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International health

James C Stegen, Eric M Bottos, Janet K Jansson
Microbiomes impact nearly all systems on Earth, and despite vast differences among systems, we contend that it is possible and highly beneficial to develop a unified conceptual framework for understanding microbiome dynamics that is applicable across systems. The ability to robustly predict and control environmental and human microbiomes would provide impactful opportunities to sustain and improve the health of ecosystems and humans alike. Doing so requires understanding the processes governing microbiome temporal dynamics, which currently presents an enormous challenge...
July 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Kathleen A Calzone, Maggie Kirk, Emma Tonkin, Laurie Badzek, Caroline Benjamin, Anna Middleton
BACKGROUND: Global genomic literacy of all health professions, including nurses, remains low despite an inundation of genomic information with established clinical and analytic validity and clinical utility. Genomic literacy and competency deficits contribute to lost opportunities to take advantage of the benefits that genomic information provides to improve health outcomes, reduce healthcare costs, and increase patient quality and safety. Nurses are essential to the integration of genomics into healthcare...
July 6, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Stefanie Thevelin, Anne Spinewine, Jean-Baptiste Beuscart, Benoit Boland, Sophie Marien, Fanny Vaillant, Ingeborg Wilting, Ariel Vondeling, Carmen Floriani, Claudio Schneider, Jacques Donzé, Nicolas Rodondi, Shane Cullinan, Denis O'Mahony, Olivia Dalleur
AIM: We aimed to develop a standardized chart review method to identify drug-related hospital admissions (DRA) in older people caused by non-preventable adverse drug reactions and preventable medication errors including overuse, underuse and misuse of medications: the DRA adjudication guide. METHODS: The DRA adjudication guide was developed based on design and test iterations with international and multidisciplinary input in 4 subsequent steps: literature review, evaluation of content validity using a Delphi consensus technique, a pilot test and a reliability study...
July 14, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Nadia Islam, Shilpa Patel
Faith-based organizations (FBOs) serve as effective sites for community-based health promotion, but there is a lack of research on this work in ethnic minority-serving religious institutions such as mosques, temples, and gurdwaras. This article will share best practices, challenges, and special considerations in engaging these sites through two projects: Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health for Asian Americans (REACH FAR) and Muslim Americans Reaching for Health and Building Alliances (MARHABA)...
July 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
U A Halim, D M Riding
BACKGROUND: Bullying, undermining behaviour and harassment (BUBH) have been reported in entertainment, politics and sport. Such behaviours may also be common in surgery, and are frequently associated with poor patient care and inferior outcomes. The aim was to define the prevalence and impact of this behaviour in the international surgical workplace, and to explore counterstrategies. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching EMBASE, Medline, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in August 2017...
July 14, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Bilal Abou El Ela Bourquin, Sujit Gnanakumar, Michael F Bath, Tom Bashford, David K Menon, Peter J Hutchinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Marion Ferreira, Eric Pichon, Delphine Carmier, Emilie Bouquet, Cécile Pageot, Theodora Bejan-Angoulvant, Marion Campana, Emmanuelle Vermes, Sylvain Marchand-Adam
Immunotherapy medications that target programmed death 1 protein (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), such as nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and atezolizumab, are currently used in the first- or second-line treatment of non-small cell lung cancers, among other indications. However, these agents are associated with immune-related side effects, the most common of which are endocrinopathies, colitis, hepatitis, and interstitial pneumonitis. In contrast, coronary toxicities are rarely reported and remain poorly understood...
July 13, 2018: Targeted Oncology
Dee Mangin, Gülistan Bahat, Beatrice A Golomb, Laurie Herzig Mallery, Paige Moorhouse, Graziano Onder, Mirko Petrovic, Doron Garfinkel
Globally, the number of drug prescriptions is increasing causing more adverse drug events, which is now a significant cause of mortality, morbidity, and disability that has reached epidemic proportions. The risk of adverse drug events is correlated to very old age, multiple co-morbidities, dementia, frailty, and limited life expectancy, with the major contributor being polypharmacy. Each characteristic alters the risk-benefit balance of medications, typically reducing anticipated benefits and amplifying risk...
July 14, 2018: Drugs & Aging
Francesco Profili, Daniela Nuvolone, Fabio Barbone, Cristina Aprea, Letizia Centi, Riccardo Frazzetta, Stefano Belli, Fabio Voller
BACKGROUND: Studies on low-level As exposure have not found an association with cancer, while increased risks were reported for skin lesions, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and reproductive outcomes. Prospective observational studies with individual exposure measures are needed to study low-level As exposure effects. In a geothermal area in Southern Tuscany (Italy), characterized by a natural presence of As in drinking water (< 50 µg/l), As urinary concentrations were measured in a survey in 1998 and cohort members were followed to evaluate the effects on health...
July 13, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Shadi Saleh, Angie Farah, Hani Dimassi, Nour El Arnaout, Joanne Constantin, Mona Osman, Christo El Morr, Mohamad Alameddine
BACKGROUND: Rural areas and refugee camps are characterized by poor access of patients to needed noncommunicable disease (NCD)-related health services, including diabetes and hypertension. Employing low-cost innovative eHealth interventions, such as mobile health (mHealth), may help improve NCDs prevention and control among disadvantaged populations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of employing low-cost mHealth tools on the accessibility to health services and improvement of health indicators of individuals with NCDs in rural areas and refugee camps in Lebanon...
July 13, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Cristina R Fernández, Maiko Yomogida, Yumiko Aratani, Diana Hernández
OBJECTIVE: To examine dual food and energy hardship and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in 9 year-old children. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a prospective national urban birth cohort, when the children were 9 years-old. Maternal reported "food hardship" (ever hungry and/or ever received free food) and "energy hardship" (ever unable to pay utility bill and/or utility shut-off) within the past year, and child behavior using the Child Behavior Checklist/6-18 years were assessed...
July 11, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
Mai K Bishr, Mohamed S Zaghloul
The access of low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to radiation facilities is far from optimal. Latin America and Africa represent 55% of LMIC, where radiotherapy facilities are available in only 70% and 46% of the countries, respectively. Only three countries in both regions meet the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendation of 250,000 population per megavoltage machine (MVM). In Africa, the mean population served by one MVM is 3.56 million compared to 0.65 million in Latin America. The distribution of radiation facilities in both regions varies according to the income groups...
July 10, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Alice Mason, Clive Holmes, Christopher J Edwards
Dementia is a major international public health problem which looks set to grow as the ageing population increases. Despite large amounts of investment there has been relatively little progress in developing new therapies to combat this. There is a growing body of evidence that both local and systemic inflammation are important in dementia; with cerebral inflammation occurring secondarily to beta-amyloid plaques, raised levels of serum inflammatory molecules and cytokines being present in Alzheimer's disease patients and systemic inflammation being associated with cerebral microvasculature disease in vascular dementia...
July 10, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Rebecca L Morgan, Ivan Florez, Maicon Falavigna, Sergio Kowalski, Elie A Akl, Kristina A Thayer, Andrew Rooney, Holger J Schünemann
BACKGROUND: Practice guidelines require a substantial investment of resources and time, often taking between 1 and 3 years from conceptualisation to publication. However, urgent situations require the development of recommendations in a shorter timeframe. In this third and final article in the series exploring challenges and solutions in developing rapid guidelines (RGs), we propose guiding principles for the development of RGs. METHODS: We utilised the Guideline International Network-McMaster Guideline Development Checklist (GDC) as a starting point for elements to consider during RG development...
July 13, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
E Ahnemark, M Di Schiena, A-C Fredman, E Medin, J K Söderling, Y Ginsberg
BACKGROUND: This observational, cross-sectional, retrospective chart review aimed to identify factors determining health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults with newly diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Sweden. METHODS: Adult participants with a new clinical diagnosis of ADHD were enrolled from two specialist outpatient clinics in Stockholm, Sweden, from 2013 to 2015. Data extracted from patient records included demographics, clinical characteristics and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses identified using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)...
July 13, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Alexis Descatha, Grace Sembajwe, Michael Baer, Fabio Boccuni, Cristina Di Tecco, Clément Duret, Bradley A Evanoff, Diana Gagliardi, Ivan D Ivanov, Nancy Leppink, Alessandro Marinaccio, Linda L Magnusson Hanson, Anna Ozguler, Frank Pega, John Pell, Fernando Pico, Annette Prüss-Üstün, Matteo Ronchetti, Yves Roquelaure, Erika Sabbath, Gretchen A Stevens, Akizumi Tsutsumi, Yuka Ujita, Sergio Iavicoli
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing a joint methodology for estimating the national and global work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO joint methodology), with contributions from a large network of experts. In this paper, we present the protocol for two systematic reviews of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years from stroke attributable to exposure to long working hours, to inform the development of the WHO/ILO joint methodology...
July 10, 2018: Environment International
Peter G Passias, Cole A Bortz, Frank A Segreto, Samantha R Horn, Renaud Lafage, Virginie Lafage, Justin S Smith, Breton Line, Han Jo Kim, Robert Eastlack, D Kojo Hamilton, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Richard A Hostin, Eric O Klineberg, Douglas C Burton, Robert A Hart, Frank J Schwab, Shay Bess, Christopher I Shaffrey, Christopher P Ames
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review OBJECTIVE.: Develop a simplified frailty index for CD patients SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: To improve preoperative risk stratification for surgical cervical deformity (CD) patients, a CD frailty index (CD-FI) incorporating 40 health deficits was developed. While novel, the CD-FI is clinically impractical due to the large number of factors needed for its calculation. To increase clinical utility, a simpler, modified CD-FI (mCD-FI) is necessary. METHODS: CD patients (C2-C7 Cobb>10°, CL>10°, cSVA>4 cm, or CBVA>25°) >18yr with preoperative CD-FI component factors...
July 12, 2018: Spine
Peg Allen, Jean C O'Connor, Leslie A Best, Meenakshi Lakshman, Rebekah R Jacob, Ross C Brownson
BACKGROUND: Research shows that training can improve skills needed for evidence-based decision making, but less is known about instituting organizational supports to build capacity for evidence-based chronic disease prevention. COMMUNITY CONTEXT: The objectives of this case study were to assess facilitators and challenges of applying management practices to support evidence-based decision making in chronic disease prevention programs in the public health system in Georgia through key informant interviews and quantitatively test for changes in perceived management practices and skills through a pre-post survey...
July 12, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Sarah A Birken, Alecia S Clary, Shampa Bernstein, Jamiyla Bolton, Miriam Tardif-Douglin, Deborah K Mayer, Allison M Deal, Sara R Jacobs
INTRODUCTION: Care for US cancer survivors is often fragmented, contributing to poor health outcomes. Care and outcomes may improve when survivors and follow-up care providers receive survivorship care plans (SCPs), written documents containing information regarding cancer diagnosis, treatment, surveillance plans, and health promotion. However, implementing SCPs is challenging. As such, we sought to identify strategies for successfully implementing SCPs. METHODS: We measured SCP implementation using performance data from cancer programs participating in the American Society of Clinical Oncology Quality Oncology Practice Initiative, an oncologist-led quality assessment and improvement program...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
Su-Boon Yong, Huang-Hsi Chen, Jing-Yang Huang, James Cheng-Chung Wei
The clinical features of urticaria and anaphylaxis are similar, and they share common causal immune-mediated pathways. We aimed to investigate the risk of anaphylaxis among patients with urticaria. A 12-year population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted. Investigated subjects were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database by the International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. We included 126 031 subjects with newly diagnosed urticaria and 252 062 matched controls between 2000 and 2013...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
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