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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222726/non-auditory-electrophysiological-potentials-preceding-dolphin-biosonar-click-production
#1
James J Finneran, Jason Mulsow, Ryan Jones, Dorian S Houser, Alyssa W Accomando, Sam H Ridgway
The auditory brainstem response to a dolphin's own emitted biosonar click can be measured by averaging epochs of the instantaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) that are time-locked to the emitted click. In this study, averaged EEGs were measured using surface electrodes placed on the head in six different configurations while dolphins performed an echolocation task. Simultaneously, biosonar click emissions were measured using contact hydrophones on the melon and a hydrophone in the farfield. The averaged EEGs revealed an electrophysiological potential (the pre-auditory wave, PAW) that preceded the production of each biosonar click...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216184/automated-classification-of-dolphin-echolocation-click-types-from-the-gulf-of-mexico
#2
Kaitlin E Frasier, Marie A Roch, Melissa S Soldevilla, Sean M Wiggins, Lance P Garrison, John A Hildebrand
Delphinids produce large numbers of short duration, broadband echolocation clicks which may be useful for species classification in passive acoustic monitoring efforts. A challenge in echolocation click classification is to overcome the many sources of variability to recognize underlying patterns across many detections. An automated unsupervised network-based classification method was developed to simulate the approach a human analyst uses when categorizing click types: Clusters of similar clicks were identified by incorporating multiple click characteristics (spectral shape and inter-click interval distributions) to distinguish within-type from between-type variation, and identify distinct, persistent click types...
December 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208993/author-correction-the-social-and-cultural-roots-of-whale-and-dolphin-brains
#3
Kieran C R Fox, Michael Muthukrishna, Susanne Shultz
In Table 1 of the Supplementary Information, the data presented in the column 'Corrected social repertoire' were incorrect. This error does not affect the analyses, statistics or conclusions of the study, which employed the correct values. The data have now been corrected in the Supplementary file.
December 5, 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195470/acoustic-occurrence-detection-of-a-newly-recorded-indo-pacific-humpback-dolphin-population-in-waters-southwest-of-hainan-island-china
#4
Lijun Dong, Mingming Liu, Jianchen Dong, Songhai Li
In 2014, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were recorded for the first time in waters southwest of Hainan Island, China. In this paper, the temporal occurrence of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins in this region was detected by stationary passive acoustic monitoring. During the 130-day observation period (from January to July 2016), 1969 click trains produced by Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were identified, and 262 ten-minute recording bins contained echolocation click trains of dolphins, of which 70.9% were at night and 29...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195454/broadband-ship-noise-and-its-potential-impacts-on-indo-pacific-humpback-dolphins-implications-for-conservation-and-management
#5
Mingming Liu, Lijun Dong, Mingli Lin, Songhai Li
Ship noise pollution has raised considerable concerns among regulatory agencies and cetacean researchers worldwide. There is an urgent need to quantify ship noise in coastal areas and assess its potential biological impacts. In this study, underwater broadband noise from commercial ships in a critical habitat of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins was recorded and analyzed. Data analysis indicated that the ship noise caused by the investigated commercial ships with an average length of 134 ± 81 m, traveling at 18...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189908/diffusion-tractography-reveals-pervasive-asymmetry-of-cerebral-white-matter-tracts-in-the-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus
#6
Alexandra K Wright, Rebecca J Theilmann, Sam H Ridgway, Miriam Scadeng
Brain enlargement is associated with concomitant growth of interneuronal distance, increased conduction time, and reduced neuronal interconnectivity. Recognition of these functional constraints led to the hypothesis that large-brained mammals should exhibit greater structural and functional brain lateralization. As a taxon with the largest brains in the animal kingdom, Cetacea provides a unique opportunity to examine asymmetries of brain structure and function. In the present study, diffusion tensor imaging and tractography were used to investigate cerebral white matter asymmetry in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)...
November 30, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186969/neuronal-and-astrocytic-involvement-in-striped-dolphins-stenella-coeruleoalba-with-morbilliviral-encephalitis
#7
R Lucá, R Giacominelli-Stuffler, S Mazzariol, S Roperto, C Cocumelli, G DI Guardo
Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV), a highly pathogenic agent, may cause peculiar, "brain-only" forms of infection (BOFDI), in which viral antigen and/or genome is found exclusively in the brain from striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). These BOFDIs show morphopathological similarities with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and old dog encephalitis (ODE) in measles virus-infected patients and in canine distemper virus-infected dogs, respectively. The brain tissue from 3 BOFDI-affected striped dolphins was investigated by means of double labelling-indirect immunofluorescence (DL-IIF) and ultrastructurally, in order to characterize the DMV-targeted neuronal and non-neuronal cell populations, along with the associated submicroscopic findings...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179068/persistent-organic-pollutants-pops-in-blood-and-blubber-of-common-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-at-three-northern-gulf-of-mexico-sites-following-the-deepwater-horizon-oil-spill
#8
Jennifer E Balmer, Gina M Ylitalo, Teresa K Rowles, Keith D Mullin, Randall S Wells, Forrest I Townsend, Ronald W Pearce, Jennie L Bolton, Eric S Zolman, Brian C Balmer, Lori H Schwacke
Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), including those impacted by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, inhabit the coastal and estuarine waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). In response to the spill, dolphin health assessments conducted in Barataria Bay, Louisiana - a site that experienced heavy and prolonged oiling - uncovered a high prevalence of health abnormalities and individuals in poor body condition. Although the health effects observed were suggestive of petroleum toxicity, a lack of pre-spill information regarding dolphin health raises the possibility that other environmental factors may have contributed to the adverse health of dolphins in this oil-impacted area...
November 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177120/morphological-convergence-in-river-dolphin-skulls
#9
Charlotte E Page, Natalie Cooper
Convergent evolution can provide insights into the predictability of, and constraints on, the evolution of biodiversity. One striking example of convergence is seen in the 'river dolphins'. The four dolphin genera that make up the 'river dolphins' (Inia geoffrensis, Pontoporia blainvillei, Platanista gangetica and Lipotes vexillifer) do not represent a single monophyletic group, despite being very similar in morphology. This has led many to using the 'river dolphins' as an example of convergent evolution. We investigate whether the skulls of the four 'river dolphin' genera are convergent when compared to other toothed dolphin taxa in addition to identifying convergent cranial and mandibular features...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177038/genetic-divergence-between-two-phenotypically-distinct-bottlenose-dolphin-ecotypes-suggests-separate-evolutionary-trajectories
#10
Pedro F Fruet, Eduardo R Secchi, Juliana C Di Tullio, Paulo César Simões-Lopes, Fábio Daura-Jorge, Ana P B Costa, Els Vermeulen, Paulo A C Flores, Rodrigo Cezar Genoves, Paula Laporta, Luciano B Beheregaray, Luciana M Möller
Due to their worldwide distribution and occupancy of different types of environments, bottlenose dolphins display considerable morphological variation. Despite limited understanding about the taxonomic identity of such forms and connectivity among them at global scale, coastal (or inshore) and offshore (or oceanic) ecotypes have been widely recognized in several ocean regions. In the Southwest Atlantic Ocean (SWA), however, there are scarce records of bottlenose dolphins differing in external morphology according to habitat preferences that resemble the coastal-offshore pattern observed elsewhere...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173863/two-dimensional-vs-3-dimensional-comparison-of-alveolar-bone-over-maxillary-incisors-with-a-point-as-a-reference
#11
Theodore J Kula, Ahmed Ghoneima, George Eckert, Edwin T Parks, Achint Utreja, Katherine Kula
INTRODUCTION: Our objectives were to compare, relative to A-point, (1) bone thickness over the most forward maxillary incisor (MFMI) in 2 dimensions vs 3 dimensions, and (2) bone thickness and inclination of each maxillary incisor in 3 dimensions. METHODS: Thirty-four cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were coded, and 2-dimensional (2D) cephalograms were derived from each image using Dolphin software (Dolphin Imaging and Management Solutions, Chatsworth, Calif)...
December 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173050/measles-vaccination-threat-from-related-veterinary-viruses-and-need-for-continued-vaccination-post-measles-eradication
#12
Sara Louise Cosby, Leanne Weir
Measles virus (MV) is the only human virus within the morbillivirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae. The veterinary members are canine distemper virus (CDV), peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), Rinderpest Virus (RPV) as well as the marine morbilliviruses phocine distemper virus (PDV), dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) and porpoise morbillivirus (PMV). Morbilliviruses have a severe impact on humans and animal species. They confer diseases which have contributed to morbidity and mortality of the population on a global scale...
November 27, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159064/morphological-keys-to-advance-the-understanding-of-protostrongylid-biodiversity-in-caribou-rangifer-spp-at-high-latitudes
#13
Pratap Kafle, Lisa-Marie Leclerc, Morgan Anderson, Tracy Davison, Manigandan Lejeune, Susan Kutz
The Protostrongylidae is a diverse family of nematodes capable of causing significant respiratory and neuromuscular disease in their ungulate and lagomorph hosts. Establishing the species diversity and abundance of the protostrongylid fauna has been hindered because the first stage larvae, commonly referred as dorsal spined larvae (DSL), that are shed in the feces are morphologically very similar among several genera. We aimed to determine the protostrongylid diversity and distribution in caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus and R...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153320/novel-microbial-diversity-and-functional-potential-in-the-marine-mammal-oral-microbiome
#14
Natasha K Dudek, Christine L Sun, David Burstein, Rose S Kantor, Daniela S Aliaga Goltsman, Elisabeth M Bik, Brian C Thomas, Jillian F Banfield, David A Relman
The vast majority of bacterial diversity lies within phylum-level lineages called "candidate phyla," which lack isolated representatives and are poorly understood. These bacteria are surprisingly abundant in the oral cavity of marine mammals. We employed a genome-resolved metagenomic approach to recover and characterize genomes and functional potential from microbes in the oral gingival sulcus of two bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We detected organisms from 24 known bacterial phyla and one archaeal phylum...
November 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150813/a-social-cichlid-fish-failed-to-pass-the-mark-test
#15
Takashi Hotta, Shiho Komiyama, Masanori Kohda
Since the pioneering work in chimpanzees, mirror self-recognition (MSR), the ability to recognise oneself in a mirror, has been reported in great apes, Asian elephants, dolphins, and some social birds using the mark test, in which animals that possess MSR touch an imperceptible mark on their own bodies only when a mirror is present. However, giant pandas, which are solitary, failed to pass the mark test, suggesting that MSR evolved solely in highly social animals. In contrast to the increasing evidence of MSR in mammals and birds, little is known about MSR in fish...
November 17, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145610/transition-to-an-aquatic-habitat-permitted-the-repeated-loss-of-the-pleiotropic-klk8-gene-in-mammals
#16
Nikolai Hecker, Virag Sharma, Michael Hiller
KLK8 (also called neuropsin) is a serine protease that plays distinct roles in the skin and hippocampus. In the skin, KLK8 influences keratinocyte proliferation and desquamation, and activates antimicrobial peptides in sweat. In the hippocampus, KLK8 affects memory acquisition. Here, we examined the evolution of KLK8 in mammals and discovered that, out of 70 placental mammals, KLK8 is exclusively lost in three independent fully-aquatic lineages, comprising dolphin, killer whale, minke whale and manatee. In addition, while the sperm whale has an intact KLK8 reading frame, the gene evolves neutrally in this species...
November 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134680/vocal-activities-reflect-the-temporal-distribution-of-bottlenose-dolphin-social-and-non-social-activity-in-a-zoological-park
#17
Alice Lima, Alban Lemasson, Martin Boye, Martine Hausberger
Under natural conditions bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) spend their time mostly feeding and then travelling, socializing, or resting. These activities are not randomly distributed, with feeding being higher in early morning and late afternoon. Social activities and vocal behavior seem to be very important in dolphin daily activity. This study aimed to describe the activity time-budget and its relation to vocal behavior for dolphins in a zoological park. We recorded behaviors and vocalizations of six dolphins over 2 months...
November 14, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134627/the-evolution-of-genital-shape-variation-in-female-cetaceans
#18
Dara N Orbach, Brandon Hedrick, Bernd Würsig, Sarah L Mesnick, Patricia Lr Brennan
Male genital diversification is likely the result of sexual selection. Female genital diversification may also result from sexual selection, although it is less well studied and understood. Female genitalia are complex among whales, dolphins, and porpoises, especially compared to other vertebrates. The evolutionary factors affecting the diversity of vaginal complexity could include ontogeny, allometry, phylogeny, sexual selection, and natural selection. We quantified shape variation in female genitalia using 2-D geometric morphometric analysis, and validated the application of this method to study soft tissues...
November 14, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127421/captive-bottlenose-dolphins-and-killer-whales-harbor-a-species-specific-skin-microbiota-that-varies-among-individuals
#19
M Chiarello, S Villéger, C Bouvier, J C Auguet, T Bouvier
Marine animals surfaces host diverse microbial communities, which play major roles for host's health. Most inventories of marine animal surface microbiota have focused on corals and fishes, while cetaceans remain overlooked. The few studies focused on wild cetaceans, making difficult to distinguish intrinsic inter- and/or intraspecific variability in skin microbiota from environmental effects. We used high-throughput sequencing to assess the skin microbiota from 4 body zones of 8 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and killer whales (Orcinus orca), housed in captivity (Marineland park, France)...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122568/treatment-decision-analysis-for-palatally-displaced-canines-based-on-orthodontists-opinion-and-cbct
#20
Amirfarhang Miresmaeili, Mohammad Basafa, Reza Mahvelati Shamsabadi, Nasrin Farhadian, Abbas Moghymbeigi, Vahid Mollabashi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess difficulty of treatment of palatally-displaced canines (PDC) according to experts' opinion using CBCT data and to determine a cut-off point for extraction versus forced eruption. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seven CBCT variables of thirty PDC cases were measured with Dolphin 3D software. In addition to measurements of each case, nine 3D and 2D views were prepared on one page and uploaded on the website (canineimpaction.com)...
November 5, 2017: International Orthodontics
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