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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231548/spatiotemporal-exposome-dynamics-of-soil-lead-and-children-s-blood-lead-pre-and-ten-years-post-hurricane-katrina-lead-and-other-metals-on-public-and-private-properties-in-the-city-of-new-orleans-louisiana-u-s-a
#1
Howard W Mielke, Christopher R Gonzales, Eric T Powell, Paul W Mielke
BACKGROUND: Anthropogenic re-distribution of lead (Pb) principally through its use in gasoline additives and lead-based paints have transformed the urban exposome. This unique study tracks urban-scale soil Pb (SPb) and blood Pb (BPb) responses of children living in public and private communities in New Orleans before and ten years after Hurricane Katrina (29 August 2005). OBJECTIVES: To compare and evaluate associations of pre- and ten years post-Katrina SPb and children's BPb on public and private residential census tracts in the core and outer areas of New Orleans, and to examine correlations between SPb and nine other soil metals...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230783/acute-toxicities-of-the-saxitoxin-congeners-gonyautoxin-5-gonyautoxin-6-decarbamoyl-gonyautoxin-2-3-decarbamoyl-neosaxitoxin-c-1-2-and-c-3-4-to-mice-by-various-routes-of-administration
#2
Andrew I Selwood, Craig Waugh, David T Harwood, Lesley L Rhodes, John Reeve, Jim Sim, Rex Munday
Paralytic shellfish poisoning results from consumption of seafood naturally contaminated by saxitoxin and its congeners, the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). The levels of such toxins are regulated internationally, and maximum permitted concentrations in seafood have been established in many countries. A mouse bioassay is an approved method for estimating the levels of PSTs in seafood, but this is now being superseded in many countries by instrumental methods of analysis. Such analyses provide data on the levels of many PSTs in seafood, but for risk assessment, knowledge of the relative toxicities of the congeners is required...
February 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230105/interface-confined-hydrogen-evolution-reaction-in-zero-valent-metal-nanoparticles-intercalated-molybdenum-disulfide
#3
Zhongxin Chen, Kai Leng, Xiaoxu Zhao, Souradip Malkhandi, Wei Tang, Bingbing Tian, Lei Dong, Lirong Zheng, Ming Lin, Boon Siang Yeo, Kian Ping Loh
Interface confined reactions, which can modulate the bonding of reactants with catalytic centres and influence the rate of the mass transport from bulk solution, have emerged as a viable strategy for achieving highly stable and selective catalysis. Here we demonstrate that 1T'-enriched lithiated molybdenum disulfide is a highly powerful reducing agent, which can be exploited for the in-situ reduction of metal ions within the inner planes of lithiated molybdenum disulfide to form a zero valent metal-intercalated molybdenum disulfide...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228263/reciprocal-regulation-between-53bp1-and-the-anaphase-promoting-complex-cyclosome-is-required-for-genomic-stability-during-mitotic-stress
#4
Thomas J Kucharski, Paul E Minshall, Mohamed Moustafa-Kamal, Andrew S Turnell, Jose G Teodoro
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets substrates for degradation to promote mitotic progression. Here, we show that the DNA damage response protein 53BP1 contains conserved KEN boxes that are required for APC/C-dependent degradation in early mitosis. Mutation of the 53BP1 KEN boxes stabilized the protein and extended mitotic duration, whereas 53BP1 knockdown resulted in a shorter and delayed mitosis. Loss of 53BP1 increased APC/C activity, and we show that 53BP1 is a direct APC/C inhibitor...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225493/acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor-treatment-alleviated-cognitive-impairment-caused-by-delayed-encephalopathy-due-to-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-two-case-reports-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#5
Kumi Yanagiha, Kazuhiro Ishii, Akira Tamaoka
INTRODUCTION: Delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can even occur in patients with mild symptoms of acute CO poisoning. Some cases taking conventional hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy or steroid-pulse therapy may be insufficient, and AchEI may be effective. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: We report two cases of delayed encephalopathy after acute CO poisoning involving two women aged 69 (Case 1) and 60 years (Case 2) whose cognitive function improved with acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AchEI) treatment...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225374/characterizing-the-toxicity-and-dose-effect-profile-of-tramadol-ingestions-in-children
#6
Gina L Stassinos, Lawrence Gonzales, Wendy Klein-Schwartz
OBJECTIVES: Tramadol can cause life-threatening toxicity in overdose; however, data on its toxicity in children are lacking. This study investigates toxicity associated with tramadol ingestions in children. The hypothesis is that children will experience dose-related central nervous system and respiratory depression and seizures. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation of cases from the National Poison Center Data System between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013, was performed...
February 21, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225154/human-butyrylcholinesterase-efficacy-against-nerve-agent-exposure
#7
Beth A Reed, Carol L Sabourin, David E Lenz
Acetylcholinesterase is vital for normal operation of many processes in the body. Following exposure to organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents, death can ensue without immediate medical intervention. Current therapies mitigate the cholinergic crisis caused by nerve agents but do not fully prevent long-term health concerns, for example, brain damage following seizures. Human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBChE) is a stoichiometric bioscavenger being investigated as an antidote for OP nerve agent poisoning. HuBChE sequesters OP nerve agent in the bloodstream preventing the nerve agent from reaching critical target organ systems...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225079/multiple-sodium-channel-isoforms-mediate-the-pathological-effects-of-pacific-ciguatoxin-1
#8
Marco C Inserra, Mathilde R Israel, Ashlee Caldwell, Joel Castro, Jennifer R Deuis, Andrea M Harrington, Angelo Keramidas, Sonia Garcia-Caraballo, Jessica Maddern, Andelain Erickson, Luke Grundy, Grigori Y Rychkov, Katharina Zimmermann, Richard J Lewis, Stuart M Brierley, Irina Vetter
Human intoxication with the seafood poison ciguatoxin, a dinoflagellate polyether that activates voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV), causes ciguatera, a disease characterised by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances. We assessed the activity of the most potent congener, Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1), on NaV1.1-1.9 using imaging and electrophysiological approaches. Although P-CTX-1 is essentially a non-selective NaV toxin and shifted the voltage-dependence of activation to more hyperpolarising potentials at all NaV subtypes, an increase in the inactivation time constant was observed only at NaV1...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224710/extended-low-dose-exposure-to-saxitoxin-inhibits-neurite-outgrowth-in-model-neuronal-cells
#9
Katie O'Neill, Ian F Musgrave, Andrew Humpage
The potent neurotoxin saxitoxin (STX) belongs to a group of structurally related analogues produced by both marine and freshwater phytoplankton. The toxins act by blocking voltage-gated sodium channels stopping the inflow of sodium ions and the generation of action potentials. Exposure from marine sources occurs as a result of consuming shellfish which have concentrated the toxins, and freshwater exposure can occur from drinking water although there have been no acute poisonings from the latter source to date...
November 7, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223858/the-therapeutic-usage-of-botulinum-toxin-botox-in-non-cosmetic-head-and-neck-conditions-an-evidence-based-review
#10
REVIEW
Kamran Habib Awan
Botulinum toxin (Botox) is an exotoxin produced from Clostridium botulinum. It blocks the release of acetylcholine from the cholinergic nerve end plates resulting in inactivity of the muscles or glands innervated. The efficacy of Botox in facial aesthetics is well established; however, recent literature has highlighted its utilization in multiple non-cosmetic medical and surgical conditions. The present article reviews the current evidence pertaining to Botox use in the non-cosmetic head and neck conditions...
January 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223118/characterization-of-the-dinophysistoxin-2-acute-oral-toxicity-in-mice-to-define-the-toxicity-equivalency-factor
#11
Paula Abal, M Carmen Louzao, José Manuel Cifuentes, Natalia Vilariño, Ines Rodriguez, Amparo Alfonso, Mercedes R Vieytes, Luis M Botana
Ingestion of shellfish with dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2) can lead to diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP). The official control method of DSP toxins in seafood is the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS). However in order to calculate the total toxicity of shellfish, the concentration of each compound must be multiplied by individual Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF). Considering that TEFs caused some controversy and the scarce information about DTX2 toxicity, the aim of this study was to characterize the oral toxicity of DTX2 in mice...
February 18, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223070/-repeated-poisoning-episodes-alarm-sign-of-risk-situations
#12
Elsa García González, Victoria Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, Lidia Martínez Sánchez, Nuria Ferrer Bosch, Carles Luaces Cubells
INTRODUCTION: Prevention is an essential aspect in paediatric poisonings, especially when recurrent episodes are detected. The aims of this article are to detect the recurrence rate for suspected poisoning in emergency consultations, as well as to identify the cases in which specific preventive measures are indicated, and to determine whether the creation of a specific item for recurrent episodes in the computerised medical records system facilitates its detection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on patients less than 18 years of age treated in the emergency room due to suspected poisoning during 2013 and 2014...
February 18, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222913/should-hyperbaric-oxygen-be-used-in-acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#13
Hu Hui-Jun, Fan Dan-Feng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222753/evaluation-of-blood-lead-level-in-methamphetamine-users-in-tehran
#14
Babak Mostafazadeh, Shahin Shadnia, Mohammad Ali Tavakkoli, Hamid Reza Khoddami Vishteh
BACKGROUND: Given the increasing number of lead poisoning in opioids users and since no study has been conducted so far to review lead poisoning in methamphetamine (crystal) users, this study aimed to investigate blood lead level in methamphetamine addicts. METHODS: This study was conducted on 20 patients with methamphetamine poisoning and their blood lead level was measured. The subjects were selected from among patients with a history of continuous use of methamphetamine, without a history of using opiates in the past 6 months confirmed by a negative urine tests, and without a history of heavy metal poisoning...
February 22, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221888/histamine-formation-in-a-dry-salted-twaite-shad-alosa-fallax-lacustris-product
#15
Mauro Vasconi, Federica Bellagamba, Cristian Bernardi, Piera Anna Martino, Vittorio Maria Moretti
Landlocked shad is a freshwater clupeid fish ( Alosa fallax lacustris ) whose consumption is associated with the risk of scombrotoxin poisoning. Traditionally, fresh shad are subjected to an artisanal processing procedure, consisting of dry salting and maturation under pressure, to give a fish product named missoltino , which is stored in large metallic barrels and is sold to local consumers and restaurants. In recent years, the introduction of modern food packaging technologies has enabled this product to also be distributed in shops and supermarkets...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221814/an-amperometric-glucose-sensor-integrated-into-an-insulin-delivery-cannula-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#16
W Kenneth Ward, Gabriel Heinrich, Matthew Breen, Sheila Benware, Nicole Vollum, Kristin Morris, Chad Knutsen, Joseph D Kowalski, Scott Campbell, Jerry Biehler, Mark S Vreeke, Scott M Vanderwerf, Jessica R Castle, Robert S Cargill
BACKGROUND: Labeling prohibits delivery of insulin at the site of subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Integration of the sensing and insulin delivery functions into a single device would likely increase the usage of CGM in persons with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: To understand the nature of such interference, we measured glucose at the site of bolus insulin delivery in swine using a flexible electrode strip that was laminated to the outer wall of an insulin delivery cannula...
February 21, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221722/self-supported-ptaup-alloy-nanotube-arrays-with-enhanced-activity-and-stability-for-methanol-electro-oxidation
#17
Lili Zhang, Liang-Xin Ding, Hongbin Chen, Dongdong Li, Suqing Wang, Haihui Wang
Inhibiting CO formation can more directly address the problem of CO poisoning during methanol electro-oxidation. In this study, 1D self-supported porous PtAuP alloy nanotube arrays (ANTAs) are synthesized via a facile electro-codeposition approach and present enhanced activity and improved resistance to CO poisoning through inhibiting CO formation (non-CO pathway) during the methanol oxidation reaction in acidic medium. This well-controlled Pt-/transition metal-/nonmetal ternary nanostructure exhibits a specific electroactivity twice as great as that of PtAu alloy nanotube arrays and Pt/C...
February 21, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220909/effects-of-meso-2-3-dimercaptosuccinic-acid-potassium-iodide-and-chlorophyll-on-lead-accumulation-in-male-mice
#18
Ying Xie, Guifeng Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Lead (Pb) pollution is a serious public health problem all over the world, it especially plays severe damage role in children's health. Apart from reducing lead-induced damages, the decrease of lead accumulation is also critical. This study has been the first attempt to investigate effects of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), potassium iodide (KI) and chlorophyll (Chl) on lead accumulation in male mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty healthy Kunming male mice were selected and divided randomly into 8 groups...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220387/cadmium-concentration-in-human-autopsy-tissues
#19
Teresa Lech, Józefa K Sadlik
The concentration of cadmium in human tissues obtained on the basis of autopsies of non-poisoned Polish people (n = 150), aged from 1 to 80 years, examined between 1990 and 2010, is presented. The following values were found in wet digested samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) (mean ± SD, median, and range, μg/g of wet weight): brain 0.020 ± 0.031, 0.084, 0-0.120 (n = 41); stomach 0.148 ± 0.195, 0.084, 0-1.25 (n = 89); small intestine 0.227 ± 0.231, 0.130, 0-0.830 (n = 39); liver 1...
February 20, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219241/alkyl-cyclens-as-effective-sulfur-and-phosphorus-free-friction-modifiers-for-boundary-lubrication
#20
Michael Desanker, Xingliang He, Jie Lu, Pinzhi Liu, David B Pickens, Massimiliano Delferro, Tobin J Marks, Yip-Wah Chung, Q Jane Wang
Modern automotive engines operate at higher power densities than ever before, driving a need for new lubricant additives capable of reducing friction and wear further than ever before while not poisoning the catalytic converter. Reported in this paper is a new class of molecular friction modifier (FM), represented by 1,4,7,10-tetradodecyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (1a), designed to employ thermally stable, sulfur- and phosphorus-free alkyl substituted nitrogen heterocycles with multiple nitrogen centers per molecule...
February 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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