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Andrea Carolina Van de Velde, Claudia Carolina Gay, Milene Nobrega de Olivera Moritz, Patty Karina Dos Santos, Soledad Bustillo, Juan Pablo Rodríguez, Ofelia Cristina Acosta, Mirtha Josefa Biscoglio, Heloisa Sobreiro Selistre-de-Araujo, Laura Cristina Leiva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Camila Takeno Cologna, Renata Santos Rodrigues, Jean Santos, Edwin de Pauw, Eliane Candiani Arantes, Loïc Quinton
Background: Advancements in proteomics, including the technological improvement in instrumentation, have turned mass spectrometry into an indispensable tool in the study of venoms and toxins. In addition, the advance of nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry allows, due to its high sensitivity, the study of venoms from species previously left aside, such as ants. Ant venoms are a complex mixture of compounds used for defense, predation or communication purposes...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Rafaela Diniz-Sousa, Anderson M Kayano, Cleópatra A Caldeira, Rodrigo Simões-Silva, Marta C Monteiro, Leandro S Moreira-Dill, Fernando P Grabner, Leonardo A Calderon, Juliana P Zuliani, Rodrigo G Stábeli, Andreimar M Soares
Background: Wasp venoms constitute a molecular reservoir of new pharmacological substances such as peptides and proteins, biological property holders, many of which are yet to be identified. Exploring these sources may lead to the discovery of molecules hitherto unknown. This study describes, for the first time in hymenopteran venoms, the identification of an enzymatically inactive phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) from the venom of the social wasp Polybia occidentalis . Methods: P...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Álvaro Segura, María Herrera, Mariángela Vargas, Mauren Villalta, Alfredo Uscanga-Reynell, Guillermo León, José María Gutiérrez
The assessment of the preclinical neutralizing ability of antivenoms in Latin America is necessary to determine their scope of efficacy. This study was aimed at analyzing the neutralizing efficacy of a polyspecific bothropic-crotalic antivenom manufactured by BIRMEX in Mexico against lethal, hemorrhagic, defibrinogenating and in vitro coagulant activities of the venoms of Bothrops jararaca (Brazil), B. atrox (Perú and Colombia), B. diporus (Argentina), B. mattogrossensis (Bolivia), and B. asper (Costa Rica)...
March 2017: Revista de Biología Tropical
XuDong Huang, Wei Zhao, LiXia Zhang, XinJun Yang, LiHui Wang, YunShuang Chen, JingHua Wang, Chao Zhang, GuangLi Wu
Rhabdomyolysis (RM) may cause kidney damage and results primarily in acute kidney injury (AKI). Complement is implicated in the pathogenesis of renal diseases and ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), but the role of complement, especially its activation pathway(s) and its effect in RM-induced AKI, is not clear. This study established a rat model of AKI induced by RM via intramuscular treatment with glycerol. Cobra venom factor (CVF) was administered via tail vein injection to deplete complement 12 h prior to intramuscular injection of glycerol...
2018: PloS One
Elda E Sánchez, Roschman González, Sara Lucena, Stefanie García, Héctor J Finol, Montamas Suntravat, María E Girón, Irma Fernández, Alexis Rodríguez-Acosta
Crotamine is a cationic, non-enzymatic, protein integrating a minor family of myotoxins, composed of 42 amino acid residues, described in Viperidae and Crotalidae snake's families that has been used in neuroscience research, drug progressing and molecular diversity reports. Crotamine-like protein (CLP) from C.o.helleri venom was isolated in fraction 5 from 7 peaks obtained by sulfopropyl waters protein pak cationic exchange column. In tricine-SDS-PAGE under non-reduced conditions this CLP showed a single band of ~8 kDa molecular weight...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Juan Carlos Quintana-Castillo, Leidy Johana Vargas, Cesar Segura, Sebastian Estrada-Gómez, Julio César Bueno-Sánchez, Juan Carlos Alarcón
The Colombian rattlesnake Crotalus durissus cumanensis is distributed in three geographic zones of the country: the Atlantic Coast, the upper valley of the Magdalena River, and the eastern plains of the Colombian Orinoquía. Its venom induces neurological symptoms, such as eyelid ptosis, myasthenic facies, and paralysis of the respiratory muscles, which can lead to death. Identification and analysis of C. d. cumanensis showed nine groups of proteins responsible for the neurotoxic effect, of which the crotoxin complex was the most abundant (64...
February 17, 2018: Toxins
Brice Oulion, James S Dobson, Christina N Zdenek, Kevin Arbuckle, Callum Lister, Francisco C P Coimbra, Bianca Op den Brouw, Jordan Debono, Aymeric Rogalski, Aude Violette, Rudy Fourmy, Nathaniel Frank, Bryan G Fry
Atractaspis snake species are enigmatic in their natural history, and venom effects are correspondingly poorly described. Bite reports are scarce but bites have been described as causing severe hypertension, profound local tissue damage leading to amputation, and deaths are on record. Clinical descriptions have largely concentrated upon tissue effects, and research efforts have focused upon the blood-pressure affecting sarafotoxins. However, coagulation disturbances suggestive of procoagulant functions have been reported in some clinical cases, yet this aspect has been uninvestigated...
February 17, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Isadora Sousa de Oliveira, Iara Aimê Cardoso, Karla de Castro Figueiredo Bordon, Sante Emmanuel Imai Carone, Johara Boldrini-França, Manuela Berto Pucca, Karina Furlani Zoccal, Lúcia Helena Faccioli, Suely Vilela Sampaio, José César Rosa, Eliane Candiani Arantes
Individual variations studies are important to understand the snakebite envenoming and to improve the antivenom production and its effectiveness. In this way, the objective of this study was a comparative analysis of intraspecific variation in the venom composition of 22 Crotalus durissus collilineatus specimens through proteomic techniques. Venoms were fractionated by RP-FPLC, and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Although similar, chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Joy R Makdisi, Dennis P Kim, Paytra A Klein, Jeffrey A Klein
BACKGROUND: Snake envenomation is a neglected global health problem. There is a need for a prehospital treatment of neurotoxic snakebite that prolongs survival and allows time for a victim to reach a hospital for antivenom therapy. Tumescent epinephrine consists of a large volume of dilute epinephrine (2 mg/l) injected subcutaneously. It functions as "contravenom" by causing capillary vasoconstriction and delaying venom absorption. METHODS: A murine model of neurotoxic envenomation using lidocaine as a surrogate for neurotoxic snake venom was first developed in a pilot study...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
A A Osmolovskiy, A V Orekhova, V G Kreyer, N A Baranova, N S Egorov
It was shown that the activator activity of protein C, determined in normal plasma using Aspergillus ochraceus protease, is comparable with the activity of commercial protease analogue from the South American copperhead venom (ProtacÒ). It was found that protease of A. ochraceus can be used to determine protein C in plasma with its reduced content similar to ProtacÒ. Comparison of the activator protein C activity of A. ochraceus protease and the commercial analogue showed some excess of the activator activity of the fungal preparation, which may make it a promising substitute for the snake activator in diagnostical kits for determining the protein C content in clinical laboratories...
January 2018: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
Fernanda Gobbi Amorim, Johara Boldrini-França, Karla de Castro Figueiredo Bordon, Iara Aimê Cardoso, Edwin De Pauw, Loïc Quinton, Simone Kashima, Eliane Candiani Arantes
In general, hyaluronidases have a broad potential application on medicine and esthetics fields. Hyaluronidases from animal venoms cleave hyaluronan present in the extracellular matrix, acting as spreading factors of toxins into the tissues of the victim. However, the in-depth characterization of hyaluronidase from animal venoms has been neglected due to its instability and low concentration in the venom, which hamper its isolation. Thus, heterologous expression of hyaluronidase acts as a biotechnological tool in the obtainment of enough amounts of the enzyme for structural and functional studies...
February 17, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ana Olivera, Michael A Beaven, Dean D Metcalfe
FcεRI is the primary receptor in mast cells that mediate allergic reactions by inducing rapid release of mediators, an adaptive immune response that may have evolved as a host defense against parasites and venoms. Yet, it is apparent that mast cells are also activated via non-IgE receptors whose significance is just beginning to be understood. This includes the Mas-related GPCRs (MRGPRX2) that may contribute to reactions to diverse antimicrobials and polybasic compounds, and ADGRE2, an adhesion GPCR which is activated by mechanical vibration and whose variants are associated with familial vibratory urticaria...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Mark R Tanner, Michael W Pennington, Brayden H Chamberlain, Redwan Huq, Elizabeth J Gehrmann, Teresina Laragione, Percio S Gulko, Christine Beeton
Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are a key cell-type involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) progression. We previously identified the KCa1.1 potassium channel (Maxi-K, BK, Slo 1, KCNMA1) as a regulator of FLS and that KCa1.1 inhibition reduces disease severity in RA animal models. However, systemic KCa1.1 block causes multiple side effects and in this study, we aimed to determine whether the KCa1.1 β1-3-specific venom peptide blocker iberiotoxin (IbTX) reduces disease severity in animal models of RA without inducing major side effects...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Carla C Uranga, Majid Ghassemian, Rufina Hernández-Martínez
Many basic science questions remain regarding protein functions in the pathogen: host interaction, especially in the trunk disease fungi family, the Botryosphaeriaceae, which are a global problem for economically important plants, especially fruiting trees. Proteomics is a highly useful technology for studying protein expression and for discovering novel proteins in unsequenced and poorly annotated organisms. Current fungal proteomics approaches involve 2D SDS-PAGE and extensive, complex, protein extraction methodologies...
June 2017: Biochimie Open
Stephan Schaffrath, Lorenzo Prendini, Reinhard Predel
Scorpion venoms comprise cocktails of proteins, peptides, and other molecules used for immobilizing prey and deterring predators. The composition and efficacy of scorpion venoms appears to be taxon-specific due to a coevolutionary arms race with prey and predators that adapt at the molecular level. The taxon-specific components of scorpion venoms can be used as barcodes for species identification if the amount of intraspecific variation is low and the analytical method is fast, inexpensive and reliable. The present study assessed the extent of intraspecific variation in newly regenerated venom collected in the field from geographically separated populations of four southern African scorpion species: three buthids, Parabuthus granulatus (Ehrenberg, 1831), Uroplectes otjimbinguensis (Karsch, 1879), and Uroplectes planimanus (Karsch, 1879), and one scorpionid, Opistophthalmus carinatus (Peters, 1861)...
February 12, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
M Vijayasarathy, P Balaram
Four 30 residue conotoxin have been identified from the venom of C. amadis. MS/MS analysis of crude venom subjected to global reduction/alkylation yielded fragmentation patterns, which permitted searching and matching with a database of putative mature toxin sequences obtained from transcriptomic analysis. Of the four sequences identified, Am3408(Am6.1b), Am3452(Am6.1c), Am3136(Am6.2a) and Am3214(Am6.2b), three contain bromotryptophan residues, while an additional post translational modification, gamma carboxylation of glutamic acid, is present in Am3408(Am6...
February 12, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
S Tamura, Y Suga, M Tanamura, M Murata-Kawakami, Y Takagi, Y Hottori, M Kakihara, S Suzuki, A Takagi, T Kojima
INTRODUCTION: Antithrombin resistance (ATR) is a novel thrombotic risk in abnormal prothrombins. A manual ATR assay using Oxyuranus scutellatus (Ox) venom as a prothrombin activator was established for detecting antithrombin-resistant prothrombin. However, this assay was limited because of Ox snake venom availability and its throughput capacity. Here, we have improved the ATR assay using bovine factors Xa and Va (FXa/Va) as prothrombin activators and have optimised assay conditions for an automated instrument (ACL TOP 500)...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Shaohuan Lin, Junhong Lv, Panli Peng, Changqing Cai, Jianming Deng, Haihong Deng, Xuejun Li, Xinyue Tang
Bufadienolides are a type of cardiotonic steroids isolated from the skin and parotid venom glands of the toad Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor, and exhibit wide-spectrum anticancer activities. However, the effects and mechanisms of bufadienolides on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells remain unknown. In the present study, the anticancer activities of two bufadienolides, bufotalin and bufalin, were examined in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that bufotalin and bufalin effectively inhibited the viability of ESCC cells, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Jun Du, Ruijie Wang, Litian Yin, Yuejun Fu, Yuqing Cai, Zhiyun Zhang, Aihua Liang
Temozolomide (TMZ) is a drug that has been demonstrated to improve the survival time of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) when administered with concomitant radiotherapy. However, chemoresistance is one of the major obstacles in the treatment of GBM. In the present study, an MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to demonstrate that chlorotoxin-like toxin in the venom of the scorpion Buthus martensii Kirsch (BmK CT) markedly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in U251 cells when combined with TMZ...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
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