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Emergency psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093569/translational-evaluation-of-translocator-protein-as-a-marker-of-neuroinflammation-in-schizophrenia
#1
T Notter, J M Coughlin, T Gschwind, U Weber-Stadlbauer, Y Wang, M Kassiou, A C Vernon, D Benke, M G Pomper, A Sawa, U Meyer
Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with radiotracers that target translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) has become a popular approach to assess putative neuroinflammatory processes and associated microglia activation in psychotic illnesses. It remains unclear, however, whether TSPO imaging can accurately capture low-grade inflammatory processes such as those present in schizophrenia and related disorders. Therefore, we evaluated the validity of TSPO as a disease-relevant marker of inflammation using a translational approach, which combined neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative mouse models with PET imaging in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and matched controls...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068829/career-satisfaction-and-work-stressors-in-psychiatrists-and-psychiatry-trainees-in-australia-and-new-zealand
#2
Sarah Rotstein, Kym Jenkins
OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of career satisfaction and factors associated with work stress in members of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP). METHODS: In 2014 an online survey was distributed to members of the RANZCP (including psychiatrists and psychiatry trainees). RESULTS: A total of 1051 members responded to the survey. Almost 85% of respondents indicated that they were satisfied with the work they were doing at the current stage of their career...
January 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032396/computational-neuroscience-approach-to-biomarkers-and-treatments-for-mental-disorders
#3
Noriaki Yahata, Kiyoto Kasai, Mitsuo Kawato
Psychiatry research has long experienced a stagnation stemming from a lack of understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of phenomenologically defined mental disorders. Recently, the application of computational neuroscience to psychiatry research has shown great promise in establishing a link between phenomenological and pathophysiological aspects of mental disorders, thereby recasting current nosology in more biologically meaningful dimensions. In this review, we highlight recent investigations in computational neuroscience that undertook either theory- or data-driven approaches to quantitatively delineate the mechanisms of mental disorders...
December 29, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031586/clinical-correlates-of-suicide-in-suicidal-patients-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-and-affective-disorders
#4
Hemendra Singh, Prabha S Chandra, V Senthil Kumar Reddi
BACKGROUND: The most common psychiatric illnesses in the background of suicide are schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and affective disorders (AD). While depression and hopelessness are important factors for suicide in psychiatric patients, the role of psychotic symptoms is unclear. We examine the comparative differences in the clinical correlates of suicide in SSD and AD patients with suicidal risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty suicidal psychiatric patients (aged between 17-60 years) were evaluated for depression severity, hopelessness, past attempts, and reasons for wanting to commit suicide at the emergency psychiatry centre...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006091/cardiometabolic-assessment-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-chronic-medical-illnesses-during-an-inpatient-psychiatric-hospitalization-colocated-medical-care-versus-treatment-as-usual
#5
Jason R Tatreau, Suzanne Harris, Brian Sheitman, Beat D Steiner
Background: Reverse colocation care models reduce lifestyle risk factors, emergency department visits, and readmissions. Persons with serious mental illness have higher than average rates of cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality, with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) conferring added related risks. Little is written about reverse colocated medical care (RCL) in inpatient psychiatric settings. The objective of this study was to identify associations between screening, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic medical comorbidities and mode of medical care for patients discharged from 2 inpatient psychiatric units on SGAs...
December 22, 2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003385/evidence-for-greater-forensic-education-of-all-psychiatry-residents
#6
Howard L Forman, David W Preven
Booth and his colleagues have made an important contribution to the emerging evidence base that shows education in forensic psychiatry topics can improve attitudes toward the field. Given the desinstitutionalization of those with severe mental illness from state psychiatric facilities and the incarceration of many individuals with severe mental illness in correctional facilities, the need to train many more psychiatrists with competence in correctional settings is clear. Simply training more forensic psychiatrists will not both meet the psychiatric needs of incarcerated patients and fulfill the essential roles forensic psychiatrists play in the justice system...
December 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994220/structural-dysconnectivity-of-key-cognitive-and-emotional-hubs-in-young-people-at-high-genetic-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#7
G Roberts, A Perry, A Lord, A Frankland, V Leung, E Holmes-Preston, F Levy, R K Lenroot, P B Mitchell, M Breakspear
Emerging evidence suggests that psychiatric disorders are associated with disturbances in structural brain networks. Little is known, however, about brain networks in those at high risk (HR) of bipolar disorder (BD), with such disturbances carrying substantial predictive and etiological value. Whole-brain tractography was performed on diffusion-weighted images acquired from 84 unaffected HR individuals with at least one first-degree relative with BD, 38 young patients with BD and 96 matched controls (CNs) with no family history of mental illness...
December 20, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966096/psychiatric-emergencies-of-minors-with-and-without-migration-background
#8
Türkan Akkaya-Kalayci, Christian Popow, Thomas Waldhör, Dietmar Winkler, Zeliha Özlü-Erkilic
BACKGROUND: The conditions of children and adolescents with migration background receiving emergency psychiatric care in Europe are not well known. Migrants usually attend regular psychiatric care less frequently than the autochthonous population. We therefore speculated that, being undertreated, they would be overrepresented among psychiatric emergency care patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the records of 1093 minors aged 4‑18 years treated during a period of three years at the psychiatric emergency outpatient clinic of the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the Medical University of Vienna...
December 13, 2016: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956649/introduction-histories-of-asylums-insanity-and-psychiatry-in-scotland
#9
Chris Philo, Jonathan Andrews
This paper introduces a special issue on 'Histories of asylums, insanity and psychiatry in Scotland', situating the papers that follow in an outline historiography of work in this field. Using Allan Beveridge's claims in 1993 about the relative lack of research on the history of psychiatry in Scotland, the paper reviews a range of contributions that have emerged since then, loosely distinguishing between 'overviews' - work addressing longer-term trends and broader periods and systems - and more detailed studies of particular 'individuals and institutions'...
December 12, 2016: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955830/inverse-agonists-what-do-they-mean-for-psychiatry
#10
David Nutt, Stephen Stahl, Pierre Blier, Filippo Drago, Joseph Zohar, Sue Wilson
The nomenclature of drugs is a critical aspect of science, since it can direct research and optimize treatment choices. Traditionally drugs acting on CNS receptors have been classified as either agonists or antagonists. Recently a new class of ligand, the inverse agonist, has been identified in some receptor systems. Inverse agonists have opposite actions to those of agonists but the effects of both of these can be blocked by antagonists. Pimavanserin is a new 5-HT2A receptor acting drug that has been given market authorization for psychosis in Parkinson׳s disease...
December 7, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936257/-institutions-without-history-an-investigation-into-the-archives-of-a-private-psychiatric-hospital-france-1930-1950
#11
Hervé Guillemain
Objectives Discovered by following the story of a Parisian patient, l'Hôpital psychiatrique de Saint-Rémy opened in 1937 in the east of France. It is a special institution that was created for profit and in an emergency context during the 1930s.Methods Due to the absence of administrative records, the history of this institution can be written only by using the archives of the Parisian administration and patient records. The story of this special institution allows several issues in the historiography of psychiatry: the funding of mental health, the patient transfers, the revival of the criticism against the psychiatric hospital...
2016: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928767/resident-workflow-and-psychiatric-emergency-consultation-identifying-factors-for-quality-improvement-in-a-training-environment
#12
Thomas Blair, Zev Wiener, Ariel Seroussi, Lingqi Tang, Jennifer O'Hora, Erick Cheung
OBJECTIVE: Quality improvement to optimize workflow has the potential to mitigate resident burnout and enhance patient care. This study applied mixed methods to identify factors that enhance or impede workflow for residents performing emergency psychiatric consultations. METHODS: The study population consisted of all psychiatry program residents (55 eligible, 42 participating) at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles...
December 7, 2016: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918948/adult-autism-subthreshold-spectrum-adas-spectrum-validation-of-a-questionnaire-investigating-subthreshold-autism-spectrum
#13
L Dell'Osso, C Gesi, E Massimetti, I M Cremone, M Barbuti, G Maccariello, I Moroni, S Barlati, G Castellini, M Luciano, L Bossini, M Rocchetti, M Signorelli, E Aguglia, A Fagiolini, P Politi, V Ricca, A Vita, C Carmassi, M Maj
AIM: Increasing literature has shown the usefulness of a dimensional approach to autism. The present study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum), a new questionnaire specifically tailored to assess subthreshold forms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adulthood. METHODS: 102 adults endorsing at least one DSM-5 symptom criterion for ASD (ASDc), 143 adults diagnosed with a feeding and eating disorder (FED), and 160 subjects with no mental disorders (CTL), were recruited from 7 Italian University Departments of Psychiatry and administered the following: SCID-5, Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale 14-item version (RAADS-14), and AdAS Spectrum...
November 9, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917218/can-we-predict-agitation-in-patients-with-suicide-attempts-in-the-emergency-department
#14
Ayhan Akoz, Sultan Tuna Akgol Gur, Elif Oral, Ummu Zeynep Avsar, Mucahit Emet
BACKGROUND: The agitation in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) after suicide attempts is common and an important problem. OBJECTIVE: To establish whether we can predict agitated patients among suicide attempt patients in ED. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional observational study of adult suicide attempt events in ED. Information was collected prospectively on a specially designed data-collection form. Patients aged 16 years old and above who presented to the ED for care due to suicide attempts were included in the study...
September 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906411/mental-health-emergencies-in-paediatric-services-characteristics-diagnostic-stability-and-gender-differences
#15
Montserrat Porter, Rebeca Gracia, Joan-Carles Oliva, Montserrat Pàmias, Gemma Garcia-Parés, Jesús Cobo
INTRODUCTION: Child and adolescent psychiatric emergencies have increased in recent years. The main objective of our study is to analyze sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of psychiatric emergencies under 18 years old that came to our hospital. Secondary objectives were to study diagnostic stability made in the emergency department and undertake a gender analysis. METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional study of patients attending the pediatric emergency department who required consultation to psychiatry service during 2010 and 2011, comparing data with two previous cross-sectional cuts (2002-2003 and 2006-2007)...
November 2016: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889282/neuromodulation-treatments-for-geriatric-mood-and-cognitive-disorders
#16
REVIEW
William M McDonald
There is increasing evidence for the efficacy of neuromodulation in the treatment of resistant mood disorders and emerging data supporting the use of neuromodulation in cognitive disorders. A significant minority of depressed elders do not respond to pharmacotherapy and/or psychotherapy. This has led clinicians to recommend the increasing use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the treatment of medication-resistant or life-threatening geriatric depression. Multiple studies have supported the safety and efficacy of ECT in the elderly, yet ECT is associated with side effects including cardiovascular and cognitive side effects...
December 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881531/burnout-prevalence-in-new-zealand-s-public-hospital-senior-medical-workforce-a-cross-sectional-mixed-methods-study
#17
Charlotte N L Chambers, Christopher M A Frampton, Murray Barclay, Martin McKee
OBJECTIVES: To explore the prevalence of, and associated factors contributing to burnout among senior doctors and dentists working in the New Zealand's public health system. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, mixed methods study. SETTING: New Zealand's 20 district health boards (DHBs). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1487 of 3740 senior doctors and dentists who are members of the Association of Salaried Medical Specialists working in DHBs were recruited (response rate 40%)...
November 23, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877126/recommendations-for-the-use-of-ict-in-elderly-populations-with-affective-disorders
#18
Auriane Gros, David Bensamoun, Valeria Manera, Roxane Fabre, Anne-Marie Zacconi-Cauvin, Susanne Thummler, Michel Benoit, Philippe Robert, Renaud David
Objective: Affective disorders are frequently encountered among elderly populations, and the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) could provide an added value for their recognition and assessment in addition to current clinical methods. The diversity and lack of consensus in the emerging field of ICTs is however a strong limitation for their global use in daily practice. The aim of the present article is to provide recommendations for the use of ICTs for the assessment and management of affective disorders among elderly populations with or without dementia...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872258/bipolar-at-risk-criteria-an-examination-of-which-clinical-features-have-optimal-utility-for-identifying-youth-at-risk-of-early-transition-from-depression-to-bipolar-disorders
#19
Jan Scott, Steven Marwaha, Aswin Ratheesh, Iain Macmillan, Alison R Yung, Richard Morriss, Ian B Hickie, Andreas Bechdolf
BACKGROUND: A clinical and research challenge is to identify which depressed youth are at risk of "early transition to bipolar disorders (ET-BD)." This 2-part study (1) examines the clinical utility of previously reported BD at-risk (BAR) criteria in differentiating ET-BD cases from unipolar depression (UP) controls; and (2) estimates the Number Needed to Screen (NNS) for research and general psychiatry settings. METHODS: Fifty cases with reliably ascertained, ET-BD I and II cases were matched for gender and birth year with 50 UP controls who did not develop BD over 2 years...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871719/-work-satisfaction-and-exhaustion-among-psychiatrists-in-psychiatric-emergency-services
#20
E Very, A H Moncany, A Yrondi, T Marquet, E Bui, L Schmitt
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Psychiatric emergency services (PES) have recently occupied a new and growing place in the landscape of mental health services. However, few data are available on the way psychiatrists practice in the PES. Our aim was to survey psychiatrists working in PES, focusing on their job satisfaction and the theoretical models they use in their everyday practice. METHOD: We sent a survey to a sample of 508 psychiatrists working in PES in France. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-seven psychiatrists returned the survey, yielding a response rate of 47%...
November 18, 2016: L'Encéphale
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