changes based on survey data are therefore inherently sensitive to sampling intensity...
January 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099772/exploring-the-symbiont-diversity-of-ancient-western-redcedars-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-of-long-lived-hosts
#10
Monika A Gorzelak, Brian J Pickles, Miranda M Hart
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are globally distributed, monophyletic root symbionts with ancient origins. Their contribution to carbon cycling and nutrient dynamics is ecologically important, given their obligate association with over 70% of vascular plant species. Current understanding of AMF species richness and community structure is based primarily on studies of grasses, herbs, and agricultural crops, typically in disturbed environments. Few studies have considered AMF interactions with long-lived woody perennial species in undisturbed ecosystems...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099761/size-structuring-and-allometric-scaling-relationships-in-coral-reef-fishes
#11
Jillian C Dunic, Julia K Baum
Temperate marine fish communities are often size structured, with predators consuming increasingly larger prey and feeding at higher trophic levels as they grow. Gape limitation and ontogenetic diet shifts are key mechanisms by which size structuring arises in these communities. Little is known, however, about size structuring in coral reef fishes. Here, we aimed to advance understanding of size structuring in coral reef food webs by examining the evidence for these mechanisms in two groups of reef predators...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099470/a-gene-oriented-haplotype-comparison-reveals-recently-selected-genomic-regions-in-temperate-and-tropical-maize-germplasm
#12
Cheng He, Junjie Fu, Jie Zhang, Yongxiang Li, Jun Zheng, Hongwei Zhang, Xiaohong Yang, Jianhua Wang, Guoying Wang
The extensive genetic variation present in maize (Zea mays) germplasm makes it possible to detect signatures of positive artificial selection that occurred during temperate and tropical maize improvement. Here we report an analysis of 532,815 polymorphisms from a maize association panel consisting of 368 diverse temperate and tropical inbred lines. We developed a gene-oriented approach adapting exonic polymorphisms to identify recently selected alleles by comparing haplotypes across the maize genome. This analysis revealed evidence of selection for more than 1100 genomic regions during recent improvement, and included regulatory genes and key genes with visible mutant phenotypes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099413/communication-between-viruses-guides-lysis-lysogeny-decisions
#13
Zohar Erez, Ida Steinberger-Levy, Maya Shamir, Shany Doron, Avigail Stokar-Avihail, Yoav Peleg, Sarah Melamed, Azita Leavitt, Alon Savidor, Shira Albeck, Gil Amitai, Rotem Sorek
Temperate viruses can become dormant in their host cells, a process called lysogeny. In every infection, such viruses decide between the lytic and the lysogenic cycles, that is, whether to replicate and lyse their host or to lysogenize and keep the host viable. Here we show that viruses (phages) of the SPbeta group use a small-molecule communication system to coordinate lysis-lysogeny decisions. During infection of its Bacillus host cell, the phage produces a six amino-acids-long communication peptide that is released into the medium...
January 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096401/ornithine-decarboxylase-regulates-m1-macrophage-activation-and-mucosal-inflammation-via-histone-modifications
#14
Dana M Hardbower, Mohammad Asim, Paula B Luis, Kshipra Singh, Daniel P Barry, Chunying Yang, Meredith A Steeves, John L Cleveland, Claus Schneider, M Blanca Piazuelo, Alain P Gobert, Keith T Wilson
Macrophage activation is a critical step in host responses during bacterial infections. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine metabolism, has been well studied in epithelial cells and is known to have essential roles in many different cellular functions. However, its role in regulating macrophage function during bacterial infections is not well characterized. We demonstrate that macrophage-derived ODC is a critical regulator of M1 macrophage activation during both Helicobacter pylori and Citrobacter rodentium infection...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095405/defining-the-risk-of-zika-and-chikungunya-virus-transmission-in-human-population-centers-of-the-eastern-united-states
#15
Carrie A Manore, Richard S Ostfeld, Folashade B Agusto, Holly Gaff, Shannon L LaDeau
The recent spread of mosquito-transmitted viruses and associated disease to the Americas motivates a new, data-driven evaluation of risk in temperate population centers. Temperate regions are generally expected to pose low risk for significant mosquito-borne disease; however, the spread of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) across densely populated urban areas has established a new landscape of risk. We use a model informed by field data to assess the conditions likely to facilitate local transmission of chikungunya and Zika viruses from an infected traveler to Ae...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092920/evolutionary-genomics-of-the-cold-adapted-diatom-fragilariopsis-cylindrus
#16
Thomas Mock, Robert P Otillar, Jan Strauss, Mark McMullan, Pirita Paajanen, Jeremy Schmutz, Asaf Salamov, Remo Sanges, Andrew Toseland, Ben J Ward, Andrew E Allen, Christopher L Dupont, Stephan Frickenhaus, Florian Maumus, Alaguraj Veluchamy, Taoyang Wu, Kerrie W Barry, Angela Falciatore, Maria I Ferrante, Antonio E Fortunato, Gernot Glöckner, Ansgar Gruber, Rachel Hipkin, Michael G Janech, Peter G Kroth, Florian Leese, Erika A Lindquist, Barbara R Lyon, Joel Martin, Christoph Mayer, Micaela Parker, Hadi Quesneville, James A Raymond, Christiane Uhlig, Ruben E Valas, Klaus U Valentin, Alexandra Z Worden, E Virginia Armbrust, Matthew D Clark, Chris Bowler, Beverley R Green, Vincent Moulton, Cock van Oosterhout, Igor V Grigoriev
The Southern Ocean houses a diverse and productive community of organisms. Unicellular eukaryotic diatoms are the main primary producers in this environment, where photosynthesis is limited by low concentrations of dissolved iron and large seasonal fluctuations in light, temperature and the extent of sea ice. How diatoms have adapted to this extreme environment is largely unknown. Here we present insights into the genome evolution of a cold-adapted diatom from the Southern Ocean, Fragilariopsis cylindrus, based on a comparison with temperate diatoms...
January 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092832/sampling-conformational-space-of-intrinsically-disordered-proteins-in-explicit-solvent-comparison-between-well-tempered-ensemble-approach-and-solute-tempering-method
#17
Mengzhi Han, Ji Xu, Ying Ren
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are a class of proteins that expected to be largely unstructured under physiological conditions. Due to their heterogeneous nature, experimental characterization of IDP is challenging. Temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics (T-REMD) is a widely used enhanced sampling method to probe structural characteristics of these proteins. However, its application has been hindered due to its tremendous computational cost, especially when simulating large systems in explicit solvent...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091822/does-the-growth-differentiation-balance-hypothesis-explain-allocation-to-secondary-metabolites-in-combretum-apiculatum-an-african-savanna-woody-species
#18
Dawood Hattas, Peter F Scogings, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
The growth differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH) provides a framework that predicts a trade-off between costs of secondary metabolites (SMs) relative to the demand for photosynthate by growth. However, this hypothesis was developed using empirical evidence from plant species in northern boreal and temperate systems, leaving its applicability to species under different abiotic and biotic conditions questionable and generalizations problematic. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the GDBH explains allocation to SMs in the deciduous African savanna woody species C...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089534/in-situ-measurements-of-light-absorbing-impurities-in-snow-of-glacier-on-mt-yulong-and-implications-for-radiative-forcing-estimates
#19
Hewen Niu, Shichang Kang, Xiaofei Shi, Rukumesh Paudyal, Yuanqing He, Gang Li, Shijin Wang, Tao Pu, Xiaoyi Shi
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) or the third polar cryosphere borders geographical hotspots for discharges of black carbon (BC). BC and dust play important roles in climate system and Earth's energy budget, particularly after they are deposited on snow and glacial surfaces. BC and dust are two kinds of main light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) in snow and glaciers. Estimating concentrations and distribution of LAIs in snow and glacier ice in the TP is of great interest because this region is a global hotspot in geophysical research...
January 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089046/deception-island-antarctica-harbors-a-diverse-assemblage-of-wood-decay-fungi
#20
Benjamin W Held, Robert A Blanchette
Very little is known about fungal diversity in Antarctica as compared to other biomes and how these important organisms function in this unusual ecosystem. Perhaps one of the most unusual ecosystems is that of Deception Island; an active volcanic island part of the South Shetland Islands of the Antarctic Peninsula. Here we describe the fungal diversity associated with historic wood from structures on the island, which reveals a diverse fungal assemblage of known wood decay fungi as well as the discovery of undescribed species...
February 2017: Fungal Biology
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