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Discrete event simulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100215/a-discrete-event-simulation-model-to-evaluate-the-use-of-community-services-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-in-the-united-kingdom
#1
Reda Lebcir, Eren Demir, Raheelah Ahmad, Christos Vasilakis, David Southern
BACKGROUND: The number of people affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) is increasing in the United Kingdom driven by population ageing. The treatment of the disease is complex, resource intensive and currently there is no known cure to PD. The National Health Service (NHS), the public organisation delivering healthcare in the UK, is under financial pressures. There is a need to find innovative ways to improve the operational and financial performance of treating PD patients. The use of community services is a new and promising way of providing treatment and care to PD patients at reduced cost than hospital care...
January 18, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098397/regression-analysis-of-mixed-panel-count-data-with-dependent-terminal-events
#2
Guanglei Yu, Liang Zhu, Yang Li, Jianguo Sun, Leslie L Robison
Event history studies are commonly conducted in many fields, and a great deal of literature has been established for the analysis of the two types of data commonly arising from these studies: recurrent event data and panel count data. The former arises if all study subjects are followed continuously, while the latter means that each study subject is observed only at discrete time points. In reality, a third type of data, a mixture of the two types of the data earlier, may occur and furthermore, as with the first two types of the data, there may exist a dependent terminal event, which may preclude the occurrences of recurrent events of interest...
January 18, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097712/force-generation-by-titin-folding
#3
Zsolt Mártonfalvi, Pasquale Bianco, Katalin Naftz, György G Ferenczy, Miklós Kellermayer
Titin is a giant protein that provides elasticity to muscle. As the sarcomere is stretched, titin extends hierarchically according to the mechanics of its segments. Whether titin's globular domains unfold during this process and how such unfolded domains might contribute to muscle contractility are strongly debated. To explore the force-dependent folding mechanisms, here we manipulated skeletal-muscle titin molecules with high-resolution optical tweezers. In force-clamp mode, after quenching the force (<10 pN), extension fluctuated without resolvable discrete events...
January 18, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092955/flow-optimization-in-vascular-networks
#4
Radu C Cascaval, Ciro D'Apice, Maria Pia D'Arienzo, Rosanna Manzo
The development of mathematical models for studying phenomena observed in vascular networks is very useful for its potential applications in medicine and physiology. Detailed 3D studies of flow in the arterial system based on the Navier-Stokes equations require high computational power, hence reduced models are often used, both for the constitutive laws and the spatial domain. In order to capture the major features of the phenomena under study, such as variations in arterial pressure and flow velocity, the resulting PDE models on networks require appropriate junction and boundary conditions...
June 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076183/markov-influence-diagrams
#5
Francisco J Díez, Mar Yebra, Iñigo Bermejo, Miguel A Palacios-Alonso, Manuel Arias Calleja, Manuel Luque, Jorge Pérez-Martín
Markov influence diagrams (MIDs) are a new type of probabilistic graphical model that extends influence diagrams in the same way that Markov decision trees extend decision trees. They have been designed to build state-transition models, mainly in medicine, and perform cost-effectiveness analyses. Using a causal graph that may contain several variables per cycle, MIDs can model various patient characteristics without multiplying the number of states; in particular, they can represent the history of the patient without using tunnel states...
February 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052886/intestinal-rehabilitation-for-children-with-intestinal-failure-is-cost-effective-a-simulation-study
#6
Henk Groen, Esther G Neelis, Marten J Poley, Joanne F Olieman, René Scheenstra, Paul Fm Krabbe, Gerard Dijkstra, Edmond Hhm Rings
BACKGROUND: Children with intestinal failure (IF) depend on parenteral nutrition (PN). The goal in the treatment of IF is to wean children off PN through intestinal rehabilitation (IR). Although the healthcare burden of IF is enormous, to our knowledge there has been no previous cost-effectiveness analysis in pediatric IF including IR. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of IR in terms of costs and life-years. DESIGN: We simulated the treatment of IF in children in a discrete-event model...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045348/the-impact-of-increasing-staff-resources-on-patient-flow-in-a-psychiatric-emergency-service
#7
Lara Chepenik, Edieal Pinker
OBJECTIVE: The study illustrates the use of approaches based on queuing theory to understand bottlenecks in patient flow. A queuing simulation was used to predict the potential benefits of additional clinical personnel on patient flow through a psychiatric emergency service (PES). METHODS: A discrete-event simulation model was calibrated on the basis of two months of data collected in a PES. This model examined the effects of adding between .5 (half-time) and three additional providers to the 8 a...
January 3, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025930/cost-effectiveness-of-treatment-sequences-of-chemotherapies-and-targeted-biologics-for-elderly-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-patients
#8
Rohan C Parikh, Xianglin L Du, Morgan O Robert, David R Lairson
BACKGROUND: Treatment patterns for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients have changed considerably over the last decade with the introduction of new chemotherapies and targeted biologics. These treatments are often administered in various sequences with limited evidence regarding their cost-effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a pharmacoeconomic evaluation of commonly administered treatment sequences among elderly mCRC patients. METHODS: A probabilistic discrete event simulation model assuming Weibull distribution was developed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the following common treatment sequences: (a) first-line oxaliplatin/irinotecan followed by second-line oxaliplatin/irinotecan + bevacizumab (OI-OIB); (b) first-line oxaliplatin/irinotecan + bevacizumab followed by second-line oxaliplatin/irinotecan + bevacizumab (OIB-OIB); (c) OI-OIB followed by a third-line targeted biologic (OI-OIB-TB); and (d) OIB-OIB followed by a third-line targeted biologic (OIB-OIB-TB)...
January 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017865/a-multi-scale-method-for-modelling-degradation-of-bioresorbable-polyesters
#9
Taohong Zhang, Shaonan Zhou, Xiaohao Gao, Zhiyong Yang, Leran Sun, Dezheng Zhang
: A multi-scale model using the Cellular Automata (CA) and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) methods is presented to simulate the degradation process of bioresorbable polyesters such as polylactide (PLA), polyglycolide (PGA) and their copolymers. The model considers the underlying chemical and physical events such as polymer chain scission, oligomer production, crystallisation induced by polymer chain scissions, oligomer diffusion and microstructure evolution due to erosion of the small chains...
December 22, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008769/a-discrete-event-simulation-to-model-the-cost-utility-of-fingolimod-and-natalizumab-in-rapidly-evolving-severe-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-in-the-uk
#10
Stephen Montgomery, Maciej Maruszczak, David Slater, Jeanette Kusel, Richard Nicholas, Nicholas Adlard
OBJECTIVE: Two disease modifying therapies are licensed in the EU for use in rapidly-evolving severe (RES) relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), fingolimod and natalizumab. Here a discrete event simulation (DES) model to analyse the cost-effectiveness of natalizumab and fingolimod in the RES population, from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK, is reported. METHODS: A DES model was developed to track individual RES patients, based on Expanded Disability Status Scale scores...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993748/coordinating-clinic-and-surgery-appointments-to-meet-access-service-levels-for-elective-surgery
#11
Pooyan Kazemian, Mustafa Y Sir, Mark P Van Oyen, Jenna K Lovely, David W Larson, Kalyan S Pasupathy
Providing timely access to surgery is crucial for patients with high acuity diseases like cancer. We present a methodological framework to make efficient use of scarce resources including surgeons, operating rooms, and clinic appointment slots with a goal of coordinating clinic and surgery appointments so that patients with different acuity levels can see a surgeon in the clinic and schedule their surgery within a maximum wait time target that is clinically safe for them. We propose six heuristic scheduling policies with two underlying ideas behind them: (1) proactively book a tentative surgery day along with the clinic appointment at the time an appointment request is received, and (2) intelligently space out clinic and surgery appointments such that if the patient does not need his/her surgery appointment there is sufficient time to offer it to another patient...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992333/continuous-subresolution-displacements-in-finite-difference-simulations-of-ultrasound-propagation-and-imaging
#12
Gianmarco Pinton
Time domain finite difference simulations are used extensively to simulate wave propagation. They approximate the wave field on a discrete domain with a grid spacing that is typically on the order of a tenth of a wavelength. The smallest displacements that can be modeled by this type of simulation are thus limited to discrete values that are integer multiples of the grid spacing. This paper presents a method to represent continuous and subresolution displacements by varying the impedance of individual elements in a multi-element scatterer...
December 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974314/the-k%C3%A3-lliker-fuse-nuclei-regulate-respiratory-rhythm-variability-via-a-gain-control-mechanism
#13
Rishi R Dhingra, Mathias Dutschmann, Roberto Fernandez Galan, Thomas E Dick
Respiration varies from breath to breath. On the millisecond time scale of spiking, neuronal circuits exhibit variability due to the stochastic properties of ion channels and synapses. Does this fast, microscopic source of variability contribute to the slower, macroscopic variability of the respiratory period? To address this question, we modeled a stochastic oscillator with forcing; then, we tested its predictions experimentally for the respiratory rhythm generated by the in situ perfused preparation during vagal nerve stimulation (VNS)...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973306/evaluate-the-cost-effective-threshold-of-osteoporosis-treatment-on-elderly-women-in-china-using-discrete-event-simulation-model
#14
W Ni, Y Jiang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27972954/differences-in-cost-effectiveness-estimates-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-treatment-among-cohort-markov-model-markov-microsimulation-and-discrete-event-simulation
#15
H J Zhou, Y J Zhao, A C Wojciech, L Lin, J J Caro, J Moller, Y Y Dan, B P Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27972520/modeling-treatments-and-outcomes-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-a-case-study-of-discrete-event-simulation-and-the-challenges-for-a-uk-nice-evaluation
#16
S Sorensen, F Hall, O Reifsniderf, Proskorovsky, L Dearden, Girod, J Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27971926/factors-influencing-door-to-doctor-time-in-an-emergency-department-discrete-event-simulation-model
#17
R A Ribeiro, E N Baungratz, G Vaccaro, P S Schmitz, A K Fernandes, V Colpani, M Falavigna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27970520/cost-effectiveness-of-brivaracetam-versus-other-antiepileptic-drugs-used-as-adjunctive-treatment-for-focal-seizures-in-the-uk-a-discrete-event-simulation-model
#18
M Charokopou, J Sander, R Saha, S Beard, R Kidd, E Coward, J Plumb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967171/limitations-of-discrete-time-approaches-to-continuous-time-contagion-dynamics
#19
Peter G Fennell, Sergey Melnik, James P Gleeson
Continuous-time Markov process models of contagions are widely studied, not least because of their utility in predicting the evolution of real-world contagions and in formulating control measures. It is often the case, however, that discrete-time approaches are employed to analyze such models or to simulate them numerically. In such cases, time is discretized into uniform steps and transition rates between states are replaced by transition probabilities. In this paper, we illustrate potential limitations to this approach...
November 2016: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919355/model-observational-bridging-study-on-the-effectiveness-of-ezetimibe-on-cardiovascular-morbidity-and-mortality-in-france-a-population-based-study
#20
Jean Ferrières, Jean Dallongeville, Michel Rossignol, Jacques Bénichou, J Jaime Caro, Denis Getsios, Luis Hernandez, Lucien Abenhaim, Lamiae Grimaldi-Bensouda
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the real-life impact of ezetimibe on cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in France. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the number of non-fatal and fatal CV events that could be prevented and corresponding number of patients needed to treat (NNT) with ezetimibe to prevent one CV event over 5 years. METHODS: Non-interventional 48-month follow-up cohort conducted in hypercholesterolemic patients starting on ezetimibe <3 months at study entry, either as monotherapy or combined with statins...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
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