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Kelsey E Seitz, Cynthia R Smith, Stanley L Marks, Stephanie K Venn-Watson, Marina Ivančić
The objective of this study was to establish a comprehensive technique for ultrasound examination of the dolphin hepatobiliary system and apply this technique to 30 dolphins to determine what, if any, sonographic changes are associated with blood-based indicators of metabolic syndrome (insulin greater than 14 μIU/ml or glucose greater than 112 mg/dl) and iron overload (transferrin saturation greater than 65%). A prospective study of individuals in a cross-sectional population with and without elevated postprandial insulin levels was performed...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Duan Gui, Riqing Yu, Leszek Karczmarski, Yulong Ding, Haifei Zhang, Yong Sun, Mei Zhang, Yuping Wu
We assessed the spatio-temporal trends of the concentrations of 11 heavy metals (HMs) in the liver and kidney of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from western Pearl River Estuary (PRE) during 2004-2015. The hepatic levels of Cr, As and Cu in these dolphins were among the highest reported for cetaceans globally, and the levels of Zn, Cu and Hg were sufficiently high to cause toxicological effects in some of the animals. Between same age-sex groups, dolphins from Lingdingyang were significantly more contaminated with Hg, Se and V than those from the West-four region, while the opposite was true for Cd...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Claire A Simeone, John P Traversi, Jenny M Meegan, Carolina LeBert, Carmen M H Colitz, Eric D Jensen
OBJECTIVE: Corneal ulceration secondary to trauma commonly affects marine mammals, often with opportunistic secondary bacterial or fungal infections. This report characterizes the combined use of auriculopalpebral and ophthalmic nerve blocks, adipose-derived stem cells, and subconjunctival injections for successful treatment of corneal trauma and infection in dolphins. ANIMAL STUDIED: An 11-year-old, female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) presented with bilateral diffuse corneal opacities, which progressed to keratomycosis caused by Candida albicans...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
John Y Wang, Kimberly N Riehl, Shih Chu Yang, Claryana Araújo-Wang
The Critically Endangered Taiwanese humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis taiwanensis) is endemic to inshore and estuarine waters of central western Taiwan. It numbers fewer than 75 individuals, is declining and faces a myriad of human threats. Data from a long-term photo-identification program on these dolphins allowed major injuries to be examined quantitatively. A large proportion (57.7%) of individuals had suffered major human-induced injuries that likely compromised their health, survivorship or reproductive potential and thus, the future of this subspecies...
January 5, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Amy Lang, Emily Jones, Farhana Afroz
Over many decades the biological surfaces of aquatic swimmers have been studied for their potential as drag reducing surfaces. The hydrodynamic benefit of riblets, or grooves embedded parallel to the flow which appear on surfaces such as shark skin, have been well documented. However the skin of dolphins is embedded with sinusoidal grooves that run perpendicular or transverse to the flow over their bodies. It is theorized that the transverse grooves present on dolphin skin trap vortices between them, creating a partial slip condition over the surface and inducing turbulence augmentation in the boundary layer, thus acting as a potential mechanism to reduce flow separation and thus pressure drag...
January 6, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Mariana B Alonso, Keith A Maruya, Nathan Gray Dodder, José Lailson-Brito, Alexandre Freitas Azevedo, Elitieri Santos-Neto, João Paulo Machado Torres, Olaf Malm, Eunha Hoh
To catalog the diversity and abundance of halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) accumulating in high trophic marine species from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean, tissue from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded or incidentally captured along the coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were analyzed by a non-targeted approach based on GC×GC/TOF-MS. A total of 158 individual HOCs from 32 different structural classes were detected in the blubber of 4 adult male T. truncatus. Nearly 90 percent of the detected compounds are not routinely monitored in the environment...
January 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Suzanne McGaugh, Tonia S Schwartz
Endothermy is an evolutionary innovation in eutherian mammals and birds. In eutherian mammals, UCP1 is a key protein in adaptive nonshivering thermogenesis (NST). Although ucp1 arose early in the vertebrate lineage, the loss of ucp1 was previously documented in several reptile species (including birds). Here we determine that ucp1 was lost at the base of the reptile lineage, as we fail to find ucp1 in every major reptile lineage. Furthermore, though UCP1 plays a key role in mammalian NST, we confirm that pig has lost several exons from ucp1 and conclude that pig is not a sole outlier as the only eutherian mammal lineage to do so...
January 2017: Biology Letters
Y Nakaguchi, Y Shimohigashi, R Onizuka, T Ohno
PURPOSE: Recently, there has been increased clinical use of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). SBRT treatments will strongly benefit from in vivo patient dose verification, as any errors in delivery can be more detrimental to the radiobiology of the patient as compared to conventional therapy. In vivo dose measurements, a commercially available quality assurance platform which is able to correlate the delivered dose to the patient's anatomy and take into account tissue inhomogeneity, is the COMPASS system (IBA Dosimetry, Germany) using a new transmission detector (Dolphin, IBA Dosimetry)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
María Constanza Gariboldi, Juan Ignacio Túnez, Mauricio Failla, Marta Hevia, María Victoria Panebianco, María Natalia Paso Viola, Alfredo Daniel Vitullo, Humberto Luis Cappozzo
The franciscana dolphin, Pontorporia blainvillei, is an endemic cetacean of the Atlantic coast of South America. Its coastal distribution and restricted movement patterns make this species vulnerable to anthropogenic factors, particularly to incidental bycatch. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences, 10 microsatellites, and sex data to investigate the population structure of the franciscana dolphin from a previously established management area, which includes the southern edge of its geographic range...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Briana Seay Harvey, Kathleen Maria Dudzinski, Stan Abraham Kuczaj
Little is known about the specific behavioral exchanges that occur on a day-to-day basis between dyads of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). This study assesses the proportion of time dyads spend in proximity (within ∼2m) and the proportion of time spent in affiliative, agonistic, or socio-sexual contexts within and between age/sex dolphin pairings to better understand their social relationships. Observations of bottlenose dolphins housed at the Roatan Institute of Marine Sciences provided 10...
December 23, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Matthew J Lambert, Alexander A Nevue, Christine V Portfors
Several recent studies have described genes demonstrating adaptive sequence convergence between echolocating bats and dolphin, suggesting that common selective pressures can induce common molecular changes, even in distantly related species. However, in the case of the auditory genes Otoferlin (Otof), Cadherin 23 (Cdh23) and Protocadherin 15 (Pcdh15), the reported sequence convergence was supported only by incongruent gene and species trees and counts of convergent substitutions. Therefore, it remains unclear whether echolocating bats and dolphin really do demonstrate evidence of adaptive sequence convergence, or whether there is simply a high level of random background convergence in these genes...
December 20, 2016: Gene
Andrea L Bogomolni, Anna L Bass, Spencer Fire, Lindsay Jasperse, Milton Levin, Ole Nielsen, Gordon Waring, Sylvain De Guise
Several marine mammal epizootics have been closely linked to infectious diseases, as well as to the biotoxins produced by harmful algal blooms (HABs). In two of three saxitoxin (STX) associated mortality events, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) or phocine distemper virus (PDV) was isolated in affected individuals. While STX is notorious for its neurotoxicity, immunotoxic effects have also been described. This study investigated the role of STX in altering immune function, specifically T lymphocyte proliferation, in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina concolor) upon in-vitro exposure...
January 2016: Harmful Algae
Angela Fago, Daniel Garcia Parraga, Elin E Petersen, Niels Kristensen, Lea Giouri, Frank B Jensen
The ability of marine mammals to hunt prey at depth is known to rely on enhanced oxygen stores and on selective distribution of blood flow, but the molecular mechanisms regulating blood flow and oxygen transport remain unresolved. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that may be important in regulating blood flow, we measured concentration of nitrite and S-nitrosothiols (SNO), two metabolites of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO), in the blood of 5 species of marine mammals differing in their dive duration: bottlenose dolphin, South American sea lion, harbor seal, walrus and beluga whale...
December 18, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
M Arribart, J Ognard, C Guintard, F Domergue, S Hassani, D Ben Salem, J-L Jung
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to scan the head of a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) in order to visualize the different adipose tissues involved in echolocation functioning and to precisely delineate their anatomical topology. MRI scans were performed on the head taken from a freshly stranded carcass and repeated after a 2-week freezing time followed by thawing. The main fatty organs of the head, that is the melon, the mandibula bulba, the bursae cantantes, and their different connections with surrounding tissues were identified and labelled...
December 18, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Abdhesh Kumar, Miles Borgen, Lihini I Aluwihare, William Fenical
Polyhalogenated N-methylbipyrroles of two different structure classes have been detected worldwide in over 100 environmental samples including seawater, bird eggs, fish, dolphin blubber, and in the breast milk of humans that consume seafood. These molecules are concentrated in the fatty tissues in comparable abundance to some of the most important anthropogenic contaminants, such as the halogenated flame-retardants and pesticides. Although the origin of these compounds is still unknown, we present evidence that the production of these materials can involve the direct ozone activated seawater halogenation of N-methylbipyrrole precursors...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Sandro Mazzariol, Cinzia Centelleghe, Andrea Di Provvido, Ludovica Di Renzo, Giusy Cardeti, Antonella Cersini, Gianluca Fichi, Antonio Petrella, Cristina Esmeralda Di Francesco, Walter Mignone, Cristina Casalone, Giovanni Di Guardo
In September 2014, seven sperm whales were stranded along Italy's Adriatic coastline. Postmortem investigations on 3 female adult whales and 1 male fetus carried by the largest female revealed molecular and immunohistochemical evidence of dolphin morbillivirus infection. A possible role of the virus in the stranding event was considered.
January 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Abbas Shokri, Amirfarhang Miresmaeili, Nasrin Farhadian, Sepideh Falah-Kooshki, Payam Amini, Najmeh Mollaie
Article Incorrect patient positioning and the resultant image distortion occur in many radiographic examinations. This study aimed to assess the effect of tilting, rotation and tipping of the head on the accuracy of maxillofacial transverse measurements made on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. The CBCT scans were obtained in central position of 10 dry human skulls. Using three-dimensional (3D) Dolphin software, six positions namely 10° and 20° tilts, rotations and tips were reconstructed of central position...
September 2016: Brazilian Dental Journal
Elisa Rojo-Nieto, Carolina Fernández-Maldonado
Dolphins are considered sentinel species in the marine environment. The Strait of Gibraltar is the only passage between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, being the transitional region which connects these two basins and one of the most important routes of cetacean migration worldwide. In this work, eight trace elements (TE) were studied in 45 samples of liver, kidney and muscle, from 15 specimens stranded in this study area. The preliminary results show, among others, the patterns of distribution of the TE in the target organs studied, the influence of sex, length and developmental stage in these TE concentrations and the Se/Hg ratio...
March 2017: Chemosphere
Salman Abbas Zadeh, Veronika Mlitz, Julia Lachner, Bahar Golabi, Michael Mildner, Johannes Pammer, Erwin Tschachler, Leopold Eckhart
PSORS1C2 is a gene located between Coiled-Coil Alpha-Helical Rod protein 1 (CCHCR1) and Corneodesmosin (CDSN) within the psoriasis susceptibility locus 1 (PSORS1). Here, we performed a comparative genomics analysis of the as yet incompletely characterized PSORS1C2 gene and determined its expression pattern in human tissues. In contrast to CCHCR1, which is common to all vertebrates investigated, PSORS1C2 and CDSN are present exclusively in mammals, indicating that the latter genes have originated after the evolutionary divergence of mammals and reptiles...
December 11, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Blanca Morales-Guerrero, Cecilia Barragán-Vargas, German R Silva-Rosales, Christian D Ortega-Ortiz, Diane Gendron, Laura M Martinez-Levasseur, Karina Acevedo-Whitehouse
BACKGROUND: The cellular mechanisms used to counteract or limit damage caused by exposure of marine vertebrates to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation are poorly understood. Cetaceans are vulnerable because they lack protective skin appendages and are obliged to surface continuously to breathe, thus being exposed repeatedly to UV light. Although molecular mechanisms of photoprotection of cetaceans have been studied, there is limited knowledge about their epidermal structure and photoprotective effectors...
December 11, 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
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