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Toll—like receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222622/toll-like-receptor-4-knockdown-attenuates-brain-damage-and-neuroinflammation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-via-inhibiting-neuronal-autophagy-and-astrocyte-activation
#1
Hongsheng Jiang, Yanzhou Wang, Xin Liang, Xiaofeng Xing, Xiuzhen Xu, Caifeng Zhou
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been linked to various pathophysiological conditions, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is reported that posttraumatic neuroinflammation is an essential event in the progression of brain injury after TBI. Recent evidences indicate that TLR4 mediates glial phagocytic activity and inflammatory cytokines production. Thus, TLR4 may be an important therapeutic target for neuroinflammatory injury post-TBI. This study was designed to explore potential effects and underlying mechanisms of TLR4 in rats suffered from TBI...
December 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222281/improved-biological-insight-and-influence-on-management-in-indolent-lymphoma-talk-3-update-on-nodal-and-splenic-marginal-zone-lymphoma
#2
REVIEW
Catherine Thieblemont
Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) and nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL) are rare indolent chronic B-cell lymphomas. Prognosis is typically good with median survival around 10-15 years. Management is generally based on the presence of symptoms or high tumor burden. There are no standard treatments for these 2 entities, and therapeutic strategies are rapidly evolving. Clinical developments for these 2 entities are oriented by genomic studies, with largely overlapping mutational profiles involving the NOTCH, B-cell receptor (BcR) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling, chromatin remodeling, and the cytoskeleton...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222012/macrophage-immunomodulatory-activity-of-the-polysaccharide-isolated-from-collybia-radicata-mushroom
#3
Yufeng Wang, Youqiu Tian, Jiangjuan Shao, Xu Shu, Jinxia Jia, Xiaojie Ren, Yue Guan
Polysaccharides from Collybia radicata mushroom (CRP) possess many functions, such as antiviral, anti-aging and hypolipidemic activities. However, little is known about their immunomodulatory activity. To address this issue, we did a thorough research into their immune effects on murine macrophages. The results showed that the 14942Da polysaccharide not only obviously improved the proliferation and phagocytosis of macrophages, but also induced the secretion of nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin factors (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10)...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221855/toll-like-receptor-4-regulates-anxiety-like-behavior-and-darpp-32-phosphorylation
#4
T Femenia, Y Qian, T Arentsen, H Forssberg, R Diaz Heijtz
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in early innate immune responses to inflammatory agents and pathogens. In the brain, some members of the TLR family are expressed in glial cells and neurons. In particular, TLR4 has been involved in learning and memory processes, stress-induced adaptations, and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role of TLR4 in emotional behaviors and their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of TLR4 in emotional and social behavior by using different behavioral approaches, and assessed potential molecular alterations in important brain areas involved in emotional responses...
December 5, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221801/donor-polymorphisms-of-toll-like-receptor-4-rs1927914-associated-with-the-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-recurrence-following-liver-transplantation
#5
Guangjun Shi, Chuanxu Wang, Ping Zhang, Lisha Ji, Shifeng Xu, Xueying Tan, Hao Li
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT) severely restricts the long-term survival of patients. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been considered to be involved in hepatocarcinogenesis and metastasis. Additionally, there is a study demonstrating the significant association between TLR4 gene rs1927914 polymorphism and HCC, but no study investigated the association of the TLR4 rs1927914 polymorphism with the risk of HCC recurrence following LT...
December 5, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221590/activit%C3%A3-s-immunomodulatrice-anti-inflammatoire-antiprurigineuse-et-tol%C3%A3-rog%C3%A3-nique-induites-par-i-modulia%C3%A2-un-extrait-issu-de-culture-d%C3%A2-aquaphilus-dolomiae-dans-les-mod%C3%A3-les-pharmacologiques-de-dermatite-atopique-immunomodulatory-anti-inflammatory-anti-pruritus
#6
T Nguyen, N Castex-Rizzi, D Redoulès
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory and pruritic dermatosis of multifactorial origin. Topical steroids are the first line treatment for severe AD however alternatives treatment are increasingly needed. A biological concentrate was elaborated from culture of an Avène aquatic microflora isolate namely Aquaphilus dolomiae. Numerous extracts were evaluated in relevant AD in vitro models with human keratinocytes. Among these extracts, a particular one I-modulia® was found to be remarkable in terms of pharmacological activities: innate immunity modulating by agonizing Toll like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4 and TLR5, induction of anti-microbial peptides, inhibition of cytokines characteristics of T helper (Th)1, Th2 and Th17 responses, inhibition of Protease-activated-receptor (PAR) 2 and Thymic-stromal-lymphopoeitin (TSLP) both being known to be upregulated in pruritus...
January 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221142/d-4f-increases-microrna-124a-and-reduces-neuroinflammation-in-diabetic-stroke-rats
#7
Ruizhuo Ning, Poornima Venkat, Michael Chopp, Alex Zacharek, Tao Yan, Xu Cui, Don Seyfried, Jieli Chen
D-4F is an apolipoprotein-A1 mimetic peptide that promotes anti-inflammatory effects. MicroRNA-124 is the most abundant brain-specific microRNA and has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy and mechanisms of D-4F treatment of stroke in type one diabetes mellitus (T1DM) rats. Male Wistar rats were induced with T1DM, subjected to embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion and treated with PBS or D-4F (1 mg/kg i.p.) at 2, 24 and 48 hours after stroke (n=8/group). A battery of function tests, brain blood barrier (BBB) integrity, white matter changes and microRNA expression were evaluated in vivo and in vitro...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221139/epstein-barr-virus-in-tumor-infiltrating-b-cells-of-myasthenia-gravis-thymoma-an-innocent-bystander-or-an-autoimmunity-mediator
#8
Paola Cavalcante, Stefania Marcuzzo, Sara Franzi, Barbara Galbardi, Lorenzo Maggi, Teresio Motta, Raffaella Ghislandi, Antonella Buzzi, Luisella Spinelli, Lorenzo Novellino, Fulvio Baggi, Carlo Antozzi, Fabio Conforti, Tommaso Martino De Pas, Massimo Barberis, Pia Bernasconi, Renato Mantegazza
The thymus plays a key role in myasthenia gravis (MG), a B cell-mediated autoimmune disorder affecting neuromuscular junction. Most MG patients have thymic abnormalities, including hyperplasia and thymoma, a neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with autoimmune diseases and tumors. Recently, we showed EBV persistence and reactivation in hyperplastic MG thymuses, suggesting that EBV might contribute to intra-thymic B cell dysregulation in MG patients. Here, we investigated EBV involvement in thymoma-associated MG, by searching for EBV markers in MG (n=26) and non-MG (n=14) thymomas...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221127/long-noncoding-rnas-expression-profile-and-functional-networks-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
Donghua Xu, Ye Jiang, Lu Yang, Xixing Hou, Jihong Wang, Weijun Gu, Xiaodong Wang, Lanyu Liu, Juan Zhang, Hongying Lu
The modifying effects of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) recently have drawn much attention; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Herein, we aim to investigate the expression profile of lncRNAs in RA and identify promising targets for RA diagnosis and treatment. Microarray screening and real-time PCR of lncRNAs were performed by use of serum samples from 3 RA patients and 3 healthy controls. Significantly differentially expressed lncRNAs were verified in serum samples from 43 RA patients and 40 healthy controls by real-time PCR...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218124/expression-of-toll-like-receptor-2-and-4-in-peripheral-blood-neutrophil-cells-from-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
Prashant Mani Tripathi, Surya Kant, Ravi Shanker Yadav, Ram Awadh Singh Kushwaha, Ved Prakash, Sayed Husian Mustafa Rizvi, Arshiya Parveen, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Iqbal Ahmad
Objectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world. Preliminary studies have evaluated the association between innate immunity including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and airway samples of patients with COPD. The role of TLRs in peripheral blood neutrophils is poorly understood. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the role of TLR2 and TLR4 in peripheral blood neutrophils of COPD patients. Methods: A total of 101 COPD cases and an equal number of healthy controls participated in this case-control study...
November 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218100/staphylococcus-aureus-peptidoglycan-promotes-osteoclastogenesis-via-tlr2-mediated-activation-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-nfatc1-signaling-pathway
#11
Faqi Cao, Wu Zhou, Guohui Liu, Tian Xia, Mengfei Liu, Bobin Mi, Yi Liu
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) peptidoglycan (PGN-sa), the major cell wall component of S. aureus, has been demonstrated to be an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of S. aureus-induced osteomyelitis. However, the exact role of PGN-sa in osteoclastogenesis during S. aureus-induced osteomyelitis and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we found that PGN-sa promoted receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that the mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific marker genes, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and calcitonin receptor was upregulated by PGN-sa treatment...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218046/tlr2-expression-in-peripheral-cd4-t-cells-promotes-th17-response-and-is-associated-with-disease-aggravation-of-hepatitis-b-virus-related-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#12
Chunli Xu, Yinping Lu, Xin Zheng, Xuemei Feng, Xuecheng Yang, Joerg Timm, Jun Wu, Baoju Wang, Mengji Lu, Dongliang Yang, Jia Liu
Th17 responses have been shown to play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). The mechanism underlying the enhanced Th17 responses in these patients remains largely unclear. Here we investigated toll-like receptors (TLRs) expression in peripheral T cells and their roles in Th17 cell differentiation and disease aggravation in ACLF patients. 18 healthy subjects (HS), 20 chronic HBV-infected (CHB) patients, and 26 ACLF patients were enrolled and examined for TLRs expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217822/hepatocyte-toll-like-receptor-4-mediates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-hepcidin-expression
#13
Yong-Soo Lee, Yong-Hoon Kim, Yoon Seok Jung, Ki-Sun Kim, Don-Kyu Kim, Soon-Young Na, Ji-Min Lee, Chul-Ho Lee, Hueng-Sik Choi
Hepcidin expression is induced by inflammatory molecules such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via a macrophage-mediated pathway. Although hepatocytes directly respond to LPS, the molecular mechanism underlying toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent hepcidin expression by hepatocytes is mostly unknown. Here we show that LPS can directly induce the mRNA expression and secretion of hepcidin by hepatocytes via TLR4 activation. Using hepatocytes deficient in TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-β (TRIF), we demonstrated that LPS-induced hepcidin expression by hepatocytes is regulated by its specific receptor, TLR4, via a MyD88-dependent signaling pathway...
December 8, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217299/high-pd-l1-cd86-mfi-ratio-and-il-10-secretion-characterize-human-regulatory-dendritic-cells-generated-for-clinical-testing-in-organ-transplantation
#14
Alan F Zahorchak, Camila Macedo, David E Hamm, Lisa H Butterfield, Diana M Metes, Angus W Thomson
Human regulatory dendritic cells (DCreg) were generated from CD14 immunobead-purified or elutriated monocytes in the presence of vitamin D3 and IL-10. They exhibited similar, low levels of costimulatory CD80 and CD86, but comparatively high levels of co-inhibitory programed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and IL-10 production compared to control immature DC (iDC). Following Toll-like receptor 4 ligation, unlike control iDC, DCreg resisted phenotypic and functional maturation and further upregulated PD-L1:CD86 expression...
September 14, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217270/kafirin-from-sorghum-bicolor-inhibition-of-inflammation-in-thp-1-human-macrophages-is-associated-with-reduction-of-intracellular-reactive-oxygen-species
#15
Andrew C Sullivan, Philipus Pangloli, Vermont P Dia
Aberrant inflammation as a result of activation of the transmembrane protein Toll-like receptor 4 belonging to pattern recognition receptor and subsequent phosphorylation of signaling proteins facilitated by reactive oxygen species has been linked to a myriad of diseases. Sorghum is a drought-resistant cereal with health promoting properties associated with its biologically active substances such as kafirin. Kafirin is an alcoholsoluble protein and accounts for as much as 70% of the total proteins in sorghum...
December 4, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215065/toll-like-receptor-activation-induces-degeneration-of-human-intervertebral-discs
#16
Emerson Krock, Derek H Rosenzweig, J Brooke Currie, Daniel G Bisson, Jean A Ouellet, Lisbet Haglund
Toll-like receptors (TLR) are activated by endogenous alarmins such as fragmented extracellular matrix compounds found in the degenerating disc. TLRs regulate cytokine, neurotrophin, and protease expression in human disc cells in vitro, and thus control key factors in disc degeneration. However, whether TLR activation leads to degenerative changes in intact human discs is unclear. Nucleus pulposus (NP) cells isolated from non-degenerating discs increase IL-1β and nerve growth factor gene expression following treatment with Pam2CSK4 (TLR2/6 agonist) but not Pam3CSK4 (TLR1/2 agonist)...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215004/nlrp11-attenuates-toll-like-receptor-signalling-by-targeting-traf6-for-degradation-via-the-ubiquitin-ligase-rnf19a
#17
Chenglei Wu, Zexiong Su, Meng Lin, Jiayu Ou, Wei Zhao, Jun Cui, Rong-Fu Wang
The adaptor protein TRAF6 has a central function in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling, yet the molecular mechanisms controlling its activity and stability are unclear. Here we show that NLRP11, a primate specific gene, inhibits TLR signalling by targeting TRAF6 for degradation. NLRP11 recruits the ubiquitin ligase RNF19A to catalyze K48-linked ubiquitination of TRAF6 at multiple sites, thereby leading to the degradation of TRAF6. Furthermore, deficiency in either NLRP11 or RNF19A abrogates K48-linked ubiquitination and degradation of TRAF6, which promotes activation of NF-κB and MAPK signalling and increases the production of proinflammatory cytokines...
December 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214775/trim56-suppresses-multiple-myeloma-progression-by-activating-tlr3-trif-signaling
#18
Ying Chen, Jing Zhao, Dengzhe Li, Jinxia Hao, Pengcheng He, Huaiyu Wang, Mei Zhang
PURPOSE: Tripartite-motif-containing protein 56 (TRIM56) has been found to exhibit a broad antiviral activity, depending upon E3 ligase activity. Here, we attempted to evaluate the function of TRIM56 in multiple myeloma (MM) and its underlying molecular basis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TRIM56 expression at the mRNA and protein level was measured by qRT PCR and western blot analysis. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry analysis was performed to investigate the effect of TRIM56 on MM cell proliferation and apoptosis...
January 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214654/role-of-the-innate-immune-system-in-the-neuropathological-consequences-induced-by-adolescent-binge-drinking
#19
REVIEW
María Pascual, Jorge Montesinos, Consuelo Guerri
Adolescence is a critical stage of brain maturation in which important plastic and dynamic processes take place in different brain regions, leading to development of the adult brain. Ethanol drinking in adolescence disrupts brain plasticity and causes structural and functional changes in immature brain areas (prefrontal cortex, limbic system) that result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. These changes, along with secretion of sexual and stress-related hormones in adolescence, may impact self-control, decision making, and risk-taking behaviors that contribute to anxiety and initiation of alcohol consumption...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212341/scavenging-reactive-oxygen-species-production-normalizes-ferroportin-expression-and-ameliorates-cellular-and-systemic-iron-disbalances-in-hemolytic-mouse-model
#20
Naveen Kumar Tangudu, Betuel Alan, Francesca Vinchi, Katharina Woerle, Dilay Lai, Sabine Vettorazzi, Kerstin Leopold, Maja Vujic Spasic
AIMS: The release of large amounts of free heme into the circulation, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activation of toll-like receptor (Tlr)-4 dependent responses are considered critical for the ability of heme to promote oxidative stress and to initiate pro-inflammatory responses, posing a serious threat to the body. A deep understanding of the consequences of heme overload on the regulation of cellular and systemic iron homeostasis is however, still lacking. RESULTS: The effects of heme on iron metabolism were studied in primary macrophages and in mouse models of acute and chronic hemolysis...
December 6, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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