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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914409/automated-tracking-of-dolphin-whistles-using-gaussian-mixture-probability-hypothesis-density-filters
#1
Pina Gruden, Paul R White
This work considers automated multi target tracking of odontocete whistle contours. An adaptation of the Gaussian mixture probability hypothesis density (GM-PHD) filter is described and applied to the acoustic recordings from six odontocete species. From the raw data, spectral peaks are first identified and then the GM-PHD filter is used to simultaneously track the whistles' frequency contours. Overall over 9000 whistles are tracked with a precision of 85% and recall of 71.8%. The proposed filter is shown to track whistles precisely (with mean deviation of 104 Hz, about one frequency bin, from the annotated whistle path) and 80% coverage...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914406/energetic-and-informational-masking-of-complex-sounds-by-a-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus
#2
Brian K Branstetter, Kimberly Bakhtiari, Amy Black, Jennifer S Trickey, James J Finneran, Hitomi Aihara
With few exceptions, laboratory studies of auditory masking in marine mammals have been limited to examining detection thresholds for simple tonal signals embedded in broadband noise. However, detection of a sound has little adaptive advantage without the knowledge of what produced the sound (recognition) and where the sound originated (localization). In the current study, a bottlenose dolphin's masked detection thresholds (energetic masking) and masked recognition thresholds (informational masking) were estimated for a variety of complex signals including dolphin vocalizations, frequency modulated signals, and a 10 kHz pure tone...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914405/delphinid-echolocation-click-detection-probability-on-near-seafloor-sensors
#3
Kaitlin E Frasier, Sean M Wiggins, Danielle Harris, Tiago A Marques, Len Thomas, John A Hildebrand
The probability of detecting echolocating delphinids on a near-seafloor sensor was estimated using two Monte Carlo simulation methods. One method estimated the probability of detecting a single click (cue counting); the other estimated the probability of detecting a group of delphinids (group counting). Echolocation click beam pattern and source level assumptions strongly influenced detectability predictions by the cue counting model. Group detectability was also influenced by assumptions about group behaviors...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911478/modulation-of-whistle-production-related-to-training-sessions-in-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-under-human-care
#4
Juliana Lopez Marulanda, Olivier Adam, Fabienne Delfour
Bottlenose dolphins are highly social cetaceans with an extensive sound production including clicks, burst-pulsed sounds, and whistles. Some whistles, known as signature whistles, are individually specific. These acoustic signatures are commonly described as being emitted in contexts of stress during forced isolation and as group cohesion calls. Interactions between humans and captive dolphins is largely based on positive reinforcement conditioning within several training/feeding sessions per day. Vocal behavior of dolphins during these interactions might vary...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909926/metals-as-chemical-tracers-to-discriminate-ecological-populations-of-threatened-franciscana-dolphins-pontoporia-blainvillei-from-argentina
#5
M B Romero, P Polizzi, L Chiodi, A Robles, K Das, M Gerpe
Franciscana dolphins are the most impacted small cetacean in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, classified as Vulnerable A3d by IUCN. Essential (Fe, Mo, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co) and non-essential (Ag, Pb, Sn) trace elements (TEs) were measured in liver, kidney, and brain samples of by-catch Franciscana dolphins that were living in estuarine (n = 21) and marine (n = 21) habitats (1) to assess whether TEs posed a threat and (2) to evaluate the suitability of TEs for discriminating ecological populations of this species in Argentinean waters...
December 1, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908036/cetacean-acoustic-detections-from-free-floating-vertical-hydrophone-arrays-in-the-southern-california-current
#6
Emily T Griffiths, Jay Barlow
Drifting acoustic recorders were deployed in the southern California Current during Fall 2014. Two hydrophones configured as a 2-m vertical array at 100 m depth recorded using a 192 kHz sample rate on a 10% duty cycle (2 min/20 min). Beaked whales were detected in 33 of 8618 two-minute recordings. Sperm whales were detected in 185 recordings, and dolphins in 2291 recordings. Many beaked whales detected were over an abyssal plain and not associated with slope or seamount features. Results show the feasibility of using free-floating recording systems to detect a variety of cetacean species over periods of several months...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904786/a-targeted-metabolomics-assay-to-measure-eight-purines-in-the-diet-of-common-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#7
A J Ardente, T J Garrett, R S Wells, M Walsh, C R Smith, J Colee, R C Hill
Bottlenose dolphins managed under human care, human beings and Dalmatian dogs are prone to forming urate uroliths. Limiting dietary purine intake limits urate urolith formation in people and dogs because purines are metabolized to uric acid, which is excreted in urine. Managed dolphins develop ammonium urate nephroliths, whereas free-ranging dolphins do not. Free-ranging dolphins consume live fish, whereas managed dolphins consume different species that have been stored frozen and thawed. Differences in the purine content of fish consumed by dolphins under human care versus in the wild may be responsible for the difference in urolith prevalence...
October 2016: Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901233/maxillary-dentoalveolar-assessment-following-retraction-of-maxillary-incisors-a-preliminary-study
#8
Tiago Maia Fernandes Oliveira, Lígia Vieira Claudino, Cláudia Trindade Mattos, Eduardo Franzotti Sant'Anna
Objective: The aim of this preliminary study was to assess changes in tooth length and alveolar thickness following retraction of maxillary incisors. Methods: A total of 11 patients presenting severe maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion revealed by initial (T1) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and whose treatment plan included extraction of maxillary first premolars and retraction of maxillary incisors, were selected and submitted to CBCT examination one month after the end of incisors retraction (T2)...
September 2016: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896667/head-and-neck-rhabdomyosarcoma-clinical-and-pathologic-characterization-of-seven-cases
#9
Eleanor Chen, Robert Ricciotti, Neal Futran, Dolphine Oda
Head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma occurs frequently in children and adolescents, and has been well studied in that population. In contrast, it is rare in adults and is not as well characterized clinically and pathologically. Seven cases of adult rhabdomyosarcoma occurring in head and neck were retrieved from the archives of Department of Pathology and Division of Oral Pathology at University of Washington. Radiologic findings and clinical history, as well as pathologic findings from hematoxylin and eosin slides and immunohistochemistry for myogenic markers were reviewed...
November 28, 2016: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896300/data-from-a-survey-to-determine-visitor-attitudes-and-knowledge-about-the-provisioning-of-wild-dolphins-at-a-marine-tourism-destination
#10
Greg Simpson, David Newsome, Alicia Day
In the Austral summer of 2014-2015 we surveyed visitors at the popular marine tourism destination of Koombana Bay, Bunbury, Western Australia to investigate resident and visitor attitudes towards the provisioning of the wild dolphins and their knowledge about the legal, social and environmental repercussions arising from the unregulated provisioning of the dolphins. We report the data collected in our survey along with our preliminary statistical analyses and the survey instrument we utilized to collect the data...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888363/evaluation-of-the-oropharynx-in-class-i-and-ii-skeletal-patterns-by-cbct
#11
Milena Cabral, Leila Ribeiro Brito de Queiroz Ribeiro, Carlos Maurício Cardeal, Marcos Alan Vieira Bittencourt, Iêda Margarida Crusoé-Rebello, Adelmir Souza-Machado
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the dimensions of the oropharynx and its shape in the minimum cross-sectional area, in individuals with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, using three-dimensional CBCT images. METHODS: Forty-two cone-beam computed tomography images of grown individuals were evaluated. The images were divided according to the patient's skeletal patterns. The dimensions of the oropharyngeal airway space were determined using the Dolphin Imaging software...
November 26, 2016: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882914/propulsive-limb-coordination-and-body-acceleration-in-sprint-breaststroke-swimming
#12
Marek Strzała, Arkadiusz Stanula, Andrzej Ostrowski, Marcin Kaca, Piotr Kreżałek, Jacek Głodzik
BACKGROUND: This work is aimed at examining how coordination and kinematic indices interplay with swimming performance measured by average speed in 50m all-out test. METHODS: The group of 34 male competitive swimmers (19.1± 1.91 years old) participated in the study. The underwater movements of swimmers' bodies were recorded providing side- shots. Accelerations and angular velocity of pitch rotation of swimmer's sacrum were measured with inertial sensor device (three-axial accelerometer and gyroscope)...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882842/activating-concepts-by-activating-experiential-traces-investigations-with-a-series-of-anagram-solution-tasks
#13
Eduard Berndt, Carolin Dudschig, Barbara Kaup
According to the experiential-simulations view of cognition, words automatically activate experiential traces that stem from the reader's interactions with their referents. In the present study, we focused on the corresponding influence in the opposite direction. By means of an anagram-solving task we investigated whether activating spatial experiential traces would activate corresponding concepts, which in turn would facilitate access to words associated with them. Participants solved anagrams of nouns associated with the ocean or the sky (e...
November 24, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880712/first-by-land-then-by-sea-origins-of-dietary-adaptations-for-whales-and-dolphins-during-land-to-sea-transition
#14
Joseph Caspermeyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875700/metacognition-pre-verbal-infants-adapt-their-behaviour-to-their-knowledge-states
#15
Teodora Gliga, Victoria Southgate
Metacognitive abilities, such as knowing we know something or that we made the wrong decision, can be powerful tools for adapting behaviour and accelerating learning. Apes, dolphins, and even rats demonstrate some such abilities; a new study provides evidence that human infants can too.
November 21, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871889/spontaneous-prosocial-choice-by-captive-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#16
Fumio Nakahara, Masayuki Komaba, Ryoichi Sato, Hisako Ikeda, Kumiko Komaba, Akihiro Kawakubo
Dolphins exhibit prosocial behavior across several different contexts. However, only a few experimental studies have investigated the psychological mechanisms underlying this behavior. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying prosociality in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). In the experiments, water shower devices, developed as environmental enrichment items, were used. Two paradigms were used to measure prosociality. The first was the prosocial choice task, involving the subject typically being offered one choice between two options...
November 18, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870149/development-of-sociality-and-emergence-of-independence-in-a-killer-whale-orcinus-orca-calf-from-birth-to-36-months
#17
Sara Guarino, Heather M Hill, Julie Sigman
Dolphin calves spend most of their time swimming with their mother immediately after birth. As they mature, the calves become increasingly independent, and begin to interact more often with other calves, juveniles, and sub-adults. For bottlenose dolphin calves, sociality is related to maternal behaviors. Unfortunately, much less is known about the development of sociality and emergence of independence for killer whale calves. The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental changes in social behaviors and solitary activities of a killer whale calf across a 36-month period...
November 21, 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869614/cutaneous-granulomas-in-dolphins-caused-by-novel-uncultivated-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis
#18
Raquel Vilela, Gregory D Bossart, Judy A St Leger, Leslie M Dalton, John S Reif, Adam M Schaefer, Peter J McCarthy, Patricia A Fair, Leonel Mendoza
Cutaneous granulomas in dolphins were believed to be caused by Lacazia loboi, which also causes a similar disease in humans. This hypothesis was recently challenged by reports that fungal DNA sequences from dolphins grouped this pathogen with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We conducted phylogenetic analysis of fungi from 6 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with cutaneous granulomas and chains of yeast cells in infected tissues. Kex gene sequences of P. brasiliensis from dolphins showed 100% homology with sequences from cultivated P...
December 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866382/immunotoxic-effects-of-in-vitro-exposure-of-dolphin-lymphocytes-to-louisiana-sweet-crude-oil-and-corexit%C3%A2
#19
Natasha D White, Celine Godard-Codding, Sarah J Webb, Gregory D Bossart, Patricia A Fair
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was one of the worst environmental disasters on record in the United States. Response efforts to reduce the magnitude of the oil slick included the use of thousands of gallons of the chemical dispersant Corexit™ in surface and deep-water environments. The immunotoxicity of Louisiana sweet crude oil and the chemical dispersant Corexit was examined using lymphocyte proliferation (LP) and natural killer cell (NK) assays as measures of impact on the adaptive (LP) and innate (NK) immune response in bottlenose dolphins...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856149/accuracy-of-three-dimensional-soft-tissue-prediction-for-le-fort-i-osteotomy-using-dolphin-3d-software-a-pilot-study
#20
C M Resnick, R R Dang, S J Glick, B L Padwa
Three-dimensional (3D) soft tissue prediction is replacing two-dimensional analysis in planning for orthognathic surgery. The accuracy of different computational models to predict soft tissue changes in 3D, however, is unclear. A retrospective pilot study was implemented to assess the accuracy of Dolphin 3D software in making these predictions. Seven patients who had a single-segment Le Fort I osteotomy and had preoperative (T0) and >6-month postoperative (T1) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans and 3D photographs were included...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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