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Emergency psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906411/mental-health-emergencies-in-paediatric-services-characteristics-diagnostic-stability-and-gender-differences
#1
Montserrat Porter, Rebeca Gracia, Joan-Carles Oliva, Montserrat Pàmias, Gemma Garcia-Parés, Jesús Cobo
INTRODUCTION: Child and adolescent psychiatric emergencies have increased in recent years. The main objective of our study is to analyze sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of psychiatric emergencies under 18 years old that came to our hospital. Secondary objectives were to study diagnostic stability made in the emergency department and undertake a gender analysis. METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional study of patients attending the pediatric emergency department who required consultation to psychiatry service during 2010 and 2011, comparing data with two previous cross-sectional cuts (2002-2003 and 2006-2007)...
November 2016: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889282/neuromodulation-treatments-for-geriatric-mood-and-cognitive-disorders
#2
REVIEW
William M McDonald
There is increasing evidence for the efficacy of neuromodulation in the treatment of resistant mood disorders and emerging data supporting the use of neuromodulation in cognitive disorders. A significant minority of depressed elders do not respond to pharmacotherapy and/or psychotherapy. This has led clinicians to recommend the increasing use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the treatment of medication-resistant or life-threatening geriatric depression. Multiple studies have supported the safety and efficacy of ECT in the elderly, yet ECT is associated with side effects including cardiovascular and cognitive side effects...
December 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881531/burnout-prevalence-in-new-zealand-s-public-hospital-senior-medical-workforce-a-cross-sectional-mixed-methods-study
#3
Charlotte N L Chambers, Christopher M A Frampton, Murray Barclay, Martin McKee
OBJECTIVES: To explore the prevalence of, and associated factors contributing to burnout among senior doctors and dentists working in the New Zealand's public health system. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, mixed methods study. SETTING: New Zealand's 20 district health boards (DHBs). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1487 of 3740 senior doctors and dentists who are members of the Association of Salaried Medical Specialists working in DHBs were recruited (response rate 40%)...
November 23, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877126/recommendations-for-the-use-of-ict-in-elderly-populations-with-affective-disorders
#4
Auriane Gros, David Bensamoun, Valeria Manera, Roxane Fabre, Anne-Marie Zacconi-Cauvin, Susanne Thummler, Michel Benoit, Philippe Robert, Renaud David
Objective: Affective disorders are frequently encountered among elderly populations, and the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) could provide an added value for their recognition and assessment in addition to current clinical methods. The diversity and lack of consensus in the emerging field of ICTs is however a strong limitation for their global use in daily practice. The aim of the present article is to provide recommendations for the use of ICTs for the assessment and management of affective disorders among elderly populations with or without dementia...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872258/bipolar-at-risk-criteria-an-examination-of-which-clinical-features-have-optimal-utility-for-identifying-youth-at-risk-of-early-transition-from-depression-to-bipolar-disorders
#5
Jan Scott, Steven Marwaha, Aswin Ratheesh, Iain Macmillan, Alison R Yung, Richard Morriss, Ian B Hickie, Andreas Bechdolf
BACKGROUND: A clinical and research challenge is to identify which depressed youth are at risk of "early transition to bipolar disorders (ET-BD)." This 2-part study (1) examines the clinical utility of previously reported BD at-risk (BAR) criteria in differentiating ET-BD cases from unipolar depression (UP) controls; and (2) estimates the Number Needed to Screen (NNS) for research and general psychiatry settings. METHODS: Fifty cases with reliably ascertained, ET-BD I and II cases were matched for gender and birth year with 50 UP controls who did not develop BD over 2 years...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871719/-work-satisfaction-and-exhaustion-among-psychiatrists-in-psychiatric-emergency-services
#6
E Very, A H Moncany, A Yrondi, T Marquet, E Bui, L Schmitt
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Psychiatric emergency services (PES) have recently occupied a new and growing place in the landscape of mental health services. However, few data are available on the way psychiatrists practice in the PES. Our aim was to survey psychiatrists working in PES, focusing on their job satisfaction and the theoretical models they use in their everyday practice. METHOD: We sent a survey to a sample of 508 psychiatrists working in PES in France. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-seven psychiatrists returned the survey, yielding a response rate of 47%...
November 18, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863981/physician-s-perceived-roles-as-well-as-barriers-toward-caring-for-women-sex-assault-survivors
#7
Priyanka Amin, Raquel Buranosky, Judy C Chang
BACKGROUND: Sexual assault (SA) affects about 40% of women in the United States and has many mental and physical health sequelae. Physicians often do not address SA with patients, although SA survivors describe a desire to talk to physicians to obtain additional help. Little information exists on how providers perceive their roles regarding caring for women SA survivors and what barriers they face in providing this care. METHODS: We performed a qualitative study using semistructured one-on-one interviews with 16 faculty physicians from five specialties: obstetrics and gynecology (n = 4), internal medicine (n = 4), family medicine (n = 1), emergency medicine (n = 3), and psychiatry (n = 4)...
November 15, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856605/medically-hospitalized-patients-with-eating-disorders-and-somatoform-disorders-in-pediatrics-what-are-their-similarities-and-differences-and-how-can-we-improve-their-care
#8
Patricia Ibeziako, Jennifer M Rohan, Simona Bujoreanu, Christine Choi, Meghan Hanrahan, Melissa Freizinger
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the current study is to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics and health care use of medically hospitalized patients with eating disorders (ED) and somatoform disorders (SFD) in a pediatric setting and to use the findings to explore opportunities for improved care. METHODS: Retrospective chart reviews of 125 patients with SFD and 125 patients with ED (N = 250) seen at a tertiary pediatric facility over a 12- and 19-month period, respectively...
December 2016: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856295/street-smarts-and-a-scalpel-emotional-intelligence-in-surgical-education
#9
Mary Kate Erdman, Alisha Bonaroti, Gina Provenzano, Rachel Appelbaum, Marybeth Browne
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends of emotional intelligence (EI) in surgical education and to compare the incorporation of EI in surgical education to other fields of graduate medical education. DESIGN: A MEDLINE search was performed for publications containing both "surgery" and "emotional intelligence" with at least one term present in the title. Articles were included if the authors deemed EI in surgical education to be a significant focus. A separate series of MEDLINE searches were performed with the phrase "emotional intelligence" in any field and either "surg*," "internal medicine," "pediatric," "neurology," "obstetric," "gynecology," "OBGYN," "emergency," or "psychiat*" in the title...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844247/a-profile-on-emergency-department-utilization-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#10
Guodong Liu, Amanda M Pearl, Lan Kong, Douglas L Leslie, Michael J Murray
There has been an increase in utilization of the Emergency Department (ED) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) which may reflect a deficit of services (Green et al., Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 40(3):325-332, 2001; Gurney et al., Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 160:825-830, 2006; Leichtman et al., American Journal of Orthopsyhciatry 72(2):227-235, 2001). The current study examined the rates of ED utilization between 2005 and 2013 in ASD youth 12- to 21-years-old...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843153/predictive-analytics-in-mental-health-applications-guidelines-challenges-and-perspectives
#11
T Hahn, A A Nierenberg, S Whitfield-Gabrieli
The emerging field of 'predictive analytics in mental health' has recently generated tremendous interest with the bold promise to revolutionize clinical practice in psychiatry paralleling similar developments in personalized and precision medicine. Here, we provide an overview of the key questions and challenges in the field, aiming to (1) propose general guidelines for predictive analytics projects in psychiatry, (2) provide a conceptual introduction to core aspects of predictive modeling technology, and (3) foster a broad and informed discussion involving all stakeholders including researchers, clinicians, patients, funding bodies and policymakers...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843148/hypervulnerability-of-the-adolescent-prefrontal-cortex-to-nutritional-stress-via-reelin-deficiency
#12
M A Labouesse, O Lassalle, J Richetto, J Iafrati, U Weber-Stadlbauer, T Notter, T Gschwind, L Pujadas, E Soriano, A C Reichelt, C Labouesse, W Langhans, P Chavis, U Meyer
Overconsumption of high-fat diets (HFDs) can critically affect synaptic and cognitive functions within telencephalic structures such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The underlying mechanisms, however, remain largely unknown. Here we show that adolescence is a sensitive period for the emergence of prefrontal cognitive deficits in response to HFD. We establish that the synaptic modulator reelin (RELN) is a critical mediator of this vulnerability because (1) periadolescent HFD (pHFD) selectively downregulates prefrontal RELN(+) cells and (2) augmenting mPFC RELN levels using transgenesis or prefrontal pharmacology prevents the pHFD-induced prefrontal cognitive deficits...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824780/an-introduction-from-the-new-psychotherapy-columnist
#13
Eric M Plakun
Despite psychiatry's shift toward a biomedical model, emerging research suggests that psychosocial factors make major contributions to the etiology of mental disorders of all kinds and that several types of psychotherapy have been shown to be effective forms of treatment for a range of disorders. Notwithstanding these findings, psychiatrists are doing less psychotherapy and attending less to psychosocial factors in their work with patients. The author surveys some of the underpinnings of this problem and discusses the value of psychotherapy as part of psychiatric practice and training...
November 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817095/polygenic-score-%C3%A3-intervention-moderation-an-application-of-discrete-time-survival-analysis-to-model-the-timing-of-first-marijuana-use-among-urban-youth
#14
Rashelle J Musci, Brian Fairman, Katherine E Masyn, George Uhl, Brion Maher, Danielle Y Sisto, Sheppard G Kellam, Nicholas S Ialongo
The present study examines the interaction between a polygenic score and an elementary school-based universal preventive intervention trial and its effects on a discrete-time survival analysis of time to first smoking marijuana. Research has suggested that initiation of substances is both genetically and environmentally driven (Rhee et al., Archives of general psychiatry 60:1256-1264, 2003; Verweij et al., Addiction 105:417-430, 2010). A previous work has found a significant interaction between the polygenic score and the same elementary school-based intervention with tobacco smoking (Musci et al...
November 5, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810113/prediction-of-occupational-disability-from-psychological-and-neuropsychological-evidence-in-forensic-context
#15
Izabela Z Schultz, Ada K Law, Leanna C Cruikshank
Within the fields of psychiatry, psychology, and neuropsychology, medical examiners are often tasked with providing an opinion about an injured individual's health prognosis and likelihood of returning to work. Traditionally, examiners have conducted such assessments by employing clinical intuition, expert knowledge, and judgment. More recently, however, an accumulation of research on factors predictive of disability has allowed examiners to provide prognostications using specific empirically supported evidence...
November 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797649/state-of-training-clinical-services-and-research-on-dual-disorders-across-france-india-israel-and-spain
#16
Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, Shaul Lev-Ran, José Martínez-Raga, Amine Benyamina, Shalini Singh, Lisa Blecha, Nestor Szerman
OBJECTIVE: This article overviews training, clinical services, and research on dual disorders across four countries: France, India, Israel, and Spain. METHODS: The current dual disorders systems in each of the four countries were reviewed, with a focus on strengths and limitations of each. RESULTS: In France, psychiatric care occurs within the public health care system and involves little training of medical graduates for managing dual disorders...
July 2016: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794549/clinicians-use-of-prescription-drug-monitoring-programs-in-clinical-practice-and-decision-making
#17
Gillian J Leichtling, Jessica M Irvine, Christi Hildebran, Deborah J Cohen, Sara E Hallvik, Richard A Deyo
OBJECTIVES:  Little is known about clinicians' use of prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) profiles in decision-making. The objective of this qualitative study was to understand how clinicians use, interpret, and integrate PDMP profiles with other information in making clinical decisions. DESIGN : Qualitative interviews of clinician PDMP users. SETTING:  Oregon registrants in the state's PDMP. SUBJECTS:  Thirty-three clinicians practicing in primary care, emergency medicine, pain management, psychiatry, dentistry, and surgery...
October 29, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788673/immuno-psychiatry-an-agenda-for-clinical-practice-and-innovative-research
#18
EDITORIAL
Marion Leboyer, Michael Berk, Robert H Yolken, Ryad Tamouza, David Kupfer, Laurent Groc
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic scheme for psychiatric disorders is currently based purely on descriptive nomenclature given that biomarkers subtypes and clearly defined causal mechanisms are lacking for the vast majority of disorders. The emerging field of "immuno-psychiatry" has the potential to widen the exploration of a mechanism-based nosology, possibly leading to the discovery of more effective personalised treatment strategies. DISCUSSION: Disturbances in immuno-inflammatory and related systems have been implicated in the aetiology, pathophysiology, phenomenology and comorbidity of several psychiatric disorders, including major mood disorders and schizophrenia...
October 28, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785752/training-psychiatry-residents-in-psychotherapy-the-role-of-manualized-treatments
#19
REVIEW
Joshua Pagano, Brandon N Kyle, Toni L Johnson, Sy Atezaz Saeed
Evidence-based treatment and manualized psychotherapy have a recent but rich history. As interest and research have progressed, defining the role of treatment manuals in resident training and clinical practice has become more important. Although there is not a universal definition of treatment manual, most clinicians and researchers agree that treatment manuals are an essential piece of evidence-based therapy, and that despite several limitations, they offer advantages in training residents in psychotherapy...
October 27, 2016: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785123/thought-insertion-as-a-self-disturbance-an-integration-of-predictive-coding-and-phenomenological-approaches
#20
Philipp Sterzer, Aaron L Mishara, Martin Voss, Andreas Heinz
Current theories in the framework of hierarchical predictive coding propose that positive symptoms of schizophrenia, such as delusions and hallucinations, arise from an alteration in Bayesian inference, the term inference referring to a process by which learned predictions are used to infer probable causes of sensory data. However, for one particularly striking and frequent symptom of schizophrenia, thought insertion, no plausible account has been proposed in terms of the predictive-coding framework. Here we propose that thought insertion is due to an altered experience of thoughts as coming from "nowhere", as is already indicated by the early 20th century phenomenological accounts by the early Heidelberg School of psychiatry...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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