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Cost Anticancer drugs

Michelle de Oliveira Pedrosa, Rayssa Marques Duarte da Cruz, Jéssika Oliveira Viana, Ricardo Olímpio de Moura, Hamilton Mitsugu Ishiki, José Maria Barbosa Filho, Margareth F F M Diniz, Marcus Tullius Scotti, Luciana Scotti, Francisco Jaime Bezerra Mendonça
Molecular Hybridization is an approach in rational drug design where new chemical entities are obtained by combining two or more pharmacophoric units from different bioactive compounds into a single molecule. Through this approach, medicinal chemists hope that the new hybrid derivative presents: better affinity and efficacy when compared to the parent drugs; a modified selectivity profile with improvement over pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic restrictions; dual or multiple modes of action; reduction of undesirable side effects; decreases in drug-drug interactions; reduced emergence or spread of drug resistance in microorganisms and protozoans; and lower cost...
September 27, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Craig Nolan, Lisa M DeAngelis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide a practical clinical approach to confusion in the patient with cancer. Confusion in the cancer population has a broader differential diagnosis than in the general medical population. The clinician must consider the usual differential diagnoses as well as causes unique to the cancer patient including direct complications from the cancer and indirect complications related to cancer treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: In the recent age of precision medicine, the oncologist now utilizes the genomic profile of both the patient and the tumor to provide advanced biologic therapies including targeted anticancer drugs, antiangiogenic agents, and immunotherapy...
September 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Luzhu Yang, Yanjun Wang, Baoxin Li, Yan Jin
Formation of the G-quadruplex in the human telomeric DNA is an effective way to inhibit telomerase activity. Therefore, screening ligands of G-quadruplex has potential applications in the treatment of cancer by inhibit telomerase activity. Although several techniques have been explored for screening of telomeric G-quadruplexes ligands, high-throughput screening method for fast screening telomere-binding ligands from the large compound library is still urgently needed. Herein, a label-free fluorescence strategy has been proposed for high-throughput screening telomere-binding ligands by using DNA-copper nanoparticles (DNA-CuNPs) as a signal probe...
September 17, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Zengrui Wu, Weiqiang Lu, Dang Wu, Anqi Luo, Hanping Bian, Jie Li, Weihua Li, Guixia Liu, Jin Huang, Feixiong Cheng, Yun Tang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Deciphering chemical mechanism-of-action (MoA) enables the development of novel therapeutics (e.g. drug repositioning) and evaluation of drug side effects. Development of novel computational methods for chemical MoA assessment under systems pharmacology framework would accelerate drug discovery and development with high efficiency and low cost. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In this study, we proposed an improved network-based inference method, namely balanced substructure-drug-target network-based inference (bSDTNBI), to predict MoA for old drugs, clinical failed drugs, and new chemical entities...
September 20, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Mira Pavlovic, Jérôme Garnier, Isabelle Durand-Zaleski, Pascal Bilbault, Anne-Françoise Gaudin, Claire Le Jeunne, Olivier Lalaude, Stéphane Roze, Rima de Sahb, Claudine Sapède
Medico-economic evaluations estimate, for a given health technology, the added cost and the clinical benefit compared to a reference strategy. The objective here is to analyze the criteria used to measure clinical benefit as the basis for market access and reimbursement decisions for drugs in oncology both in France and in Europe. Prolonged overall survival is the criterion of choice to demonstrate the benefit of an anticancer drug; a survival gain of 2 to 3 months or more would be considered as relevant for a new product versus the comparator...
July 19, 2016: Thérapie
Sebo Kim, Varsha Sundaresan, Lei Zhou, Tamer Kahveci
One of fundamental challenges in cancer studies is that varying molecular characteristics of different tumor types may lead to resistance to certain drugs. As a result, the same drug can lead to significantly different results in different types of cancer thus emphasizing the need for individualized medicine. Individual prediction of drug response has great potential to aid in improving the clinical outcome and reduce the financial costs associated with prescribing chemotherapy drugs to which the patient's tumor might be resistant...
2016: PloS One
David H Howard, Michael E Chernew, Tamer Abdelgawad, Gregory L Smith, Josephine Sollano, David C Grabowski
Spending on anticancer drugs has risen rapidly over the past two decades. A key policy question is whether new anticancer drugs offer value, given their high cost. Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, we assessed the value of new cancer treatments in routine clinical practice for patients with metastatic breast, lung, or kidney cancer or chronic myeloid leukemia in the periods 1996-2000 and 2007-11. We found that there were large increases in medical costs, but also large gains in life expectancy...
September 1, 2016: Health Affairs
Muhammad Sirajuddin, Saqib Ali
Medicinal inorganic chemistry plays an important role in exploring the properties of metal ions for the designing of new drugs. The field has been stimulated by the success of cis-platin, the worldbest selling anticancer drug and platinum complexes with reduced toxicity, oral activity and activity against resistant tumors are currently on clinical trial. The use of cis-platin is, however, severely limited by its toxic side-effects. This has stimulated chemists to employ different strategies in the development of new metal-based anticancer agents with different mechanisms of action...
September 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Chiara Tommasino, Lucrezia Gambardella, Maria Buoncervello, Roger J Griffin, Bernard T Golding, Manuela Alberton, Daniele Macchia, Massimo Spada, Bruna Cerbelli, Giulia d'Amati, Walter Malorni, Lucia Gabriele, Anna Maria Giammarioli
BACKGROUND: The antimalarial drug Pyrimethamine has been suggested to exert an antitumor activity by inducing apoptotic cell death in cancer cells, including metastatic melanoma cells. However, the dose of Pyrimethamine to be considered as an anticancer agent appears to be significantly higher than the maximum dose used as an antiprotozoal drug. METHODS: Hence, a series of Pyrimethamine analogs has been synthesized and screened for their apoptosis induction in two cultured metastatic melanoma cell lines...
2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Shaheer Maher, Tushar Kumeria, Ye Wang, Gagandeep Kaur, Dina Fathalla, Gihan Fetih, Abel Santos, Fawzia Habib, Andreas Evdokiou, Dusan Losic
Drug delivery using synthetic nanoparticles including porous silicon has been extensively used to overcome the limitations of chemotherapy. However, their synthesis has many challenges such as lack of scalability, high cost, and the use of toxic materials with concerning environmental impact. Nanoscale materials obtained from natural resources are an attractive option to address some of these disadvantages. In this paper, a new mesoporous biodegradable silicon nanoparticle (SiNP) drug carrier obtained from natural diatom silica mineral available from the mining industry is presented...
September 5, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Shannon S Yoo, Linghong Guo, Xuejun Sun, Andrew R Shaw, Zhipeng Yuan, Raimar Löbenberg, Wilson H Roa
We report the synthesis of a gadolinium hydroxide (Gd(OH)3) nanorod based doxorubicin (Dox) delivery system that can enhance both magnetic resonance imaging contrast and radiation sensitivity. A simple and cost effective wet-chemical method was utilized in the presence of manganese (Mn) ions and Dox to produce the Gd(OH)3:Mn·Dox nanocluster structure. The Gd(OH)3:Mn·Dox nanocluster was composed of Mn-doped Gd(OH)3 nanorods arranged in parallel with Dox as a linker molecule between the adjacent nanorods. No other studies have utilized Dox as both the linker and therapeutic molecule in a nanostructure to date...
September 23, 2016: Nanotechnology
Anne F Hammerstein, Paul G Wylie
Cell viability and proliferation assays are a fundamental tool in the drug discovery process and are used to evaluate both the antiproliferative potency and toxicity of compounds. Some lead discovery groups generate cell viability data for up to two million compounds per screen, so any method used to assess these parameters needs to deliver not only on data quality but also on throughput and assay cost per well. Most methods used to determine cell viability cannot deliver on all three of these requirements, so compromises have to be made...
September 2016: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Antonio Cortese, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Massimo Amato, Logan Lawrence, Veronica Mayes, Linda Brown, Maria Rosaria Sarno, Jagan Valluri, Pier Paolo Claudio
INTRODUCTION: Administration of ineffective anticancer therapy is associated with unnecessary toxicity and development of resistant clones. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) resist chemotherapy, thereby causing relapse of the disease. Thus, development of a test that identifies the most effective chemotherapy management offers great promise for individualized anticancer treatments. We have developed an ex vivo chemotherapy drug response assay (ChemoID(®)), which measures the sensitivity of CSCs as well as the bulk of tumor cells to a variety of chemotherapy agents to assist an oncologist in making treatment decisions...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Fabian Heinemann, Torsten Huber, Christian Meisel, Markus Bundschus, Ulf Leser
The development of cancer drugs is time-consuming and expensive. In particular, failures in late-stage clinical trials are a major cost driver for pharmaceutical companies. This puts a high demand on methods that provide insights into the success chances of new potential medicines. In this study, we systematically analyze publication patterns emerging along the drug discovery process of targeted cancer therapies, starting from basic research to drug approval - or failure. We find clear differences in the patterns of approved drugs compared with those that failed in Phase II/III...
July 18, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
V Siorat, C Raybaut, N Poisson, P Paubel
OBJECTIVES: Anticancer drugs were in 2005 the first expenditure item of the hospital drugs. Ten years later, it is noted that the placing on the market of generic drugs has led to a strong decrease of their price. To determine whether this decrease comes at the expense of product quality, a price-quality ratio trend study of five anticancer drugs was performed at AP-HP. METHOD: This work concerns docetaxel, oxaliplatin, gemcitabine, irinotecan and paclitaxel, and focus on the transition period between monopoly conditions and competitive situation (2008 to 2015)...
July 13, 2016: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
Dwaipayan Banerjee
The Indian pharmaceutical industry has historically manufactured low-cost drugs for the global poor. Activist mobilizations at the height of the HIV/AIDS epidemic revealed a vast cost gap between global brands and Indian generics, much to the embarrassment of Euro-American corporations that were in the habit of pricing drugs for only the wealthy or well insured. As new drug access controversies focus on anticancer therapies, they reveal new flows of international capital, emergent genetic technologies, and increasingly coercive trade regimes...
July 13, 2016: Medical Anthropology
Jinsong Chen, Mei Liu, Lixin Zhang
The uprise of the superpower nations is always accompanied by the breakthrough and advances of technologies and innovations in the history. Natural products play very important role in human health, such as anticancer molecular taxol, anti-infection drug artemisinin that save a lot of lives, metabolic disease treatment, nutrition and health care. However, more has never been explored. With the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine awarded to William C. Campbell, Satoshi Omura, and Youyou Tu for the discovery of avermectins and artemisinin respectively, the second "Golden age" in the development of natural product is dawning...
March 4, 2016: Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao, Acta Microbiologica Sinica
Liping Xiao, Zixin Deng, Tiangang Liu
Natural products and their derivatives play an important role in modern healthcare. Their diversity in bioactivity and chemical structure inspires scientists to discover new drug entities for clinical use. However, chemical synthesis of natural compounds has insurmountable difficulties in technology and cost. Also, many original-producing bacteria have disadvantages of needing harsh cultivation conditions, having low productivity and other shortcomings. In addition, some gene clusters responsible for secondary metabolite biosynthesis are silence in the original strains...
March 4, 2016: Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao, Acta Microbiologica Sinica
Narayanan Janakiraman, Marimuthu Johnson
Cancer is the cause of more than 6 million deaths worldwide every year. For centuries, medicinal plants have been used in the treatment of cancer. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery and acupuncture point stimulation are also used to treat cancer. The present study was intended to reveal the cytotoxic and anticancer potential of selected Cyathea species and to highlight their importance in the pharmaceutical industry for the development of cost-effective drugs. Cytotoxic studies using brine shrimp lethality bioassays and MCF 7 cell line cultures were carried out...
June 2016: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
Leonard B Saltz
Treatment options have improved for patients with colorectal cancer, but these improvements have invariably been more modest than had been anticipated or hoped for. Yet while outcomes have improved modestly, costs have risen substantially, as prices of the newer anticancer agents in colorectal cancer have led the way in the stratospheric rise in cancer drug prices in general. Development of future strategies that will be both sustainable and attainable by all who need them will require both an understanding of past events that have brought us to the present and a willingness to confront the limitations of our present options and to assess them for the true value that they do or do not offer...
May 2016: Cancer Journal
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