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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150985/general-illness-and-psychological-factors-in-patients-with-chronic-nasal-symptoms
#1
Naveed Kara, Alexander C Yao, Julia Newton, Vincent Deary, James O'Hara, Janet A Wilson
OBJECTIVES: Only a minority of patients referred to specialists with sinonasal symptoms have clear evidence of chronic rhinosinusitis. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of and associations between (i) general illness factors (fatigue, autonomic dysfunction) and (ii) psychological factors (anxiety, depression, somatisation, personality traits) in patients presenting with sinonasal symptoms. DESIGN: The following validated questionnaires were administered to patients: the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22) to identify symptom burden, Composite Autonomic Symptom Score-31 (COMPASS-31) measuring autonomic function, Chalder fatigue questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) addressing somatisation symptoms, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the International Personality Item Pool-50 (IPIP-50)...
November 18, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150881/genotoxicity-of-11-heavy-metals-detected-as-food-contaminants-in-two-human-cell-lines
#2
B Kopp, D Zalko, M Audebert
Heavy metals, such as arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), germanium (Ge), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), tellurium (Te), and vanadium (V) are widely distributed in the environment and in the food chain. Human exposure to heavy metals through water and food has been reported by different international agencies. Although some of these heavy metals are essential elements for human growth and development, they may also be toxic at low concentrations due to indirect mechanisms. In this study, the genotoxic and cytotoxic properties of 15 different oxidation statuses of 11 different heavy metals were investigated using high-throughput screening (γH2AX assay) in two human cell lines (HepG2 and LS-174T) representative of target organs (liver and colon) for food contaminants...
November 18, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150840/longitudinal-pathways-between-mental-health-difficulties-and-academic-performance-during-middle-childhood-and-early-adolescence
#3
Jessica Deighton, Neil Humphrey, Jay Belsky, Jan Boehnke, Panos Vostanis, Praveetha Patalay
There is a growing appreciation that child functioning in different domains, levels, or systems are interrelated over time. Here, we investigate links between internalizing symptoms, externalizing problems, and academic attainment during middle childhood and early adolescence, drawing on two large data sets (child: mean age 8.7 at enrolment, n = 5,878; adolescent: mean age 11.7, n = 6,388). Using a 2-year cross-lag design, we test three hypotheses - adjustment erosion, academic incompetence, and shared risk - while also examining the moderating influence of gender...
November 18, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150536/availability-sales-and-affordability-of-tobacco-cessation-medicines-in-kerala-india
#4
Smitha Sarma, Sivadasanpillai Harikrishnan, Abigail S Baldridge, Raji Devarajan, Aashna Mehta, Sakhtivel Selvaraj, Mohammed K Ali, Padinhare P Mohanan, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Mark D Huffman
BACKGROUND: India is the world's second largest consumer of tobacco, but tobacco cessation remains uncommon due, at least in part, to underutilization of cessation pharmacotherapy. We evaluated the availability, sales, and affordability of nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline in the South Indian state of Kerala to understand potential reasons for underutilization. METHODS AND RESULTS: From November 2016 to April 2017, we collected data on availability, inventory, and pricing of cessation medication through a cross-sectional survey of 199 public, semiprivate (Karunya), and private pharmacies across 5 districts in Kerala using World Health Organization/Health Action International methodology...
November 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150535/disparities-in-management-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-rural-south-africa-data-from-the-haalsi-study-health-and-aging-in-africa-longitudinal-studies-of-international-network-for-the-demographic-evaluation-of-populations-and-their-health-communities
#5
Thiago Veiga Jardim, Sheridan Reiger, Shafika Abrahams-Gessel, Nigel J Crowther, Alisha Wade, F Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Joshua Salomon, Stephen Tollman, Thomas A Gaziano
BACKGROUND: Optimal secondary prevention is critical for the reduction of repeated cardiovascular events, and the control of cardiovascular risk factors in this context is essential. Data on secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in sub-Saharan Africa are needed to inform intervention strategies with a particular focus on local disparities. The aim of this study was to assess CVD management in a rural community in northeast South Africa. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited adults aged ≥40 years residing in the Agincourt subdistrict of Mpumalanga province...
November 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150468/prevalence-and-recognition-of-obesity-and-its-associated-comorbidities-cross-sectional-analysis-of-electronic-health-record-data-from-a-large-us-integrated-health-system
#6
Kevin M Pantalone, Todd M Hobbs, Kevin M Chagin, Sheldon X Kong, Brian J Wells, Michael W Kattan, Jonathan Bouchard, Brian Sakurada, Alex Milinovich, Wayne Weng, Janine Bauman, Anita D Misra-Hebert, Robert S Zimmerman, Bartolome Burguera
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of obesity and its related comorbidities among patients being actively managed at a US academic medical centre, and to examine the frequency of a formal diagnosis of obesity, via International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) documentation among patients with body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2). DESIGN: The electronic health record system at Cleveland Clinic was used to create a cross-sectional summary of actively managed patients meeting minimum primary care physician visit frequency requirements...
November 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150390/pulmonary-embolism-rule-out-criteria-perc-rule-in-european-patients-with-low-implicit-clinical-probability-percepic-a-multicentre-prospective-observational-study
#7
Andrea Penaloza, Caroline Soulié, Thomas Moumneh, Quentin Delmez, Alexandre Ghuysen, Dominique El Kouri, Christian Brice, Nicolas S Marjanovic, Jacques Bouget, Fares Moustafa, Albert Trinh-Duc, Catherine Le Gall, Lionel Imsaad, Jean-Marie Chrétien, Béatrice Gable, Philippe Girard, Olivier Sanchez, Jeannot Schmidt, Grégoire Le Gal, Guy Meyer, Nicolas Delvau, Pierre-Marie Roy
BACKGROUND: The ability of the pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC) to exclude pulmonary embolism without further testing remains debated outside the USA, especially in the population with suspected pulmonary embolism who have a high prevalence of the condition. Our main objective was to prospectively assess the predictive value of negative PERC to rule out pulmonary embolism among European patients with low implicit clinical probability. METHODS: We did a multicentre, prospective, observational study in 12 emergency departments in France and Belgium...
November 14, 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150310/zika-virus-in-french-polynesia-2013-14-anatomy-of-a-completed-outbreak
#8
REVIEW
Didier Musso, Hervé Bossin, Henri Pierre Mallet, Marianne Besnard, Julien Broult, Laure Baudouin, José Eduardo Levi, Ester C Sabino, Frederic Ghawche, Marion C Lanteri, David Baud
The Zika virus crisis exemplified the risk associated with emerging pathogens and was a reminder that preparedness for the worst-case scenario, although challenging, is needed. Herein, we review all data reported during the unexpected emergence of Zika virus in French Polynesia in late 2013. We focus on the new findings reported during this outbreak, especially the first description of severe neurological complications in adults and the retrospective description of CNS malformations in neonates, the isolation of Zika virus in semen, the potential for blood-transfusion transmission, mother-to-child transmission, and the development of new diagnostic assays...
November 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150271/xenohormesis-in-early-life-new-avenues-of-research-to-explore-anti-aging-strategies-through-the-maternal-diet
#9
Philippe de Medina
Aging is a progressive internal physiological deterioration of the organism, leading to the occurrence of age-related lethal diseases. It has become a major societal challenge to understand the processes that drive aging and to develop rational pharmacological agents and dietary approaches to fight against age-related deterioration and diseases. Interestingly, several lines of evidence highlight an influence of the developmental period on the risk of age-related diseases later in life. This field is known as the developmental origins of health and disease...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150246/development-of-the-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-impact-scale-a-new-health-related-quality-of-life-instrument
#10
Dorothee Oberdhan, Jason C Cole, Holly B Krasa, Rebecca Cheng, Frank S Czerwiec, Ron D Hays, Arlene B Chapman, Ronald D Perrone
BACKGROUND: The impact of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is not well understood due to a lack of instruments specific to the condition. STUDY DESIGN: Content for a new self-administered patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaire to assess ADPKD-related HRQoL was developed through clinical expert and patient focus group discussions. The new PRO instrument was administered to study patients with ADPKD to evaluate its reliability and validity...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150170/evaluating-the-content-and-development-of-decision-aid-tools-for-the-management-of-menopause-a-scoping-review
#11
REVIEW
Tasneem Siyam, Humirah Sultani, Sue Ross, Trish Chatterley, Nese Yuksel
OBJECTIVE: Decision-making during menopause (especially surgical menopause) can be complex given the variability in risk-benefit perceptions of menopausal treatments. Decision aid tools (DATs) help women participate in decision-making about options. Our objective is to identify and evaluate the content and development of DATs for managing menopause, with a special focus on surgical menopause. METHODS: We systematically searched electronic databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE, from inception to March 2017 for relevant records...
December 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149936/epidemiology-and-outcomes
#12
REVIEW
Bourke Tillmann, Hannah Wunsch
Sepsis is a global public health concern. Internationally it contributes to more than 5 million deaths annually. Although rates are variable between countries, over the past 40 years reported incidence has continued to increase. Aside from potential differences in patient populations, the variation in reported rates also reflects differences in identification strategies, access to health care, and awareness of the diagnosis. Factors such as age, sex, socioeconomic status, comorbid disease, and type and site of infection impact the development of and outcomes from sepsis...
January 2018: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149893/association-between-severity-of-illicit-drug-dependence-and-quality-of-life-in-a-psychosocial-care-center-in-brazil-cross-sectional-study
#13
Selva Rios Campêlo, Maria Alves Barbosa, Danilo Rocha Dias, Camila Cardoso Caixeta, Cláudio Rodrigues Leles, Celmo Celeno Porto
BACKGROUND: Quality of life must be one of the main purposes for the treatment of drug users, requiring a better understanding of the association between the quality of life and the severity of dependency. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between severity of substance use in various areas of human functioning and quality of life of illicit drug users in a psychosocial care center for alcohol and drugs. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 60 participants - illicit drug users - treated at a psychosocial care center for alcohol and drugs...
November 17, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149877/key-bottlenecks-to-the-provision-of-safe-obstetric-anaesthesia-in-low-income-countries-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-64-hospitals-in-uganda
#14
Isabella Epiu, Agnes Wabule, Andrew Kambugu, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Jossy Verel Bahe Tindimwebwa, Gerald Dubowitz
BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances in surgery and anaesthesia which significantly improve safety, many health facilities in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) remain chronically under-resourced with inability to cope effectively with serious obstetric complications (Knight et al., PLoS One 8:e63846, 2013). As a result many of these countries still have unacceptably high maternal and neonatal mortality rates. Recent data at the national referral hospitals in East Africa reported that none of the national referral hospitals met the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists (WFSA) international standards required to provide safe obstetric anaesthesia (Epiu I: Challenges of Anesthesia in Low-and Middle-Income Countries...
November 17, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149853/cost-of-delivering-health-care-services-at-primary-health-facilities-in-ghana
#15
Maxwell Ayindenaba Dalaba, Paul Welaga, Chieko Matsubara
BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge on the cost of delivering health services at primary health care facilities in Ghana which is posing a challenge in resource allocations. This study therefore estimated the cost of providing health care in primary health care facilities such as Health Centres (HCs) and Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) in Ghana. METHODS: The study was cross-sectional and quantitative data was collected from the health provider perspective...
November 17, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149313/how-do-health-workers-experience-and-cope-with-shocks-learning-from-four-fragile-and-conflict-affected-health-systems-in-uganda-sierra-leone-zimbabwe-and-cambodia
#16
Sophie Witter, Haja Wurie, Pamela Chandiwana, Justine Namakula, Sovannarith So, Alvaro Alonso-Garbayo, Freddie Ssengooba, Joanna Raven
This article is grounded in a research programme which set out to understand how to rebuild health systems post-conflict. Four countries were studied-Uganda, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe and Cambodia-which were at different distances from conflict and crisis, as well as having unique conflict stories. During the research process, the Ebola epidemic broke out in West Africa. Zimbabwe has continued to face a profound economic crisis. Within our research on health worker incentives, we captured insights from 128 life histories and in-depth interviews with a variety of staff that had remained in service...
November 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149298/vector-borne-diseases-and-climate-change-a-european-perspective
#17
Jan C Semenza, Jonathan E Suk
Climate change has already impacted the transmission of a wide-range of vector-borne diseases in Europe, and it will continue to do so in the coming decades. Climate change has been implicated in the observed shift of ticks to elevated altitudes and latitudes, notably including the Ixodes ricinus tick species which is a vector for Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change is also thought to have been a factor in the expansion of other important disease vectors in Europe: Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito), which transmits diseases such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya, and Phlebotomus sandfly species, which transmits diseases including Leishmaniasis...
November 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149187/epidemiology-and-impact-on-all-cause-mortality-of-sepsis-in-norwegian-hospitals-a-national-retrospective-study
#18
Siri Tandberg Knoop, Steinar Skrede, Nina Langeland, Hans Kristian Flaatten
BACKGROUND: Although sepsis is the leading cause of death from infection, there are few population-level epidemiological sepsis reports. The impact of sepsis-related deaths on all-cause hospital mortality is insufficiently described, in particular in Europe where data are non-existent. The objective of this study was to provide nationwide epidemiological results on sepsis hospitalizations in Norway and to estimate sepsis' contribution to overall hospital mortality in a European setting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149096/-fertility-preservation-in-the-oncology-patient
#19
REVIEW
Anibal Scarella Chamy, César Díaz-García, Sonia Herraiz, Jhenifer Kliemchen Rodrigues
In recent years, medical advances have substantially improved survival of cancer patients, generating growing concern about the quality of life of the survivors. Increased attention has been paid to reproductive problems after oncological treatments. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients require that healthcare teams discuss, as early as possible, the impact of cancer treatments on fertility and encourage access to fertility preservation techniques. The development of these techniques in women is a recent effort and many patients and health care providers are not familiar with their rapid expansion...
November 16, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148963/clinical-stroke-research-in-resource-limited-settings-tips-and-hints
#20
Jeyaraj D Pandian, Hueiming Liu, Dorcas Bc Gandhi, Richard I Lindley
Background Most stroke research is conducted in high income countries, yet most stroke occurs in low- and middle-income countries. There is an urgent need to build stroke research capacity in low- and middle-income countries. Aims To review the global health literature on how to improve research capacity in low- and middle-income countries, provide additional data from the recently completed ATTEND Trial and provide examples from our own experience. Summary of review The main themes from our literature review were: manpower and workload, research training, research question and methodology and research funding...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
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