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Melanie L Chang, April Nowell
For the past few years, people everywhere have been "going Paleo." Websites and social media touting the benefits of eating a "Paleo diet" and following a "Paleolithic life style" serve as calls to arms for health-conscious individuals seeking information about the latest health and fitness trends. Many of these people participate in programs such as Crossfit, which involve major social and life-style modification components and therefore facilitate the dissemination of dietary fads.(1) The PALEOf(x)(TM) conference, which bills itself as "the world's premier holistic wellness event," has attracted sellout crowds of thousands of attendees for the last four years...
September 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
David Louis Borchers, Martin James Cox
Conventional distance sampling (CDS) methods assume that animals are uniformly distributed in the vicinity of lines or points. But when animals move in response to observers before detection, or when lines or points are not located randomly, this assumption may fail. By formulating distance sampling models as survival models, we show that using time to first detection in addition to perpendicular distance (line transect surveys) or radial distance (point transect surveys) allows estimation of detection probability, and hence density, when animal distribution in the vicinity of lines or points is not uniform and is unknown...
October 17, 2016: Biometrics
Liu Chunbao, Li Li, Lei Yulong, Liu Changsuo, Zhang Yubo
Fish-like, dolphin-like, and bionic nonsmooth surfaces were employed in a hydraulic torque converter to achieve drag reduction and performance improvement, which were aimed at reducing profile loss, impacting loss and friction loss, respectively. YJSW335, a twin turbine torque converter, was bionically designed delicately. The biological characteristics consisted of fish-like blades in all four wheels, dolphin-like structure in the first turbine and the stator, and nonsmooth surfaces in the pump. The prediction performance of bionic YJSW335, obtained by computational fluid dynamics simulation, was improved compared with that of the original model, and then it could be proved that drag reduction had been achieved...
2016: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
France Damseaux, Jeremy J Kiszka, Michael R Heithaus, George Scholl, Gauthier Eppe, Jean-Pierre Thomé, Jennifer Lewis, Wensi Hao, Michaël C Fontaine, Krishna Das
The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is an upper trophic level predator and the most common cetacean species found in nearshore waters of southern Florida, including the Lower Florida Keys (LFK) and the Florida Coastal Everglades (FCE). The objective of this study was to assess contamination levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in skin and persistent organic pollutants (PCBs, PBDEs, DDXs, HCHs, HCB, Σ PCDD/Fs and Σ DL-PCBs) in blubber samples of bottlenose dolphins from LFK (n = 27) and FCE (n = 24)...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Susan A Mackintosh, Nathan Gray Dodder, Nellie J Shaul, Lihini I Aluwihare, Keith A Maruya, Susan J Chivers, Kerri Danil, David W Weller, Eunha Hoh
Non-targeted GC×GC-TOF/MS analysis of blubber from 8 common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Southern California Bight was performed to identify novel, bioaccumulative DDT-related compounds, and to determine their abundance relative to the commonly-studied DDT-related compounds. We identified 45 bioaccumulative DDT-related compounds of which the majority (80%) are not typically monitored in environmental media. Identified compounds include transformation products, technical mixture impurities such as tris(chlorophenyl)methane (TCPM), the presumed TCPM metabolite tris(chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), and structurally-related compounds with unknown sources, such as hexa- to octa-chlorinated diphenylethene...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Fernanda P Bragatto, Mariliani Chicarelli, Amanda Vb Kasuya, Wilton M Takeshita, Liogi Iwaki-Filho, Lilian Cv Iwaki
INTRODUCTION: The golden proportion has been used in dentistry in an attempt to improve facial function and, possibly, esthetics by simplifying the diagnosis of facial and dental disharmony. The aim of this study is to analyze pre- and postoperative cephalometric tracings of lateral cephalograms of patients with class II and III deformities submitted to orthognathic surgery, and verify if the 13 dental-skeletal patterns (ratios), as defined by Ricketts, moved closer to or further away from the golden proportion...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Julian P Knopf, Patrick R Hof, Helmut H A Oelschläger
We investigated the morphology of four primary neocortical projection areas (somatomotor, somatosensory, auditory, visual) qualitatively and quantitatively in the Indian river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica, P. gangetica minor) with histological and stereological methods. For comparison, we included brains of other toothed whale species. Design-based stereology was applied to the primary neocortical areas (M1, S1, A1, V1) of the Indian river dolphins and compared to those of the bottlenose dolphin with respect to layers III and V...
October 13, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Marwan El Hélou, Adib Kassis, Robert Haddad, Joseph Ghoubril
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to identify facial profile preferences among Lebanese orthodontists, general dentists and laypersons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A lateral photograph of a young man and young woman with a class I skeletal relationship was used. Each photograph was manipulated, using Dolphin Imaging System(®), to produce six other photographs in which anteroposterior variations in the position of the maxilla and/or the mandible were made. A total of 120 participants were asked to rank the photographs of each gender from most to least attractive...
September 2016: L' Orthodontie Française
Jeenal V Gupta, P G Makhija, K C Gupta
AIM: To find the correlation between nasal airway volume and the craniofacial morphology using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study consisted of preorthodontic anonymized CBCT scans of 34 healthy adults in the age span of 18-28 years. The volume was calculated using Dolphin 3D R software 11.5 version using semiautomatic segmentation method to calculate nasal volume after determining the nasal airway boundary. The subjects were grouped according to sagittal skeletal relation, craniofacial width, facial index, and facial form...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Douglas Rangel Goulart, Pablo Muñoz, Mario Gonzalo Cantín López, Márcio de Moraes, Sergio Olate
PURPOSE: To compare the condylar volume of patients with unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH) with that of patients with a Class III skeletal relation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty cone-beam computed tomograms of patients were analyzed. Images were divided into 2 groups: 10 from patients with transverse asymmetry of the face and 10 from patients with a Class III facial deformity. Patients' ages ranged from 15 to 30 years. Volumetric data were reconstructed using Dolphin 3D software (Dolphin Imaging & Management Solutions, Chatsworth, CA)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Giovanna Linguiti, Rachele Antonacci, Gianluca Tasco, Francesco Grande, Rita Casadio, Serafina Massari, Vito Castelli, Arianna Consiglio, Marie-Paule Lefranc, Salvatrice Ciccarese
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: BMC Genomics
J Y Lima, A P M Carvalho, C T Azevedo, L A Barbosa, L S Silveira
Variations of age and total length of Sotalia guianensis from the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, were evaluated. Specimens were found stranded. Age and total length of 44 Guiana dolphins were assessed based on tooth analysis. Age varied between 0.5 year and 33 years (mean = 8.23 years). Most specimens were between zero and 6 years old (47%). Total length varied from 119 cm to 198 cm, with mean of 172.52 cm. Asymptotic length was reached at 185 cm and approximately 5-6 years of age. Mean total length and age were higher than in other regions of the distribution range of the species...
October 3, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Suzanne Mason, Chandra Salgado Kent, David Donnelly, Jeffrey Weir, Kerstin Bilgmann
Short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are typically considered highly mobile, offshore delphinids. This study assessed the residency of a small community of short-beaked common dolphins in the shallow, urbanized Port Phillip Bay, south-eastern Australia. The ability to identify common dolphins by their dorsal fin markings and coloration using photo-identification was also investigated. Systematic and non-systematic boat surveys were undertaken between 2007 and 2014. Results showed that 13 adult common dolphins and their offspring inhabit Port Phillip Bay, of which 10 adults exhibit residency to the bay...
September 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Krm Ferrier, C E van Elk, P E Bunskoek, Mph van den Broek
Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can suffer from fungal infections, which can be treated with voriconazole. In common practice, the voriconazole doses are extrapolated from human doses by adjusting for body weight only, because no dose regimen is available yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define a dose regimen for voriconazole in bottlenose dolphins. Dolphins treated with voriconazole between November 2005 and September 2015 at the Dolfinarium Harderwijk, the Netherlands, and TDM was performed were included...
October 4, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Stephen E Cassle, Nelmarie Landrau-Giovannetti, Lisa L Farina, Angelique Leone, James F X Wellehan, Nicole I Stacy, Patrick Thompson, Hada Herring, Blair Mase-Guthrie, Uriel Blas-Machado, Jeremiah T Saliki, Michael T Walsh, Thomas B Waltzek
A recently deceased juvenile male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) was found floating in the Gulf of Mexico, off Sand Key in Clearwater, Florida. At autopsy, we identified pneumonia and a focus of malacia in the right cerebrum. Cytologic evaluation of tissue imprints from the right cerebrum revealed fungal hyphae. Fungal cultures of the lung and brain yielded Aspergillus fumigatus, which was confirmed by amplification of a portion of the fungal nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 region sequence...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Kendra L Bauer, Caroline E C Goertz, Jane A Belovarac, Robert W Walton, J Lawrence Dunn, Pamela Tuomi
  Pacific harbor seals ( Phoca vitulina richardsi) and belugas ( Delphinapterus leucas ) eat many of the same prey species, occupy the same geographic area, and demonstrate site fidelity in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Although most direct research involving the critically endangered belugas is currently prohibited, studying harbor seals may provide important information about this beluga population. In recent years, harbor seal populations in Alaska have declined for unknown reasons. As part of its stranding program, the Alaska SeaLife Center (ASLC) managed 59 cases of live and dead stranded harbor seals from Cook Inlet between 1997 and 2011...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Konstantin O Zamuruyev, Alexander A Aksenov, Mark Baird, Alberto Pasamontes, Celeste Parry, Soraya Foutouhi, Stephanie Venn-Watson, Bart C Weimer, Jean-Pierre Delplanque, Cristina E Davis
Chemical analysis of exhaled breath metabolites is an emerging alternative to traditional clinical testing for many physiological conditions. The main advantage of breath analysis is its inherent non-invasive nature and ease of sample collection. Therefore, there exists a great interest in further development of this method for both humans and animals. The physiology of cetaceans is exceptionally well suited for breath analysis due to their explosive breathing behavior and respiratory tract morphology. At the present time, breath analysis in cetaceans has very limited practical applications, in large part due to lack of widely adopted sampling device(s) and methodologies that are well-standardized...
2016: Journal of Breath Research
Amila O De Silva, Christine Spencer, Ki Chung D Ho, Mohammed Al Tarhuni, Christopher Go, Magali Houde, Shane R de Solla, Raphael A Lavoie, Laura E King, Derek C G Muir, Patricia A Fair, Randall S Wells, Gregory D Bossart
Perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids (PFPIAs) are perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that are used for their surfactant properties in a variety of applications, resulting in their presence in environmental waters; however, they have not been widely studied in biota. A survey of PFPIAs was conducted in fish, dolphins, and birds from various locations in North America. Northern pike (Esox lucius) were collected at two locations in 2011 near Montréal Island in the St. Lawrence River, Canada, double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) were collected from bird colonies in the Great Lakes in 2010-2012, and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Sarasota Bay, FL and Charleston Harbor, SC were sampled in 2004-2009...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Christina G Zaccarini, Sarah Laue, Kara Murphy, Diya Goorah, Victoria Kung, Gizelda T Casella, Stephen Lebduska
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Philip Sobolesky, Celeste Parry, Baylye Boxall, Randall Wells, Stephanie Venn-Watson, Michael G Janech
Targeted approaches have been widely used to help explain physiological adaptations, but few studies have used non-targeted omics approaches to explore differences between diving marine mammals and terrestrial mammals. A rank comparison of undepleted serum proteins from common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and pooled normal human serum led to the discovery of 11 proteins that appeared exclusive to dolphin serum. Compared to the comprehensive human plasma proteome, 5 of 11 serum proteins had a differential rank greater than 200...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
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