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Jong-Ku Lee, Hyeon-Gyeong Choi, Jae-Yeop Kim, Juhyun Nam, Hee-Tae Kang, Sang-Baek Koh, Sung-Soo Oh
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to check whether self-resilience, one of the characteristics known to affect the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after experiencing traumatic events, could serve as a protective factor for police officers whose occupational factors are corrected. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in which 112 male police officers in Gangwon Province participated. They visited the Wonju Severance Christian Hospital Occupational Environment Center for medical check-ups from June to December 2015...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Lourdes Luceño-Moreno, Yolanda García-Albuerne, Beatriz Talavera-Velasco, Jesús Martín-García
BACKGROUND: In the police force, some variables such as occupational rank, sex, age and work-shift are associated with stress in workers. The aim of this paper was to determine possible differences in the perception of occupational stress at work depending on rank, sex, age and work-shift of police agents in the Community of Madrid, Spain. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 24 municipalities of the Community of Madrid. A total number of 565 police agents participated...
November 2016: Psicothema
Tetsuya Nishimoto, Kosuke Mukaigawa, Shigeru Tominaga, Nils Lubbe, Toru Kiuchi, Tomokazu Motomura, Hisashi Matsumoto
The present study was undertaken to construct an algorithm for an advanced automatic collision notification system based on national traffic accident data compiled by Japanese police. While US research into the development of a serious-injury prediction algorithm is based on a logistic regression algorithm using the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System, the present injury prediction algorithm was based on comprehensive police data covering all accidents that occurred across Japan...
October 21, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Laura Oxburgh, Fiona Gabbert, Rebecca Milne, Julie Cherryman
Despite mentally disordered suspects being over-represented within the criminal justice system, there is a dearth of published literature that examines police officers' perceptions when interviewing this vulnerable group. This is concerning given that police officers are increasingly the first point of contact with these individuals. Using a Grounded Theory approach, this study examined 35 police officers' perceptions and experiences when interviewing mentally disordered suspects. Current safeguards, such as Appropriate Adults, and their experiences of any training they received were also explored...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 22, 2016: Veterinary Record
Jean-François Sauvé, Jérôme Lavoué, Marie-Élise Parent
BACKGROUND: Age, family history and ancestry are the only recognized risk factors for prostate cancer (PCa) but a role for environmental factors is suspected. Due to the lack of knowledge on the etiological factors for PCa, studies that are both hypothesis-generating and confirmatory are still needed. This study explores relationships between employment, by occupation and industry, and PCa risk. METHODS: Cases were 1937 men aged ≤75 years with incident PCa diagnosed across Montreal French hospitals in 2005-2009...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Tommi L Gaines, Daniel Werb, Jaime Arredondo, Victor M Alaniz, Carlos Vilalta, Leo Beletsky
BACKGROUND: In 2009, Mexico enacted a drug policy reform (Narcomenudeo) designed to divert persons possessing small amounts of illicit drugs to treatment rather than incarceration. To assess reform impact, this study examines the spatial-temporal trends of drug-related policing in Tijuana, Mexico post-enactment. METHOD: Location of self-reported arrests (N = 1,160) among a prospective, community-recruited cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana (N = 552) was mapped across city neighborhoods...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Chen Wang, Chengcheng Xu, Jinxin Xia, Zhendong Qian
OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to model fault in e-bike fatal crashes in a county-level city in China. METHOD: Three-year crash data are retrieved from the crash reports (2012-2014) from the Taixing Police Department. A mixed logit models is introduced to explore significant factors associated with fault assignment, as well as accounting for similarity among fault assignment and heterogeneity within unobserved variables. RESULTS: The modeling results indicate some interesting new findings...
October 20, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Michelle Cardoso, Michelle Girouard, Jack P Callaghan, Wayne J Albert
The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived discomfort of patrol officers related to equipment and vehicle design and whether there were discomfort differences between day and night shifts. A total of 16 participants were recruited (10 males, 6 females) from a local police force to participate for one full day shift and one full night shift. A series of questionnaires were administered to acquire information regarding comfort with specific car features and occupational gear (SFODQ), body part discomfort (BPDQ), and health and lifestyle (H&L) discomfort questionnaires were administered three times during each shift to monitor discomfort progression within a shift...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, Joel S Steele, Jean M McMahon, Greg Stewart
Although studies often find racial disparities in policing outcomes, less is known about how suspect race biases police interactions as they unfold. This study examines what is differentially occurring during police-suspect interactions for White, Black, and Latino suspects across time. It is hypothesized that racial bias may be more evident earlier in interactions, when less information about the situation is available. One hundred thirty-nine (62 White, 42 Black, and 35 Latino) use-of-force case files and associated written narratives from a medium to large size urban police department in the United States were analyzed...
October 20, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
Stephanie Madon, Max Guyll, Yueran Yang, Laura Smalarz, Justin Marschall, Daniel G Lannin
We conducted two experiments to test whether police interrogation elicits a biphasic process of resistance from suspects. According to this process, the initial threat of police interrogation mobilizes suspects to resist interrogative influence in a manner akin to a fight or flight response, but suspects' protracted self-regulation of their behavior during subsequent questioning increases their susceptibility to interrogative influence in the long-run. In Experiment 1 (N = 316), participants who were threatened by an accusation of misconduct exhibited responses indicative of mobilization and more strongly resisted social pressure to acquiesce to suggestive questioning than did participants who were not accused...
October 20, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
T A M Teunissen, S H Lo Fong Wong, A L M Lagro-Janssen
Sexual abuse is very common. In the Netherlands 42% of women and 13% of men aged over 25 years have experienced unacceptable sexual behaviour. Most victims do not seek professional help nor do they report the abuse to the police, and most of the victims who do seek medical help do not mention the abuse. Doctors often do not recognize the signs of sexual abuse. Most victims of rape have symptoms that may develop into posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) if they persist for more than 4 weeks, such as sleep problems or panic attacks...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Rachel Young, Melissa Tully, Marizen Ramirez
Background Schools are often held responsible for preventing or addressing cyberbullying, yet little is known about school administrator perceptions of cyberbullying and the challenges they face in addressing this public health issue. Aims The goal of this study is to examine school administrators' perceptions of the facilitators of cyberbullying and barriers to primary and secondary prevention strategies. Method Public school administrators (N = 36) participated in in-depth interviews about bullying and discussed their experiences with cyberbullying and their perceptions of cyberbullying facilitators and barriers to prevention...
October 17, 2016: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Karen E van den Hondel, Anne Linde Saaltink, Peter Paul M Bender
BACKGROUND: Forensic physicians are responsible for first-line medical care of detainees (individuals held in custody) in the police station. The Dutch police law contains a 'duty of care', which gives the police responsibility for the apparent mentally ill and/or confused people they encounter during their work. The police can ask a forensic physician to do a primary psychiatric assessment of any apparent mentally ill detainee. The forensic physician determines if the apparent mentally ill behavior of the detainee is due to a somatic illness, or has a psychiatric cause for which the detainee needs admission to a psychiatric hospital...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Yun Lin, Chao Wang, Jiaxing Wang, Zheng Dou
Cognitive radio sensor networks are one of the kinds of application where cognitive techniques can be adopted and have many potential applications, challenges and future research trends. According to the research surveys, dynamic spectrum access is an important and necessary technology for future cognitive sensor networks. Traditional methods of dynamic spectrum access are based on spectrum holes and they have some drawbacks, such as low accessibility and high interruptibility, which negatively affect the transmission performance of the sensor networks...
October 12, 2016: Sensors
Michelle Rae, Michelle Girouard, Colin McKinnon, Jack P Callaghan, Wayne J Albert
Police officers have been identified as group at high risk for developing musculoskeletal injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine physical demands differences of patrol officers during day shifts and night shifts. Sixteen participants were recruited (10 males, 6 females) for in-vehicle observation over one full day shift and one full night shift. Dynamic pressure distribution when seated in the vehicle was assessed and compared between the first and last part of each shift. Activity characterization and postural analyses were conducted from video that was recorded continuously for the duration of each shift to determine time spent in each task and corresponding postures...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Jessica Shaw, Rebecca Campbell, Debi Cain
Prior research has documented the problematic community response to sexual assault: the majority of sexual assaults reported to police are never prosecuted. Social dominance theory suggests that this response is a form of institutional discrimination, intended to maintain existing social structures, and that police personnel likely draw upon shared ideologies to justify their decision-making in sexual assault case investigations. This study drew upon social dominance theory to examine how police justified their investigatory decisions to identify potential leverage points for change...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
Samuel R Friedman, Enrique R Pouget, Milagros Sandoval, Diana Rossi, Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Georgios K Nikolopoulos, John A Schneider, Pavlo Smyrnov, Ron D Stall
Attacks on peoples' dignity help to produce and maintain stigmatization and interpersonal hostility. As part of an effort to develop innovative measures of possible pathways between structural interventions or socially-disruptive Big Events and HIV outbreaks, we developed items to measure dignity denial. These measures were administered to 300 people who inject drugs (PWID), 260 high-risk heterosexuals who do not inject drugs, and 191 men who have sex with men who do not inject drugs (MSM). All of the PWID and many of the high risk heterosexuals and MSM were referred to our study in 2012-2015 by a large New York city study that used respondent-driven sampling; the others were recruited by chain-referral...
October 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Huan He, Nino Paichadze, Adnan A Hyder, David Bishai
BACKGROUND: The relationship between economic development and road safety at sub-national level has not been well established. This study aims to assess the relationships between economic growth (measured by gross regional product (GRP)) and road traffic fatalities (RTFs) and crash fatality ratio (CFR) at sub-national level in Russia. METHODS: We used published secondary data on annual RTFs and CFR obtained from the traffic police and socioeconomic development indicators from the statistics department for each Russian federal region (referred to in Russia as "subject") for 2004-2011...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Linda L Hill, Jill Rybar, James Stowe, Jana Jahns
BACKGROUND: An estimated one in five drivers will be over 65 by 2030. Compared with their younger counterparts, older adults are more likely to experience health and functional impairments, including cognitive dysfunction, which may interfere with their ability to drive safely. Law enforcement officers, as part of the public safety community, need help in developing the necessary skills to identify and manage these medically affected drivers. METHODS: To address this need, in partnership with the California Highway Patrol (CHP), Training, Research and Education for Driving Safety (TREDS) at the University of California, San Diego, developed a certified two-hour training curriculum...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
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