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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351159/the-physical-characteristics-by-sex-and-age-for-custody-assistants-from-a-law-enforcement-agency
#1
Robert G Lockie, Robin M Orr, Michael Stierli, Karly A Cesario, Matthew R Moreno, Ashley M Bloodgood, Joseph M Dulla, J Jay Dawes
Custody assistants (CAs) are a position within a law enforcement agency who are responsible for assisting officers with maintaining security in correctional facilities. Unlike other positions, CAs may not be required to complete physical testing prior to being hired. This lack of testing could influence the characteristics of CAs who attend academy training. Therefore, retrospective analysis of performance test data for 108 officers (69 males, 39 females) was conducted. The tests included: grip strength for both hands; number of push-ups and sit-ups in 60 seconds; 201 m (220 yard) and 2...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336958/prehospital-emergencies-in-illegal-gold-mining-sites-in-french-guiana
#2
Gérald Egmann, Pierre Tattevin, Renaud Palancade, Matthieu Nacher
INTRODUCTION: Illegal gold mining is flourishing in French Guiana, existing outside the law due to both the high cost of gold mining permits and the challenges of law enforcement within the Amazon forest. We report the characteristics of, and the medical responses to, medical emergencies in illegal gold mining sites. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of all medical emergencies reported from illegal gold mining sites to the centralized call office of SAMU 973 from 1998 through 2000 and from 2008 through 2010...
January 11, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333873/survey-regarding-the-05-blood-alcohol-concentration-limit-for-driving-in-the-united-states
#3
Dary D Fiorentino, Brian D Martin
STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Background: On May 14, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board ("NTSB") proposed that states lower the blood alcohol concentration ("BAC") illegal limit from .08 g/dL to .05 g/dL (also referred to as the ".08 law" and "the .05 limit," respectively). In March of 2017, this recommendation was signed into law in the State of Utah. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this survey is to investigate perceptions regarding enforcement of the .05 g/dL BAC limit. METHOD: Opinions of law enforcement officers, prosecutors, and defense attorneys were obtained through a series of questionnaires and focus groups...
January 15, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332533/assessing-the-impact-of-a-focused-deterrence-strategy-to-combat-intimate-partner-domestic-violence
#4
Stacy M Sechrist, John D Weil
The Offender Focused Domestic Violence Initiative (OFDVI) represents for the first time anywhere the application of the evidence-based focused deterrence policing approach to combat intimate partner domestic violence (IPDV). Through holding offenders accountable, the strategy has resulted in 20% reductions each in IPDV-related calls for police service and arrests. Victim injuries have been significantly reduced and the 1-year IPDV offender recidivism rate is about 16-17%. The backbone of the OFDVI strategy is the multidisciplinary collaboration of law enforcement and community partners which has resulted in identification and resolving system issues which have historically allowed offenders to repeat IPDV without consequence...
February 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331990/changes-in-the-legal-environment-and-enforcement-of-firearm-transfer-laws-in-pennsylvania-and-maryland
#5
Cassandra K Crifasi, Molly Merrill-Francis, Daniel W Webster, Garen J Wintemute, Jon S Vernick
The effectiveness of laws depends on circumstances affecting their enforcement. To assess such circumstances for comprehensive background check (CBC) and straw purchase laws for firearm sales, we examined prosecutions for CBC and straw purchase violations in Pennsylvania and CBC violations in Maryland. We generated pre-post variables and conducted t-tests to assess differences in the mean number of prosecutions filed following changes to the legal environments. The annual number of prosecutions for straw purchase violations increased significantly in Pennsylvania following the passage of a law that strengthened penalties for these violations (difference in means = +1310...
January 13, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324932/the-neurophysiological-and-evolutionary-considerations-of-close-combat-a-modular-approach
#6
Kostas Dervenis, Evangelos Tsialogiannis
Close Combat may be identified as a physical confrontation involving armed or unarmed fighting, lethal and/or non-lethal methods, or even simply escape from and/or de-escalation of the confrontation. Our model hypothesizes that distinct areas of the brain are utilized for specific levels of violence, based on evolutionary criteria, and that these levels of violence bring into effect distinct physiological criteria and kinesiology. This model is outlined similar to Paul D. MacLean's triune brain theory, but incorporates distinct processes inherent to the autonomic nervous system (i...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324549/vocational-rehabilitation-for-emergency-services-personnel-a-scoping-review-protocol
#7
Lyndsay Alexander, Kay Cooper
The objective of this scoping review is to examine and map the range of vocational rehabilitation available for law enforcement and emergency services personnel.More specifically, the scoping review questions are.
January 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323932/the-effects-of-breath-alcohol-concentration-on-postural-control
#8
Dary D Fiorentino
STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Background: Two of the three standardized field sobriety tests that US law enforcement uses at roadside checks have a postural equilibrium component to them. Those tests have been validated to detect impairment caused by blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of .08 g/dL or above. Many medical and traffic safety associations support a lower limit, and one state, Utah, has passed a law to lower the limit to .05 g/dL. Many studies have examined the effects of alcohol on postural control (of which postural equilibrium is a component), with a consensus emerging that impairment is usually found at BACs greater than ...
January 11, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321106/segway%C3%A2-personal-transporter-related-injuries-a-systematic-literature-review-and-implications-for-acute-and-emergency-care
#9
Ali Pourmand, Jen Liao, Jesse M Pines, Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi
BACKGROUND: The Segway® Personal Transporter™ (SPT) is used widely as a means of transport for city sightseeing tours, law enforcement, and professionals working in large facilities and factories. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature to assess SPT-related injuries. Following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines, we queried PubMed from 1990 to 2017. The search terms Segway, personal transporter, and injury were used...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320548/primed-for-death-law-enforcement-citizen-homicides-social-media-and-retaliatory-violence
#10
Vladimir Bejan, Matthew Hickman, William S Parkin, Veronica F Pozo
We examine whether retaliatory violence exists between law enforcement and citizens while controlling for any social media contagion effect related to prior fatal encounters. Analyzed using a trivariate dynamic structural vector-autoregressive model, daily time-series data over a 21-month period captured the frequencies of police killed in the line of duty, police deadly use of force incidents, and social media coverage. The results support a significant retaliatory violence effect against minorities by police, yet there is no evidence of retaliatory violence against law enforcement officers by minorities...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317411/exposure-to-tobacco-secondhand-smoke-and-its-associated-factors-among-non-smoking-adults-in-smoking-restricted-and-non-restricted-areas-findings-from-a-nationwide-study-in-malaysia
#11
Kuang Hock Lim, Chien Huey Teh, Mohamad Haniki Nik Mohamed, Sayan Pan, Miaw Yn Ling, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd Yusoff, Noraryana Hassan, Nizam Baharom, Netty Darwina Dawam, Norliana Ismail, Sumarni Mohd Ghazali, Kee Chee Cheong, Kar Hon Chong, Hui Li Lim
OBJECTIVES: Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the aims of the paper are to assess SHS exposure among non-smoking adults in Malaysia attending various smoking-restricted and non-restricted public areas according to the Control of Tobacco Product Regulations (CTPR) as well as its relationship with various sociodemographic variables. DESIGN: Data were extracted from a cross-sectional study, the Global Adults Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2011 which involved 3269 non-smokers in Malaysia...
January 8, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313741/drinking-and-driving-in-puerto-rico
#12
Raul Caetano, Patrice A C Vaeth, Eduardo Romano, Glorisa Canino
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological information is lacking for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in Puerto Rico. OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence and correlates of DUI in Puerto Rico. METHODS: Data are from a household sample of 1510 individuals, aged 18-64 years in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The response rate was 83%. RESULTS: The rate of 12 month self-reported DUI was 20% among men and 8% among women (p < 0...
January 9, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308830/starling-forces-drive-intracranial-water-exchange-during-normal-and-pathological-states
#13
Andreas A Linninger, Colin Xu, Kevin Tangen, Grant Hartung
AIM: To quantify the exchange of water between cerebral compartments, specifically blood, tissue, perivascular pathways, and cerebrospinal fluid-filled spaces, on the basis of experimental data and to propose a dynamic global model of water flux through the entire brain to elucidate functionally relevant fluid exchange phenomena. METHODS: The mechanistic computer model to predict brain water shifts is discretized by cerebral compartments into nodes. Water and species flux is calculated between these nodes across a network of arcs driven by Hagen-Poiseuille flow (blood), Darcy flow (interstitial fluid transport), and Starling's Law (transmembrane fluid exchange)...
December 31, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308586/reality-and-responsibility-revisited-stakeholder-accountability-in-the-effort-to-develop-safer-opioids
#14
Steven D Passik, Howard A Heit, Michael DeGeorge
This supplement is dedicated to an exploration of the science, potential utility, and the current state of abuse-deterrent formulations (ADF) of opioid analgesics. There are many stakeholders in the search for safer pain treatments in general, and safer opioid therapy in particular. Healthcare providers, patients, third-party payors, law enforcement and government regulators, the pharmaceutical industry, and the media all have a stake in seeing pain treated and addiction and overdose avoided. As it applies to ADFs, obviously not everyone has a stake in seeing that ADFs succeed commercially; but all stakeholders certainly have a responsibility to see that any potential advance, including ADFs, in protecting the public health is fairly and thoroughly evaluated...
November 2017: Journal of Opioid Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308538/epidemiology-of-asphyxiation-suicides-in-the-united-states-2005-2014
#15
Rebecca K Yau, Mallie J Paschall
BACKGROUND: From 2005 to 2014, the asphyxiation suicide rate in the United States (U.S.) increased by 45.7% from 2.45 to 3.57 per 100,000 population. The primary purpose of this cross-sectional study was to describe decedent and incident characteristics of asphyxiation suicides in the U.S. from 2005 to 2014. The secondary purpose of this study was to explore whether any demographic characteristics of asphyxia suicide decedents were associated with type of suicide incident. METHODS: Data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) were used to describe asphyxiation suicide mechanisms and means in 16 states...
January 8, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306880/knowledge-opinions-and-compliance-related-to-the-100-smoke-free-law-in-hospitality-venues-in-kampala-uganda-cross-sectional-results-from-the-komply-project
#16
Shannon Gravely, Kellen Namusisi Nyamurungi, Steven Ndugwa Kabwama, Gabriel Okello, Lindsay Robertson, Kelvin Khow Chuan Heng, Achiri Elvis Ndikum, Adeniyi Samuel Oginni, Jean Christophe Rusatira, Socrates Kakoulides, Mark D Huffman, Salim Yusuf, Eduardo Bianco
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated knowledge, opinions and compliance related to Uganda's comprehensive smoke-free law among hospitality venues in Kampala Uganda. DESIGN: This multi-method study presents cross-sectional findings of the extent of compliance in the early phase of Uganda's comprehensive smoke-free law (2 months postimplementation; pre-enforcement). SETTING: Bars, pubs and restaurants in Kampala Uganda. PROCEDURE AND PARTICIPANTS: A two-stage stratified cluster sampling procedure was used to select hospitality sites stratified by all five divisions in Kampala...
January 5, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306796/drivers-perceived-legitimacy-of-enforcement-practices-for-sleep-related-crashes-what-are-the-associated-factors
#17
Christopher N Watling
The purpose of traffic law enforcement is to deter risky driving behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine the individual factors of demographic, personality constructs, and attitudes for their association with perceived legitimacy of traffic law enforcement of sleep-related crashes. In total, 293 drivers completed a survey that assessed perceived legitimacy of enforcement and attitudes towards sleepy driving, as well as individual factors of demographic, personality and risk taking factors. The results demonstrate that younger drivers, drivers with higher levels of extraversion, and those with tolerant attitudes towards sleepy driving were less likely to agree that it is legitimate to charge someone if they crash due to sleepiness...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306177/the-law-on-the-streets-evaluating-the-impact-of-mexico-s-drug-decriminalization-reform-on-drug-possession-arrests-in-tijuana-mexico
#18
J Arredondo, T Gaines, S Manian, C Vilalta, A Bañuelos, S A Strathdee, L Beletsky
BACKGROUND: In 2009, Mexican Federal Government enacted "narcomenudeo" reforms decriminalizing possession of small amounts of drugs, delegating prosecution of retail drug sales to the state courts, and mandating treatment diversion for habitual drug users. There has been insufficient effort to formally assess the decriminalization policy's population-level impact, despite mounting interest in analagous reforms across the globe. METHODS: Using a dataset of municipal police incident reports, we examined patterns of drug possession, and violent and non-violent crime arrests between January 2009 and December 2014...
January 3, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302171/hiv-sex-work-and-law-enforcement-in-china
#19
Tingting Shen, Joanne Csete
HIV prevalence in China is low in the general population but higher among certain key affected populations, including sex workers. Providing and purchasing sexual services are administrative offenses. Police engage in humiliating and repressive practices against sex workers. A study reported here based on the experience of over 500 sex workers highlights that the human rights abuses that sex workers face at the hands of the police directly undermine the country's HIV response toward sex workers. An important element of this phenomenon is the police's use of condoms as evidence of sex work, which impedes sex workers' possession and use of condoms...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300143/performative-retelling-healing-community-stories-of-loss-through-playback-theatre
#20
Melissa A Smigelsky, Robert A Neimeyer
Restorative retelling (RR) is an evidence-based procedure for facilitating adaptation following traumatic bereavement. In this paper, we introduce performative retelling (PR), a variation on RR, which fosters healing from personal losses and portrays personal reactions to collective tragedy. We describe our collaboration with an ex-offender reentry program, the Memphis Police Department, and Playback Theatre to use improvisational community theatre to bridge the gap between law enforcement and the citizens they serve...
January 4, 2018: Death Studies
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