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plasma derivatives

Abderrahim Nemmar, Suhail Al-Salam, Sumaya Beegam, Priya Yuvaraju, Badreldin H Ali
Adverse cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution persist even at lower concentrations than those of the current air quality limit. Therefore, identification of safe and effective measures against particles-induced cardiovascular toxicity is needed. Nootkatone is a sesquiterpenoid in grapefruit with diverse bioactivities including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, its protective effect on the cardiovascular injury induced by diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has not been studied before...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Hui-Chuan Chang, Camy C-H Kung, Tzu-Ting Chang, Shu-Chuan Jao, Yu-Ting Hsu, Wen-Shan Li
Aminopeptidase P, a metalloprotease, targets Xaa-Proline peptides for cleavage [1-4]. There are two forms of human AMPP, a membrane-bound form (hmAMPP) and a soluble cytosolic form (hcAMPP)[5]. Similar to the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme, AMPP plays an important role in the catabolism of inflammatory and vasoactive peptides, known as kinins. The plasma kinin, bradykinin, was used as the substrate to conduct enzymatic activity analyses and to determine the Michaelis constant (Km) of 174 μM and the catalytic rate constant (kcat) of 10...
2018: PloS One
Vishal Musale, Bruno Casciaro, Maria Luisa Mangoni, Yasser H A Abdel-Wahab, Peter R Flatt, J Michael Conlon
Temporin A (FLPLIGRVLSGIL-NH2 ), temporin F (FLPLIGKVLSGIL-NH2 ), and temporin G (FFPVIGRILNGIL-NH2 ), first identified in skin secretions of the frog Rana temporaria, produced concentration-dependent stimulation of insulin release from BRIN-BD11 rat clonal β-cells at concentrations ≥1 nM, without cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 3 μM. Temporin A was the most effective. The mechanism of insulinotropic action did not involve an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Temporins B, C, E, H, and K were either inactive or only weakly active...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Weiling Hu, Wenfang Zheng, Qifang Liu, Hua Chu, Shujie Chen, John J Kim, Jiaguo Wu, Jianmin Si
Emerging studies demonstrate the diagnostic utility of DNA methylation-based blood test for gastric cancer. The aim of the meta-analysis is to evaluate the accuracy of blood DNA methylation markers for detecting patients with gastric cancer. A systematic literature search to November 2016 that evaluated DNA methylation markers utilizing blood specimen to detect gastric cancer were selected to derive pooled sensitivities and specificities. 32 studies including 4,172 patients (gastric cancer (N = 2,098), control (N = 2,074)) met the study criteria...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
Prakash Doddapattar, Nirav Dhanesha, Mehul R Chorawala, Chandler Tinsman, Manish Jain, Manasa K Nayak, Janice M Staber, Anil K Chauhan
OBJECTIVE: VWF (von Willebrand factor) is synthesized by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes and is known to contribute to atherosclerosis. In vitro studies suggest that platelet-derived VWF (Plt-VWF) is biochemically and functionally different from endothelial cell-derived VWF (EC-VWF). We determined the role of different pools of VWF in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Using bone marrow transplantation, we generated chimeric Plt-VWF, EC-VWF, and Plt-VWF mice lacking a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I repeats-13 in platelets and plasma on apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) background...
January 18, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Matthias Mulsow, André Melzer
The phase transition of finite Yukawa balls (ordered systems of microspheres in a gaseous plasma environment) with less than 100 particles is studied experimentally by means of configurational entropies. We have developed cylindrical two- and three-particle-correlation functions to measure these entropies for multiple cluster sizes over a wide temperature range. The cluster temperature is finely tuned using a stochastic laser heating setup. It is shown that the correlation functions give a detailed insight into the structural properties of the cluster...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
N Andrés, F Sahraoui
The exact law for fully developed homogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamics (CMHD) turbulence is derived. For an isothermal plasma, without the assumption of isotropy, the exact law is expressed as a function of the plasma velocity field, the compressible Alfvén velocity, and the scalar density, instead of the Elsasser variables used in previous works. The theoretical results show four different types of terms that are involved in the nonlinear cascade of the total energy in the inertial range. Each category is examined in detail, in particular, those that can be written either as source or flux terms...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Brett D Keenan, Andrei N Simakov, Luis Chacón, William T Taitano
Strong collisional shocks in multi-ion plasmas are featured in many high-energy-density environments, including inertial confinement fusion implosions. However, their basic structure and its dependence on key parameters (e.g., the Mach number and the plasma ion composition) are poorly understood, and inconsistencies in that regard remain in the literature. In particular, the shock width's dependence on the Mach number has been hotly debated for decades. Using a high-fidelity Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code, iFP, and direct comparisons to multi-ion hydrodynamic simulations and semianalytic predictions, we resolve the structure of steady-state planar shocks in D-^{3}He plasmas...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Luca Lanotte, Didier Laux, Benoît Charlot, Manouk Abkarian
The morphology of dried blood droplets derives from the deposition of red cells, the main components of their solute phase. Up to now, evaporation-induced convective flows were supposed to be at the base of red cell distribution in blood samples. Here, we present a direct visualization by videomicroscopy of the internal dynamics in desiccating blood droplets, focusing on the role of cell concentration and plasma composition. We show that in diluted suspensions, the convection is promoted by the rich molecular composition of plasma, whereas it is replaced by an outward red blood cell displacement front at higher hematocrits...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Amar P Misra, Debjani Chatterjee, Gert Brodin
We study the nonlinear wave modulation of Langmuir waves (LWs) in a fully degenerate plasma. Using the Wigner-Moyal equation coupled to the Poisson equation and the multiple scale expansion technique, a modified nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation is derived which governs the evolution of LW envelopes in degenerate plasmas. The nonlocal nonlinearity in the NLS equation appears due to the group velocity and multiplasmon resonances, i.e., resonances induced by the simultaneous particle absorption of multiple wave quanta...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
E S Benilov, M S Benilov
We derive a kinetic equation for rarefied diatomic gases whose molecules have a permanent dipole moment. Estimating typical parameters of such gases, we show that quantum effects cannot be neglected when describing the rotation of molecules, which we thus approximate by quantum rotators. The intermolecular potential is assumed to involve an unspecified short-range repulsive component and a long-range dipole-dipole Coulomb interaction. In the kinetic equation derived, the former and the latter give rise, respectively, to the collision integral and a self-consistent electric field generated collectively by the dipoles (as in the Vlasov model of plasma)...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
W Rozmus, A Brantov, C Fortmann-Grote, V Yu Bychenkov, S Glenzer
We present a theory of electrostatic fluctuations in two-component plasmas where electrons and ions are described by Maxwellian distribution functions at unequal temperatures. Based on the exact solution of the Landau kinetic equation, that includes electron-electron, electron-ion, and ion-ion collision integrals, the dynamic form factor, S(k[over ⃗],ω), is derived for weakly coupled plasmas. The collective plasma responses at ion-acoustic, Langmuir, and entropy mode resonances are described for arbitrary wave numbers and frequencies in the entire range of plasma collisionality...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Chang Liu, William Fox, Amitava Bhattacharjee, Alexander G R Thomas, Archis S Joglekar
Recent theory has demonstrated a novel physics regime for magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density plasmas where the magnetic field is advected by heat flux via the Nernst effect. Here we elucidate the physics of the electron dissipation layer in this regime. Through fully kinetic simulation and a generalized Ohm's law derived from first principles, we show that momentum transport due to a nonlocal effect, the heat-flux-viscosity, provides the dissipation mechanism for magnetic reconnection. Scaling analysis, and simulations show that the reconnection process comprises a magnetic field compression stage and quasisteady reconnection stage, and the characteristic width of the current sheet in this regime is several electron mean-free paths...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Shuai Zhang, Kevin P Driver, François Soubiran, Burkhard Militzer
We use path integral Monte Carlo and density functional molecular dynamics to construct a coherent set of equations of state (EOS) for a series of hydrocarbon materials with various C:H ratios (2:1, 1:1, 2:3, 1:2, and 1:4) over the range of 0.07-22.4gcm^{-3} and 6.7×10^{3}-1.29×10^{8}K. The shock Hugoniot curve derived for each material displays a single compression maximum corresponding to K-shell ionization. For C:H = 1:1, the compression maximum occurs at 4.7-fold of the initial density and we show radiation effects significantly increase the shock compression ratio above 2 Gbar, surpassing relativistic effects...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
Thomas E Woolley, Eamonn A Gaffney, Alain Goriely
If the plasma membrane of a cell is able to delaminate locally from its actin cortex, a cellular bleb can be produced. Blebs are pressure-driven protrusions, which are noteworthy for their ability to produce cellular motion. Starting from a general continuum mechanics description, we restrict ourselves to considering cell and bleb shapes that maintain approximately spherical forms. From this assumption, we obtain a tractable algebraic system for bleb formation. By including cell-substrate adhesions, we can model blebbing cell motility...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
Volodymyr M Lashkin
We derive the nonlinear equations that describe coupled drift waves and ion acoustic waves in a plasma. We show that when the coupling to ion acoustic waves is negligible, the reduced nonlinear equation is a generalization of the Hasegawa-Mima equation to the three-dimensional (3D) case. We find an exact analytical solution of this equation in the form of a 3D soliton drift wave (3D modon). By numerical simulations we study collisions between the modons and show that the collisions can be fully elastic.
September 2017: Physical Review. E
Jingjing Jiao, Chunxia Tan, Zijian Li, Yan Liu, Xing Han, Yong Cui
Supramolecular nanoreactors featuring multiple catalytically active sites are of great importance, especially for asymmetric catalysis, are yet challenging to construct. Here we report the design and assembly of five chiral single- and mixed-linker tetrahedral coordination cages using six dicarboxylate ligands derived-from enantiopure Mn(salen), Cr(salen) and/or Fe(salen) as linear linkers and four Cp3Zr3 clusters as three-connected vertices. The formation of these cages was confirmed by a variety of techniques including single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer, quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry...
January 18, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Gregory W Burns, Kelsey E Brooks, Eleanore V O'Neil, Darren E Hagen, Susanta K Behura, Thomas E Spencer
Progesterone (P4) acts via the endometrium to promote conceptus growth and implantation for pregnancy establishment. Many cells release extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are membrane-bound vesicles of endosomal and plasma membrane origin. In sheep, endometrial-derived EVs were found to traffic to the conceptus trophectoderm. Thus, EVs are hypothesized to be an important mode of intercellular communication by transferring select RNAs, proteins, and lipids between the endometrium and conceptus. Electron microscopy analysis found that the endometrial luminal and glandular epithelia were the primary source of EVs in the uterus of cyclic sheep...
January 16, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Kazuhiro Egashira, Yoshinori Sumita, Weijian Zhong, Takashi I, Seigo Ohba, Kazuhiro Nagai, Izumi Asahina
Bone marrow concentrate (BMC), which is enriched in mononuclear cells (MNCs) and platelets, has recently attracted the attention of clinicians as a new optional means for bone engineering. We previously reported that the osteoinductive effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) could be enhanced synergistically by co-transplantation of peripheral blood (PB)-derived platelet-rich plasma (PRP). This study aims to investigate whether BMC can effectively promote bone formation induced by low-dose BMP-2, thereby reducing the undesirable side-effects of BMP-2, compared to PRP...
2018: PloS One
Jan Moritz Ponert, Svenja Schwarz, Reza Haschemi, Jens Müller, Bernd Pötzsch, Gerd Bendas, Martin Schlesinger
Metastasis is responsible for the majority of cancer associated fatalities. Tumor cells leaving the primary tumor and entering the blood flow immediately interact with platelets. Activated platelets contribute in different ways to cancer cell survival and proliferation, e.g. in formation of the early metastatic niche by release of different growth factors and chemokines. Here we show that a direct interaction between platelets and MV3 melanoma or MCF7 breast cancer cells induces platelet activation and a VEGF release in citrated plasma that cannot be further elevated by the coagulation cascade and generated thrombin...
2018: PloS One
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