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Emergency psychiatry

A Carrard, M Elsayed, M Margineanu, B Boury-Jamot, L Fragnière, E M Meylan, J-M Petit, H Fiumelli, P J Magistretti, J-L Martin
In addition to its role as metabolic substrate that can sustain neuronal function and viability, emerging evidence supports a role for l-lactate as an intercellular signaling molecule involved in synaptic plasticity. Clinical and basic research studies have shown that major depression and chronic stress are associated with alterations in structural and functional plasticity. These findings led us to investigate the role of l-lactate as a potential novel antidepressant. Here we show that peripheral administration of l-lactate produces antidepressant-like effects in different animal models of depression that respond to acute and chronic antidepressant treatment...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Charles A Mkony, Ephata E Kaaya, Alex J Goodell, Sarah B Macfarlane
BACKGROUND: Faced with one of the lowest physician-to-population ratios in the world, the Government of Tanzania is urging its medical schools to train more physicians. The annual number of medical students admitted across the country rose from 55 in the 1990s to 1,680 approved places for the 2015/16 academic year. These escalating numbers strain existing faculty. OBJECTIVE: To describe the availability of faculty in medical schools in Tanzania. DESIGN: We identified faculty lists published on the Internet by five Tanzanian medical schools for the 2011/12 academic year and analyzed the appointment status, rank, discipline, and qualifications of faculty members...
2016: Global Health Action
Paola Ferri, Monica Silvestri, Cecilia Artoni, Rosaria Di Lorenzo
BACKGROUND: Workplace violence (WPV) against health professionals is a global problem with an increasing incidence. The aims of this study were as follows: 1) to examine the frequency and characteristics of WPV in different settings and professionals of a general hospital and 2) to identify the clinical and organizational factors related to this phenomenon. METHODS: The study was cross-sectional. In a 1-month period, we administered the "Violent Incident Form" to 745 professionals (physicians, head nurses, nurses, nursing assistants), who worked in 15 wards of a general hospital in northern Italy...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Anat Freund, Tova Band-Winterstein
Community is a complex issue, especially in two particular populations overlap: Haredi society, which embraces cultural codes common to closed communities, and the mental health population characterized by its own unique needs. The present study explores the encounter experience of social workers with the cultural perceptions of mental health clients in the Haredi community in light of Community Cultural Psychiatry. A qualitative-phenomenological approach was adopted. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 social workers, mental health professionals, who are in contact with ultra-Orthodox Jewish clients...
October 8, 2016: Community Mental Health Journal
John Kasinathan, Gillian Sharp, Anthony Barker
OBJECTIVES: Olanzapine is a well established treatment for schizophrenia. The olanzapine pamoate depot (long-acting injectable) formulation improves compliance and clinical trials have shown it to be effective. However, there are no previously published reports evaluating olanzapine depot in violent patients with schizophrenia in the community. We evaluated the clinical efficacy of olanzapine depot, its effect on violence, hospitalization and incarceration in community patients with schizophrenia and prior history of serious violence...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
Soumaya Boudokhane, Amine Kalai, Aymen Haj Salah, Houda Migaou, Sana Salah, Anis Jellad, Mourad Gahbiche, Zohra Ben Salah Frih
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to determine the demographic characteristics and the pathway of severe traumatic brain injury (STBI) victims in the Tunisian population. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Our study included 26 patients victims of STBI hospitalized in intensive care unit, among 450 traumatic head injuries admitted to the Teaching Hospital of Fattouma Bourguiba in Monastir during the year 2014. The studied parameters were: demographic characteristics of the population, circumstances of the accident, transport modalities to the hospital, assessments of the injury types, duration of coma, length of hospitalization in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and finally the discharge mode after the ICU stay (transfer to neurosurgery ward, to rehabilitation unit, or home discharged)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Catherine Gigot, Christine Reynaert, Nicolas Zdanowicz
BACKGROUND: In a previous study, we compared the family relationships of patients hospitalized in a psychiatry unit from either psychiatric consultations or after passing emergency room (E.R.). The intensity of depression was statistically comparable in both groups. What distinguishes patients transiting emergencies is that their families and couples are more cohesive and adaptable. In this study, we compare both groups in terms of coping mechanisms and multidimensional health locus of control (MHLC)...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Nicolas Zdanowicz, Thomas Dubois, Christine Reynaert, Denis Jacques, Pauline Manceaux
BACKGROUND: In a previous study, we investigated the risk of admission to emergency (ER) of depressed patients prior to their hospitalization in psychiatry in comparison with hospitalized patients transferred from the consultations department (Cdpt). In the present study, we compare among the same patients variables affecting the intensity of depression in each group. METHOD: All patients with Major depressive disorder admitted in our department through emergencies (N=146) or consultations (N=2172) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012 were included in an open study...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Martin Sievert, Igor Zwir, Kevin M Cloninger, Nigel Lester, Sandor Rozsa, C Robert Cloninger
BACKGROUND: Multiple factors influence the decision to enter a career in medicine and choose a specialty. Previous studies have looked at personality differences in medicine but often were unable to describe the heterogeneity that exists within each specialty. Our study used a person-centered approach to characterize the complex relations between the personality profiles of resident physicians and their choice of specialty. METHODS: 169 resident physicians at a large Midwestern US training hospital completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)...
2016: PeerJ
Ester Camprodon-Rosanas, Santiago Batlle, Xavier Estrada-Prat, Marta Aceña-Díaz, Araitz Petrizan-Aleman, Elena Pujals, Luis M Martin-López, Víctor Pérez-Solá, Núria Ribas-Fitó
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms have largely emerged from investigations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recent research has demonstrated the relevance of SCT symptoms in the field of clinical child and adolescent psychiatry. The goal of this research was to study the symptoms of SCT in a clinical child and adolescent sample and to define its features and comorbid conditions. We reviewed 834 clinical records of patients referred to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services and examined SCT symptoms and their relation with sociodemographic data, clinical diagnosis, comorbid conditions, Child Behavior Checklist dimensions, and intelligence quotient...
September 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Brent Wolfrom, Geoff Hodgetts, Jyoti Kotecha, Emily Pollock, Mary Martin, Han Han, Pierre Morissette
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate satisfaction with civilian residency training programs among serving general duty medical officers within the Canadian Armed Forces. DESIGN: A 23-item, cross-sectional survey face-validated by the office of the Surgeon General of the Canadian Armed Forces. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: General duty medical officers serving in the Canadian Armed Forces as of February 2014 identified through the Directorate of Health Services Personnel of the Canadian Forces Health Services Group Headquarters...
September 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
D Leguay
This article attempts to identify and put into perspective the different approaches that could globally prevent the suffering induced by schizophrenia, from the detection of early psychosis to the impact on individual and family functioning and emotional health. Schizophrenia causes, at the community level, a number of difficult consequences and associated costs, which likely could be reduced if specific strategies, already known and documented internationally, were applied. Two areas not explored in this article: the role of medication and the issue of suicide prevention...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Paul Cammell
OBJECTIVES: This article reviews recent trends in the provision of psychiatric services to the emergency departments of tertiary hospitals in Australia, involving the establishment of specialised in-reach or liaison services as well as various forms of short stay unit attached to emergency departments. The Emergency Psychiatry Service at Flinders Medical Centre, South Australia, is described as a case example. Its specialised models of assessment and clinical care are described, highlighting how these are differentiated from more traditional models in inpatient, community and general hospital consultation-liaison psychiatry...
September 6, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Patricia Rubí G, Luis De la Barra V, Hardy Schaefer A
UNLABELLED: In Medical Education, feedback is an instrument that informs the trainees about their learning process and how to make the necessary changes. Feedback enables learners to monitor their progress and provides direction for improvement. Effective feedback is useful to improve the performance, clinical skills, communication skills, and treatment of patients. It is essential when teaching clinical interview skills to psychiatry residents. Feedback necessarily involves social interaction between teachers and trainees...
June 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
Jason L Sanders, Ali S Raja, Kohei Hasegawa, Jane Bittner, Janice A Espinola, Brianna Olamiju, Ashley F Sullivan, Carlos A Camargo
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Emergency department (ED) consultation is a common practice. There are few data on consultant availability or changes in availability over time, which may hinder resource planning and allocation. We conduct serial surveys of Massachusetts EDs to investigate these trends. METHODS: We surveyed ED directors in Massachusetts in 2006 (n=61 EDs), 2009 (n=63), and 2015 (n=63) about ED characteristics in the previous year, including specialty-specific consultant availability in person (yes/no) and continuous consultant availability (yes/no)...
October 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Owen Whooley
Commensuration - the comparison of entities according to a common quantitative metric - is a key process in efforts to rationalize medicine. The push toward evidence-based medicine and quantitative assessment has led to the proliferation of metrics in healthcare. While social scientific attention has revealed the effects of these metrics once institutionalized - on clinical practice, on medical expertise, on outcome assessment, on valuations of medical services, and on experiences of illness - less attention has been paid to the process of developing metrics...
October 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Isabelle Kieber-Ospelt, Anastasia Theodoridou, Paul Hoff, Wolfram Kawohl, Erich Seifritz, Matthias Jaeger
BACKGROUND: The goal was to investigate the quality in terms of formal and content-based comprehensiveness of the forms for involuntary admission before and after the introduction of the new law (KESR, "Kindes- und Erwachsenenschutzrecht") for the regulation of involuntary admission. Moreover, the study aimed at assessing if the quality of the admission forms was associated with the professional qualifications of the professionals ordering them. Finally, the patients were characterized...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Philipp Schwartenbeck, Karl Friston
Computational psychiatry is a rapidly emerging field that uses model-based quantities to infer the behavioral and neuronal abnormalities that underlie psychopathology. If successful, this approach promises key insights into (pathological) brain function as well as a more mechanistic and quantitative approach to psychiatric nosology-structuring therapeutic interventions and predicting response and relapse. The basic procedure in computational psychiatry is to build a computational model that formalizes a behavioral or neuronal process...
July 2016: ENeuro
A-C Robertz, G Rudolfsson
: WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE SUBJECT?: There is little research on the implementation of tactile massage in child and adolescent psychiatry that describes children's and adolescents' experiences and outcomes. There is also limited knowledge of providing tactile massage in child and adolescent psychiatry. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This paper describes 10 nurses' experiences of tactile massage as a nursing intervention in child and adolescent psychiatry. The nurses considered tactile massage a non-verbal nursing intervention that could complement other available treatments...
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
W Kawohl, C Wyss, P Roser, M Brüne, W Rössler, G Juckel
BACKGROUND: The proliferation of biological psychiatry has greatly increased over the last two decades. With the possibility to carry out brain research using modern technical methods, it seemed that social influencing factors would lose importance in the development of mental diseases; however, in actual fact this does not seem to be justified. It is necessary to overcome this separation, in that social factors are incorporated into a conceptual framework in the development of mental diseases, which simultaneously also takes the results of current neurobiological research into consideration...
August 4, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
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