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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667168/cognitive-decline-and-older-driver-crash-risk
#1
Laura A Fraade-Blanar, Beth E Ebel, Eric B Larson, Jeanne M Sears, Hilaire J Thompson, Kwun Chuen G Chan, Paul K Crane
OBJECTIVES: To examine automobile crash risk associated with cognition in older drivers without dementia. DESIGN: Retrospective secondary analysis of longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Our study used data from the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) Study merged with Washington State crash reports and licensure records. Data were available from 2002 to 2015. PARTICIPANTS: Group Health enrollees from Washington State aged 65 and older with active driver's licenses (N=2,615)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666997/forensic-answers-to-the-14th-of-july-2016-terrorist-attack-in-nice
#2
Gérald Quatrehomme, Steve Toupenay, Tania Delabarde, Bernard Padovani, Véronique Alunni
The terrorist attack of July 14, 2016 in Nice (France) was a devastating event. A man voluntarily drove a truck into a crowd gathered for the fireworks display on the seaside "Promenade des Anglais," plowing pedestrians down over more than 2 km before being shot dead. At the time of this report, a total of 86 casualties and more than 1200 formal complaints for physical and psychological injuries have been recorded. The aim of this work is to describe the forensic management of this event and its immediate aftermath...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665006/police-contacts-arrests-and-decreasing-self-control-and-personal-responsibility-among-female-adolescents
#3
Alison E Hipwell, Joseph Beeney, Feifei Ye, Sabrina H Gebreselassie, Madeline R Stalter, Dyuti Ganesh, Kate Keenan, Stephanie D Stepp
BACKGROUND: Female involvement in the juvenile justice system (JJS) has increased rapidly in recent years. Although deficits in self-control and responsibility are associated with delinquency and higher rates of police contacts and arrests, much of this research has focused on males and/or selected samples of youth who already have a history of JJS involvement. Furthermore, little is known about the extent to which police contacts and arrests may disrupt normative psychosocial maturation...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664153/using-the-advocacy-coalition-framework-and-multiple-streams-policy-theories-to-examine-the-role-of-evidence-research-and-other-types-of-knowledge-in-drug-policy
#4
Alison Ritter, Caitlin Elizabeth Hughes, Kari Lancaster, Robert Hoppe
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The prevailing 'evidence-based policy' paradigm emphasizes a technical-rational relationship between alcohol and drug research evidence and subsequent policy action. However, policy process theories do not start with this premise, and hence provide an opportunity to consider anew the ways in which evidence, research and other types of knowledge impact upon policy. This paper presents a case study, the police deployment of drug detection dogs, to highlight how two prominent policy theories [the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) and the Multiple Streams (MS) approach] explicate the relationship between evidence and policy...
April 17, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663344/circumstances-of-sudep-a-nationwide-population-based-case-series
#5
Olafur Sveinsson, Tomas Andersson, Sofia Carlsson, Torbjörn Tomson
OBJECTIVE: Given the increasing attention being paid to potential strategies for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) prevention, we analyzed the circumstances of SUDEP and its incidence in relation to time of year, week, and day. METHODS: Prospective case-series based on persons with an all International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) code for epilepsy in the Swedish Patient Registry 1998-2005, who were alive on June 30, 2006 (n = 60 952). Linkage to the National Cause-of-Death Registry identified all deaths from July 2006 through December 2011, with epilepsy mentioned on death certificate, together with deaths during 2008 (n = 3166)...
April 17, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661249/using-qualitative-and-community-based-engagement-approaches-to-gain-access-and-to-develop-a-culturally-appropriate-sti-prevention-intervention-for-foreign-female-entertainment-workers-in-singapore
#6
Raymond Boon Tar Lim, Olive N Y Cheung, Dede Kam Tyng Tham, Hanh Hao La, Thein Than Win, Roy Chan, Mee Lian Wong
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing global movement of foreign female entertainment workers (FEWs), a hard-to-reach population vulnerable to HIV/STIs. This paper described the needs assessment phase before intervention implementation where the socio-organisation, sexual risk behaviours and access to health services of foreign FEWs in Singapore were explored. We also highlighted how qualitative inquiry, census enumeration technique and community-based engagement approaches were used to gain access and to develop a culturally appropriate STI prevention intervention...
April 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660696/investigating-the-correlation-between-wastewater-analysis-and-roadside-drug-testing-in-south-australia
#7
Richard Bade, Benjamin J Tscharke, Marie Longo, Richard Cooke, Jason M White, Cobus Gerber
BACKGROUND: The societal impact of drug use is well known. An example is when drug-intoxicated drivers increase the burden on policing and healthcare services. METHODS: This work presents the correlation of wastewater analysis (using UHPLC-MS/MS) and positive roadside drug testing results for methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and cannabis from December 2011-December 2016 in South Australia. RESULTS: Methamphetamine and MDMA showed similar trends between the data sources with matching increases and decreases, respectively...
April 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659074/demographic-mental-health-and-offending-characteristics-of-online-child-exploitation-material-offenders-a-comparison-with-contact-only-and-dual-sexual-offenders
#8
Marie Henshaw, James R P Ogloff, Jonathan A Clough
Technological advances have dramatically increased the ability to access, distribute and produce child exploitation material (CEM) online, resulting in increased numbers of individuals being charged with CEM offences. This study examined the demographic, mental health, and offending characteristics of CEM offenders (n = 456) in comparison to child contact sexual offenders (n = 493) and offenders with a history of both CEM and contact offences (dual offenders, n = 256). A robust data linkage methodology was employed to link records from statewide corrections services with policing and mental health records in Victoria, Australia...
March 2018: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652650/the-alcohol-contexts-of-consent-wanted-sex-sexual-pleasure-and-sexual-assault-results-from-a-probability-survey-of-undergraduate-students
#9
Debby Herbenick, Tsung-Chieh Jane Fu, Brian Dodge, J Dennis Fortenberry
OBJECTIVE: To examine, in a probability sample of undergraduate students, characteristics of students' most recent sexual experiences (including alcohol use) as well as their experiences with non-consensual sex. PARTICIPANTS: In January and February 2015, 22,046 students were invited to participate in an anonymous, cross-sectional, Internet-based survey; 7,032 surveys were completed (31.9%). METHODS: Measures included background characteristics (age, gender, sexual orientation), most recent sexual event items (sexual pleasure, wantedness, alcohol use), and experiences with nonconsensual sex (since college and lifetime)...
April 13, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651913/drug-importation-into-italy-by-body-packing-an-analysis-of-the-unodc-individual-drug-seizures-database
#10
Simone Cappelletti, Alessandro Iaria, Francesco Lombardo, Giuseppe Vallone, Pasquale Vitale, Costantino Ciallella
Internal concealment and transportation of illegal substances by body packing is a major business with very high profits, attracting criminals all over the world. As body packers are rarely arrested, it is difficult to quantify their proportion in the general population and, consequently, identify the countries involved in this kind of drug traffic; as a consequence, the percentage of undetected cases is undoubtedly high. The aim of this study is to provide useful information concerning the country of origin of body packers travelling to Italy through the analysis of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Individual Drug Seizures Report database in the period 2010-2015...
January 1, 2018: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651735/coroners-and-ptsd-treatment-implications
#11
REVIEW
Raymond B Flannery, Thomas Greenhalgh
Experimental studies have documented the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in first responders. These studies have routinely included police, firefighters, and paramedics. However, there is another group of first responders that are at risk for PTSD but that has received less research attention. This group is comprised of coroners. This paper reviewed the published data concerning coroners and PTSD and outlined various treatments for addressing coronial PTSD. The findings, the differing treatments, and a detailed methodological inquiry are presented...
April 13, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651301/caregiver-experiences-of-public-services-following-child-trauma-exposure-a-qualitative-study
#12
Victoria Williamson, Sarah L Halligan, Bronwyne Coetzee, Ian Butler, Mark Tomlinson, Sarah Skeen, Jackie Stewart
Background: Many children in low and middle income countries (LMIC) are exposed to trauma. Contact with public services are a potential influence on parent-child reactions and coping post-trauma. Little is known about how caregivers perceive these interactions. Methods: The aim of this study was to explore caregivers' experiences of accessing and interacting with public services post-trauma and perceptions of needed improvements to public services in a LMIC context...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650498/five-years-post-nirbhaya-critical-insights-into-the-status-of-response-to-sexual-assault
#13
Sunita Vs Bandewar, Amita Pitre, Lakshmi Lingam
It is five years since the fatal gang rape of Jyothi Singh (Nirbhaya), a physiotherapy student, on December 16, 2012, in New Delhi, the capital of India. The legal and policy reforms triggered by the Nirbhaya case will remain a watershed moment in the history of efforts towards seeking justice for survivors of gender-based violence in India. The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013 and the "Guidelines and protocols: Medico-legal care for survivors/victims of sexual violence" issued by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in March 2014 are two landmark reforms...
March 28, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643167/behaviours-preceding-suicides-at-railway-and-underground-locations-a-multimethodological-qualitative-approach
#14
Jay-Marie Mackenzie, Jo Borrill, Emily Hawkins, Bob Fields, Ian Kruger, Ian Noonan, Lisa Marzano
OBJECTIVES: Suicides by train have devastating consequences for families, the rail industry, staff dealing with the aftermath of such incidents and potential witnesses. To reduce suicides and suicide attempts by rail, it is important to learn how safe interventions can be made. However, very little is known about how to identify someone who may be about to make a suicide attempt at a railway location (including underground/subways). The current research employed a novel way of understanding what behaviours might immediately precede a suicide or suicide attempt at these locations...
April 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642770/providing-coordinated-immediate-trauma-focused-and-interdisciplinary-responses-to-children-exposed-to-severe-intimate-partner-violence-assessing-feasibility-of-a-collaborative-model
#15
Amanda M Stylianou, Elizabeth Ebright
Despite the known consequences associated with children's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), numerous children exposed to IPV never access victim services and/or mental health treatment. Informed by the Child Development-Community Policing Program (CD-CP), the Child Trauma Response Team (CTRT) is designed to provide a coordinated, immediate, trauma-informed, and interdisciplinary response to children, adolescents, and their impacted family members who are exposed to severe IPV. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of the CTRT from the perspective of the key stakeholders and to identify what facilitated and/or hindered the collaborative model...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642766/trauma-related-sleep-problems-and-associated-health-outcomes-in-police-officers-a-path-analysis
#16
Brian A Chopko, Patrick A Palmieri, Richard E Adams
Police officers are frequently exposed to two different types of potentially traumatic events: one dealing with physical threats to self and the other involving the witnessing of harm to others. These different types of traumatic experiences are thought to produce various posttraumatic reactions. Furthermore, sleep problems are also reported as a hallmark of posttraumatic stress disorder. There is evidence, however, that sleep problems may mediate the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and health outcomes, especially physical health and depression...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629635/juror-decision-making-in-acquaintance-and-marital-rape-the-influence-of-clothing-alcohol-and-preexisting-stereotypical-attitudes
#17
Kirsty Osborn, Josh P Davis, Susan Button, John Foster
Stereotypical biases about women's roles in intimate relationships including their marital status and lifestyle choices such as clothing and alcohol use influence juror attributions of rape case defendant guilt, potentially reducing access to justice for victims. Across two mock-juror decision-making experiments, participants read identical fictitious sexual assault vignettes varying in intoxicated defendant-complainant relationship (married vs. acquaintance), accompanied by photographs of complainant clothing at the crime (body revealing vs...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628566/comparison-of-the-laryngeal-mask-airways-laryngeal-mask-airway-classic-and-laryngeal-mask-airway-proseal-in-children
#18
Chetan B Bhat, Kiran A Honnannavar, Mallanna B Police Patil, Mahantesh S Mudakanagoudar
Introduction: In the past 25 years with the development of various supraglottic airway devices, the armamentarium for airway management has increased. In our study, the laryngeal mask airway (LMA)-ProSeal is compared with the LMA-Classic with respect to as follows: (a) Ease of insertion and number of insertion attempts, (b) Device positional stability and possible oropharyngeal leak, (c) Airway trauma, and (d) Hemodynamic changes; in children aged 3-15 years undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia, hypothesizing that these would be different...
January 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627712/accurate-identification-of-opioid-overdose-deaths-using-coronial-data
#19
Amanda Roxburgh, Jennifer L Pilgrim, Wayne D Hall, Lucinda Burns, Louisa Degenhardt
INTRODUCTION: Defining drug-related mortality is complex as these deaths can include a wide range of diseases and circumstances. This paper outlines a method to identify deaths that are directly due to fatal opioid toxicity (i.e. overdose), utilising coronial data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The National Coronial Information System (NCIS), an online coronial database containing information on all deaths that are reported to a coroner in Australia, is used to develop methods to more accurately identify opioid overdose deaths...
March 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626744/opioids-in-oral-fluid-of-spanish-drivers
#20
Francisco Herrera-Gómez, Mercedes García-Mingo, Mónica Colás, Juan Carlos González-Luque, F Javier Álvarez
BACKGROUND: Driving under the influence of certain drugs is not allowed, and roadside drug testing is being considered an important tool for deterring driving under the influence of them. This study aimed to assess the presence and concentration of opioids, as well as their combined use with other drugs (laboratory confirmation after the on-road screening) in Spanish drivers between 2011 and 2016. METHODS: In Spain, mandatory roadside breath alcohol and oral fluid drug testing (screening) are carried out by the Traffic Police using Dräger Alcotest® 6810 device, and Dräger DrugTest® 5000, DrugWipe® , or Alere™ DDS® 2 Mobile Test System...
March 29, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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