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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642580/a-snake-venom-group-iia-pla2-with-immunomodulatory-activity-induces-formation-of-lipid-droplets-containing-15-d-pgj2-in-macrophages
#1
Karina Cristina Giannotti, Elbio Leiguez, Ana Eduarda Zulim de Carvalho, Neide Galvão Nascimento, Márcio Hideki Matsubara, Consuelo Latorre Fortes-Dias, Vanessa Moreira, Catarina Teixeira
Crotoxin B (CB) is a catalytically active group IIA sPLA2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom. In contrast to most GIIA sPLA2s, CB exhibits anti-inflammatory effects, including the ability to inhibit leukocyte functions. Lipid droplets (LDs) are lipid-rich organelles associated with inflammation and recognized as a site for the synthesis of inflammatory lipid mediators. Here, the ability of CB to induce formation of LDs and the mechanisms involved in this effect were investigated in isolated macrophages...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641584/crotoxin-stimulates-an-m1-activation-profile-in-murine-macrophages-during-leishmania-amazonensis-infection
#2
L H S Farias, A P D Rodrigues, E C Coêlho, M F Santos, S C Sampaio, E O Silva
American tegumentary leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. This protozoan employs several mechanisms to subvert the microbicidal activity of macrophages and, given the limited efficacy of current therapies, the development of alternative treatments is essential. Animal venoms are known to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including antiparasitic effects. Crotoxin (CTX) is the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, and it has several biological effects. Nevertheless, there is no report of CTX activity during macrophage - Leishmania interactions...
June 23, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640321/effects-of-direct-oral-anticoagulants-on-lupus-anticoagulant-assays-in-a-real-life-setting
#3
Aleksandra Antovic, Eva-Marie Norberg, Maria Berndtsson, Agnes Rasmuson, Rickard E Malmström, Mika Skeppholm, Jovan Antovic
Laboratory diagnosis of lupus anticoagulant (LA) is based on prolongation in at least one coagulation assay (diluted Russell's viper venom time - dRVVT or activated partial thromboplastin time - aPTT), which normalises after addition of phospholipids. Both assays may be influenced by anticoagulants and therefore LA should not be tested during warfarin or heparin treatment. It has been shown (primarily in vitro) that direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs - dabigatran [DAB], rivaroxaban [RIV] and apixaban [API]) may also influence LA testing...
June 22, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638279/preventive-actions-of-allergen-immunotherapy-the-facts-and-the-effects-in-search-of-evidence
#4
REVIEW
Irene Martignago, Cristoforo Incorvaia, Erminia Ridolo
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only treatment that works on the causes of allergy. Available AIT nowadays are subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for allergic rhinitis and asthma, while for allergy to Hymenoptera venom only subcutaneous route is recommended. A bulk of trials and meta-analyses demonstrated that efficacy and safety of AIT in decreasing allergic clinical symptoms and use of rescue medications, while its preventive capacity is yet under investigation. The most important of these effects is the prevention of potentially fatal anaphylactic reactions to Hymenoptera stings by venom immunotherapy (VIT)...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637698/charming-the-snake-venom-derived-peptides-show-surprising-efficacy-as-glycoprotein-vi-targeting-antithrombotic-agents
#5
EDITORIAL
Andrew B Herr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637411/venom-peptides-and-toxins-a-prospective-spearhead-in-cancer-treatment
#6
Janet Pik Ching Wong, Bin Li, Hang Fai Kwok
Cancer is a condition of genetically or environmentally mutated, uncontrollable cell growth that directly affects human morbidity and mortality. Many treatments have been adopted to reduce cancer cell proliferation; however, new mutated developments of some cancer cells have started to show resistance towards current therapies and treatments that cause some drugs to lose their efficacy. Additionally, deleterious side-effects of some hard application methods like radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery are less favorable...
June 21, 2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634472/antifungal-activity-against-filamentous-fungi-of-ts1-a-multifunctional-toxin-from-tityus-serrulatus-scorpion-venom
#7
Welligton M Santussi, Karla C F Bordon, Ana P N Rodrigues Alves, Camila T Cologna, Suraia Said, Eliane C Arantes
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are ubiquitous and multipotent components of the innate immune defense arsenal used by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. The search for new AMPs has increased in recent years, due to the growing development of microbial resistance to therapeutical drugs. In this work, we evaluate the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom (Tsv), its fractions and its major toxin Ts1, a beta-neurotoxin, on fungi growth. The fractions were obtained by ion-exchange chromatography of Tsv. The growth inhibition of 11 pathogenic and non-pathogenic filamentous fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, A...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633930/phospholipase-a2-in-the-venom-of-three-cottonmouth-snake-species
#8
Ying Jia, Boris Ermolinsky, Aryana Garza, Daniele Provenzano
Two phospholipase A2s (PLA2s), Asp49 (D49) and Lys49 (K49), were purified by one-step reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) from the venom of each of the three subspecies of cottonmouth snake, Western cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma; Apl), Eastern cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus; App) and Florida cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti; Apc). Venom protein profiles and PLA2s elution pattern of the three cottonmouth snakes were remarkably similar displaying four similar sharp and two wide peaks; in all cases K49 PLA2 eluted first followed by D49 PLA2...
June 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630618/perinatal-effects-of-scorpion-venoms-maternal-and-offspring-development
#9
REVIEW
Ana Leticia Coronado Dorce, Adriana do Nascimento Martins, Valquiria Abrão Coronado Dorce, Ana Leonor Abrahão Nencioni
Scorpion envenomation is a public health problem, especially in tropical and subtropical countries. Considering the high incidence of scorpionism in some areas, pregnant women and nursing mothers may be possible victims. Scorpion stings alter the release of neurotransmitters and some cytokines. These mediators act as organizers and programmers in the adequate formation of the nerves, and non-physiological concentrations of them during the brain organization originate disorders and diseases that can appear later in the life of the individual...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630289/green-mamba-peptide-targets-type-2-vasopressin-receptor-against-polycystic-kidney-disease
#10
Justyna Ciolek, Helen Reinfrank, Loïc Quinton, Say Viengchareun, Enrico A Stura, Laura Vera, Sabrina Sigismeau, Bernard Mouillac, Hélène Orcel, Steve Peigneur, Jan Tytgat, Laura Droctové, Fabrice Beau, Jerome Nevoux, Marc Lombès, Gilles Mourier, Edwin De Pauw, Denis Servent, Christiane Mendre, Ralph Witzgall, Nicolas Gilles
Polycystic kidney diseases (PKDs) are genetic disorders that can cause renal failure and death in children and adults. Lowering cAMP in cystic tissues through the inhibition of the type-2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) constitutes a validated strategy to reduce disease progression. We identified a peptide from green mamba venom that exhibits nanomolar affinity for the V2R without any activity on 155 other G-protein-coupled receptors or on 15 ionic channels. Mambaquaretin-1 is a full antagonist of the V2R activation pathways studied: cAMP production, beta-arrestin interaction, and MAP kinase activity...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627854/swiss-and-tropical-snakebites-the-clinical-management
#11
Laurence Rochat, Gabriel Alcoba
With increasing trips to tropical areas, as well as a high number of venomous snake holders in the country, the frequency of snake bites is likely to increase. Even if in 50 % of cases, the bites do not lead to clinical envenoming, rapid and effective management is essential to successful treatment, which includes supply with the polyvalent or specific antivenom and recognition of the signs and symptoms justifying its administration. We will deal here mainly with local and tropical snake envenoming that Swiss practitioners could encounter in their offices or the emergency rooms and propose scenarios according to the syndromes...
May 3, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625888/combined-venom-profiling-and-cytotoxicity-screening-of-the-radde-s-mountain-viper-montivipera-raddei-and-mount-bulgar-viper-montivipera-bulgardaghica-with-potent-cytotoxicity-against-human-a549-lung-carcinoma-cells
#12
Ayse Nalbantsoy, Benjamin-Florian Hempel, Daniel Petras, Paul Heiss, Bayram Göçmen, Nasit Iğci, Mehmet Zülfü Yildiz, Roderich D Süssmuth
Here we report the first characterization of the endemic Mount Bulgar Viper (Montivipera bulgardaghica) and Radde's mountain viper (Montivipera raddei) venom by a combined approach using intact mass profiling and bottom-up proteomics. The cytotoxicity screening of crude venom as well as isolated serine proteases revealed a high activity against A549 human lung carcinoma cells. By means of intact mass profiling of native and reduced venom we observed basic and acidic phospholipases type A2. Moreover, the analysis revealed snake venom metalloproteases, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, disintegrins, snake venom serine proteases, C-type lectins, a vascular endothelial growth factor and an L-amino acid oxidase...
June 16, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623383/ethnopharmacological-uses-phytochemistry-biological-activities-and-biotechnological-applications-of-eclipta-prostrata
#13
REVIEW
Ill-Min Chung, Govindasamy Rajakumar, Ji-Hee Lee, Seung-Hyun Kim, Muthu Thiruvengadam
Eclipta prostrata belongs to a family of medicinal plants (Asteraceae) and plays a role in the treatment of several diseases, including infectious hepatitis, snake venom poisoning, gastritis, and respiratory diseases such as a cough and asthma. A number of compounds, including thiophene derivatives, steroids, triterpenes, flavonoids, polyacetylenes, polypeptides, and coumestans, have been isolated from E. prostrata. The plant functional compounds can act as reducing agent in the field of nanoparticle synthesis...
June 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623170/nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-inhibitors-derived-from-snake-and-snail-venoms
#14
REVIEW
Sebastien Dutertre, Annette Nicke, Victor Tsetlin
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) represents the prototype of ligand-gated ion channels. It is vital for neuromuscular transmission and an important regulator of neurotransmission. A variety of toxic compounds derived from diverse species target this receptor and have been of elemental importance in basic and applied research. They enabled milestone discoveries in pharmacology and biochemistry ranging from the original formulation of the receptor concept, the first isolation and structural analysis of a receptor protein (the nAChR) to the identification, localization, and differentiation of its diverse subtypes and their validation as a target for therapeutic intervention...
June 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622594/the-role-of-apitoxin-in-alleviating-propionic-acid-induced-neurobehavioral-impairments-in-rat-pups-the-expression-pattern-of-reelin-gene
#15
Maha H Daghestani, Manar E Selim, Yasmina M Abd-Elhakim, Enas N Said, Noura E Abd El-Hameed, Samah R Khalil, Osama S El-Tawil
The efficacy of apitoxin (bee venom; BV) in ameliorating propionic acid (PPA) -induced neurobehavioral impacts was studied. Sixty rat pups were enrolled in a split litter design to six groups: a control group, a PPA-treated group, a BV-treated group, a BV/PPA protective group, a PPA/BV therapeutic group, and a BV/PPA/BV protective and therapeutic group. Exploratory, social, locomotor, and repetitive/stereotype-like activities were assessed and prosocial, empathy, and acquired behavior were evaluated. Levels of neurotransmitter including serotonin, dopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were determined and a quantitative analysis of Reelin gene expression was performed...
June 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621878/isolation-and-chemical-characterization-of-agelaiatoxin8-avtx8-from-agelaia-vicina-wasp-venom-and-its-biological-effects-on-gaba-neurotransmission
#16
Andrea B Pizzo, Renê O Beleboni, Ruither O Gomes Carolino, Luciana de Oliveira, Antonio Miranda, Joaquim Coutinho-Netto, Andréia C K Fontana, Wagner Ferreira Dos Santos
Arthropod venoms are sources of molecules that may be useful tools to investigate molecular mechanisms of putative new medicines and laboratory drugs. Here we show the effects of the compound agelaiatoxin-8 (AVTx8), isolated from Agelaia vicina venom, on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission in rat brain synaptosomes. Analysis reveals that AvTx8 is composed by 14 amino acid residues with a molecular weight (MW) of 1567 Da. AvTx8 increased GABA release and inhibited GABA uptake in synaptosomes from rat cerebral cortex...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616190/insight-into-the-roles-of-selection-in-speciation-from-genomic-patterns-of-divergence-and-introgression-in-secondary-contact-in-venomous-rattlesnakes
#17
Drew R Schield, Richard H Adams, Daren C Card, Blair W Perry, Giulia M Pasquesi, Tereza Jezkova, Daniel M Portik, Audra L Andrew, Carol L Spencer, Elda E Sanchez, Matthew K Fujita, Stephen P Mackessy, Todd A Castoe
Investigating secondary contact of historically isolated lineages can provide insight into how selection and drift influence genomic divergence and admixture. Here, we studied the genomic landscape of divergence and introgression following secondary contact between lineages of the Western Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) to determine whether genomic regions under selection in allopatry also contribute to reproductive isolation during introgression. We used thousands of nuclear loci to study genomic differentiation between two lineages that have experienced recent secondary contact following isolation, and incorporated sampling from a zone of secondary contact to identify loci that are resistant to gene flow in hybrids...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612300/effects-of-photobiomodulation-therapy-on-bothrops-moojeni-snake-envenomed-gastrocnemius-of-mice-using-enzymatic-biomarkers
#18
Doroty Mesquita Dourado, Rosemary Matias, Marcos Barbosa-Ferreira, Baldomero Antonio Kato da Silva, Jéssica de Araujo Isaias Muller, Willians Fernando Vieira, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling
Bothropic venom contains a range of biologically active substances capable of causing severe local and systemic envenoming symptomatology within its victims. The snake anti-venom is effective against systemic effects but has no neutralizing effect against the fast developing local effects. Herein, mice gastrocnemius injected with Bothrops moojeni venom (40 μg/kg) or saline solution were irradiated with HeNe (632.8 nm) and GaAs (904 nm) lasers (daily energy density of 4 J/cm(2); 0.03/0.21 power density; 0...
June 13, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608817/recombinant-phospholipase-d-from-loxosceles-gaucho-binds-to-platelets-and-promotes-phosphatidylserine-exposure
#19
Daniel A Fukuda, Maria C Caporrino, Katia C Barbaro, Maisa S Della-Casa, Eliana L Faquim-Mauro, Geraldo S Magalhaes
Spider envenomation, from the genus Loxosceles, is frequently reported as a cause of necrotic lesions in humans around the world. Among the many components found in the venom of Loxosceles genus, phospholipases D (PLDs) are the most investigated, since they can cause a massive inflammatory response, dermonecrosis, hemolysis and platelet aggregation, among other effects. Even though the PLDs induce strong platelet aggregation, there are no studies showing how the PLDs interact with platelets to promote this effect...
June 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608598/purification-and-partial-characterization-of-an-anticoagulant-pla2-from-the-venom-of-indian-daboia-russelii-that-induces-inflammation-through-upregulation-of-proinflammatory-mediators
#20
Archana Deka, Maitreyee Sharma, Manoj Sharma, Rupak Mukhopadhyay, Robin Doley
The present study describes the purification and partial characterization of a basic anticoagulant PLA2 enzyme named as Rv(i) PLA2 from the venom of Indian Daboia russelii. The molecular mass of the protein was found to be 13,659.65 Da, and peptide mass fingerprinting revealed that it belongs to group II PLA2 family. The peptide sequence showed similarity to uncharacterized basic PLA2 enzyme having an accession no. of P86368 reported from Sri Lankan D. russelii. Rv(i) PLA2 exhibited strong phospholipase A2 and anticoagulant activity...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
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