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Discrete event simulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680098/modeling-clinical-outcomes-in-prostate-cancer-application-and-validation-of-the-discrete-event-simulation-approach
#1
Feng Pan, Odette Reifsnider, Ying Zheng, Irina Proskorovsky, Tracy Li, Jianming He, Sonja V Sorensen
OBJECTIVES: Treatment landscape in prostate cancer has changed dramatically with the emergence of new medicines in the past few years. The traditional survival partition model (SPM) cannot accurately predict long-term clinical outcomes because it is limited by its ability to capture the key consequences associated with this changing treatment paradigm. The objective of this study was to introduce and validate a discrete-event simulation (DES) model for prostate cancer. METHODS: A DES model was developed to simulate overall survival (OS) and other clinical outcomes based on patient characteristics, treatment received, and disease progression history...
April 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665621/on-the-analysis-of-discrete-time-competing-risks-data
#2
Minjung Lee, Eric J Feuer, Jason P Fine
Regression methodology has been well developed for competing risks data with continuous event times, both for the cause-specific hazard and cumulative incidence functions. However, in many applications, including those from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of the National Cancer Institute, the event times may be observed discretely. Naive application of continuous time regression methods to such data is not appropriate. We propose maximum likelihood inferences for estimation of model parameters for the discrete time cause-specific hazard functions, develop predictions for the associated cumulative incidence functions, and derive consistent variance estimators for the predicted cumulative incidence functions...
April 17, 2018: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651791/a-discrete-event-simulation-model-to-assess-the-economic-value-of-a-hypothetical-pharmacogenomics-test-for-statin-induced-myopathy-in-patients-initiating-a-statin-in-secondary-cardiovascular-prevention
#3
Dominic Mitchell, Jason R Guertin, Anick Dubois, Marie-Pierre Dubé, Jean-Claude Tardif, Ange Christelle Iliza, Fiorella Fanton-Aita, Alexis Matteau, Jacques LeLorier
BACKGROUND: Statin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) therapy is the mainstay dyslipidemia treatment and reduces the risk of a cardiovascular (CV) event (CVE) by up to 35%. However, adherence to statin therapy is poor. One reason patients discontinue statin therapy is musculoskeletal pain and the associated risk of rhabdomyolysis. Research is ongoing to develop a pharmacogenomics (PGx) test for statin-induced myopathy as an alternative to the current diagnosis method, which relies on creatine kinase levels...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644519/stochastic-dynamics-of-eukaryotic-flagellar-growth
#4
Muruhan Rathinam, Yuriy Sverchkov
We study the dynamics of flagellar growth in eukaryotes where intraflagellar transporters (IFT) play a crucial role. First we investigate a stochastic version of the original balance point model where a constant number of IFT particles move up and down the flagellum. The detailed model is a discrete event vector-valued Markov process occurring in continuous time. First the detailed stochastic model is compared and contrasted with a simple scalar ordinary differential equation (ODE) model of flagellar growth...
April 11, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643016/development-and-validation-of-a-predictive-model-to-aid-in-the-management-of-intact-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#5
Manar Khashram, Giorgi Kvizhinadze, Ziad Khashram, Jonathan A Williman, Gregory T Jones, Justin A Roake
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Predicting outcomes prior to elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (AAA) requires critical decision making, as the treatment offered is a prophylactic procedure to prevent death from a ruptured AAA. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a model that may predict outcomes for patients with an AAA and hence aid in clinical decision making. METHODS: A discrete event simulation model was built to simulate the natural history of a patient with an AAA and to predict the 30 day and 2-5 year survival of patients undergoing treatment and surveillance...
April 9, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582186/decision-modelling-of-non-pharmacological-interventions-for-individuals-with-dementia-a-systematic-review-of-methodologies
#6
REVIEW
Elizaveta Sopina, Jan Sørensen
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review to identify and discuss methodological issues surrounding decision modelling for economic evaluation of non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) in dementia. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted for publications using decision modelling to investigate the cost-effectiveness of NPIs for individuals with dementia. Search was limited to studies in English. Studies were excluded if they evaluated interventions aimed only at caregivers of patients with dementia, or if they only included economic evaluation alongside an RCT without additional modelling...
March 26, 2018: Health Economics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554470/the-university-of-wisconsin-breast-cancer-epidemiology-simulation-model-an-update
#7
Oguzhan Alagoz, Mehmet Ali Ergun, Mucahit Cevik, Brian L Sprague, Dennis G Fryback, Ronald E Gangnon, John M Hampton, Natasha K Stout, Amy Trentham-Dietz
The University of Wisconsin Breast Cancer Epidemiology Simulation Model (UWBCS), also referred to as Model W, is a discrete-event microsimulation model that uses a systems engineering approach to replicate breast cancer epidemiology in the US over time. This population-based model simulates the lifetimes of individual women through 4 main model components: breast cancer natural history, detection, treatment, and mortality. A key feature of the UWBCS is that, in addition to specifying a population distribution in tumor growth rates, the model allows for heterogeneity in tumor behavior, with some tumors having limited malignant potential (i...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554469/simulating-the-impact-of-risk-based-screening-and-treatment-on-breast-cancer-outcomes-with-miscan-fadia
#8
Jeroen J van den Broek, Nicolien T van Ravesteyn, Eveline A Heijnsdijk, Harry J de Koning
The MISCAN-Fadia microsimulation model uses continuous tumor growth to simulate the natural history of breast cancer and has been used extensively to estimate the impact of screening and adjuvant treatment on breast cancer incidence and mortality trends. The model simulates individual life histories from birth to death, with and without breast cancer, in the presence and in the absence of screening and treatment. Life histories are simulated according to discrete events such as birth, tumor inception, the tumor's clinical diagnosis diameter in the absence of screening, and death from breast cancer or death from other causes...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554462/structure-function-and-applications-of-the-georgetown-einstein-ge-breast-cancer-simulation-model
#9
Clyde B Schechter, Aimee M Near, Jinani Jayasekera, Young Chandler, Jeanne S Mandelblatt
BACKGROUND: The Georgetown University-Albert Einstein College of Medicine breast cancer simulation model (Model GE) has evolved over time in structure and function to reflect advances in knowledge about breast cancer, improvements in early detection and treatment technology, and progress in computing resources. This article describes the model and provides examples of model applications. METHODS: The model is a discrete events microsimulation of single-life histories of women from multiple birth cohorts...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527094/a-discrete-event-simulation-approach-to-identify-rules-that-govern-arbor-remodeling-for-branching-cutaneous-afferents-in-hairy-skin
#10
Hyojung Kang, Rachel L Orlowsky, Gregory J Gerling
In mammals, touch is encoded by sensory receptors embedded in the skin. For one class of receptors in the mouse, the architecture of its Merkel cells, unmyelinated neurites, and heminodes follow particular renewal and remodeling trends over hair cycle stages from ages 4 to 10 weeks. As it is currently impossible to observe such trends across a single animal's hair cycle, this work employs discrete event simulation to identify and evaluate policies of Merkel cell and heminode dynamics. Well matching the observed data, the results show that the baseline model replicates dynamic remodeling behaviors between stages of the hair cycle - based on particular addition and removal polices and estimated probabilities tied to constituent parts of Merkel cells, terminal branch neurites and heminodes...
December 2017: Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525908/treating-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-with-a-rapid-acting-analog-insulin-regimen-vs-regular-human-insulin-in-germany-a-long-term-cost-effectiveness-evaluation
#11
William J Valentine, Kate Van Brunt, Kristina S Boye, Richard F Pollock
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of rapid-acting analog insulin relative to regular human insulin in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Germany. METHODS: The PRIME Diabetes Model, a patient-level, discrete event simulation model, was used to project long-term clinical and cost outcomes for patients with type 1 diabetes from the perspective of a German healthcare payer. Simulated patients had a mean age of 21.5 years, duration of diabetes of 8...
March 10, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509970/acuros-cts-a-fast-linear-boltzmann-transport-equation-solver-for-computed-tomography-scatter-part-i-core-algorithms-and-validation
#12
Alexander Maslowski, Adam Wang, Mingshan Sun, Todd Wareing, Ian Davis, Josh Star-Lack
PURPOSE: To describe Acuros® CTS, a new software tool for rapidly and accurately estimating scatter in x-ray projection images by deterministically solving the linear Boltzmann transport equation (LBTE). METHODS: The LBTE describes the behavior of particles as they interact with an object across spatial, energy, and directional (propagation) domains. Acuros CTS deterministically solves the LBTE by modeling photon transport associated with an x-ray projection in three main steps: 1) Ray tracing photons from the x-ray source into the object where they experience their first scattering event and form scattering sources...
March 6, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503010/event-triggered-fault-detection-for-discrete-time-t-s-fuzzy-systems
#13
Xiao-Lei Wang, Guang-Hong Yang
This paper is concerned with the design of piecewise fuzzy diagnostic observers for discrete-time T-S fuzzy systems under an event-triggered (ET) communication mechanism. Considering that the premise variables of the fuzzy diagnostic observer and the system may belong to different local space regions due to the introduction of ET mechanism, a partition method-based piecewise fuzzy diagnostic observer is designed to detect faults. The two-term approximation approach is introduced to approximate the time-varying delay...
March 1, 2018: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502174/baricitinib-for-previously-treated-moderate-or-severe-rheumatoid-arthritis-an-evidence-review-group-perspective-of-a-nice-single-technology-appraisal
#14
REVIEW
Shijie Ren, Iñigo Bermejo, Emma Simpson, Ruth Wong, David L Scott, Adam Young, Matt Stevenson
As part of its single technology appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence invited the manufacturer (Eli Lilly) of baricitinib (BARI; Olumiant® ; a Janus kinase inhibitor that is taken orally) to submit evidence of its clinical and cost effectiveness for the treatment of moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after the failure of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG)...
March 3, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496102/estimating-the-potential-for-disease-spread-in-horses-associated-with-an-equestrian-show-in-ontario-canada-using-an-agent-based-model
#15
Kelsey L Spence, Terri L O'Sullivan, Zvonimir Poljak, Amy L Greer
Participation in equestrian shows provides opportunities for contact between horses, increasing the risk of disease introduction and spread within the population. The magnitude of a potential outbreak, and the impact of disease prevention and control strategies, can be estimated using simulation modeling. The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the potential spread of equine influenza in a network of horses associated with a 2-day equestrian show in Ontario, Canada; and (2) determine the effectiveness of several interventions during a simulated outbreak...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491218/the-impact-of-one-dose-package-of-medicines-on-patient-waiting-time-in-dispensing-pharmacy-application-of-a-discrete-event-simulation-model
#16
Daisuke Furushima, Hiroshi Yamada, Michiko Kido, Yuko Ohno
Improvement in patient waiting time in dispensing pharmacies is an important element for patient and pharmacists. The One-Dose Package (ODP) of medicines was implemented in Japan to support medicine adherence among elderly patients; however, it also contributed to increase in patient waiting times. Given the projected increase in ODP patients in the near future owing to rapid population aging, development of improved strategies is a key imperative. We conducted a cross-sectional survey at a single dispensing pharmacy to clarify the impact of ODP on patient waiting time...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480947/geant4-dna-track-structure-simulations-for-gold-nanoparticles-the-importance-of-electron-discrete-models-in-nanometer-volumes
#17
D Sakata, I Kyriakou, S Okada, H N Tran, N Lampe, S Guatelli, M C Bordage, V N Ivanchenko, K Murakami, T Sasaki, D Emfietzoglou, S Incerti
PURPOSE: Gold NanoParticles (GNPs) are known to enhance the absorbed dose in their vicinity following photon-based irradiation. To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of GNPs, previous Monte Carlo simulation studies have explored GNP dose enhancement using mostly condensed-history models. However, in general, such models are suitable for macroscopic volumes and for electron energies above a few hundreds electron volts. We have recently developed, for the Geant4-DNA extension of the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit, discrete physics models for electron transport in gold which include the description of the full atomic de-excitation cascade...
February 26, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474733/bacmeta-simulator-for-genomic-evolution-in-bacterial-metapopulations
#18
Aleksi Sipola, Pekka Marttinen, Jukka Corander
Summary: The advent of genomic data from densely sampled bacterial populations has created a need for flexible simulators by which models and hypotheses can be efficiently investigated in the light of empirical observations. Bacmeta provides fast stochastic simulation of neutral evolution within a large collection of interconnected bacterial populations with completely adjustable connectivity network. Stochastic events of mutations, recombinations, insertions/deletions, migrations and microepidemics can be simulated in discrete non-overlapping generations with a Wright-Fisher model that operates on explicit sequence data of any desired genome length...
February 20, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452724/mathematical-modelling-for-patient-selection-in-proton-therapy
#19
T Mee, N F Kirkby, K J Kirkby
Proton beam therapy (PBT) is still relatively new in cancer treatment and the clinical evidence base is relatively sparse. Mathematical modelling offers assistance when selecting patients for PBT and predicting the demand for service. Discrete event simulation, normal tissue complication probability, quality-adjusted life-years and Markov Chain models are all mathematical and statistical modelling techniques currently used but none is dominant. As new evidence and outcome data become available from PBT, comprehensive models will emerge that are less dependent on the specific technologies of radiotherapy planning and delivery...
February 13, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451350/an-economic-assessment-of-contemporary-kidney-transplant-practice
#20
David Axelrod, Mark A Schnitzler, Huiling Xiao, William Irish, Elizabeth Tuttle-Newhall, Su-Hsin Chang, Bertram L Kasiske, Tarek Alhamad, Krista L Lentine
Kidney transplant is the optimal therapy for end stage renal disease, prolonging survival and reducing healthcare spending. Prior economic analyses of kidney transplant using Markov models, have generally assumed compatible, low risk, donors. The economic implications of using deceased donor kidneys with high kidney donor profile index (KPDI) scores, ABO incompatible or HLA incompatible living donors has not been assessed. The costs of transplant and dialysis were compared using discrete event simulation over a 10-year period, using data from the United States Renal Data System, Vizient ™ (Irving, Texas), and literature review...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
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