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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666624/recombinant-protein-containing-b-cell-epitopes-of-different-loxosceles-spider-toxins-generates-neutralizing-antibodies-in-immunized-rabbits
#1
Sabrina de Almeida Lima, Clara Guerra-Duarte, Fernanda Costal-Oliveira, Thais Melo Mendes, Luís F M Figueiredo, Daysiane Oliveira, Ricardo A Machado de Avila, Valéria Pereira Ferrer, Dilza Trevisan-Silva, Silvio S Veiga, João C Minozzo, Evanguedes Kalapothakis, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui
Loxoscelism is the most important form of araneism in South America. The treatment of these accidents uses heterologous antivenoms obtained from immunization of production animals with crude loxoscelic venom. Due to the scarcity of this immunogen, new alternatives for its substitution in antivenom production are of medical interest. In the present work, three linear epitopes for Loxosceles astacin-like protease 1 (LALP-1) (SLGRGCTDFGTILHE, ENNTRTIGPFDYDSIMLYGAY, and KLYKCPPVNPYPGGIRPYVNV) and two for hyaluronidase (LiHYAL) (NGGIPQLGDLKAHLEKSAVDI and ILDKSATGLRIIDWEAWR) from Loxosceles intermedia spider venom were identified by SPOT-synthesis technique...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665474/the-role-of-the-arginine-residue-in-site-rc-for-the-analgesic-activity-of-the-recombinant-chinese-scorpion-buthus-martensii-karsch-bmk-agp-sypu1
#2
Yong Cui, Yao Wang, Xuelin Wang, Zhengwei Zhang, Jinghai Zhang, Yongshan Zhao
Scorpion venom is composed of a large number of bioactive peptides which display important pharmacological activities. In this study we have carried out a study of the functional role of the arginine residue at position 58 in the site RC comprising the reverse turn (8-12) and C-terminal residues 58-64. A polymerase chain reaction was used to substitute this arginine residue with a single amino acid such as alanine, glycine and lysine. The mutants were expressed in soluble form in E. coli, and purified by affinity chromatography...
April 9, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665288/dilute-russel-viper-venom-time-analysis-in-a-haematology-laboratory-an-audit
#3
W Kruger, P W A Meyer, J G Nel
INTRODUCTION: To determine whether the current set of evaluation criteria used for dilute Russel Viper Venom Time (dRVVT) investigations in the routine laboratory meet expectation and identify possible shortcomings. METHODS: All dRVVT assays requested from January 2015 to December 2015 were appraised in this cross-sectional study. The raw data panels were compared with the new reference interval, established in 2016, to determine the sequence of assays that should have been performed...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664034/incidence-prognosis-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-individuals-of-snakebite-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-india
#4
Ramulu Pulimaddi, Amruth Rao Parveda, Balkishan Brahmanpally, Paul Marx Kalakanda, K Ramakrishna, Venkata Ramana Devi Chinnapaka
Background & objectives: The snakebites are considered to be an occupational hazard in agriculture workers and the snake handlers, resulting in a considerable morbidity, mortality and economical implications. This study was conducted to determine the incidence, clinical presentation, renal injury and clinical outcome in snakebite victims who developed acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: This hospital-based prospective, observational study was done on 100 cases who were admitted for the management of snakebite and found to develop AKI in a tertiary care hospital at Hyderabad, India...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663255/structural-characterization-and-disulfide-assignment-of-spider-peptide-ph%C3%AE-1%C3%AE-by-mass-spectrometry
#5
Kelly L Wormwood, Armand Gatien Ngounou Wetie, Marcus Vinicius Gomez, Yue Ju, Paul Kowalski, Marius Mihasan, Costel C Darie
Native Phα1β is a peptide purified from the venom of the armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer that has been shown to have an extensive analgesic effect with fewer side effects than ω-conotoxin MVIIA. Recombinant Phα1β mimics the effects of the native Phα1β. Because of this, it has been suggested that Phα1β may have potential to be used as a therapeutic for controlling persistent pathological pain. The amino acid sequence of Phα1β is known; however, the exact structure and disulfide arrangement has yet to be determined...
April 16, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661512/organelle-survival-in-a-foreign-organism-hydra-nematocysts-in-the-flatworm-microstomum-lineare
#6
Georg Krohne
Nematocysts are characteristic organelles of the phylum cnidaria. They are designated kleptocnidae when sequestered in animals that feed on cnidaria. Kleptocnidae are known for more than a century. Nevertheless it is still enigmatic how selected nematocyst types survive in the predator and how they reach their final destination in the foreign body. In the free-living Platyhelminth Microstomum lineare the fate of nematocysts of the prey Hydra oligactis was analyzed at the ultrastructural level and by fluorescence microscopy using hydra polyps that had been stained in vivo with the fluorescent dyes TROMI and TRITC...
April 8, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659601/in-vitro-assessment-of-cytotoxic-activities-of-lachesis-muta-muta-snake-venom
#7
Stephanie Stransky, Fernanda Costal-Oliveira, Letícia Lopes-de-Souza, Clara Guerra-Duarte, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui, Vania Maria Martin Braga
Envenomation by the bushmaster snake Lachesis muta muta is considered severe, characterized by local effects including necrosis, the main cause of permanent disability. However, cellular mechanisms related to cell death and tissue destruction, triggered by snake venoms, are poorly explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effect caused by L. m. muta venom in normal human keratinocytes and to identify the cellular processes involved in in cellulo envenomation. In order to investigate venom effect on different cell types, Alamar Blue assay was performed to quantify levels of cellular metabolism as a readout of cell viability...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659491/antivenom-production-against-bothrops-jararaca-and-bothrops-erythromelas-snake-venoms-using-cross-linked-chitosan-nanoparticles-as-an-immunoadjuvant
#8
Karla Samara Rocha Soares, Fiamma Gláucia-Silva, Alessandra Daniele-Silva, Manoela Torres-Rêgo, Nathália Kelly de Araújo, Yamara Arruda Silva de Menezes, Igor Zumba Damasceno, Denise Vilarinho Tambourgi, Arnóbio Antônio da Silva-Júnior, Matheus de Freitas Fernandes-Pedrosa
In Brazil, envenomation by snakes of the genus Bothrops is clinically relevant, particularly for the species Bothrops jararaca and B. erythromelas . The most effective treatment for envenomation by snakes is the administration of antivenoms associated with adjuvants. Novel adjuvants are required to reduce side effects and maximize the efficiency of conventional serum and vaccine formulations. The polymer chitosan has been shown to have immunoadjuvant properties, and it has been used as a platform for delivery systems...
April 16, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659142/an-uneasy-alliance-a-nesting-association-between-aggressive-ants-and-equally-fierce-social-wasps
#9
Pablo Servigne, Jérôme Orivel, Frédéric Azémar, James Carpenter, Alain Dejean, Bruno Corbara
Although the Neotropical territorially dominant arboreal ant Azteca chartifex Forel is very aggressive towards any intruder, its populous colonies tolerate the close presence of the fierce polistine wasp Polybia rejecta (F.). In French Guiana, 83.33% of the 48 P. rejecta nests recorded were found side by side with those of A. chartifex. This nesting association results in mutual protection from predators (i.e., the wasps protected from army ants; the ants protected from birds). We conducted field studies, laboratory-based behavioral experiments and chemical analyses to elucidate the mechanisms allowing the persistence of this association...
April 16, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656567/major-venom-proteins-of-the-fire-ant-solenopsis-invicta-insights-into-possible-pheromone-binding-function-from-mass-spectrometric-analysis
#10
T Das, I Alabi, M Colley, F Yan, W Griffith, S Bach, S T Weintraub, R Renthal
Proteins in the venom of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta have been suggested to function in pheromone binding. Venom from queens and workers contains different isoforms of these proteins, consistent with the differing pheromones they secrete, but questions remain about the venom protein composition and glandular source. We found that the queen venom contains a previously uncharacterized pheromone-binding protein paralogue known as Sol i 2X1. Using imaging mass spectrometry, we located the main venom proteins in the poison sac, implying that pheromones might have to compete with venom alkaloids for binding...
April 15, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656144/short-and-long-term-management-of-cases-of-venom-induced-anaphylaxis-via-is-suboptimal
#11
Ashley Tritt, Sofianne Gabrielli, Sarah Zahabi, Ann Clarke, Jocelyn Moisan, Harley Eisman, Judy Morris, Lea Restivo, Greg Shand, Moshe Ben-Shoshan
BACKGROUND: Venom induced anaphylaxis (VIA) accounts for severe reactions. However, little is known about the short and long-term management of VIA cases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the short and long-term management of VIA. METHODS: Using a national anaphylaxis registry (C-CARE), we identified VIA cases presenting to EDs in Montreal and to emergency medical services(EMS) in Western Quebec over a four-year period. Data were collected on clinical characteristics, triggers, and management...
April 12, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656017/proteomic-and-toxinological-characterization-of-the-venom-of-the-south-african-ringhals-cobra-hemachatus-haemachatus
#12
Andrés Sánchez, María Herrera, Mauren Villalta, Daniela Solano, Álvaro Segura, Bruno Lomonte, José María Gutiérrez, Guillermo León, Mariángela Vargas
The protein composition and toxinological profile of the venom of the African spitting elapid Hemachatus haemachatus (Ringhals) were characterized by bottom-up proteomics and functional in vitro and in vivo assays. Venom is composed of abundant three-finger toxins (3FTxs; 63.3%), followed by phospholipases A2 (PLA2 s; 22.8%), snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs 7.1%), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs; 4.1%) and Kunitz type protease inhibitors (KTPIs; 1.5%). 3FTxs are the main responsible for lethality and myotoxicity in mice and in vitro anticoagulant activity...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651298/true-or-false-coral-snake-is-it-worth-the-risk-a-micrurus-corallinus-case-report
#13
Marcelo Abrahão Strauch, Guilherme Jones Souza, Jordana Nahar Pereira, Tyelli Dos Santos Ramos, Marcelo Oliveira Cesar, Marcelo Amorim Tomaz, Marcos Monteiro-Machado, Fernando Chagas Patrão-Neto, Paulo A Melo
Background: Bites provoked by the genus Micrurus represent less than 1% of snakebite cases notified in Brazil, a tiny fraction compared with other genus such as Bothrops and Crotalus , which together represent almost 80% of accidents. In addition to their less aggressive behavior, habits and morphology of coral snakes are determinant factors for such low incidence of accidents. Although Micrurus bites are rare, victims must be rescued and hospitalized in a short period of time, because this type of envenoming may evolve to a progressive muscle weakness and acute respiratory failure...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649812/safety-and-efficacy-of-a-progressively-prolonged-maintenance-interval-of-venom-immunotherapy
#14
Kalliopi Kontou-Fili, Constantinos Pitsios, Evangelia Kompoti, Dionysios Giannakopoulos, Spyros Kouridakis
BACKGROUND: The long-term protection provided by venom immunotherapy (VIT) is related to the dose administered and to its long duration; the latter, however, becomes inconvenient for patients in countries like Greece, with many islanders or inhabitants of distant mountainous areas. Maintenance interval prolongation reduces the number of office visits - saving time and money - and as a consequence contributes to the patients' compliance. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of VIT on a progressively prolonged maintenance interval (PPMI)...
April 12, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644748/amidated-scolopin-2-inhibits-proliferation-and-induces-apoptosis-of-hela-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#15
Weili Yan, Jia Lu, Guiting Li, Huiyuan Wei, Wen-H Ua Ren
This study aimed to investigate the effect of Scolopin-2, a cationic antimicrobial peptide from centipede venoms, and amidated Scolopin-2 on Hela cell viability in vitro and in vivo. The cellular proliferation was investigated with MTT assay. Confocal laser scanning, flow cytometry, and Western Blot analysis were employed to localize Scolopin-2-NH2 in Hela cells and to study the caused cells apoptosis. We subcutaneously (s.c.) injected Hela cells into BALB/c nude mice and studied if Scolopin-2-NH2 suppressed tumor growth in the mice...
April 12, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629956/what-you-should-not-miss-from-the-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses-on-allergen-specific-immunotherapy-in-2017
#16
Désirée Larenas-Linnemann, Jorge A Luna-Pech
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is a well recognized and extensively studied therapeutic intervention for some allergic diseases. Every year new systematic reviews and meta-analysis provide the most powerful source of evidence to orient decision making on prevention or efficacy of AIT. We here discuss systematic reviews and meta-analyses on AIT (published January 2017 to February 2018). RECENT FINDINGS: We identified 4 systematic reviews and 10 meta-analyses...
April 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629287/infrequent-use-of-medicinal-plants-from-india-in-snakebite-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Manali Sughosh Upasani, Sughosh Vishweshwar Upasani, Vishal Gokul Beldar, Chetana Gokul Beldar, Pranjal P Gujarathi
Snakes have fascinated humankind for millennia. Snakebites are a serious medical, social, and economic problem that are experienced worldwide; however, they are most serious in tropical and subtropical countries. The reasons for this are 1) the presence of more species of the most dangerous snakes, 2) the inaccessibility of immediate medical treatment, and 3) poor health care. The goal of this study was to collect information concerning rare, less utilized, and less studied medicinal plants. More than 100 plants were found to have potential to be utilized as anti-snake venom across India...
March 2018: Integrative Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626660/venom-derived-peptide-mastoparan-1-eradicates-planktonic-and-biofilm-embedded-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates
#18
Hamed Memariani, Mojtaba Memariani, Mohammad Reza Pourmand
During the past decade, cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) have gained particular interest among researchers, since they often display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and low possibility of resistance emergence. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro effectiveness of Mastoparan-1 (MP-1), a tetradecapeptide CAP from hornet venom, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. MP-1 had a high propensity to form alpha-helix based on structural predictions. MP-1 was found to possess strong antimicrobial activities and weak cytotoxic effects...
April 4, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626299/short-chain-consensus-alpha-neurotoxin-a-synthetic-60-mer-peptide-with-generic-traits-and-enhanced-immunogenic-properties
#19
Guillermo de la Rosa, Ligia L Corrales-García, Ximena Rodriguez-Ruiz, Estuardo López-Vera, Gerardo Corzo
The three-fingered toxin family and more precisely short-chain α-neurotoxins (also known as Type I α-neurotoxins) are crucial in defining the elapid envenomation process, but paradoxically, they are barely neutralized by current elapid snake antivenoms. This work has been focused on the primary structural identity among Type I neurotoxins in order to create a consensus short-chain α-neurotoxin with conserved characteristics. A multiple sequence alignment considering the twelve most toxic short-chain α-neurotoxins reported from the venoms of the elapid genera Acanthophis, Oxyuranus, Walterinnesia, Naja, Dendroaspis and Micrurus led us to propose a short-chain consensus α-neurotoxin, here named ScNtx...
April 6, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626137/snakebites-in-africa-and-europe-a-military-perspective-and-update-for-contemporary-operations
#20
REVIEW
Daniel Wilkins, D S Burns, D Wilson, D A Warrell, L E M Lamb
Snakebite envenoming is rare among military patients, with few cases reported in recent years. Increasingly, however, military operations are taking place in remote parts of Africa, which are inhabited by numerous species of venomous snake, and in Europe, where dangerous species exist but are less common. Bites from a venomous snake may prove fatal, and therefore military medics must be adequately prepared to manage them. This paper reviews the most medically significant species of venomous snake present in Africa and Europe, before suggesting an evidence-based approach to snakebite prevention and management, including possible changes to the UK's Clinical Guidelines for Operations...
April 5, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
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