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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236154/calcium-dynamics-in-tomato-pollen-tubes-using-the-yellow-cameleon-3-6-sensor
#1
María Laura Barberini, Lorena Sigaut, Weijie Huang, Silvina Mangano, Silvina Paola Denita Juarez, Eliana Marzol, José Estevez, Mariana Obertello, Lía Pietrasanta, Weihua Tang, Jorge Muschietti
In vitro tomato pollen tubes show a cytoplasmic calcium gradient that oscillates with the same period as growth. Pollen tube growth requires coordination between the tip-focused cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) gradient and the actin cytoskeleton. This [Ca2+]cyt gradient is necessary for exocytosis of small vesicles, which contributes to the delivery of new membrane and cell wall at the pollen tube tip. The mechanisms that generate and maintain this [Ca2+]cyt gradient are not completely understood...
December 13, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234603/a-retrospective-study-of-clinico-epidemiological-profile-of-snakebite-related-deaths-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-midnapore-west-bengal-india
#2
Rituparna Ghosh, Koushik Mana, Kripasindhu Gantait, Sumana Sarkhel
Objective: Snakebite is one of the neglected tropical diseases that World Health Organization (WHO) aimed to eradicate. The objective of the study is to investigate the mortality and morbidity due to snakebite at Midnapore Medical College & Hospital in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal, India. Methods & materials: This is a record-based, retrospective, descriptive epidemiological study conducted from January 2012 to December 2016 at Midnapore Medical College and Hospital(MMCH), Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal...
2018: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234602/neutralization-of-naja-naja-venom-induced-lethality-edema-and-myonecrosis-by-ethanolic-root-extract-of-coix-lacryma-jobi
#3
K S Rajesh, B R Bharath, C V Rao, K I Bhat, K S Chandrashekhar Bhat, Pritesh Bhat
Coix lacryma-jobi, commonly known as job's tear, is a tall grain-bearing tropical plant of the family Poaceae. The ethanolic root extract (ERE) of the plant was investigated for the first time for anti-venom activity against Indian cobra Naja naja venom. In-vitro studies were conducted to determine neutralization of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity of the Naja naja venom by the ERE. ERE showed significant inhibition of PLA2 activity, which was further confirmed from effective neutralization of human red blood cells (HRBC) lysis induced by the venom...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234410/scorpion-venom-active-polypeptide-may-be-a-new-external-drug-of-diabetic-ulcer
#4
Ting Wan, Luocheng Li, Zhanyong Zhu, Siyang Liu, Yueqiang Zhao, Mosheng Yu
Background: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) is recognized medicine of therapy in ulcer. However, its efficacy has been challenged. We compared scorpion venom active polypeptide and EGF of therapeutic effects in diabetic ulcer. Methods: The scorpion venom active polypeptide is made into gel. Fourteen diabetic SD rats were randomly divided into scorpion peptide gel group (SPG group) and EGF group. Before treatment, the rat model of diabetic ulcer was created. The levels of IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in the wound tissue were measured at different time points during the treatment, secretions of wound were collected for bacterial culture, and the wound healing was recorded...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233958/complement-c3a-signaling-facilitates-skeletal-muscle-regeneration-by-regulating-monocyte-function-and-trafficking
#5
Congcong Zhang, Chunxiao Wang, Yulin Li, Takashi Miwa, Chang Liu, Wei Cui, Wen-Chao Song, Jie Du
Regeneration of skeletal muscle following injury is accompanied by transient inflammation. Here we show that complement is activated in skeletal muscle injury and plays a key role during regeneration. Genetic ablation of complement C3 or its inactivation with Cobra Venom Factor (CVF) result in impaired muscle regeneration following cardiotoxin-induced injury in mice. The effect of complement in muscle regeneration is mediated by the alternative pathway and C3a receptor (C3aR) signaling, as deletion of Cfb, a key alternative pathway component, or C3aR leads to impaired regeneration and reduced monocyte/macrophage infiltration...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232492/use-of-split-free-nlc-ms-hrms-interface-to-improve-the-detection-of-%C3%AE-cobratoxin-in-equine-plasma-for-doping-control
#6
Ludovic Bailly-Chouriberry, Patrice Garcia, Florence Cormant, Benoit Loup, Marie-Agnès Popot, Yves Bonnaire
Cobra (Naja naja kaouthia) venom contains a toxin called α-cobratoxin (α-Cbtx) containing 71 amino acids (MW 7821 Da) with a reported analgesic power greater than morphine. In 2013, the first analytical method for the detection of α-Cbtx in equine plasma was developed by Bailly-Chouriberry et al. allowing the confirmation of the presence of α-Cbtx at low concentrations (1-5 ng/mL or 130-640 fmol/mL) in plasma samples. In order to increase the method sensitivity and therefore to improve the detection of α-Cbtx in post-administration plasma samples, a nano-liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry/high resolution mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/HRMS) method was developed...
December 12, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231898/the-venom-of-the-spine-bellied-sea-snake-hydrophis-curtus-proteome-toxin-diversity-and-intraspecific-variation
#7
Vanessa Neale, Javier Sotillo, Jamie E Seymour, David Wilson
The spine-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis curtus) is known to cause human deaths, yet its venom composition has not yet been proteomically characterised. An indepth proteomic analysis was performed on H. curtus venom from two different seasons, January and June, corresponding to adults and subadults, respectively. Venoms from adult and subadult H. curtus individuals were compared using reversedphase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) to detect intraspecific variation, and the molecular weight data obtained with ESIMS were used to assess toxin diversity...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231872/a-deeper-examination-of-thorellius-atrox-scorpion-venom-components-with-omic-techonologies
#8
Teresa Romero-Gutierrez, Esteban Peguero-Sanchez, Miguel A Cevallos, Cesar V F Batista, Ernesto Ortiz, Lourival D Possani
This communication reports a further examination of venom gland transcripts and venom composition of the Mexican scorpion Thorellius atrox using RNA-seq and tandem mass spectrometry. The RNA-seq, which was performed with the Illumina protocol, yielded more than 20,000 assembled transcripts. Following a database search and annotation strategy, 160 transcripts were identified, potentially coding for venom components. A novel sequence was identified that potentially codes for a peptide with similarity to spider ω-agatoxins, which act on voltage-gated calcium channels, not known before to exist in scorpion venoms...
December 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230357/comparative-analyses-of-putative-toxin-gene-homologs-from-an-old-world-viper-daboia-russelii
#9
Neeraja M Krishnan, Binay Panda
Availability of snake genome sequences has opened up exciting areas of research on comparative genomics and gene diversity. One of the challenges in studying snake genomes is the acquisition of biological material from live animals, especially from the venomous ones, making the process cumbersome and time-consuming. Here, we report comparative sequence analyses of putative toxin gene homologs from Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) using whole-genome sequencing data obtained from shed skin. When compared with the major venom proteins in Russell's viper studied previously, we found 45-100% sequence similarity between the venom proteins and their putative homologs in the skin...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229756/decoding-the-molecular-switches-of-natriuretic-peptides-which-differentiate-its-vascular-and-renal-functions
#10
Sindhuja Sridharan, R Manjunatha Kini
Heart failure (HF) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Dysfunction of blood pressure and/or volume homeostatic processes result in lower perfusion and/or congestion. Treatment strategies exerting differential effects on pressure and volume mechanisms are critical in handling patients with HF. Atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) is a key hormone in maintaining circulation. It binds to NP receptor-A (NPR-A) on vasculature, kidneys and nervous system to lowers blood pressure and volume. It exerts a concentration-dependent pharmacological activity; only increased renal excretion of water and sodium at low doses and vasodilation along with renal effects at slightly higher doses...
December 11, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229236/ultrastructural-analysis-of-early-toxic-effects-produced-by-bee-venom-phospholipase-a2-and-melittin-in-sertoli-cells-in-rats
#11
Mariana Tilinca, Adrian Florea
In this study, we aimed to investigate the testicular toxicity of two molecules derived from bee venom (BV): phospholipase A2 (PlA2) and melittin (Mlt). Ultrastructural effects of purified BV PlA2 and Mlt were assessed consecutive to repeated dose (30 days) and acute toxicity studies. For the subchronic treatment, PlA2 and Mlt were injected in daily doses equivalent to those released by a bee sting (105 μg PlA2/kg/day and 350 μg Mlt/kg/day), while in the acute treatment their doses corresponded to those released by 100 bee stings (9...
December 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226136/a-new-platelet-aggregation-inhibiting-factor-isolated-from-bothrops-moojeni-snake-venom
#12
Bruna Barbosa de Sousa, Carla Cristine Neves Mamede, Mariana Santos Matias, Déborah Fernanda da Cunha Pereira, Mayara Ribeiro de Queiroz, Edigar Henrique Vaz Dias, Anielle Christine Almeida Silva, Noelio Oliveira Dantas, Júnia de Oliveira Costa, Fábio de Oliveira
This work reports the purification and functional characterization of BmooPAi, a platelet-aggregation-inhibiting factor from Bothrops moojeni snake venom. The toxin was purified by a combination of three chromatographic steps (ion-exchange on DEAE-Sephacel, molecular exclusion on Sephadex G-75, and affinity chromatography on HiTrap™ Heparin HP). BmooPAi was found to be a single-chain protein with an apparent molecular mass of 32 kDa on 14% SDS-PAGE, under reducing conditions. Sequencing of BmooPAi by Edman degradation revealed the amino acid sequence LGPDIVPPNELLEVM...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222016/the-toxin-bjussulaao-ii-induces-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-upregulates-the-inflammatory-cytokine-genes-tnf-and-il6-and-downregulates-the-apoptotic-related-genes-bax-bcl2-and-rela-in-human-caco-2-cells
#13
A R T Machado, A F Aissa, D L Ribeiro, L C Hernandes, C S Machado, M L P Bianchi, S V Sampaio, L M G Antunes
Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in adults. As chemotherapy, the first-choice treatment for colorectal carcinoma, is often infeasible due to acquired tumor resistance and several adverse effects. It is important to discover and explore new molecules with better therapeutic action. Snake venom toxins have shown promising results with high cytotoxicity against tumor cells, but their mechanisms of action remain unclear. Here we examined how BjussuLAAO-II, an L-amino acid oxidase isolated from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom, exerts cytotoxicity towards colorectal adenocarcinoma human cells (Caco-2) and in human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUVEC)...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215605/cone-snails-a-big-store-of-conotoxins-for-novel-drug-discovery
#14
REVIEW
Bingmiao Gao, Chao Peng, Jiaan Yang, Yunhai Yi, Junqing Zhang, Qiong Shi
Marine drugs have developed rapidly in recent decades. Cone snails, a group of more than 700 species, have always been one of the focuses for new drug discovery. These venomous snails capture prey using a diverse array of unique bioactive neurotoxins, usually named as conotoxins or conopeptides. These conotoxins have proven to be valuable pharmacological probes and potential drugs due to their high specificity and affinity to ion channels, receptors, and transporters in the nervous systems of target prey and humans...
December 7, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215036/proteomics-and-antivenomics-of-echis-carinatus-carinatus-venom-correlation-with-pharmacological-properties-and-pathophysiology-of-envenomation
#15
Aparup Patra, Bhargab Kalita, Abhishek Chanda, Ashis K Mukherjee
The proteome composition of Echis carinatus carinatus venom (ECV) from India was studied for the first time by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 90, 47, and 22 distinct enzymatic and non-enzymatic proteins belonging to 15, 10, and 6 snake venom protein families were identified in ECV by searching the ESI-LC-MS/MS data against non-redundant protein databases of Viperidae (taxid 8689), Echis (taxid 8699) and Echis carinatus (taxid 40353), respectively. However, analysis of MS/MS data against the Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly sequences (87 entries) of conger E...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214974/insights-into-the-candidacidal-mechanism-of-ctn-15-34-a-carboxyl-terminal-crotalicidin-derived-peptide-related-to-cathelicidins
#16
Carolina Sidrim P Cavalcante, Francisca Lidiane Linhares de Aguiar, Raquel O S Fontenelle, Ramon Roseo de P P B de Menezes, Alice Maria Costa Martins, Cláudio B Falcão, David Andreu, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista
PURPOSE: Ctn[15-34], a carboxyl-terminal fragment of crotalicidin (a cathelicidin from the venom gland of a South American rattlesnake), has shown antifungal activity against clinical and standard strains of Candida species. The aim of the present work was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the candidicidal activity of Ctn[15-34]. METHODOLOGY: The time-kill profile and drug synergism were evaluated by means of a microdilution assay and multi-parametric flow cytometry...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214141/new-trends-in-anaphylaxis
#17
REVIEW
Margitta Worm, Gunter Sturm, Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, Ewa Cichocka-Jarosz, Victoria Cardona, Ioana Maris, Sabine Dölle
This review presents the current trends in anaphylaxis management discussed at the fourth International Network for Online-Registration of Anaphylaxis (NORA) conference held in Berlin in April 2017. Current data from the anaphylaxis registry show that Hymenoptera venom, foods, and pharmaceutical drugs are still among the most frequent triggers of anaphylaxis. Rare triggers include chicory, cardamom, asparagus, and goji berries. A meta-analysis on recent trends in insect venom anaphylaxis demonstrated for the first time that, although data on the efficacy of insect venom immunotherapy is limited, the occurrence of severe reactions upon repeated sting events can be prevented and patients' quality of life improved...
2017: Allergo Journal International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213193/anti-inflammatory-activity-of-crude-venom-isolated-from-parasitoid-wasp-bracon-hebetor-say
#18
Evelyn Saba, Tahir Shafeeq, Muhammad Irfan, Yuan Yee Lee, Hyuk-Woo Kwon, Myung Gi Seo, Sang-Joon Park, Kyeong-Yeoll Lee, Man Hee Rhee
Pest control in the agricultural fields, a major concern globally, is currently achieved through chemical or biological methods. Chemical methods, which leave toxic residue in the produce, are less preferred than biological methods. Venoms injected by stings of various wasps that kill the pest is considered as the examples of the biological method. Although several studies have investigated the biological control of pests through these venoms, very few studies have reported the effects of these venoms on mammalian cells...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209361/crotalus-durissus-terrificus-crotapotin-naturally-displays-preferred-positions-for-amino-acid-substitutions
#19
Laudicéia Alves de Oliveira, Rui Seabra Ferreira, Benedito Barraviera, Francilene Capel Tavares de Carvalho, Luciana Curtolo de Barros, Lucilene Delazari Dos Santos, Daniel Carvalho Pimenta
Background: Classically, Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) venom can be described, according to chromatographic criteria, as a simple venom, composed of four major toxins, namely: gyroxin, crotamine, crotoxin and convulxin. Crotoxin is a non-covalent heterodimeric neurotoxin constituted of two subunits: an active phospholipase A2 and a chaperone protein, termed crotapotin. This molecule is composed of three peptide chains connected by seven disulfide bridges. Naturally occurring variants/isoforms of either crotoxin or crotapotin itself have already been reported...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208061/antichagasic-effect-of-crotalicidin-a-cathelicidin-like-vipericidin-found-in-crotalus-durissus-terrificus-rattlesnake-s-venom-gland
#20
Izabel Cristina Justino Bandeira, Danya Bandeira-Lima, Clarissa Perdigão Mello, Ticiana Praciano Pereira, Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra De Menezes, Tiago Lima Sampaio, Cláudio Borges Falcão, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista, Alice Maria Costa Martins
Cathelicidins are antimicrobial peptides produced by humans and animals in response to various pathogenic microbes. Crotalicidin (Ctn), a cathelicidin-related vipericidin from the South American Crotalus durissus terrificus rattlesnake's venom gland, and its fragments have demonstrated antimicrobial and antifungal activity, similarly to human cathelicidin LL-37. In order to provide templates for the development of modern trypanocidal agents, the present study evaluated the antichagasic effect of these four peptides (Ctn, Ctn[1-14], Ctn[15-34] and LL-37)...
December 6, 2017: Parasitology
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