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Discrete event simulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037213/personalized-treatment-of-women-with-early-breast-cancer-a-risk-group-specific-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-adjuvant-chemotherapy-accounting-for-companion-prognostic-tests-oncotypedx-and-adjuvant-online
#1
Beate Jahn, Ursula Rochau, Christina Kurzthaler, Michael Hubalek, Rebecca Miksad, Gaby Sroczynski, Mike Paulden, Marvin Bundo, David Stenehjem, Diana Brixner, Murray Krahn, Uwe Siebert
BACKGROUND: Due to high survival rates and the relatively small benefit of adjuvant therapy, the application of personalized medicine (PM) through risk stratification is particularly beneficial in early breast cancer (BC) to avoid unnecessary harms from treatment. The new 21-gene assay (OncotypeDX, ODX) is a promising prognostic score for risk stratification that can be applied in conjunction with Adjuvant!Online (AO) to guide personalized chemotherapy decisions for early BC patients...
October 16, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028189/non-rigid-event-by-event-continuous-respiratory-motion-compensated-list-mode-reconstruction-for-pet
#2
Chung Chan, John Onofrey, Yiqiang Jian, Mary Germino, Xenophon Papademetris, Richard E Carson, Chi Liu
Respiratory motion during PET/CT imaging can cause significant image blurring and underestimation of tracer concentration for both static and dynamic studies. In this study, with the aim to eliminate both intra-cycle and inter-cycle motions, and apply to dynamic imaging, we developed a non-rigid event-byevent (NR-EBE) respiratory motion compensated list-mode reconstruction algorithm. The proposed method consists of 2 components, the first component estimates a continuous non-rigid motion field of the internal organs using the internal-external motion correlation (NR-INTEX)...
October 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991813/using-discrete-event-simulation-to-promote-quality-improvement-and-efficiency-in-a-radiation-oncology-treatment-center
#3
Robin M Famiglietti, Emily C Norboge, Valentine Boving, James R Langabeer, Thomas A Buchholz, Osama Mikhail
BACKGROUND: To meet demand for radiation oncology services and ensure patient-centered safe care, management in an academic radiation oncology department initiated quality improvement efforts using discrete-event simulation (DES). Although the long-term goal was testing and deploying solutions, the primary aim at the outset was characterizing and validating a computer simulation model of existing operations to identify targets for improvement. METHODS: The adoption and validation of a DES model of processes and procedures affecting patient flow and satisfaction, employee experience, and efficiency were undertaken in 2012-2013...
October 2017: Quality Management in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991366/regularity-of-a-renewal-process-estimated-from-binary-data
#4
John D Rice, Robert L Strawderman, Brent A Johnson
Assessment of the regularity of a sequence of events over time is important for clinical decision-making as well as informing public health policy. Our motivating example involves determining the effect of an intervention on the regularity of HIV self-testing behavior among high-risk individuals when exact self-testing times are not recorded. Assuming that these unobserved testing times follow a renewal process, the goals of this work are to develop suitable methods for estimating its distributional parameters when only the presence or absence of at least one event per subject in each of several observation windows is recorded...
October 9, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964442/evaluation-of-a-stratified-national-breast-screening-program-in-the-united-kingdom-an-early-model-based-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#5
Ewan Gray, Anna Donten, Nico Karssemeijer, Carla van Gils, D Gareth Evans, Sue Astley, Katherine Payne
OBJECTIVES: To identify the incremental costs and consequences of stratified national breast screening programs (stratified NBSPs) and drivers of relative cost-effectiveness. METHODS: A decision-analytic model (discrete event simulation) was conceptualized to represent four stratified NBSPs (risk 1, risk 2, masking [supplemental screening for women with higher breast density], and masking and risk 1) compared with the current UK NBSP and no screening. The model assumed a lifetime horizon, the health service perspective to identify costs (£, 2015), and measured consequences in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)...
September 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961124/parallel-stochastic-discrete-event-simulation-of-calcium-dynamics-in-neuron
#6
Mohammad Nazrul Ishlam Patoary, Carl Tropper, Robert A McDougal, Lin Zhongwei, William W Lytton
The intra-cellular calcium signaling pathways of a neuron depends on both biochemical reactions and diffusions. Some quasi-isolated compartments (e.g. spines) are so small and calcium concentrations are so low that one extra molecule diffusing in by chance can make a nontrivial difference in its concentration (percentage-wise). These rare events can affect dynamics discretely in such way that they cannot be evaluated by a deterministic simulation. Stochastic models of such a system provide a more detailed understanding of these systems than existing deterministic models because they capture their behavior at a molecular level...
September 26, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955237/understanding-the-effect-of-statins-and-patient-adherence-in-atherosclerosis-via-a-quantitative-systems-pharmacology-model-using-a-novel-hybrid-and-multi-scale-approach
#7
Cesar Pichardo-Almarza, Vanessa Diaz-Zuccarini
Background and Objective: Statins are one of the most prescribed drugs to treat atherosclerosis. They inhibit the hepatic HMG-CoA reductase, causing a reduction of circulating cholesterol and LDL levels. Statins have had undeniable success; however, the benefits of statin therapy crystallize only if patients adhere to the prescribed treatment, which is far away from reality since adherence decreases with time with around half of patients discontinue statin therapy within the first year. The objective of this work is to; firstly, demonstrate a formal in-silico methodology based on a hybrid, multiscale mathematical model used to study the effect of statin treatment on atherosclerosis under different patient scenarios, including cases where the influence of medication adherence is examined and secondly, to propose a flexible simulation framework that allows extensions or simplifications, allowing the possibility to design other complex simulation strategies, both interesting features for software development...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950548/particle-based-modeling-of-heterogeneous-chemical-kinetics-including-mass-transfer
#8
A Sengar, J A M Kuipers, Rutger A van Santen, J T Padding
Connecting the macroscopic world of continuous fields to the microscopic world of discrete molecular events is important for understanding several phenomena occurring at physical boundaries of systems. An important example is heterogeneous catalysis, where reactions take place at active surfaces, but the effective reaction rates are determined by transport limitations in the bulk fluid and reaction limitations on the catalyst surface. In this work we study the macro-micro connection in a model heterogeneous catalytic reactor by means of stochastic rotation dynamics...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944022/analyzing-time-ordered-event-data-with-missed-observations
#9
Adriaan M Dokter, E Emiel van Loon, Wimke Fokkema, Thomas K Lameris, Bart A Nolet, Henk P van der Jeugd
A common problem with observational datasets is that not all events of interest may be detected. For example, observing animals in the wild can difficult when animals move, hide, or cannot be closely approached. We consider time series of events recorded in conditions where events are occasionally missed by observers or observational devices. These time series are not restricted to behavioral protocols, but can be any cyclic or recurring process where discrete outcomes are observed. Undetected events cause biased inferences on the process of interest, and statistical analyses are needed that can identify and correct the compromised detection processes...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943743/multithreaded-stochastic-pdes-for-reactions-and-diffusions-in-neurons
#10
Zhongwei Lin, Carl Tropper, Robert A Mcdougal, Mohammand Nazrul Ishlam Patoary, William W Lytton, Yiping Yao, Michael L Hines
Cells exhibit stochastic behavior when the number of molecules is small. Hence a stochastic reaction-diffusion simulator capable of working at scale can provide a more accurate view of molecular dynamics within the cell. This paper describes a parallel discrete event simulator, Neuron Time Warp-Multi Thread (NTW-MT), developed for the simulation of reaction diffusion models of neurons. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first parallel discrete event simulator oriented towards stochastic simulation of chemical reactions in a neuron...
July 2017: ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation: a Publication of the Association for Computing Machinery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942043/modeling-pedestrian-crossing-speed-profiles-considering-speed-change-behavior-for-the-safety-assessment-of-signalized-intersections
#11
Miho Iryo-Asano, Wael K M Alhajyaseen
Pedestrian safety is one of the most challenging issues in road networks. Understanding how pedestrians maneuver across an intersection is the key to applying countermeasures against traffic crashes. It is known that the behaviors of pedestrians at signalized crosswalks are significantly different from those in ordinary walking spaces, and they are highly influenced by signal indication, potential conflicts with vehicles, and intersection geometries. One of the most important characteristics of pedestrian behavior at crosswalks is the possible sudden speed change while crossing...
November 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930692/palbociclib-in-hormone-receptor-positive-advanced-breast-cancer-a-cost-utility-analysis
#12
J Raphael, J Helou, K I Pritchard, D M Naimark
INTRODUCTION: The addition of palbociclib to letrozole improves progression-free survival in the first-line treatment of hormone receptor positive advanced breast cancer (ABC). This study assesses the cost-utility of palbociclib from the Canadian healthcare payer perspective. METHODS: A probabilistic discrete event simulation (DES) model was developed and parameterised with data from the PALOMA 1 and 2 trials and other sources. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-month (QALM) gained for palbociclib was calculated...
November 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919794/parenteral-nutrition-including-an-omega-3-fatty-acid-containing-lipid-emulsion-for-intensive-care-patients-in-china-a-pharmacoeconomic-analysis
#13
Yufei Feng, Chao Li, Tian Zhang, Lorenzo Pradelli
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Parenteral nutrition (PN) incorporating omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsions has been shown to be cost effective in Western populations. A pharmacoeconomic evaluation was performed within the Chinese intensive care unit (ICU) setting. This assessed whether the additional acquisition cost of PN with omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsion (SMOFlipid) vs standard PN was offset by improved clinical outcomes that can reduce subsequent costs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pharmacoeconomic discrete event simulation model was developed, based on an update to efficacy data from a previous international meta-analysis, with China-specific clinical and economic input parameters...
2017: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916666/regional-evaluation-of-the-severity-based-stroke-triage-algorithm-for-emergency-medical-services-using-discrete-event-simulation
#14
Brittany M Bogle, Andrew W Asimos, Wayne D Rosamond
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Severity-Based Stroke Triage Algorithm for Emergency Medical Services endorses routing patients with suspected large vessel occlusion acute ischemic strokes directly to endovascular stroke centers (ESCs). We sought to evaluate different specifications of this algorithm within a region. METHODS: We developed a discrete event simulation environment to model patients with suspected stroke transported according to algorithm specifications, which varied by stroke severity screen and permissible additional transport time for routing patients to ESCs...
October 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914961/a-semiparametric-likelihood-based-method-for-regression-analysis-of-mixed-panel-count-data
#15
Liang Zhu, Ying Zhang, Yimei Li, Jianguo Sun, Leslie L Robison
Panel-count data arise when each study subject is observed only at discrete time points in a recurrent event study, and only the numbers of the event of interest between observation time points are recorded (Sun and Zhao, 2013). However, sometimes the exact number of events between some observation times is unknown and what we know is only whether the event of interest has occurred. In this article, we will refer this type of data to as mixed panel-count data and propose a likelihood-based semiparametric regression method for their analysis by using the nonhomogeneous Poisson process assumption...
September 15, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892568/quantifying-fine-particle-emission-events-from-time-resolved-measurements-method-description-and-application-to-18-california-low-income-apartments
#16
Wanyu R Chan, Jennifer M Logue, Xining Wu, Neil E Klepeis, William J Fisk, Federico Noris, Brett C Singer
PM2.5 exposure is associated with significant health risk. Exposures in homes derive from both outdoor and indoor sources, with emissions occurring primarily in discrete events. Data on emission event magnitudes and schedules are needed to support simulation-based studies of exposures and mitigations. This study applied an identification and characterization algorithm to quantify time-resolved PM2.5 emission events from data collected during 224 days of monitoring in 18 California apartments with low-income residents...
September 11, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882905/cost-comparison-of-orthopaedic-fracture-pathways-using-discrete-event-simulation-in-a-glasgow-hospital
#17
Gillian H Anderson, Paul J Jenkins, David A McDonald, Robert Van Der Meer, Alec Morton, Margaret Nugent, Lech A Rymaszewski
OBJECTIVE: Healthcare faces the continual challenge of improving outcome while aiming to reduce cost. The aim of this study was to determine the micro cost differences of the Glasgow non-operative trauma virtual pathway in comparison to a traditional pathway. DESIGN: Discrete event simulation was used to model and analyse cost and resource utilisation with an activity-based costing approach. Data for a full comparison before the process change was unavailable so we used a modelling approach, comparing a virtual fracture clinic (VFC) with a simulated traditional fracture clinic (TFC)...
September 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870382/simulation-based-decision-support-framework-for-dynamic-ambulance-redeployment-in-singapore
#18
Sean Shao Wei Lam, Clarence Boon Liang Ng, Francis Ngoc Hoang Long Nguyen, Yih Yng Ng, Marcus Eng Hock Ong
OBJECTIVE: Dynamic ambulance redeployment policies tend to introduce much more flexibilities in improving ambulance resource allocation by capitalizing on the definite geospatial-temporal variations in ambulance demand patterns over the time-of-the-day and day-of-the-week effects. A novel modelling framework based on the Approximate Dynamic Programming (ADP) approach leveraging on a Discrete Events Simulation (DES) model for dynamic ambulance redeployment in Singapore is proposed in this paper...
October 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864846/the-use-of-decision-analytic-models-in-atopic-eczema-a-systematic-review-and-critical-appraisal
#19
REVIEW
Emma McManus, Tracey Sach, Nick Levell
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to identify and assess the quality of published economic decision-analytic models within atopic eczema against best practice guidelines, with the intention of informing future decision-analytic models within this condition. METHODS: A systematic search of the following online databases was performed: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, EconLit, Scopus, Health Technology Assessment, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry and Web of Science...
September 1, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858174/trends-in-characteristics-of-patients-listed-for-liver-transplantation-will-lead-to-higher-rates-of-waitlist-removal-due-to-clinical-deterioration
#20
Zinan Yi, Maria E Mayorga, Eric S Orman, Stephanie B Wheeler, Paul H Hayashi, A Sidney Barritt
BACKGROUND: Changes in the epidemiology of end-stage liver disease may lead to increased risk of dropout from the liver transplant waitlist. Anticipating the future of liver transplant waitlist characteristics is vital when considering organ allocation policy. METHODS: We performed a discrete event simulation to forecast patient characteristics and rate of waitlist dropout. Estimates were simulated from 2015 to 2025. The model was informed by data from the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network, 2003 to 2014...
October 2017: Transplantation
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