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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925690/purification-and-characterization-of-a-platelet-aggregation-inhibitor-and-anticoagulant-cc-5_ntase-cd-73-like-from-cerastes-cerastes-venom
#1
Samah Saoud, Fatah Chérifi, Traki Benhassine, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
The present study is the first attempt to report the characterization of a nucleotidase from Cerastes cerastes venom. A 70 kDa 5'-nucleotidase (Cc-5'NTase) was purified to homogeneity. The amino acid sequence of Cc-5'NTase displayed high homology with many nucleotidases. Its activity was optimal at pH 7 with a specific hydrolytic activity toward mono-, di-, and triphosphate adenylated nucleotides. Cc-5'NTase preferentially hydrolyzed ADP and obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Among the metals and inhibitors tested, Ni(2+) and Mg(2+) completely potentiated enzyme activity, whereas EGTA, PMSF, iodoacetamide, vanillic acid, vanillyl mandelic acid, and 1,10-phenanthroline partially abolished its activity...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924689/hymenoptera-venom-allergy-in-outdoor-workers-occupational-exposure-clinical-features-and-effects-of-allergen-immunotherapy
#2
Alessandra Toletone, Susanna Voltolini, Giovanni Passalacqua, Guglielmo Dini, Donatella Bignardi, Paola Minale, Emanuela Massa, Alessio Signori, Costantino Troise, Paolo Durando
OBJECTIVES: To describe (i) the clinical characteristics of workers, exposed to hymenoptera stings, with an ascertained diagnosis of Hymenoptera Venom Allergy (HVA), (ii) the specific role of occupational exposure, (iii) the effect of Venom Immunotherapy (VIT) in reducing the severity of allergic episodes in workers exposed to repeated stings of hymenoptera, and (iv) the management of the occupational consequences caused by allergic reactions due to hymenoptera stings. METHODS: Between 2000 and 2013 an observational study, including patients referred to the regional reference hospital of Liguria, Italy, with an ascertained diagnosis of HVA and treated with VIT, was carried out...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923877/poison-and-alarm-the-asian-hornet-vespa-velutina-uses-sting-venom-volatiles-as-alarm-pheromone
#3
Ya-Nan Cheng, Ping Wen, Shi-Hao Dong, Ken Tan, James C Nieh
In colonial organisms, alarm pheromones can provide a key fitness advantage by enhancing colony defense and warning of danger. Learning which species use alarm pheromone and the key compounds involved therefore enhances our understanding of how this important signal has evolved. However, our knowledge of alarm pheromones is more limited in the social wasps and hornets as compared to the social bees and ants. Vespa velutina is an economically important and widespread hornet predator that attacks humans and honey bees...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923555/scorpions-and-scorpionism-in-iran-s-central-desert
#4
Jalil Nejati, Abedin Saghafipour, Ehsan Mozaffari, Amir Keyhani, Nahid Jesri
Venomous scorpions have extreme importance in field of medicine and public health. This descriptive - analytic study was done to identify scorpion fauna, their ecological aspects as well as scorpionism for risk management and prevention of this health problem in Iran's central desert. Four urban and fifteen rural areas with various climates and topography locations were selected for monthly scorpion collection through a randomly cluster sampling in 2013.The clinical data was obtained from questionnaires provided in 2009-2014...
December 3, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921037/acute-kidney-injury-in-western-countries
#5
REVIEW
Josée Bouchard, Ravindra L Mehta
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921036/acute-kidney-injury-in-asia
#6
REVIEW
Li Yang
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common disorder and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of the climate and of the socioeconomic and developmental status in Asia has a great influence on the etiology and presentation of AKI in different regions. In view of the International Society of Nephrology's 0by25 initiative, more and more attention has been paid to AKI in Asian countries. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the recent achievements with regard to the prevalence and clinical patterns of AKI in Asian countries...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917162/activity-of-scorpion-venom-derived-antifungal-peptides-against-planktonic-cells-of-candida-spp-and-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-candida-albicans-biofilms
#7
Fernanda Guilhelmelli, Nathália Vilela, Karina S Smidt, Marco A de Oliveira, Alice da Cunha Morales Álvares, Maria C L Rigonatto, Pedro H da Silva Costa, Aldo H Tavares, Sônia M de Freitas, André M Nicola, Octávio L Franco, Lorena da Silveira Derengowski, Elisabeth F Schwartz, Márcia R Mortari, Anamélia L Bocca, Patrícia Albuquerque, Ildinete Silva-Pereira
The incidence of fungal infections has been increasing in the last decades, while the number of available antifungal classes remains the same. The natural and acquired resistance of some fungal species to available therapies, associated with the high toxicity of these drugs on the present scenario and makes an imperative of the search for new, more efficient and less toxic therapeutic choices. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a potential class of antimicrobial drugs consisting of evolutionarily conserved multifunctional molecules with both microbicidal and immunomodulatory properties being part of the innate immune response of diverse organisms...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914892/straightforward-approach-to-produce-recombinant-scorpion-toxins-pore-blockers-of-potassium-channels
#8
Oksana Nekrasova, Ksenia Kudryashova, Arkadiy Fradkov, Sergey Yakimov, Maria Savelieva, Mikhail Kirpichnikov, Alexey Feofanov
Scorpion venom peptide blockers (KTx) of potassium channels are a valuable tool for structure-functional studies and prospective candidates for medical applications. Low yields of recombinant KTx hamper their wide application. We developed convenient and efficient bioengineering approach to a large-scale KTx production that meets increasing demands for such peptides. Maltose-binding protein was used as a carrier for cytoplasmic expression of folded disulfide-rich KTx in E. coli. TEV protease was applied for in vitro cleavage of the target peptide from the carrier...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914888/the-first-report-on-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-venom-gland-of-iranian-scorpion-hemiscorpius-lepturus
#9
Fatemeh Kazemi-Lomedasht, Vahid Khalaj, Kamran Pooshang Bagheri, Mahdi Behdani, Delavar Shahbazzadeh
Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion is one of the most venomous members of the Hemiscorpiidae family. H. lepturus is distributed in Iran, Iraq and Yemen. The prevalence and severity of scorpionism is high and health services are not able to control it. Scorpionism in Iran especially in the southern regions (Khuzestan, Sistan and Baluchestan, Hormozgan, Ilam) is one of the main health challenges. Due to the medical and health importance of scorpionism, the focus of various studies has been on the identification of H...
November 30, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914814/rush-venom-immunotherapy-in-children
#10
Ronit Confino-Cohen, Yossi Rosman, Arnon Goldberg
BACKGROUND: Rush venom immunotherapy (VIT) is highly effective in Hymenoptera venom allergy. Still, specific data regarding its safety and efficiency in children are rather sparse. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to better evaluate the safety and efficiency of rush VIT in this specific age group. METHODS: Children younger than 16 years with systemic reaction to insect sting involving, at least, one body system other than skin and children aged 16-18 years with any kind of systemic reaction were offered conventional or rush VIT with a build-up phase that lasted 3 days...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914573/effect-of-a-biostimulatory-homeopathic-complex-on-venom-production-in-captive-rattlesnakes-crotalus-durissus
#11
Paula Helena Santa Rita, Herbert Patric Kellermann Cleveland, Paula Laryssa Souza Pereira, William Corrêa, Valter Joost Van Onselen, Ruy Alberto Caetano Corrêa Filho, Maria Araújo Teixeira
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two administration methods of a biostimulatory homeopathic complex (Convert H(®)) on the production of fresh and lyophilized venom of rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) under intensive captivity conditions. Sixty snakes were subjected to treatment following a randomized block design. The effects of sex and size were controlled for. Thirteen consecutive extractions were performed over 21 months. The first factor considered in the experiment was the origin of mice used as prey: a conventional colony (A1) or the Convert H colony (A2; mice receiving the homeopathic complex in water at 1%)...
November 2016: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913632/intracellular-activation-of-complement-3-is-responsible-for-intestinal-tissue-damage-during-mesenteric-ischemia
#12
Abhigyan Satyam, Lakshmi Kannan, Naoya Matsumoto, Mayya Geha, Peter H Lapchak, Robin Bosse, Guo-Ping Shi, Jurandir J Dalle Lucca, Maria G Tsokos, George C Tsokos
Intestinal ischemia followed by reperfusion leads to local and remote organ injury attributed to inflammatory response during the reperfusion phase. The extent to which ischemia contributes to ischemia/reperfusion injury has not been thoroughly studied. After careful evaluation of intestinal tissue following 30 min of ischemia, we noticed significant local mucosal injury in wild-type mice. This injury was drastically reduced in C3-deficient mice, suggesting C3 involvement. Depletion of circulating complement with cobra venom factor eliminated, as expected, injury recorded at the end of the reperfusion phase but failed to eliminate injury that occurred during the ischemic phase...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913622/a-venom-serpin-splicing-isoform-of-the-endoparasitoid-wasp-pteromalus-puparum-suppresses-host-prophenoloxidase-cascade-by-forming-complexes-with-host-hemolymph-proteinases
#13
Zhichao Yan, Qi Fang, Yang Liu, Shan Xiao, Lei Yang, Fei Wang, Chunju An, John H Werren, Gongyin Ye
To ensure successful parasitism, parasitoid wasps inject venom along with their eggs into their hosts. The venom serves to suppress host immune responses, including melanization. Venom from Pteromalus puparum, a pupal endoparasitoid, inhibits melanization of host hemolymph in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Using assay guided fractionation, a serpin splicing isoform with phenoloxidase (PO) inhibitory activity was identified as P. puparum serpin-1, venom isoform (PpS1V). This serpin gene has 16 predicted splicing isoforms that differ only in the C-terminal region...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912176/novel-designed-vmct1-analogs-with-increased-antimicrobial-activity
#14
Cibele Nicolaski Pedron, Marcelo Der Torossian Torres, Julia Aparecida da Silva Lima, Pedro Ismael Silva, Fernanda Dias Silva, Vani Xavier Oliveira
Antimicrobial peptides are biologically active molecules produced by a wide range of organisms as an essential component of the innate immune response. They have recently attracted great interest, since they have antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. VmCT1 is a cationic peptide from the venom of Vaejovis mexicanus smithi scorpions, which presents antibacterial activity and tends to helical structures. Its analogs were synthesized, characterized and the conformational studies were performed by circular dichroism...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911900/clinical-and-pharmacological-investigation-of-myotoxicity-in-sri-lankan-russell-s-viper-daboia-russelii-envenoming
#15
Anjana Silva, Christopher Johnston, Sanjaya Kuruppu, Daniela Kneisz, Kalana Maduwage, Oded Kleifeld, A Ian Smith, Sisira Siribaddana, Nicholas A Buckley, Wayne C Hodgson, Geoffrey K Isbister
BACKGROUND: Sri Lankan Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) envenoming is reported to cause myotoxicity and neurotoxicity, which are different to the effects of envenoming by most other populations of Russell's vipers. This study aimed to investigate evidence of myotoxicity in Russell's viper envenoming, response to antivenom and the toxins responsible for myotoxicity. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Clinical features of myotoxicity were assessed in authenticated Russell's viper bite patients admitted to a Sri Lankan teaching hospital...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909267/comparison-of-green-pit-viper-and-agkistrodon-halys-antivenom-in-inhibition-of-coagulopathy-due-to-trimeresurus-albolabris-venom-an-in-vitro-study-using-human-plasma
#16
S K Lam, S F Yip, P Crow, H T Fung, J Mh Cheng, K S Tan, O F Wong, D Yt Yeung, Y K Wong, K M Poon, G Ades
INTRODUCTION: There are two antivenoms that may be administered in Hong Kong following a bite by Trimeresurus albolabris: the green pit viper antivenom from the Thai Red Cross Society in Thailand and the Agkistrodon halys antivenom from the Shanghai Institute of Biological Products in China. Both are recommended by the Central Coordinating Committee of Accident and Emergency Services of the Hospital Authority for treating patients with a bite by Trimeresurus albolabris. The choice of which antivenom to use is based on physician preference...
December 2, 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907922/distinct-contributory-factors-determine-basophil-allergen-sensitivity-in-grass-pollen-rhinitis-and-in-anaphylactic-wasp-venom-allergy
#17
Peter Korošec, Mira Šilar, Peter Kopač, Renato Eržen, Mihaela Zidarn, Mitja Košnik
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine whether basophil-allergen sensitivity could be transferred to donor basophils by passive IgE sensitisation in allergic rhinitis and anaphylactic Hymenoptera venom hypersensitivity. METHODS: We studied 15 wasp venom-, 19 grass pollen- and 2 house dust mite-allergic patients, 2 healthy donors, and 8 wasp venom-allergic donors. In all subjects, we first evaluated the initial basophil response to wasp venom, grass pollen, or house dust mite allergen...
December 2, 2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906697/allergen-immunotherapy-an-updated-review-of-safety
#18
Christine James, David I Bernstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allergen immunotherapy is the only modality that can modify the immune response upon exposure to aeroallergens and venom allergens. This review will update the allergist on recent studies evaluating safety of sublingual and subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple clinical trials and retrospective studies have been published evaluating overall safety of these therapies. The risk of systemic reactions with subcutaneous immunotherapy remains quite low, but near-fatal and fatal anaphylaxis does occur, requiring physicians to be aware of potential risks for such events...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905914/development-of-a-gene-synthesis-platform-for-the-efficient-large-scale-production-of-small-genes-encoding-animal-toxins
#19
Ana Filipa Sequeira, Joana L A Brás, Catarina I P D Guerreiro, Renaud Vincentelli, Carlos M G A Fontes
BACKGROUND: Gene synthesis is becoming an important tool in many fields of recombinant DNA technology, including recombinant protein production. De novo gene synthesis is quickly replacing the classical cloning and mutagenesis procedures and allows generating nucleic acids for which no template is available. In addition, when coupled with efficient gene design algorithms that optimize codon usage, it leads to high levels of recombinant protein expression. RESULTS: Here, we describe the development of an optimized gene synthesis platform that was applied to the large scale production of small genes encoding venom peptides...
December 1, 2016: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904261/the-north-south-divide-in-snake-bite-envenomation-in-india
#20
REVIEW
Vivek Chauhan, Suman Thakur
Snake bite envenomations are common in rural areas and the incidence peaks during monsoons in India. Prominent venomous species have been traditionally labeled as the 'big four' that includes Cobra, Krait, Russel's viper and Saw scaled viper. Systematic attempts for identification and classification of prevalent snakes in various states of India are missing till now and there is no concrete data on this aspect. The published literature however shows that some species of snakes are more prevalent in a particular region than the other parts of India e...
October 2016: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
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