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Toll—like receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936237/the-immunomodulatory-small-molecule-imiquimod-induces-apoptosis-in-devil-facial-tumour-cell-lines
#1
Amanda L Patchett, Jocelyn M Darby, Cesar Tovar, A Bruce Lyons, Gregory M Woods
The survival of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is threatened by devil facial tumour disease (DFTD). This transmissible cancer is usually fatal, and no successful treatments have been developed. In human studies, the small immunomodulatory molecule imiquimod is a successful immunotherapy, activating anti-tumour immunity via stimulation of toll-like receptor-7 (TLR7) signaling pathways. In addition, imiquimod is a potent inducer of apoptosis in human tumour cell lines via TLR7 independent mechanisms...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934954/strap-acts-as-a-scaffolding-protein-in-controlling-the-tlr2-4-signaling-pathway
#2
Hyunbin D Huh, Eun A Ra, Taeyun A Lee, Sujin Kang, Areum Park, Eunhye Lee, Junhee L Choi, Eunji Jang, Ji Eun Lee, Sungwook Lee, Boyoun Park
The WD40-repeat protein serine/threonine kinase receptor-associated protein (STRAP) is involved in the regulation of several biological processes, including cell proliferation and apoptosis, in response to various stresses. Here, we show that STRAP is a new scaffold protein that functions in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated immune responses. STRAP specifically binds transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and IκB kinase alpha (IKKα) along with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) subunit p65, leading to enhanced association between TAK1, IKKα, and p65, and subsequent facilitation of p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933551/pentoxifylline-alleviates-early-brain-injury-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats-possibly-via-inhibiting-tlr-4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#3
Da-Yong Xia, Hua-Sheng Zhang, Ling-Yun Wu, Xiang-Sheng Zhang, Meng-Liang Zhou, Chun-Hua Hang
Early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) generally causes significant and lasting damage. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has shown anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties in several brain injury models, but the role of PTX with respect to EBI following SAH remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of PTX on EBI after SAH in rats. Adult male Sprauge-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the sham and SAH groups. PTX (30 or 60 mg/kg) or an equal volume of the administration vehicle (normal saline) was administrated at 30 min intervals following SAH...
December 8, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931771/context-dependent-role-of-oxidized-lipids-and-lipoproteins-in-inflammation
#4
REVIEW
Yury I Miller, John Y-J Shyy
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL), which contains hundreds of different oxidized lipid molecules, is a hallmark of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. The same oxidized lipids found in OxLDL are also formed in apoptotic cells, and are present in tissues as well as in the circulation under pathological conditions. In many disease contexts, oxidized lipids constitute damage signals, or patterns, that activate pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and significantly contribute to inflammation. Here, we review recent discoveries and emerging trends in the field of oxidized lipids and the regulation of inflammation, focusing on oxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids esterified into cholesteryl esters (CEs) and phospholipids (PLs)...
December 5, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931102/mannose-receptor-mediates-the-immune-response-to-ganoderma-atrum-polysaccharides-in-macrophages
#5
Wen-Juan Li, Xiao-Fang Tang, Xiao-Xue Shuai, Cheng-Jia Jiang, Xiang Liu, Le-Feng Wang, Yu-Fei Yao, Shaoping Nie, Ming-Yong Xie
The ability of mannose receptor (MR) to recognize the carbohydrate structures is well established. Here we reported that MR was crucial for the immune response to Ganoderma atrum polysaccharides (PSG-1), as evidenced by elevation of MR in association with increase of phagocytosis and concentrations of IL-1ß and TNF-α in normal macrophages. Elevation of MR triggered by PSG-1 also led to control lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered inflammatory response via the increase of IL-10 and inhibition of phagocytosis and IL-1ß...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930350/toll-like-receptor-tlr-4-and-myd88-are-essential-for-atheroprotection-by-peritoneal-b1a-b-cells
#6
Hamid Hosseini, Yi Li, Peter Kanellakis, Christopher Tay, Anh Cao, Edgar Liu, Karlheinz Peter, Peter Tipping, Ban-Hock Toh, Alex Bobik, Tin Kyaw
BACKGROUND: We previously identified peritoneal B1a cells that secrete natural IgM as a key atheroprotective B cell subset. However, the molecules that activate atheroprotective B1a cells are unknown. Here, we investigated whether Toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 expressed by B1a cells are required for IgM-mediated atheroprotection. METHODS AND RESULTS: We adoptively transferred B1a cells from wild-type mice or from mice deficient in TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, or myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) into ApoE(-/-) mice depleted of peritoneal B1a cells by splenectomy and fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks...
November 14, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929534/extracellular-histones-cell-free-dna-or-nucleosomes-differences-in-immunostimulation
#7
REVIEW
Gerben Marsman, Sacha Zeerleder, Brenda M Luken
In inflammation, extensive cell death may occur, which results in the release of chromatin components into the extracellular environment. Individually, the purified chromatin components double stranded (ds)DNA and histones have been demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, to display various immunostimulatory effects, for example, histones induce cytotoxicity and proinflammatory signaling through toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and 4, while DNA induces signaling through TLR9 and intracellular nucleic acid sensing mechanisms...
December 8, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928906/toll-like-receptors-in-the-progression-of-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease
#8
Ismail Kocyigit, Elif Funda Sener, Serpil Taheri, Eray Eroglu, Fahir Ozturk, Aydin Unal, Gokmen Zararsiz, Ilknur Uzun, Hakan Imamoglu, Murat Hayri Sipahioglu, Bulent Tokgoz, Oktay Oymak, Tevfik Ecder
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary cause of chronic kidney disease. The intriguing role of innate immune system and inflammation become a target for potential therapeutic approach to slow progression. When toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling and their receptors activate, they start a cascade of intracellular signaling that induces the production of the inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Thus, we aim to investigate the association of TLRs between progression of ADPKD...
December 7, 2016: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928219/salidroside-protects-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice
#9
Rufeng Lu, Yueguo Wu, Honggang Guo, Xiaomin Huang
Salidroside (SDS) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effect of SDS on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. BALB/c mice were pretreated with SDS 1 hour before intranasal instillation of LPS. Seven hours after LPS administration, the myeloperoxidase in histology of lungs, lung wet/dry ratio, and inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL 1β), and IL-6 in the BALF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
October 2016: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928019/tlr2-ligation-enhances-hiv-1-replication-in-activated-ccr6-cd4-t-cells-by-increasing-virus-entry-and-establishing-a-more-permissive-environment-to-infection
#10
Jean-François Bolduc, Michel Ouellet, Laurent Hany, Michel J Tremblay
: In this study, we investigated the effect of TLR2 ligation on the permissiveness of activated CD4(+) T cells to HIV-1 infection by focusing our experiments on the relative susceptibility of cell subsets based on their expression of CCR6. Purified primary human CD4(+) T cells were first subjected to a CD3/CD28 costimulation before treatment with the TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4. Finally, cells were inoculated with R5-tropic HIV-1 particles that permit to study the effect of TLR2 triggering on virus production at both population and single-cell levels...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928016/promising-role-of-toll-like-receptor-8-agonist-in-concert-with-prostratin-for-activation-of-silent-hiv
#11
M A Rochat, E Schlaepfer, R F Speck
: The persistence of latently HIV-infected cells in patients under combined anti-retroviral treatment (cART) remains the major hurdle for HIV eradication. Thus far, individual compounds have not been sufficiently potent to reactivate latent virus and guarantee its elimination in vivo Thus, we hypothesized that transcriptional enhancers, in concert with compounds triggering the innate immune system, are more efficient in reversing latency by creating a Th1 supportive milieu that acts against latently HIV-infected cells at various levels...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928002/adjuvanting-an-siv-vaccine-with-tlr-ligands-encapsulated-in-nanoparticles-induces-persistent-antibody-responses-and-enhanced-protection-in-trim5%C3%AE-restrictive-macaques
#12
Sudhir Pai Kasturi, Pamela A Kozlowski, Helder I Nakaya, Matheus C Burger, Pedro Russo, Mathew Pham, Yevgeniy Kovalenkov, Eduardo L V Silveira, Colin Havenar-Daughton, Samantha L Burton, Katie M Kilgore, Mathew J Johnson, Rafiq Nabi, Traci Legere, Zarpheen Jinnah Sher, Xuemin Chen, Rama R Amara, Eric Hunter, Steven E Bosinger, Paul Spearman, Shane Crotty, Francois Villinger, Cynthia A Derdeyn, Jens Wrammert, Bali Pulendran
: Our previous work has shown that antigens adjuvanted with specific ligands for toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR7/8 encapsulated in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based nanoparticles (NP), induced robust and durable immune responses in mice and macaques. We investigated the efficacy of these NP adjuvants in inducing protective immunity against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Rhesus macaques (RMs) were immunized with NP containing TLR4 and TLR7/8 agonists mixed with soluble recombinant SIVmac239 derived envelope (Env) gp140 and Gag p55 (Protein), or with virus like particles (VLP) containing SIVmac239 Env and Gag...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927165/innate-immunity-based-cancer-immunotherapy-b16-f10-murine-melanoma-model
#13
Veronika Caisová, Andra Vieru, Zuzana Kumžáková, Simona Glaserová, Hana Husníková, Nikol Vácová, Gabriela Krejčová, Lucie Paďouková, Ivana Jochmanová, Katherine I Wolf, Jindřich Chmelař, Jan Kopecký, Jan Ženka
BACKGROUND: Using killed microorganisms or their parts to stimulate immunity for cancer treatment dates back to the end of 19(th) century. Since then, it undergone considerable development. Our novel approach binds ligands to the tumor cell surface, which stimulates tumor phagocytosis. The therapeutic effect is further amplified by simultaneous application of agonists of Toll-like receptors. We searched for ligands that induce both a strong therapeutic effect and are safe for humans. METHODS: B16-F10 murine melanoma model was used...
December 7, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925265/pentoxifylline-besides-naltrexone-recovers-morphine-induced-inflammation-in-male-reproductive-system-of-rats-by-regulating-toll-like-receptor-pathway
#14
S Chehrei, M Moradi, H R Ghiabi, M Falahi, S Kaviani, A Ghanbari
This study aimed to investigate the effect of pentoxifylline on complications of prolonged usage of morphine upon the testis and sperm parameters of rats. In this study, forty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 8) and treated for 56 days to only saline, only morphine, only pentoxifylline, pentoxifylline + morphine and naltrexone + morphine. The diameters of seminiferous tubules, the maturity of germ line epithelium and sperm parameters were evaluated. The expression of inflammatory-related factors in testis tissues were also investigated at gene and protein levels...
December 7, 2016: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925208/extracellular-hsp70-enhances-mesoangioblast-migration-via-an-autocrine-signaling-pathway
#15
Maria M Barreca, Walter Spinello, Vincenzo Cavalieri, Giuseppina Turturici, Gabriella Sconzo, Punit Kaur, Rosaria Tinnirello, Alexzander A A Asea, Fabiana Geraci
Mouse mesoangioblasts are vessel-associated progenitor stem cells endowed with the ability of multipotent mesoderm differentiation. Therefore, they represent a promising tool in the regeneration of injured tissues. Several studies have demonstrated that homing of mesoangioblasts into blood and injured tissues are mainly controlled by cytokines/chemokines and other inflammatory factors. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating their ability to traverse the extracellular matrix (ECM)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925202/calprotectin-induces-il-6-and-mcp-1-production-via-toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-in-human-gingival-fibroblasts
#16
Yasufumi Nishikawa, Yukari Kajiura, Jung Hwan Lew, Jun-Ichi Kido, Toshihiko Nagata, Koji Naruishi
Calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9 molecules, is associated with inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. We have reported that calprotectin levels in gingival crevicular fluids of periodontitis patients are significantly higher than in healthy subjects. However, the functions of calprotectin in pathophysiology of periodontitis are still unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of calprotectin on the productivity of inflammatory cytokines in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924479/assessing-the-off-target-effects-of-mirna-inhibitors-on-innate-immune-toll-like-receptors
#17
Geneviève Pépin, Jonathan Ferrand, Michael P Gantier
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in most cellular processes and are deregulated in several diseases. Antisense miRNA oligonucleotides (AMOs) therefore present novel therapeutic opportunities. Currently, in vivo delivery of AMOs often relies on high doses of nucleic acids, with nonspecific uptake by most tissues. Critically, AMOs accumulate in phagocytic cells where they can interfere with immune functions, such as the activation of Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs). In this chapter, we describe a method to assess the possible off-target effects of AMOs on TLR7, 8, and 9 sensing...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924419/beneficial-effect-of-low-level-laser-therapy-in-acute-lung-injury-after-i-i-r-is-dependent-on-the-secretion-of-il-10-and-independent-of-the-tlr-myd88-signaling
#18
J L Carvalho, A Britto, A P Ligeiro de Oliveira, H Castro-Faria-Neto, R Albertini, E Anatriello, F Aimbire
The use of low-level laser for lung inflammation treatment has been evidenced in animal studies as well as clinical trials. The laser action mechanism seems to involve downregulation of neutrophil chemoattractants and transcription factors. Innate immune responses against microorganisms may be mediated by toll-like receptors (TLR). Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (i-I/R) lead to bacterial product translocation, such as endotoxin, which consequently activates TLRs leading to intestinal and lung inflammation after gut trauma...
December 6, 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923915/late-phase-synthesis-of-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb%C3%AE-insulates-the-tlr4-activated-canonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-from-noncanonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-macrophages
#19
Budhaditya Chatterjee, Balaji Banoth, Tapas Mukherjee, Nandaraj Taye, Bharath Vijayaragavan, Samit Chattopadhyay, James Gomes, Soumen Basak
The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcription factors coordinate the inflammatory immune response during microbial infection. Pathogenic substances engage canonical NF-κB signaling through the heterodimer RelA:p50, which is subjected to rapid negative feedback by inhibitor of κBα (IκBα). The noncanonical NF-κB pathway is required for the differentiation of immune cells; however, cross-talk between both pathways can occur. Concomitantly activated noncanonical signaling generates p52 from the p100 precursor...
December 6, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923288/toll-like-receptor-4-protects-against-stress-induced-ulcers-via-regulation-of-glucocorticoid-production-in-mice
#20
Liang Wang, Pengfei Luo, Fang Zhang, Yuelu Zhang, Xingtong Wang, Fei Chang, Yuechan Zhang, Hongtai Tang, Zhaofan Xia
Stress-induced gastric ulcer is an important life-threatening condition, while the molecular basis of its development is incompletely understood. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an innate immune pattern recognition receptor, can induce pro-inflammatory transcription, aggravating a stress ulcer. The present study found that TLR4 played a protective role in a mouse model of water immersion (23 °C) restraint stress. Wild-type (WT) and TLR4(-/-) male mice were respectively divided into five groups (5 per group), and exposed to the stressor for 0, 0...
December 6, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
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