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Inflammation research

Jessica A Walsh, Oluwakayode Adejoro, Benjamin Chastek, Jacqueline B Palmer, Peter Hur
BACKGROUND: In patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), limited data exist regarding patterns of biologic therapy use. OBJECTIVE: To examine treatment patterns and therapy modifications in U.S. patients with PsA receiving a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) or an anti-interleukin (IL)-12/23 inhibitor. METHODS: Adults with PsA who newly initiated a biologic therapy (index biologic) between January 1, 2013, and January 31, 2015, were included from the Optum Research Database...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Emily K Cope
Despite growing efforts to understand the role of the microbiota in airway disease, mechanisms that link microbial community dysbiosis to chronic inflammation remain elusive. Our laboratory is interested in how altered microbiota composition or function influences airway inflammatory diseases, including chronic rhinosinusitis, asthma, and cystic fibrosis. Given the tight interplay between host-associated microbes and host immunity, the potential for translational microbiome research to guide clinical decisions and novel therapeutics is becoming better appreciated...
March 2018: MSystems
Simon Krabbe, Inge J Sørensen, Bente Jensen, Jakob M Møller, Lone Balding, Ole R Madsen, Robert G W Lambert, Walter P Maksymowych, Susanne J Pedersen, Mikkel Østergaard
Background: The Canada-Denmark (CANDEN) definitions of spinal MRI lesions allow a detailed anatomy-based evaluation of inflammatory and structural lesions in vertebral bodies and posterior elements of the spine in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). The objective was to examine the reliability, responsiveness and discrimination of scores for spinal inflammation, fat, bone erosion and new bone formation based on the CANDEN system and to describe patterns of inflammatory and structural lesions and their temporal development...
2018: RMD Open
Jinna Yang, Wangyi Zhou, Yaru Gu, Jinwei Dai, Xinxin Li, Ping Tai, Yanchuan Li, Xiaohui Ma, Yuyang Zhang
Pu-erh tea has become a focus of research due to its reported biological activities, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation and anti-immunosenescence. The present study was performed to evaluate the potential gastroprotective function of Pu-erh tea extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups: A normal control, a model control, a cimetidine (0.08 g/kg) group, three Pu-erh tea extracts groups (low, moderate and high-dose; 0...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
Ahmed Al-Janabi, Sue Lightman, Oren Tomkins-Netzer
Statins are known for their blood cholesterol-lowering effect and are widely used in patients with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Research over the past three decades shows that statins have diverse effects on different pathophysiological pathways involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, apoptosis, and anti-oxidation, leading to new therapeutic options. Recently, statins have attracted considerable attention for their immunomodulatory effect. Since immune reactivity has been implicated in a number of retinal diseases, such as uveitis, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy, there is now a growing body of evidence supporting the beneficial effects of statins in these retinopathies...
March 20, 2018: Eye
Ana Patricia Ortiz, Daisy González, José Vivaldi-Oliver, Maira Castañeda, Vivian Rivera, Elba Díaz, Hilmaris Centeno, Cristina Muñoz, Joel Palefsky, Kaumudi Joshipura, Cynthia M Pérez
INTRODUCTION: Research on the association between periodontitis and oral human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is inconsistent. The cross-sectional association of severe periodontitis with oral HPV infection was investigated in a sample of Hispanic adults. METHODS: Data from the 2014-2016 San Juan Overweight Adults Longitudinal Study (n=740) was analyzed. Periodontitis assessment and self-collection of oral HPV samples followed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey methodology...
March 16, 2018: Papillomavirus Research
Xiaole Tong, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Shucheng Huang, Xiong Jiang, Hui Zhang, Jia KuiLi
Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a common skeletal problem of avian species. The cause and etiology of this disorder is still not clear. The intestinal bacterial community is a complex ecosystem and plays very important role in healthy life of human and animals. Many researchers have made the connection between diseases and alteration of gut microbiota. However, little is know about the role of gut microbiota in TD. The objective of this study was to explore the diversity and composition of small and large intestinal bacterial communities of TD chickens...
March 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Candice Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice Chu, Cynthia Balog-Alvarez, Xue Yu, James J Cai, Mary Nabity, Joe N Kornegay
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) causes progressive disability in 1 of every 5,000 boys due to the lack of functional dystrophin protein. Despite much advancement in knowledge about DMD disease presentation and progression-attributable in part to studies using mouse and canine models of the disease-current DMD treatments are not equally effective in all patients. There remains, therefore, a need for translational animal models in which novel treatment targets can be identified and evaluated. Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) is a phenotypically and genetically homologous animal model of DMD...
2018: PloS One
Mesmin Destin
By many accounts, young people from modest socioeconomic backgrounds who succeed in education and secure gainful employment should expect to experience better physical health as a result of their elevated social position. However, increasing evidence indicates that experiences of socioeconomic mobility may not accompany a health benefit but rather can lead to poorer physical health for some individuals. On certain indicators, adults who originated from disadvantaged backgrounds and achieved educational and economic success found themselves in worse health than their childhood peers who did not experience an upward socioeconomic trajectory...
March 19, 2018: American Psychologist
Jessica C Stark, Euan Wallace, Rebecca Lim, Bryan Leaw
Microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, are the first responders to inflammation or injury in the central nervous system. Recent research has revealed microglia to be dynamic, capable of assuming both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory phenotypes. Both M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (pro-reparative) phenotypes play an important role in neuroinflammatory conditions such as perinatal brain injury, and exhibit differing functions in response to certain environmental stimuli. The modulation of microglial activation has been noted to confer neuroprotection thus suggesting microglia may have therapeutic potential in brain injury...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
QiangYue Jiang, Lingyan Ma, RuiChao Li, JianHai Sun
The occurrence and development of colon cancer is closely related to inflammation. Therefore, this study was conducted a current retrospective research to study the effect of IL-35 (interleukin 35), a newly identified anti-infective factor, on colon cancer development. The expression of IL-35 in colon cancer samples and their adjacent normal mucosa by real-time PCR, ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The effect of IL-35 on patient survival, colon cancer progression, and its effect on Wnt/β-catenine signaling pathway was also assessed...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Chenke Xu, Wei Wang, Jin Zhong, Fan Lei, Naihan Xu, Yaou Zhang, Weidong Xie
Canagliflozin (CAN) regulates intracellular glucose metabolism by targeting sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) and intracellular glucose metabolism affects inflammation. In this study, we hypothesized that CAN might exert anti-inflammatory effects. The anti-inflammatory effects and action mechanisms of CAN were assayed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells and NIH mice. Results showed that CAN significantly inhibited the production and release of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the LPS-induced RAW264...
March 15, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Nathan S Bryan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To reveal the mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO) production in humans and how lifestyle, drug therapy, and hygienic practices can decrease NO production. Furthermore, to show how functional nitric oxide nutrition can overcome these limitations to restore endogenous NO production and combat cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Research over the past decade has revealed that inorganic nitrate and nitrite found naturally in green leafy vegetables and other vegetables such as beets can provide the human body with a source of bioactive nitric oxide...
March 17, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Hyun Lee, Minoru Fujimoto, Tomoharu Ohkawara, Hiromi Honda, Satoshi Serada, Yoshio Terada, Tetsuji Naka
Recent evidence suggests that renal tubular injury plays a key role in deterioration of renal function in both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI). Since commonly used biochemical indicators such as GFR, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine clearance are inappropriate for detecting alteration in renal tubules, biomarkers reflecting renal tubular injury have been extensively explored. Our research group identified leucine rich α-2 glycoprotein (LRG) as a novel serum biomarker for various inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Marc G J Feuilloley
By its size and diversity, the cutaneous microbial flora is the second of the human body and there is a growing body of research showing its key role in cutaneous homeostasis. However, skin is also the first neuroendocrine organ and it is now demonstrated that bacteria can sense a multitude of human hormones and neurotransmitters. Then, besides of the intrinsic effect of their virulence factors on cutaneous neurogenic activity, recent data demonstrate that the virulence, invasion potential, and biofilm formation activity of some of the principal species of the cutaneous bacteria flora are directly controlled by neuropeptides released by sensory nerve endings including substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide...
March 16, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Annesa Flentje, Kord Kober, Adam Carrico, Torsten B Neilands, Elena Flowers, Nicholas Heck, Bradley Aouizerat
Sexual minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) individuals experience poorer mental and physical health, accounted for in part by the additional burden of sexual minority stress occurring from being situated in a culture favoring heteronormativity. Informed by previous research, the purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between sexual minority stress and leukocyte gene expression related to inflammation, cancer, immune function, and cardiovascular function. Sexual minority men living with HIV who were on anti-retroviral medication, had viral load <200 copies/mL, and had biologically confirmed, recent methamphetamine use completed minority stress measures and submitted blood samples for RNA sequencing on leukocytes...
March 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Richard Garrett Morgan, Anthony J Donato, Ashley E Walker
While most telomere biology research continues to focus on telomere shortening, there is increasing evidence that telomere deprotection, or "uncapping", is more biologically and possibly clinically important. Telomeres form t-loops to prevent the chromosome ends from appearing as a double-stranded DNA break and initiating a DNA damage response. Breakdown of the t-loop structure, referred to as uncapping, can lead to cellular senescence and increased oxidative stress and inflammation in tissues. In this review, we will describe how telomere uncapping potentially leads to age-related vascular dysfunction, and increased cellular senescence, oxidative stress, and inflammation...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Chye Soi Moi, Chia Kin Yen, Khuen Yen Ng, Koh Rhun Yian
Protein misfolding and aggregation have been considered the common pathological hallmarks for a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). These abnormal proteins aggregation damage mitochondria and induce oxidative stress and resulting neuronal cell death. Prolong neuronal damage activates microglia and astrocytes, development of inflammation reaction and further promotes neurodegeneration. Thus, elimination of abnormal proteins aggregation without eliciting any adverse effects are the main treatment strategies...
March 15, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Chenhui Mao, Jing Gao, Liri Jin, Bin Peng, Yupu Guo
Neurosyphilis occurs in the late stage of systemic syphilis infection; early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to the prognosis. We review 3 autopsy cases with different subtypes of neurosyphilis, that is cases with meningovascular, general paresis, and a combination of the 2, respectively. We investigated the gross morphology and leptomeninges, vessels, cerebral cortex, white matter, brainstem, cerebellum, olfactory bulb and spinal cord microscopically. We found that meningovascular inflammation exists in both early and late phases of neurosyphilis, not only in the meningovascular subtype...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Yue Ma, Chunquan Zheng, Le Shi
Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), commonly divided into CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) is an inflammatory disease which mechanism remain unclear. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has been proved to be a negative regulator of inflammation response while its role in pathogenesis of CRS has yet to be revealed. This research study was designed to investigate the relationship between the expression level and biologic role of LRRK2 in CRS. Methods: Expression of LRRK2 mRNA and noncoding repressor of NFAT (NRON) were examined by qRT-PCR...
2018: Clinical and Translational Allergy
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