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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356403/do-sex-reversal-procedures-differentially-affect-agonistic-behaviors-and-sex-steroid-levels-depending-on-the-sexual-genotype-in-nile-tilapia
#1
Vincent Gennotte, Balagizi Akonkwa, Charles Mélard, Mathieu Denoël, Charlotte A Cornil, Carole Rougeot
In Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, phenotypic males and females with different sexual genotypes (XX, XY, YY) have particular behavioral and physiological traits. Compared to natural XX females and XY males, XY and YY females and XX males expressed higher level of aggressiveness that could be related to higher levels of 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone, respectively. Our results suggest that the presence of a Y chromosome increases aggressiveness in females. However, since the same relationship between aggressiveness and the Y chromosome is not observed in males, we can hypothesize that the differences in aggressiveness are not directly dependent on the genotype but on the sex reversal procedures applied on young fry during their sexual differentiation to produce these breeders...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355534/neurokinin-b-signaling-in-hermaphroditic-species-a-study-of-the-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides
#2
Huapu Chen, Ling Xiao, Yali Liu, Shuisheng Li, Guangli Li, Yong Zhang, Haoran Lin
Neurokinin B (NKB) plays important roles in the mammalian reproductive axis by modulating the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropins. In the present study, the tac3 cDNA was cloned from a hermaphroditic species, the orange-spotted grouper. Sequence analysis showed that the grouper Tac3 precursor encoded two tachykinin peptides, NKB and NKB-related peptide (NKBRP). Expression analysis in different tissues revealed that tac3 mRNA was highly expressed in the brain of the orange-spotted grouper...
January 17, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346407/relaxin-reverses-inflammatory-and-immune-signals-in-aged-hearts
#3
Brian Martin, Beth Ann Gabris-Weber, Rajiv Reddy, Guillermo Romero, Ansuman Chattopadhyay, Guy Salama
BACKGROUND: 'Healthy' aging drives structural and functional changes in the heart including maladaptive electrical remodeling, fibrosis and inflammation, which lower the threshold for cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF). Despite mixed results in recent clinical trials, Relaxin-therapy for 2-days could reduce mortality by 37% at 180-days post-treatment, in patients with acute decompensated HF. Relaxin's short life-span (hours) but long-lasting protective actions led us to test the hypothesis that relaxin acts at a genomic level to reverse maladaptive remodeling in aging and HF...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345606/prevalence-of-transmitted-drug-resistance-among-hiv-1-treatment-naive-patients-in-beijing
#4
Y X Song, R L Xin, Z C Li, H W Yu, W H Lun, J Ye, A Liu, A X Li, J W Li, J Z Ye, M Q Hao, H Y Lu, L J Sun
To optimise patients' outcomes and gain insight into transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 treatment-naive patients in Beijing, the prevalence of TDR was assessed. Demographic and clinical data of 1241 treatment-naive patients diagnosed between April 2014 and February 2015 were collected. TDR was defined using the Stanford University HIV drug resistance mutations database. The risk factors were evaluated by multi-logistic regression analysis. Among 932 successfully amplified cases, most were male (96...
January 18, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341059/down-regulated-reic-expression-in-lung-carcinogenesis-a-molecular-target-for-gene-therapy
#5
Lei Yang, Shuang Zhao, Pu Xia, Hua-Chuan Zheng
REIC (Reduced Expression in Immortalized Cells) gene is down-regulated in immortalized cells, compared with the normal parental counterparts. Its encoding protein could inhibit colony formation, tumor growth, and induce apoptosis. To investigate the roles of REIC expression in lung cancer, we examined REIC expression in lung cancer cells and tissues by RT-PCR or Western blot, and observed the effects of both recombinant REIC exposure and REIC overexpression on the aggressive phenotypes of lung cancer cells...
January 17, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340099/a-plasma-mirna-signature-for-lung-cancer-early-detection
#6
Qixin Leng, Yanli Lin, Fangran Jiang, Cheng-Ju Lee, Min Zhan, HongBin Fang, Yue Wang, Feng Jiang
The early detection of lung cancer continues to be a major clinical challenge. Using whole-transcriptome next-generation sequencing to analyze lung tumor and the matched noncancerous tissues, we previously identified 54 lung cancer-associated microRNAs (miRNAs). The objective of this study was to investigate whether the miRNAs could be used as plasma biomarkers for lung cancer. We determined expressions of the lung tumor-miRNAs in plasma of a development cohort of 180 subjects by using reverse transcription PCR to develop biomarkers...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338955/declining-health-related-quality-of-life-in-the-u-s
#7
Mark Olfson, Melanie Wall, Shang-Min Liu, Michael Schoenbaum, Carlos Blanco
INTRODUCTION: Despite recent declining mortality of the U.S. population from most leading causes, uncertainty exists over trends in health-related quality of life. METHODS: The 2001-2002 and 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Surveys on Alcohol and Related Conditions U.S. representative household surveys were analyzed for trends in health-related quality of life (n=79,402). Health-related quality of life was measured with the Short Form-6 Dimension scale derived from the Short Form-12...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335574/sexual-antagonism-and-the-instability-of-environmental-sex-determination
#8
Pavitra Muralidhar, Carl Veller
The sex of an organism can be determined by its genetics or its early environment. Across the animal kingdom, genetic sex determination (GSD) is far more common than environmental sex determination (ESD). Here, we propose an explanation for this pattern: the coupling of genes that bias offspring sex ratios towards one sex with genes that are beneficial in that sex but costly in the other. Gradual strengthening of the sex-specific tendency of this association eventuates in a neo-sex chromosome; that is, GSD...
January 15, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334932/anemia-in-people-on-second-line-antiretroviral-treatment-in-lilongwe-malawi-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
McNeil Ngongondo, Nora E Rosenberg, Christopher C Stanley, Robertino Lim, Dennis Ongubo, Richard Broadhurst, Colin Speight, Robert Flick, Petros Tembo, Mina C Hosseinpour
BACKGROUND: Anemia is common among people living with HIV infection and is frequently associated with poor quality of life and poor prognosis. It has been well described in antiretroviral naïve individuals and those on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based first line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. However there is limited information on anemia for ART experienced individuals on protease inhibitor-based second line ART regimens in resource limited settings. Our objective was to describe the prevalence and risk factors of anemia in this ART experienced population in Malawi...
January 15, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331506/hepatocyte-estrogen-receptor-alpha-mediates-estrogen-action-to-promote-reverse-cholesterol-transport-during-western-type-diet-feeding
#10
Lin Zhu, Jeanne Shi, Thao N Luu, Joshua C Neuman, Elijah Trefts, Sophia Yu, Brian T Palmisano, David H Wasserman, MacRae F Linton, John M Stafford
OBJECTIVE: Hepatocyte deletion of estrogen receptor alpha (LKO-ERα) worsens fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in high-fat diet fed female mice. However, whether or not hepatocyte ERα regulates reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in mice has not yet been reported. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using LKO-ERα mice and wild-type (WT) littermates fed a Western-type diet, we found that deletion of hepatocyte ERα impaired in vivo RCT measured by the removal of 3H-cholesterol from macrophages to the liver, and subsequently to feces, in female mice but not in male mice...
December 29, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325084/metformin-use-reverses-the-increased-mortality-associated-with-diabetes-mellitus-during-tuberculosis-treatment
#11
Nicholas R Degner, Jann-Yuan Wang, Jonathan E Golub, Petros C Karakousis
Background: The global type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) epidemic threatens progress made in reducing tuberculosis (TB)-related mortality worldwide. Previous clinical studies have not fully evaluated potential confounding variables in addressing the impact of DM on TB treatment outcomes. The antidiabetic agent metformin regulates autophagy and may play a role as a host-directed therapeutic adjuvant to antitubercular treatment. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study comprising patients aged ≥13 years undergoing treatment for culture-confirmed, drug-susceptible pulmonary TB...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325021/oligonucleotides-targeting-tcf4-triplet-repeat-expansion-inhibit-rna-foci-and-mis-splicing-in-fuchs-dystrophy
#12
Jiaxin Hu, Ziye Rong, Xin Gong, Zhengyang Zhou, Vivek K Sharma, Chao Xing, Jonathan K Watts, David R Corey, V Vinod Mootha
Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is the most common repeat expansion disorder. FECD impacts 4% of United States population and is the leading indication for corneal transplantation. Most cases are caused by an expanded intronic CUG tract in the TCF4 gene that forms nuclear foci, sequesters splicing factors, and impairs splicing. We investigated the sense and antisense RNA landscape at the FECD gene and find that the sense expanded repeat transcript is the predominant species in patient corneas. In patient tissue, sense foci number were negatively correlated with age and showed no correlation with sex...
January 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321172/modest-decreases-in-endogenous-all-trans-retinoic-acid-produced-by-a-mouse-rdh10-heterozygote-provoke-major-abnormalities-in-adipogenesis-and-lipid-metabolism
#13
Di Yang, Marta G Vuckovic, Carolyn P Smullin, Myeongcheol Kim, Christabel Pui-See Lo, Emily Devericks, Hong Sik Yoo, Milena Tintcheva, Yinghua Deng, Joseph L Napoli
Pharmacological dosing of all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) controls adiposity in rodents by inhibiting adipogenesis and inducing fatty acid oxidation. Retinol dehydrogenases (Rdh) catalyze the first reaction that activate retinol into atRA. This study examined post-natal contributions of Rdh10 to atRA biosynthesis and physiological functions of endogenous atRA. Embryonic fibroblasts from Rdh10 heterozygote hypomorphs or with a total Rdh10 knockout exhibit decreased atRA biosynthesis and escalated adipogenesis...
January 10, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319662/historical-analysis-of-bibliometric-trends-in-the-journal-of-pediatric-orthopaedics-with-a-particular-focus-on-sex
#14
James P Fischer, Austin E Wininger, David C Scofield, Aamir Tucker, Ethan J Kacena-Merrell, Elizabeth C Whipple, Melissa A Kacena, Randall T Loder
BACKGROUND: Orthopaedics is the clinical discipline with the lowest percentage of female residents and faculty. Pediatric orthopaedics has a higher percentage of women than other orthopaedic subspecialties. It was the purpose of this study to examine bibliometric trends in the Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics (JPO) with a specific focus on sex. METHODS: A bibliometeric analysis for the years 2015, 2005, 1995, 1985, 1981 was performed. The names of first and corresponding authors; corresponding author position; country of origin; number of institutions, countries, authors, printed pages, and references was tabulated...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316660/regulation-of-hepatic-ugt2b15-by-methylation-in-adults-of-asian-descent
#15
Steffen G Oeser, Jon-Paul Bingham, Abby C Collier
The hepatic uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs) are critical for detoxifying endo- and xenobiotics. Since UGTs are also dynamically responsive to endogenous and exogenous stimuli, we examined whether epigenetic DNA methylation can regulate hepatic UGT expression and differential effects of ethnicity, obesity, and sex. The methylation status of UGT isoforms was determined with Illumina Methylation 450 BeadChip arrays, with genotyping confirmed by sequencing and gene expression confirmed with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR)...
January 7, 2018: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314622/frailty-prevalence-in-australia-findings-from-four-pooled-australian-cohort-studies
#16
Mark Q Thompson, Olga Theou, Jonathon Karnon, Robert J Adams, Renuka Visvanathan
OBJECTIVE: To examine frailty prevalence in Australian older adults. METHODS: Frailty was measured using a modified Fried Frailty Phenotype (FFP) in a combined cohort of 8804 Australian adults aged ≥65 years (female 86%, median age 80 (79-82) years) from the Dynamic Analyses to Optimise Ageing Project and the North West Adelaide Health Study. RESULTS: Using the FFP, 21% of participants were frail while a further 48% were prefrail. Chi-squared testing of frailty among four age groups (65-69, 70-74, 75-79 and 80-84 years) for sex, and marital status revealed that frailty was significantly higher for women (approximately double that of men), increased significantly with advancing age for both sexes, and was significantly higher for women who were widowed, divorced or never married...
January 5, 2018: Australasian Journal on Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314085/new-onset-left-bundle-branch-block-associated-idiopathic-nonischemic-cardiomyopathy-and-time-from-diagnosis-to-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-the-neolith-ii-study
#17
Norman C Wang, Jack Z Li, Evan C Adelstein, Andrew D Althouse, Michael S Sharbaugh, Sandeep K Jain, G Stuart Mendenhall, Alaa A Shalaby, Andrew H Voigt, Samir Saba
BACKGROUND: The optimal timing for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) after diagnosis of new-onset left bundle branch block (LBBB)-associated idiopathic nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) and treatment with guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to describe relationships between time from diagnosis to CRT and outcomes in new-onset LBBB-associated idiopathic NICM with LVEF ≤35%. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study examined associations between time from diagnosis to CRT (≤9 months versus > 9 months) and clinical and echocardiographic outcomes...
January 4, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309900/sex-dependent-metabolism-of-nevirapine-in-rats-impact-on-plasma-levels-pharmacokinetics-and-interaction-with-nortriptyline
#18
Iris Usach, Pablo Compañ, José-Esteban Peris
Nevirapine (NVP) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) widely used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and it is the first choice NNRTI during pregnancy. NVP shows a sex dimorphic profile in humans with sex differences in bioavailability, biotransformation and toxicity. In this study, sex differences in the NVP metabolism and in the inhibition of NVP metabolism by the antidepressant nortriptyline (NT) were evaluated using rats as experimental animals. NVP was administered orally to male and female rats, and sex differences in plasma levels and pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309449/predicting-1-year-postoperative-visual-analog-scale-pain-scores-and-american-shoulder-and-elbow-surgeons-function-scores-in-total-and-reverse-total-shoulder-arthroplasty
#19
Muriel J Solberg, Arnold B Alqueza, Tyler J Hunt, Laurence D Higgins
Shared decision-making provides patients a measure of autonomy in making choices for their health and their future. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) use clinically sensitive and specific metrics to evaluate a patient's self-reported pain, functional ability, and mental state. We conducted a study to create an evidence-based clinical decision-making tool. We used PROMs to create a predictive model of a patient's outcome to help set patient expectations and facilitate a collaborative decision-making environment for patient and physician...
November 2017: American Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309418/emergence-as-an-outbreak-of-the-hiv-1-crf19_cpx-variant-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-in-southern-spain
#20
Carmen M González-Domenech, Isabel Viciana, Luis Delaye, María Luisa Mayorga, Rosario Palacios, Javier de la Torre, Francisco Jarilla, Manuel Castaño, Alfonso Del Arco, Encarnación Clavijo, Jesús Santos
BACKGROUND: CRF19_cpx is a complex circulating recombination form (CRF) of HIV-1. We describe the characteristics of an outbreak of the CRF19_cpx variant among treatment-naïve patients in southern Spain. METHODS: The study was undertaken at the Virgen de la Victoria Hospital, a reference centre for the analysis of HIV-1 genotype in Malaga (Spain). Subtyping was performed through REGA v3.0 and the relationship of our CRF19_cpx sequences, among themselves and regarding other reference sequences from the same variant, was defined by phylogenetic analysis...
2018: PloS One
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