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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045592/impact-of-public-safety-policies-on-hiv-transmission-dynamics-in-tijuana-mexico
#1
Sanjay R Mehta, Antoine Chaillon, Tommi L Gaines, Patricia E Gonzalez-Zuniga, Jamila K Stockman, Horatio Almanza-Reyes, Jose Roman Chavez, Alicia Vera, Karla D Wagner, Thomas L Patterson, Brianna Scott, Davey M Smith, Steffanie A Strathdee
Background: North Tijuana, Mexico, along the US border, is home to many individuals at high-risk for transmitting and acquiring HIV. Recently, policy shifts by local government impacted how these individuals were handled by authorities. Here we examined how this affected regional HIV transmission dynamics. Methods: HIV pol sequences and associated demographic information were collected from eight research studies enrolling persons in Tijuana, and were used to infer viral transmission patterns and transmission clusters...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044920/co-responding-police-mental-health-programmes-service-user-experiences-and-outcomes-in-a-large-urban-centre
#2
Denise Lamanna, Gilla K Shapiro, Maritt Kirst, Flora I Matheson, Arash Nakhost, Vicky Stergiopoulos
As police officers are often the first responders to mental health crises, a number of approaches have emerged to support skilled police crisis responses. One such approach is the police-mental health co-responding team model, whereby mental health nurses and police officers jointly respond to mental health crises in the community. In the present mixed-method study, we evaluated outcomes of co-responding team interactions at a large Canadian urban centre by analysing administrative data for 2743 such interactions, and where comparison data were available, compared them to 16 226 police-only team responses...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044506/a-retrospective-study-of-the-investigation-of-homicidal-childhood-asphyxial-deaths
#3
Theodore T Brown, Nick I Batalis, Joni L McClain, Tracey Corey, Kim A Collins, Jeffrey M Jentzen, Joseph A Prahlow
As one of the leading causes of traumatic deaths in newborns, infants, and young children, there is no anatomic or microscopic feature that is pathognomonic for asphyxial deaths. Instead, pathologists rely on investigation information, including confessions and/or witness statements, and potential evidence at the scene. Twenty cases of homicidal newborn, infant, and young children asphyxial deaths were reviewed, which included death and police investigation reports and autopsy reports, as well as histology slides of lung sections...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043482/assessing-the-role-of-gambling-on-problematic-alcohol-consumption-by-police-officers
#4
Egbert Zavala
While a number of studies have attributed critical incident stressors to alcohol abuse among police officers, no study has examined the role gambling, if any, plays on problematic alcohol consumption. Therefore, data from the Police Stress and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999 are analyzed to test the influence of gambling on problematic alcohol consumption engaged by police officers. Results indicated that gambling is significant in predicting problematic alcohol consumption...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040841/-caught-with-a-body-yet-protected-by-law-calling-911-for-opioid-overdose-in-the-context-of-the-good-samaritan-law
#5
Amanda D Latimore, Rachel S Bergstein
BACKGROUND: To address soaring opioid overdose fatality rates, 41U.S. states have passed Good Samaritan Laws (GSLs) extending legal immunity to overdose bystanders who call for emergency assistance. This study, conducted during the period that followed implementation of a GSL, aimed to characterize current factors determining the decision to call for emergency medical help (911) at the scene of an overdose with specific attention to exploring the role of the GSL as one such factor in decision-making...
October 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040329/sexual-homicides-in-south-africa-a-national-cross-sectional-epidemiological-study-of-adult-women-and-children
#6
Naeemah Abrahams, Shanaaz Mathews, Carl Lombard, Lorna J Martin, Rachel Jewkes
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective national mortuary based study to identify all adult female homicides (18 years and older) and all child homicides (boys and girls < 18 years) in 2009 in a randomly selected, proportionate sample of mortuaries. Victim, perpetrator and crime data were collected in three processes: from the mortuary register, the autopsy report and from police with the identification of sexual homicides validated across the data collection processes. FINDINGS: Among the 2670 (95% CI: 2311-2979) adult women killed in 2009, 494 (95% CI: 406-574) were identified as sexual homicides which was 19...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040317/economic-benefits-of-sharing-and-redistributing-influenza-vaccines-when-shortages-occurred
#7
Sheng-I Chen
BACKGROUND: Recurrent influenza outbreak has been a concern for government health institutions in Taiwan. Over 10% of the population is infected by influenza viruses every year, and the infection has caused losses to both health and the economy. Approximately three million free vaccine doses are ordered and administered to high-risk populations at the beginning of flu season to control the disease. The government recommends sharing and redistributing vaccine inventories when shortages occur...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040244/a-prospective-study-of-the-causes-of-bruises-in-premobile-infants
#8
Kenneth W Feldman, Tricia M Tayama, Leslie E Strickler, Lee A Johnson, Gauri Kolhatkar, Catherine A DeRidder, Dana C Matthews, Robert Sidbury, James A Taylor
OBJECTIVE: This study had 2 objectives. First, to determine the behavior of physicians evaluating premobile infants with bruises. Second, and most importantly, to learn whether infants with unexplained bruising who had been initially evaluated by primary care and emergency department (ED) physicians are as likely to have their bruises attributed to child abuse as those children evaluated by child abuse physicians. METHODS: Primary care, ED, and child abuse pediatricians (CAPs) in King County, Washington, San Mateo, Calif, Albuquerque, NM, La Crosse, Wis, and Torrance, Calif prospectively identified and studied infants younger than 6 months with less than 6 bruises, which were judged by the evaluating clinician to be explained or unexplained after their initial clinical examination...
October 16, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037115/low-subjective-social-status-in-the-police-is-linked-to-health-relevant-changes-in-diurnal-salivary-alpha-amylase-activity-in-swiss-police-officers
#9
Stéphanie Habersaat, Sid Abdellaoui, Ashley M Geiger, Sébastien Urben, Jutta M Wolf
The objective of this study was to assess basal autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity as a pathway linking subjective social status to health in a high-demand work environment. It was hypothesized that officers with a lower status experienced more chronic stress (higher basal ANS activity) and that chronic stress was related to more health problems. Fifty-six male and female Swiss police officers self-reported on subjective social status (country, community, friends, police) and their health (depression, post-traumatic stress, physical symptoms) and collected 12 saliva samples over two days for basal α-amylase activation (sAA) assessment...
October 16, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036868/a-modified-job-demand-control-support-model-for-active-duty-police
#10
Elisabeth Elgmark Andersson, Louise Bæk Larsen, Nerrolyn Ramstrand
BACKGROUND: The Job demand control support model (JDCS) is one of the most widely used theoretical models relating job characteristics to health and wellbeing. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the predictive power of the JDCS model for determining job satisfaction and fatigue in uniformed Swedish police. An additional aim was to determine if predictive power of the model would be improved with the addition of two occupation specific items. METHODS: Questionnaire data, based upon the Swedish Work Environment Survey were collected from Swedish police (n = 4244)...
October 8, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035146/moral-and-legal-dilemmas-in-the-policing-of-protest-and-other-major-public-events
#11
Colin Morgan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034485/decision-theory-for-comparing-institutions
#12
Nicholas T Longford
Various forms of performance assessment are applied to public service institutions, such as hospitals, schools, police units, and local authorities. Difficulties arise in the interpretation of the results presented in some established formats because they require a good understanding and appreciation of the uncertainties involved. Usually the results have to be adapted to the perspectives of the users-managers of the assessed units, a consumer, or a central authority (a watchdog) that dispenses awards and sanctions...
October 16, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029612/the-relative-efficiency-of-iranian-s-rural-traffic-police-a-three-stage-dea-model
#13
Habibollah Rahimi, Hamid Soori, Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari, Seyed Abbas Motevalian, Adel Azar, Eskandar Momeni, Mehdi Javartani
BACKGROUND: Road traffic Injuries (RTIs) as a health problem imposes governments to implement different interventions. Target achievement in this issue required effective and efficient measures. Efficiency evaluation of traffic police as one of the responsible administrators is necessary for resource management. Therefore, this study conducted to measure Iran's rural traffic police efficiency. METHODS: This was an ecological study. To obtain pure efficiency score, three-stage DEA model was conducted with seven inputs and three output variables...
October 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028564/assessing-police-officers-attitudes-and-legal-knowledge-on-behaviors-that-impact-hiv-transmission-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#14
Javier A Cepeda, Steffanie A Strathdee, Jaime Arredondo, Maria L Mittal, Teresita Rocha, Mario Morales, Erika Clairgue, Eliane Bustamante, Daniela Abramovitz, Irina Artamonova, Arnulfo Bañuelos, Thomas Kerr, Carlos L Magis-Rodriguez, Leo Beletsky
BACKGROUND: Policing practices such as syringe confiscation and arrest can act as important social-structural drivers of HIV risk among people who inject drugs (PWID). However, police referral to treatment and other services may improve the health of PWID. Little is known about the role of modifiable attitudinal and knowledge factors in shaping officer behavior. Using baseline findings from a police education program (PEP), we assessed relationships between drug policy knowledge and attitudes towards public health interventions with self-reported syringe confiscation, drug arrest, and service referral among street-level police in Tijuana, Mexico...
October 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027283/does-managing-the-consumption-of-people-with-severe-alcohol-dependence-reduce-harm-a-comparison-of-participants-in-six-canadian-managed-alcohol-programs-with-locally-recruited-controls
#15
Tim Stockwell, Bernie Pauly, Clifton Chow, Rebekah A Erickson, Bonnie Krysowaty, Audra Roemer, Kate Vallance, Ashley Wettlaufer, Jinhui Zhao
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Managed alcohol programs (MAP) are intended for people with severe alcohol-related problems and unstable housing. We investigated whether MAP participation was associated with changes in drinking patterns and related harms. DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred and seventy-five MAP participants from five Canadian cities (Hamilton, Ottawa, Toronto, Thunder Bay and Vancouver) and 189 same-city controls were assessed for alcohol consumption, health, safety and harm outcomes...
October 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024951/bans-of-who-class-i-pesticides-in-bangladesh-suicide-prevention-without-hampering-agricultural-output
#16
Fazle Rabbi Chowdhury, Gourab Dewan, Vasundhara R Verma, Duleeka W Knipe, Ishrat Tahsin Isha, M Abul Faiz, David J Gunnell, Michael Eddleston
Background: Pesticide self-poisoning is a major problem in Bangladesh. Over the past 20-years, the Bangladesh government has introduced pesticide legislation and banned highly hazardous pesticides (HHPs) from agricultural use. We aimed to assess the impacts of pesticide bans on suicide and on agricultural production. Methods: We obtained data on unnatural deaths from the Statistics Division of Bangladesh Police, and used negative binomial regression to quantify changes in pesticide suicides and unnatural deaths following removal of WHO Class I toxicity HHPs from agriculture in 2000...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024922/isolation-and-whole-genome-analysis-of-endospore-forming-bacteria-from-heroin
#17
Jörn Kalinowski, Björn Ahrens, Arwa Al-Dilaimi, Anika Winkler, Daniel Wibberg, Uwe Schleenbecker, Christian Rückert, Roman Wölfel, Gregor Grass
Infections caused by endospore-forming bacteria have been associated with severe illness and death among persons who inject drugs. Analysis of the bacteria residing in heroin has thus been biased towards species that affect human health. Similarly, exploration of the bacterial diversity of seized street market heroin correlated with the skin microflora of recreational heroin users insofar as different Staphylococus spp. or typical environmental endospore formers including Bacillus cereus and other Bacilli outside the B...
October 4, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021415/cerebrovascular-cardiovascular-diseases-and-mental-disorders-due-to-overwork-and-work-related-stress-among-local-public-employees-in-japan
#18
Takashi Yamauchi, Toru Yoshikawa, Takeshi Sasaki, Shun Matsumoto, Masaya Takahashi, Machi Suka, Hiroyuki Yanagisawa
In Japan, overwork-related disorders occur among local public employees as well as those in private businesses. However, to date, there are no studies reporting the state of compensation for cerebrovascular/cardiovascular diseases (CCVD) and mental disorders due to overwork or work-related stress among local public employees in Japan over multiple years. This report examined the recent trend of overwork-related CCVD and mental disorders, including the incidence rates of these disorders, among local public employees in Japan from the perspective of compensation for public accidents, using data from the Japanese Government and relevant organizations...
October 11, 2017: Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021114/a-police-led-addiction-treatment-referral-program-in-gloucester-ma-implementation-and-participants-experiences
#19
Davida M Schiff, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Zoe M Weinstein, Lisa Chan, Megan Bair-Merritt, David Rosenbloom
BACKGROUND: The increasing rates of opioid use disorder and resulting overdose deaths are a public health emergency, yet only a fraction of individuals in need receive treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe the implementation of and participants' experiences with a novel police-led addiction treatment referral program. METHODS: Follow-up telephone calls to participants in the Gloucester Police Department's Angel Program from June 2015-May 2016...
November 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020756/using-focus-group-interviews-to-analyze-the-behavior-of-users-of-new-types-of-tobacco-products
#20
Jinyoung Kim, Sungkyu Lee
Objectives: To characterize the usage patterns of new types of tobacco products (NTTPs) to develop effective strategies for the regulation of NTTPs in Korea. Methods: We conducted focus group interviews to identify the NTTP usage patterns of research subjects. The NTTPs were limited to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), waterpipe tobacco, and rolling tobacco. We categorized 30 research subjects into 4 groups. The e-cigarette group was divided into adult and adolescent groups...
September 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
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