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Anna E Pittman, Brendan P Marsh, Gavin M King
Systematically evolved from the primary active component of bee venom, MelP5 is a lipophilic peptide with important physical properties that differ from wild type melittin, including the ability to create large equilibrium pores in lipid bilayers at low peptide to lipid ratios. Self-assembly into stable membrane spanning pores makes MelP5 a promising candidate for future applications in the pharmaceutical arena. Despite significant interest, little is known about the mechanism by which MelP5 remodels the lipid bilayer upon binding...
June 22, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Chen Ling, Yuanhui Zhang, Jun Li, Wenli Chen, Changquan Ling
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been practiced in China for thousands of years. As a complementary and alternative treatment, herbal medicines that are frequently used in the TCM are the most accepted in the Western world. However, animal materials, which are equally important in the TCM practice, are not well-known in other countries. On the other hand, the Chinese doctors had documented the toxic profiles of hundreds of animals and plants thousand years ago. Furthermore, they saw the potential benefits of these materials and used their toxic properties to treat a wide variety of diseases, such as heavy pain and cancer...
June 21, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Jie Tao, Feng Jiang, Cheng Liu, Zhirui Liu, Yudan Zhu, Jian Xu, Yiqin Ge, Kan Xu, Peihao Yin
Chan-su (toad venom) has been used as an analgesic agent in China from ancient to modern times. Bufalin, a non-peptide toxin extracted from toad venom, is considered as one of the analgesic components. The molecular mechanism underlying the anti-nociceptive effects of bufalin remains unclear so far. In this study, we investigated the pharmacological effects of bufalin on pain-related ion channels as well as animal models through patch clamping, calcium imaging and animal behavior observation. Using the whole-cell recording, bufalin caused remarkable suppressive effect on the peak currents of Nav channels (voltage gated sodium channels, VGSCs) of dorsal root ganglion neuroblastomas (ND7-23 cell) in a dose-dependent manner...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Rodrigo Simoes-Silva, Jorge Alfonso, Ana Gomez, Rudson J Holanda, Juliana C Sobrinho, Kayena D Zaqueo, Leandro S Moreira-Dill, Anderson M Kayano, Fernando P Grabner, Saulo L da Silva, Jose R Almeida, Rodrigo G Stabeli, Juliana P Zuliani, Andreimar M Soares
BACKGROUND: Research involving snake venom has gradually surpassed the simple discovery of new molecules using purification and structural characterization processes, and extended to the identification of their molecular targets and the evaluation of their therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, this only became possible due to constant progress in experimental biology and protein purification approaches. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to discuss the main components of snake venoms that have been investigated for biotechnological purposes, and to discover how these promising biomolecules were obtained with the satisfactory degree of purity that have enabled such studies...
June 19, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Hoon-Seong Choi, Suk-Yun Kang, Dae-Hyun Roh, Sheu-Ran Choi, Yeonhee Ryu, Jang-Hern Lee
Respiratory inflammation is frequent and fatal pathologic state encountered in veterinary medicine. Although diluted bee venom (dBV) has potent anti-inflammatory effects, the clinical use of dBV is limited to several chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study was designed to propose the acupoint treatment of dBV as a novel therapeutic strategy for respiratory inflammatory disease. Experimental pleurisy was induced by injection of carrageenan into left pleural space in mouse. dBV was injected into a specific lung meridian acupoint (LU-5) or into arbitrary non-acupoint located near the midline of the back in mouse...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
Chien-Chun Liu, Chih-Chuan Lin, Yung-Chin Hsiao, Po-Jung Wang, Jau-Song Yu
Deinagkistrodon acutus, Trimeresurus stejnegeri, Protobothrops mucrosquamatus, Daboia russelii siamensis, Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra are the six medically important venomous snake species in Taiwan. In this study, we characterized and compared their venom protein profiles using proteomic approaches. The major snake venom proteins were identified by GeLC-MS/MS and the total venom proteome was characterized by in-solution digestion coupled with LC-MS/MS. A total of 27-52 proteins, categorized into 23 protein families, were identified in each snake's venom...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Weiguang Lian, Hongguang Lian, Qian Li, Hu An, Shufeng Liu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Spiders and spider venoms have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat various ailments for more than 1,000 years. For instance, several large spiders have been utilized by the Li People, who mainly live in Hainan Island of China, in their own unique traditional Chinese medicine therapy. Recent studies have indicated that spider venoms may be an important source of bioactive compounds for anti-tumor treatments. However, the specific mechanisms underlying these activities are not yet completely understood...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ying Jia, Justin Villarreal
Snake venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) has widely been reported to possess antibacterial effects, and PLA2 is the major component of cottonmouth snake venoms. We assessed the antibacterial activities of crude venoms from Western cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma), Eastern cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus), and Florida cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti) snakes against two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), and two gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae) bacteria...
June 18, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Bhargab Kalita, Sudeepa Singh, Aparup Patra, Ashis K Mukherjee
The proteome composition of Russell's viper venom (RVV) from southern India (SI) was investigated by 1D-SDS-PAGE of venom followed by tandem mass spectrometry analysis of protein bands. A total of 66 proteins belonging to 14 snake venom protein families were identified by LC-MS/MS analysis against Viperidae (taxid 8689) protein entries from the non-redundant NCBI database. Phospholipase A2 (43.25%) and snaclec (14.57%) represented the most abundant enzymatic and non-enzymatic proteins, respectively. SI RVV was characterized as containing a higher quantity of PLA2 and a lower amount of Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors, in comparison to RVV from other regions of the Indian subcontinent...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Michael P Triebwasser, Xiaobo Wu, Paula Bertram, Dennis E Hourcade, Donald Michael Nelson, John P Atkinson
PROBLEM: Crry is a widely expressed type 1 transmembrane complement regulatory protein in rodents which protects self-tissue by downregulating C3 activation. Crry-/- concepti produced by Crry+/-  × Crry+/- matings are attacked by maternal complement system leading to loss before day 10. The membrane attack complex is not the mediator of this death. We hypothesized that the ability of C3b to engage the alternative pathway's feedback loop relatively unchecked on placental membranes induces the lesion yielding the demise of the Crry-/- mouse...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Tolga Çakmak, İbrahim Çaltekin, Emre Gökçen, Atakan Savrun, Erdoğan Yaşar
Kounis Syndrome is the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) because of allergic reactions; allergens, such as foods, insect venom, iodine contrast agent or drugs can cause this syndrome. Hirudotherapy (leech therapy) is increasingly used as a useful therapeutic option in a variety of medical and surgical procedures, and potential complications related to this therapy include Aeromonas species infections, bleeding, anemia and allergic reactions. Here, we present a patient diagnosed as Type 1 Kounis Syndrome after using hirudotherapy for her knee aches...
June 2018: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
Young Gi Min, Seung Ho Ham, Yoon Seok Jung, Sangchun Choi
In recent years, various kinds of non-indigenous snakes have become popular as domestic pets globally. If the snake is highly venomous, this would be a potentially life-threatening emergency for breeders. In such a case, the specific antidote should be administered immediately for saving the life. "Salmusa" genus (e.g. Gloydius genus) is a representative indigenous venomous snake in South Korea. Therefore, only one antidote for the "Salmusa" genus is commercially available in South Korea...
June 2018: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
Emidio Beraldo Neto, Douglas O C Mariano, Lucas A Freitas, Ana L C Dorce, Adriana N Martins, Daniel C Pimenta, Fernanda C V Portaro, Daniela Cajado-Carvalho, Valquiria A C Dorce, Ana L A Nencioni
Scorpion venoms are composed of several substances with different pharmacological activities. Neurotoxins exert their effects by targeting ion channels resulting in toxic effects to mammals, insects and crustaceans. Tb II-I, a fraction isolated from Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom, was investigated for its ability to induce neurological and immune-inflammatory effects. Two putative β-sodium channel toxins were identified in this fraction, Tb2 II and Tb 4, the latter having been completely sequenced by mass spectrometry...
June 19, 2018: Toxins
Matthew L Holding, Mark J Margres, Andrew J Mason, Christopher L Parkinson, Darin R Rokyta
Venom-gland transcriptomics is a key tool in the study of the evolution, ecology, function, and pharmacology of animal venoms. In particular, gene-expression variation and coding sequences gained through transcriptomics provide key information for explaining functional venom variation over both ecological and evolutionary timescales. The accuracy and usefulness of inferences made through transcriptomics, however, is limited by the accuracy of the transcriptome assembly, which is a bioinformatic problem with several possible solutions...
June 19, 2018: Toxins
Samina Ejaz, Fatima Bashir Hashmi, Waqas Nazir Malik, Muhammad Ashraf, Faiz Ul-Hassan Nasim, Muhammad Iqbal
BACKGROUND: Venoms, the secretions of venomous animals, are conventionally thought to be the source of toxic substances though the views about venoms in the recent era have been changed. Venoms are the proven source of many biologically and pharmacologically important useful molecules. Bioactive components present in different venoms are mainly proteins and peptides either enzymatic or non-enzymatic which have tremendous therapeutic potential and are being used for the treatment of variety of diseases including cancer...
June 13, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Samiullah Khan, Aqsa Gul, Rabia Noreen, Muhammad Ashraf, Sohail Ahmad, Sattar Bakhsh Awan
BACKGROUND: Thrombus is composed of two main substances i.e. red blood cells and aggregated platelets which make a web of inter-connected fibrin proteins. During injury it prevents bleeding, so it is very useful but it can be very dangerous if it is produced in healthy blood vessels and block the blood flow through it. Mural thrombi attaches with the blood vessels but in most cases do not block it completely. Venoms are an incredible source of peptides having amazing bioactivities with varying number of amino acid residues...
June 13, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Faiqah Ramzan, Andleeb Asmat
Background Protein C is a vitamin K dependent plasma zymogen. It prevents clotting by inhibiting clotting by inactivating factor V and factor VIII. Protein C activation pathway involves three steps: (i) Activation of protein C; (ii) Inhibition of coagulation through inactivating factor V and VIII by activated protein C and (iii) Inhibition of activated protein C by plasma protease inhibitors specific for this enzyme. Proteinases converts the zymogen Protein C (PC) of vertebrates into activated PC, which has been detected in several snake venoms...
June 18, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Bushra Uzair, Nagina Atlas, Sidra Batool Malik, Nazia Jamil, Temitope Ojuolape Salaam, Mujaddad Ur Rehman, Barkat Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Cancer is considered one of the most predominant causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world and colorectal cancer is the most common fatal cancers, triggering the second cancer related death. Despite progress in understanding carcinogenesis and development in chemotherapeutics, there is an essential need to search for improved treatment. More than the half a century, cytotoxic and cytostatic agents have been examined as a potential treatment of cancer, among these agents; remarkable progresses have been reported by the use of the snake venom...
June 13, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Naqab Khan, Zahid Rasul Niazi, Nauman Rahim Khan, Kifayatullah Shah, Khurram Rehman, Abdula Wahab, Samiullah Khan
BACKGROUND: Arthropods such as scorpion, snake, insects, and spider as well as the marine animals like sea anemone and cone snails are venomous animals producing venoms with a complex mixture of peptide, poly peptides and small proteins. The disulfide rich peptides isolated from these animals are potent substances which specifically and selectively modulate different ion channels. The significant characteristics of these distinctive pharmacologically potent compounds highlights the molecular details of their peptide-ion channels interactions as well as provides the opportunities for the development of novel and natural therapeutic agents to treat various diseases including neurological disorders also...
June 18, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Bushra Uzair, Sarah Bint-E-Irshad, Barkat Ali Khan, Beenish Azad, Tariq Mahmood, Mujaddad Ur Rehman, Valdir A Braga
BACKGROUND: Scorpion venom is the most expensive and deadly venom with exciting medical prospects and having a potential as a source of drug candidates. A number of scorpion venom peptides have shown promising site specificity and are involved in the regulation of biological mechanisms. Due to the structural and functional specificity, the scorpion peptides are widely used for the development of specific drugs especially for the cardiovascular and other immune diseases. In this review, we summarize scorpion venom's biological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-cancerous and in immune diseases...
June 13, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
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