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Clare Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Sydney Church, Urvita Bhatia, Richard Velleman, Gill Velleman, Jim Orford, Anil Rane, Abhijit Nadkarni
INTRODUCTION: Despite the large burden of a relative's drinking on their family members, the latter's perspectives and experiences are largely neglected. The aims of this article are to assess the coping strategies used by affected family members (AFMs) in Goa, India, and to examine the nature of the support they have for dealing with their drinking relative. METHOD: In-depth interviews were conducted with adult AFMs selected through purposive and maximum variation sampling...
June 2018: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
Orratai Waleewong, Anne-Marie Laslett, Richard Chenhall, Robin Room
Aims: This study aims to measure the prevalence rates and patterns of help-seeking behavior as a consequence of being harmed by drinkers in five Asian countries (India, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Lao PDR and Thailand). Methods: A total of 9832 respondents aged 18-65 years from the WHO/ThaiHealth Collaborative Project were surveyed between 2012 and 2014 about their experiences of being negatively affected due to another's drinking, and whether and where they sought help, focusing on four adverse aspects of harms from others' drinking...
June 13, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Danny Maupin, Jeremy Robinson, Thomas Wills, Shane Irving, Ben Schram, Rob Orr
OBJECTIVES: Fitness is essential to specialist police forces, who have higher occupational demands than general police, and vital to performance and mission success. However, little research has been done profiling the metabolic fitness of these units and how they compare to other populations. The objective of this study was to profile the aerobic fitness of a specialist police unit. METHODS: Body weight was measured to account for any impact on metabolic fitness, while VO2 max was estimated via number of shuttles completed on the 20m Progressive Shuttle Run Test (PSRT) (n=47) on two dates one calendar year apart...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Occupational Health
Anna B Gilmore, Allen W A Gallagher, Andy Rowell
BACKGROUND: The Illicit Trade Protocol (ITP) requires a global track and trace (T&T) system to reduce tobacco smuggling. Given the tobacco industry's (TI) historical involvement in tobacco smuggling, it stipulates that T&T 'shall not be performed by or delegated to the tobacco industry'. This paper explores the rationale for & nature of the TI's effors to influence the ITP & its T&T system. METHODS: Analysis of leaked TI documents and publicly available data; ,investigation of front groups, trademark and patent ownership...
June 13, 2018: Tobacco Control
Rafael Mantovani
The article presents new ways of interpreting the concept "medical police," which was used in the West in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Alternative understandings of the medical police in Europe, distinct from those offered by George Rosen and Michel Foucault, the preeminent twentieth-century thinkers on the topic, were derived by studying related treatises written in Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Spain, and Portugal. Records indicate that these treatises were not an exclusively German phenomenon nor did they constitute State regulation of the medical profession alone...
April 2018: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
Stephanie L Mayne, Kari A Moore, Tiffany M Powell-Wiley, Kelly R Evenson, Richard Block, Kiarri N Kershaw
Background: High neighborhood crime and low perceptions of safety may influence blood pressure through chronic stress. Few studies have examined these associations using longitudinal data. Methods: We used longitudinal data from 528 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (aged 45-84, non-hypertensive at baseline) who lived in Chicago, Illinois. We examined associations of changes in individual-level perceived safety, aggregated neighborhood-level perceived safety, and past-year rates of police-recorded crime in a one-mile, half-mile, or quarter-mile buffer per 1,000 population with changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressures using fixed-effects linear regression...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Ioanna Oikonomidi, Emma Burbridge, Miguel Cavadas, Graeme Sullivan, Blanka Collis, Heike Naegele, Danielle Clancy, Jana Brezinova, Tianyi Hu, Andrea Bileck, Christopher Gerner, Alfonso Bolado, Alex von Kriegsheim, Seamus J Martin, Florian Steinberg, Kvido Strisovsky, Colin Adrain
The apical inflammatory cytokine TNF regulates numerous important biological processes including inflammation and cell death, and drives inflammatory diseases. TNF secretion requires TACE (also called ADAM17), which cleaves TNF from its transmembrane tether. The trafficking of TACE to the cell surface, and stimulation of its proteolytic activity, depends on membrane proteins, called iRhoms. To delineate how the TNF/TACE/iRhom axis is regulated, we performed an immunoprecipitation/mass spectrometry screen to identify iRhom-binding proteins...
June 13, 2018: ELife
Lois James, Natalie Todak
OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in a sample of prison employees, investigate risk factors, and explore protective factors for PTSD. METHODS: We surveyed 355 Washington State Department of Corrections employees. The survey included the PTSD checklist for the DSM-5 (PCL-5), the Critical Incident History Questionnaire, and the Work Environment Inventory. RESULTS: We found 19% of the sample met the criteria for diagnosable PTSD...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Gaelle Krikorian, Joëlle Vailly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
W Kerkhoff, R D Stoel, E J A T Mattijssen, C E H Berger, F W Didden, J H Kerstholt
In 2015 and 2016 the Central Unit of the Dutch National Police created and submitted 21 cartridge case comparison tests as real cases to the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI), under supervision of the University of Twente (UT). A total of 53 conclusions were drawn in these 21 tests. For 31 conclusions the underlying ground truth was "positive", in the sense that it addressed a cluster of cartridge cases that was fired from the same firearm. For 22 conclusions the ground truth was "negative", in the sense that the cartridge cases were fired from different firearms...
July 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Piotr Engelgardt, Maciej Krzyżanowski, Przemysław Piotrowski
The psychophysical impairment of drivers caused by psychoactive substances is still a common and important factor in road accidents. While in the case of ethyl alcohol the initial detection of drivers who have consumed alcohol is not a problem due to the widespread use of breathalyzers, other psychoactive substances are a problem. These substances are a group of numerous, variously acting and regularly growing compounds. In this publication, the authors have reviewed the methods used worldwide for the initial detection of psychoactive substances, i...
2018: Archiwum Medycyny Sa̧dowej i Kryminologii
Michael J Lee, Sasha C Voss, Daniel Franklin, Ian R Dadour
This study investigated the potential of aircraft mounted thermal imaging (AMTI) to locate surficial decomposing remains (clothed and unclothed) through detection of heat generated by larval aggregations of carrion feeding insects. Two trials were carried out, each utilising four pig cadavers (40-45kg) as human analogues and exposing them to insect activity in autumn and winter on the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia. The Western Australia Police Air Wing helicopter, fitted with a forward looking infrared radiometer (FLIR) camera, was utilised to obtain the AMTI footage of carcasses over time...
May 25, 2018: Forensic Science International
Loren Brener, Joanne Bryant, Elena Cama, Lucy Pepolin, Mary Ellen Harrod
BACKGROUND: Extended distribution refers to the practice whereby people who inject drugs pass on sterile injecting equipment to their networks and can be a means to access people who inject drugs who do not attend state-sanctioned needle and syringe programs. While it is legal, to possess a sterile syringe for the purpose of injecting drugs in New South Wales, Australia, it is a criminal offence to pass this equipment on for others to use. In 2013 a pilot project was established to trial the authorization of "extended" peer distribution...
June 11, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Michelle Addison, Ruth Mcgovern, Colin Angus, Frauke Becker, Alan Brennan, Heather Brown, Simon Coulton, Lisa Crowe, Eilish Gilvarry, Matthew Hickman, Denise Howel, Elaine Mccoll, Colin Muirhead, Dorothy Newbury-Birch, Muhammad Waqas, Eileen Kaner
Aims: There is a clear association between alcohol use and offending behaviour and significant police time is spent on alcohol-related incidents. This study aimed to test the feasibility of a trial of screening and brief intervention in police custody suites to reduce heavy drinking and re-offending behaviour. Short summary: We achieved target recruitment and high brief intervention delivery if this occurred immediately after screening. Low rates of return for counselling and retention at follow-up were challenges for a definitive trial...
June 8, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
David M Corey, Martin Sellbom, Yossef S Ben-Porath
Potential externalizing tendencies have long been a focus of research in police candidates. Early studies often reported positive correlations between Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) externalizing scales and problem behaviors in law enforcement officers. However, more recent investigations reveal mixed findings, with some showing either no significant correlations between externalizing measures and police performance problems or negative associations. In the current study, we examined associations between MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) externalizing scale scores and personal history information (biodata) in a large sample (n = 1,226) of police officer candidates and observed expected positive correlations between them...
June 11, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Michelle Gray
AIM: A theoretical discussion using categorisation theory to discuss the final analysis of findings from research which investigated midwives' responses to the changed registration-renewal requirements in Australia after the introduction of national registration. BACKGROUND: In 2010 the Health Practitioner Regulation National Law Act introduced national registration to standardise the regulation of health professionals in Australia. Annual registration-renewal standards required all health professionals to meet the same standards of clear police check, insurance for scope of practice, Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and Recency of Practice (ROP)...
June 7, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
C Bastien, R Wellings, B Burnett
Pedestrian accident reconstruction is necessary to establish cause of death, i.e. establishing vehicle collision speed as well as circumstances leading to the pedestrian being impacted and determining culpability of those involved for subsequent court enquiry. Understanding the complexity of the pedestrian attitude during an accident investigation is necessary to ascertain the causes leading to the tragedy. A generic new method, named Pedestrian Crossing Speed Calculator (PCSC), based on vector algebra, is proposed to compute the pedestrian crossing speed at the moment of impact...
June 7, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Caitlin Rancher, Ernest N Jouriles, Renee McDonald
This study examined whether police involvement in intimate partner violence (IPV) incidents is associated with women's trauma symptoms. Participants were 95 women recruited from domestic violence shelters. Women reported on their trauma symptoms, the frequency of IPV victimization, the use of a weapon during IPV, and police involvement over the year following shelter departure. Police involvement in IPV was associated with higher levels of reexperiencing trauma symptoms 1 year after shelter departure, even after controlling for baseline trauma symptoms, the frequency of IPV, and the use of a weapon during IPV...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Carol Strike, Tara Marie Watson
Needle and syringe programs (NSPs) are key public health and HIV prevention programs. We sought to compare over time the quality of relationships between NSPs and police, and implementation of best practices. We conducted cross-sectional surveys in 2008 ( n = 32) and 2015 ( n = 28) with NSP managers in Ontario, Canada. Participants were recruited via e-mail to complete an online survey. Over the period studied, self-reported quality of NSP-police relationships did not change-roughly two thirds of NSP managers reported a positive/mostly positive relationship...
June 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
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