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Katarzyna Z Kedzierska, Livia Gerber, Daniele Cagnazzi, Michael Krützen, Aakrosh Ratan, Logan Kistler
Motivation: Massively parallel capture of short tandem repeats (STRs, or microsatellites) provides a strategy for population genomic and demographic analyses at high resolution with or without a reference genome. However, the high Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) cycle numbers needed for target capture experiments create genotyping noise through polymerase slippage known as PCR stutter. Results: We developed SONiCS-Stutter mONte Carlo Simulation-a solution for stutter correction based on dense forward simulations of PCR and capture experimental conditions...
June 19, 2018: Bioinformatics
Hongyuan Wang, Yuan Zhao, Marina Ezcurra, Alexandre Benedetto, Ann F Gilliat, Josephine Hellberg, Ziyu Ren, Evgeniy R Galimov, Trin Athigapanich, Johannes Girstmair, Maximilian J Telford, Colin T Dolphin, Zhizhou Zhang, David Gems
A long-standing belief is that aging (senescence) is the result of stochastic damage accumulation. Alternatively, senescent pathology may also result from late-life, wild-type gene action (i.e., antagonistic pleiotropy, as argued by Williams) leading to non-adaptive run-on of developmental programs (or quasi-programs ) (as suggested more recently by Blagosklonny). In this study, we use existing and new data to show how uterine tumors, a prominent form of senescent pathology in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans , likely result from quasi-programs...
2018: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
Jonathan L Pitchford, Michael Garcia, Eric E Pulis, Ashley Millan Ambert, Andrew J Heaton, Moby Solangi
The co-occurrence of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and the northern Gulf of Mexico cetacean Unusual Mortality Event have raised questions about the stability of inshore bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) populations throughout the region. Several factors could have contributed to the ongoing event, but little attention has been paid to the potential effects of increased search effort and reporting of strandings associated with oil spill response activities, which were widespread for an extended period...
2018: PloS One
Zulfiqar A Bhutta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Laurent Ferron, Ivan Kadurin, Annette C Dolphin
Auxiliary α2 δ subunits are important proteins for trafficking of voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV ) at the active zones of synapses. We have previously shown that the post-translational proteolytic cleavage of α2 δ is essential for their modulatory effects on the trafficking of N-type (CaV 2.2) calcium channels (Kadurin et al. 2016). We extend these results here by showing that the probability of presynaptic vesicular release is reduced when an uncleaved α2 δ is expressed in rat neurons and that this inhibitory effect is reversed when cleavage of α2 δ is restored...
June 19, 2018: ELife
Daniel Floryan, Tyler Van Buren, Alexander J Smits
Many swimming and flying animals are observed to cruise in a narrow range of Strouhal numbers, where the Strouhal number [Formula: see text] is a dimensionless parameter that relates stroke frequency f, amplitude A, and forward speed U. Dolphins, sharks, bony fish, birds, bats, and insects typically cruise in the range [Formula: see text], which coincides with the Strouhal number range for maximum efficiency as found by experiments on heaving and pitching airfoils. It has therefore been postulated that natural selection has tuned animals to use this range of Strouhal numbers because it confers high efficiency, but the reason why this is so is still unclear...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kátia R Groch, Elitieri B Santos-Neto, Josué Díaz-Delgado, Joana M P Ikeda, Rafael R Carvalho, Raissa B Oliveira, Emi B Guari, Tatiana L Bisi, Alexandre F Azevedo, José Lailson-Brito, José L Catão-Dias
During November-December 2017, a mass die-off of Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) began in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Molecular and pathologic investigations on 20 animals indicated that cetacean morbillivirus played a major role. Our findings increase the knowledge on health and disease aspects of this endangered species.
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Tony Antony, Vivek Amin, Shourya Hegde, Shreya Hegde, Deepa Shetty, Mohammadi Begum Khan
Aims and Objectives: Managing mild-to-moderate Class II malocclusion is one of the common and major challenges to orthodontists. Class II discrepancies with mandibular deficiency during active growth are usually treated using myofunctional appliances. Fixed functional appliances evolved due to the noncompliance with conventional myofunctional appliances. One of the latest Class II correctors is the PowerScope appliance. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount, time, and rate of molar correction and efficacy of PowerScope...
May 2018: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
Matthew T Bowers, Ari S Friedlaender, Vincent M Janik, Douglas P Nowacek, Nicola J Quick, Brandon L Southall, Andrew J Read
The risk of predation is often invoked as an important factor influencing the evolution of social organization in cetaceans, but little direct information is available about how these aquatic mammals respond to predators or other perceived threats. We used controlled playback experiments to examine the behavioral responses of short-finned pilot whales ( Globicephala macrorhynchus ) off Cape Hatteras, NC, USA, and Risso's dolphins ( Grampus griseus ) off the coast of Southern California, USA, to the calls of a potential predator, mammal-eating killer whales...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Carlos Sacristán, José Luiz Catão-Dias, Ana Carolina Ewbank, Eduardo Ferreira Machado, Elena Neves, Elitieri Batista Santos-Neto, Alexandre Azevedo, José Laison-Brito, Pedro Volkmer De Castilho, Fábio Gonçalves Daura-Jorge, Paulo César Simões-Lopes, Matilde Carballo, Daniel García-Párraga, José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando Esperón
Poxviruses are emerging pathogens in cetaceans, temporarily named 'Cetaceanpoxvirus' (CePV, family Poxviridae), classified into two main lineages: CePV-1 in odontocetes and CePV-2 in mysticetes. Only a few studies performed the molecular detection of CePVs, based on DNA-polymerase gene and/or DNA-topoisomerase I gene amplification. Herein we describe a new real-time PCR assay based on SYBR® Green and a new primer set to detect a 150 bp fragment of CePV DNA-polymerase gene, also effective for conventional PCR detection...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Christine M Johnson, Jessica Sullivan, Jane Jensen, Cara Buck, Julie Trexel, Judy St Leger
In this study, paradigms that test whether human infants make social attributions to simple moving shapes were adapted for use with bottlenose dolphins. The dolphins observed animated displays in which a target oval would falter while moving upward, and then either a "prosocial" oval would enter and help or caress it or an "antisocial" oval would enter and hinder or hit it. In subsequent displays involving all three shapes, when the pro- and antisocial ovals moved offscreen in opposite directions, the dolphins reliably predicted-based on anticipatory head turns when the target briefly moved behind an occluder-that the target oval would follow the prosocial one...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Stephanie L King, Whitney R Friedman, Simon J Allen, Livia Gerber, Frants H Jensen, Samuel Wittwer, Richard C Connor, Michael Krützen
Cooperation between allied individuals and groups is ubiquitous in human societies, and vocal communication is known to play a key role in facilitating such complex human behaviors [1, 2]. In fact, complex communication may be a feature of the kind of social cognition required for the formation of social alliances, facilitating both partner choice and the execution of coordinated behaviors [3]. As such, a compelling avenue for investigation is what role flexible communication systems play in the formation and maintenance of cooperative partnerships in other alliance-forming animals...
May 26, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Oleg I Lyamin, Peter O Kosenko, Svetlana M Korneva, Alexei L Vyssotski, Lev M Mukhametov, Jerome M Siegel
Virtually all land mammals and birds have two sleep states: slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep [1, 2]. After deprivation of REM sleep by repeated awakenings, mammals increase REM sleep time [3], supporting the idea that REM sleep is homeostatically regulated. Some evidence suggests that periods of REM sleep deprivation for a week or more cause physiological dysfunction and eventual death [4, 5]. However, separating the effects of REM sleep loss from the stress of repeated awakening is difficult [2, 6]...
May 31, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Amber Brown, Amanda Foss, Melissa A Miller, Quincy Gibson
Microcystins/Nodularins (MCs/NODs) are potent hepatotoxic cyanotoxins produced by harmful algal blooms (HABs) that occur frequently in the upper basin of the St. Johns River (SJR), Jacksonville, FL, USA. Areas downstream of bloom locations provide critical habitat for an estuarine population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Since 2010, approximately 30 of these dolphins have stranded and died within this impaired watershed; the cause of death was inconclusive for a majority of these individuals...
June 2018: Harmful Algae
Duan Gui, Lingli Zhang, Fengping Zhan, Wen Liu, Xinjian Yu, Laiguo Chen, Yuping Wu
We investigated the levels and trends of the 16 USEPA priority PAHs in the blubber of 37 Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins sampled during the period 2012-2017 from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), China. Σ16 PAHs concentrations (17.6-6080 ng g-1 wet weight) were at median level compared to dolphin species worldwide. Humpback dolphins affiliated with the hotspots of PAHs, had significantly higher levels of Σ16 PAHs than individuals from the other areas in the PRE. Moreover, dolphins stranded on the coast of Lingdingyang are significantly more contaminated by Σ16 PAHs than those in the West-four region of the PRE, which appears to reflect the heterogeneous distribution of PAHs in the environment...
June 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Joshua D Stewart, Alfredo Barroso, Rachel H Butler, Roger J Munns
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2018: Ecology
Natalia Fraija-Fernández, Ana Hernández-Hortelano, Ana E Ahuir-Baraja, Juan Antonio Raga, Francisco Javier Aznar
Pennella balaenoptera is a mesoparasitic copepod that has been reported in at least 17 cetacean species. Subtle morphological differences in the first antennae of adult females have been used to discriminate this species from P. filosa, a species infecting fishes. Other morphological traits are unreliable because of their high plasticity, and no molecular data are available to confirm the taxonomic status of P. balaenoptera as an independent species. We found no consistent morphological differences of the first antennae between P...
June 4, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
M B Romero, P Polizzi, L Chiodi, S Medici, M Blando, M Gerpe
The change towards intensive agriculture has led to an increase in the use of pesticides. In addition, legacy pesticides, such as organochlorines are still present in the environment. Ten Franciscana dolphins were accidentally killed by netting in a coastal area of Argentina in Buenos Aires province. From these animals, organochlorine, organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides were analyzed in liver, bubbler and melon tissues. The concentrations of Σendosulfan ranged from not detectable values (nd) to 3539 ng g-1 lw, with the maximum level in melon tissue...
June 1, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Chong Wei, Whitlow W L Au, Darlene R Ketten, Yu Zhang
Bottlenose dolphins project broadband echolocation signals for detecting and locating prey and predators, and for spatial orientation. There are many unknowns concerning the specifics of biosonar signal production and propagation in the head of dolphins and this manuscript represents an effort to address this topic. A two-dimensional finite element model was constructed using high resolution CT scan data. The model simulated the acoustic processes in the vertical plane of the biosonar signal emitted from the phonic lips and propagated into the water through the animal's head...
May 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Hairul Masrini Muhamad, Xiaomei Xu, Xuelei Zhang, Saifullah Arifin Jaaman, Azmi Marzuki Muda
Studies of Irrawaddy dolphins' acoustics assist in understanding the behaviour of the species and thereby conservation of this species. Whistle signals emitted by Irrawaddy dolphin within the Bay of Brunei in Malaysian waters were characterized. A total of 199 whistles were analysed from seven sightings between January and April 2016. Six types of whistles contours named constant, upsweep, downsweep, concave, convex, and sine were detected when the dolphins engaged in traveling, foraging, and socializing activities...
May 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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