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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933645/aflatoxin-biomarkers-in-hair-may-facilitate-long-term-exposure-studies
#1
Innocent Mupunga, Christo D Izaaks, Leshweni J Shai, David R Katerere
Aflatoxins are highly toxic fungal metabolites produced by some members of the Aspergillus species. They are low molecular weight lipophilic compounds that are easily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. They contaminate most staple foods, including maize, peanuts, peanut butter and sorghum mainly in the tropics where hot and humid conditions promote fungal growth. Absorbed aflatoxins are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system in the liver into toxic metabolites. Aflatoxin B (AFB)1 is the most toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic naturally occurring toxin...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933387/effect-of-vitamin-d-on-biochemical-parameters-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-women-a-meta-analysis
#2
Yunping Xue, Pengfei Xu, Kai Xue, Xiaoyi Duan, Jian Cao, Ting Luan, Qian Li, Lin Gu
AIM: To investigate the therapeutical effect of vitamin D supplementation on the metabolism and endocrine parameters of PCOS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical studies investigating the therapeutic effect of vitamin D supplementation on PCOS patients were selected by searching PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane library and Web of Science until April 2016. The included articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria. Serum HOMA-IR, QUICKI, LDL, DHEAS, free testosterone (FT), total testosterone (TT), PTH, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, and triglyceride of PCOS patients were enrolled for evaluating the therapeutic effects of vitamin D...
December 9, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933363/spatially-resolved-metabolic-distribution-for-unraveling-the-physiological-change-and-responses-in-tomato-fruit-using-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry-imaging-maldi-msi
#3
Junya Nakamura, Tomomi Morikawa-Ichinose, Yoshinori Fujimura, Eisuke Hayakawa, Katsutoshi Takahashi, Takanori Ishii, Daisuke Miura, Hiroyuki Wariishi
Information on spatiotemporal metabolic behavior is indispensable for a precise understanding of physiological changes and responses, including those of ripening processes and wounding stress, in fruit, but such information is still limited. Here, we visualized the spatial distribution of metabolites within tissue sections of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit using a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) technique combined with a matrix sublimation/recrystallization method...
December 8, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933333/discriminatory-ability-of-simple-ogtt-based-beta-cell-function-indices-for-prediction-of-prediabetes-and-type-2-diabetes-the-codam-study
#4
Louise J C J den Biggelaar, Simone J S Sep, Simone J P M Eussen, Andrea Mari, Ele Ferrannini, Marleen M J van Greevenbroek, Carla J H van der Kallen, Casper G Schalkwijk, Coen D A Stehouwer, Pieter C Dagnelie
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The hyperglycaemic clamp technique and the frequently sampled IVGTT are unsuitable techniques to assess beta cell function (BCF) in large cohorts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminatory ability of simple OGTT-based BCF indices for prediction of prediabetes (meaning impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Glucose metabolism status was assessed by 2 h 75 g OGTT at baseline (n = 476, mean age 59...
December 8, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933082/rna-seq-transcriptome-response-of-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l-to-the-pathogenic-fungus-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-lini
#5
Leonardo Galindo-González, Michael K Deyholos
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes wilt in flax. Along with rust, fusarium wilt has become an important factor in flax production worldwide. Resistant flax cultivars have been used to manage the disease, but the resistance varies, depending on the interactions between specific cultivars and isolates of the pathogen. This interaction has a strong molecular basis, but no genomic information is available on how the plant responds to attempted infection, to inform breeding programs on potential candidate genes to evaluate or improve resistance across cultivars...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933039/the-contribution-of-mathematical-modeling-to-understanding-dynamic-aspects-of-rumen-metabolism
#6
André Bannink, Henk J van Lingen, Jennifer L Ellis, James France, Jan Dijkstra
All mechanistic rumen models cover the main drivers of variation in rumen function, which are feed intake, the differences between feedstuffs and feeds in their intrinsic rumen degradation characteristics, and fractional outflow rate of fluid and particulate matter. Dynamic modeling approaches are best suited to the prediction of more nuanced responses in rumen metabolism, and represent the dynamics of the interactions between substrates and micro-organisms and inter-microbial interactions. The concepts of dynamics are discussed for the case of rumen starch digestion as influenced by starch intake rate and frequency of feed intake, and for the case of fermentation of fiber in the large intestine...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932863/non-imidazole-based-histamine-h3-receptor-antagonists-with-anticonvulsant-activity-in-different-seizure-models-in-male-adult-rats
#7
Bassem Sadek, Ali Saad, Gniewomir Latacz, Kamil Kuder, Agnieszka Olejarz, Tadeusz Karcz, Holger Stark, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz
A series of twelve novel non-imidazole-based ligands (3-14) was developed and evaluated for its in vitro binding properties at the human histamine H3 receptor (hH3R). The novel ligands were investigated for their in vivo protective effects in different seizure models in male adult rats. Among the H3R ligands (3-14) tested, ligand 14 showed significant and dose-dependent reduction in the duration of tonic hind limb extension in maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model subsequent to acute systemic administration (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), whereas ligands 4, 6, and 7 without appreciable protection in MES model were most promising in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932791/migration-and-invasion-of-drug-resistant-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells-are-dependent-on-mitochondrial-activity
#8
Ji Hoon Jeon, Dong Keon Kim, Youngmi Shin, Hee Yeon Kim, Bomin Song, Eun Young Lee, Jong Kwang Kim, Hye Jin You, Heesun Cheong, Dong Hoon Shin, Seong-Tae Kim, Jae-Ho Cheong, Soo Youl Kim, Hyonchol Jang
A small proportion of cancer cells have stem-cell-like properties, are resistant to standard therapy and are associated with a poor prognosis. The metabolism of such drug-resistant cells differs from that of nearby non-resistant cells. In this study, the metabolism of drug-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells was investigated. The expression of genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondrial membrane was negatively correlated with the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma. Because the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) reflects the functional status of mitochondria and metastasis is the principal cause of death due to cancer, the relationship between MMP and metastasis was evaluated...
December 9, 2016: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932675/the-effects-of-voluntary-exercise-and-prazosin-on-capillary-rarefaction-and-metabolism-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-male-rats
#9
Emily C Dunford, Erwan Leclair, Julian Aiken, Erin R Mandel, Tara L Haas, Olivier Birot, Michael C Riddell
Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) causes impairments within the skeletal muscle microvasculature. Both regular exercise and prazosin have been shown to improve skeletal muscle capillarization and metabolism in healthy rats, through distinct angiogenic mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent and additive effects of voluntary exercise and prazosin treatment on capillary-to-fiber ratio (C:F) in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated diabetic rats. STZ (65mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=36) to induce diabetes, with healthy, non-diabetic, sedentary rats (n=10) as controls...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932674/metabolic-adaptations-in-skeletal-muscle-after-84-days-bed-rest-with-and-without-concurrent-flywheel-resistance-exercise
#10
José Maria Irimia, Mario Guerrero, Paula Rodriguez-Miguelez, Joan Aureli Cadefau, Per A Tesch, Roser Cussó, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo
As metabolic changes in human skeletal muscle after long-term (simulated) spaceflight are not well understood, this study examined the effects of long-term microgravity, with and without concurrent resistance exercise on skeletal muscle oxidative and glycolytic capacity. Twenty-one men were subjected to 84 days head-down tilt bed rest with (BRE; n=9) or without (BR; n=12) concurrent flywheel resistance exercise. Activity and gene expression of glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase (GPh), hexokinase, phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1) and citrate synthase (CS), as well as gene expression of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEFG), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1α) and myostatin, were analysed in samples from m...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932570/effect-of-losartan-combined-with-amlodipine-or-with-a-thiazide-on-uric-acid-levels-in-hypertensive-patients
#11
Alberto F Rubio-Guerra, Ana K Garro-Almendaro, Cesar I Elizalde-Barrera, Juan A Suarez-Cuenca, Montserrat B Duran-Salgado
: Hyperuricemia leads to endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and has been associated with diseases such as hypertension. Antihypertensive drugs modify serum uric acid levels, however, few data are available about their combinations on uricemia. In this study we evaluate the effect of two combinations of losartan, with amlodipine or with hydrochlorothiazide, on serum uric acid levels in hypertensive patients. METHODS: A total of 60 hypertensive patients were randomized in two groups; group LA received losartan/amlodipine (100/5 mg) once a day, whereas LH group received losartan hydrochlorothiazide (100/12...
December 8, 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932047/disturbances-of-glucose-metabolism-associated-with-the-use-of-psychotropic-drugs-a-post-mortem-evaluation
#12
Cristian Palmiere, Marc Augsburger, Vincent Varlet
Treatment with atypical antipsychotic agents and tetracyclic antidepressants has been associated with impaired glycemic control. Reported complications have included new-onset diabetes mellitus, life-threatening diabetic ketoacidosis and, rarely, death. The study presented herein focuses on biochemical investigations of glucose metabolism in a series of medico-legal cases that revealed the presence of atypical antipsychotic agents (clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone) or mirtazapine at toxicology...
December 5, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931182/exposure-of-bovine-oocytes-and-embryos-to-elevated-non-esterified-fatty-acid-concentrations-integration-of-epigenetic-and-transcriptomic-signatures-in-resultant-blastocysts
#13
K L J Desmet, V Van Hoeck, D Gagné, E Fournier, A Thakur, A M O'Doherty, C P Walsh, M A Sirard, P E J Bols, J L M R Leroy
BACKGROUND: Metabolic stress associated with negative energy balance in high producing dairy cattle and obesity in women is a risk factor for decreased fertility. Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are involved in this pathogenesis as they jeopardize oocyte and embryo development. Growing evidence indicates that maternal metabolic disorders can disturb epigenetic programming, such as DNA methylation, in the offspring. Oocyte maturation and early embryo development coincide with methylation changes and both are sensitive to adverse environments...
December 8, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931091/evaluation-of-altered-drug-pharmacokinetics-in-critically-ill-adults-receiving-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#14
Michael A Ha, Adam C Sieg
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-support modality used in patients with refractory cardiac and/or respiratory failure. A significant resurgence in the use ECMO has been seen in recent years due to substantial improvements in technology and survival benefit. With expanding ECMO use, a better understanding of how ECMO affects drug pharmacokinetics (PK) is necessary. The vast majority of PK studies in patients receiving ECMO have been conducted within neonatal or pediatric populations or within a controlled environment (e...
December 8, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931038/heterogeneity-of-glucose-metabolism-in-esophageal-cancer-measured-by-fractal-analysis-of-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-image-correlation-between-metabolic-heterogeneity-and-survival
#15
Toru Tochigi, Kiyohiko Shuto, Tsuguaki Kono, Gaku Ohira, Takayuki Tohma, Hisashi Gunji, Koichi Hayano, Kazuo Narushima, Takeshi Fujishiro, Toshiharu Hanaoka, Yasunori Akutsu, Shinichi Okazumi, Hisahiro Matsubara
BACKGROUND: Intratumoral heterogeneity is a well-recognized characteristic feature of cancer. The purpose of this study is to assess the heterogeneity of the intratumoral glucose metabolism using fractal analysis, and evaluate its prognostic value in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) studies of 79 patients who received curative surgery were evaluated. FDG-PET images were analyzed using fractal analysis software, where differential box-counting method was employed to calculate the fractal dimension (FD) of the tumor lesion...
December 9, 2016: Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930992/alteration-of-development-and-gene-expression-induced-by-in-ovo-nanoinjection-of-3-hydroxybenzo-c-phenanthrene-into-japanese-medaka-oryzias-latipes-embryos
#16
Kun Chen, Yuki Tsutsumi, Shuhei Yoshitake, Xuchun Qiu, Hai Xu, Yasuyuki Hashiguchi, Masato Honda, Kosuke Tashiro, Kei Nakayama, Takeshi Hano, Nobuo Suzuki, Kazuichi Hayakawa, Yohei Shimasaki, Yuji Oshima
Benzo[c]phenanthrene (BcP) is a highly toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) found throughout the environment. In fish, it is metabolized to 3-hydroxybenzo[c]phenanthrene (3-OHBcP). In the present study, we observed the effects of 1nM 3-OHBcP on the development and gene expression of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos. Embryos were nanoinjected with the chemical after fertilization. Survival, developmental stage, and heart rate of the embryos were observed, and gene expression differences were quantified by messenger RNA sequencing (mRNA-Seq)...
November 25, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930690/structural-mapping-and-functional-characterization-of-zebrafish-class-b-g-protein-coupled-receptor-gpcr-with-dual-ligand-selectivity-towards-glp-1-and-glucagon
#17
Deena A Oren, Yang Wei, Luce Skrabanek, Billy K C Chow, Thomas Mommsen, Svetlana Mojsov
GLP-1 and glucagon regulate glucose metabolism through a network of metabolic pathways initiated upon binding to their specific receptors that belong to class B G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The therapeutic potential of glucagon is currently being evaluated, while GLP-1 is already used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Development of a second generation of GLP-1 based therapeutics depends on a molecular and structural understanding of the interactions between the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and its ligand GLP-1...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930685/exercise-training-prevents-cardiovascular-derangements-induced-by-fructose-overload-in-developing-rats
#18
Daniela Farah, Jonas Nunes, Michelle Sartori, Danielle da Silva Dias, Raquel Sirvente, Maikon B Silva, Patrícia Fiorino, Mariana Morris, Susana Llesuy, Vera Farah, Maria-Cláudia Irigoyen, Kátia De Angelis
The risks of chronic diseases associated with the increasing consumption of fructose-laden foods are amplified by the lack of regular physical activity and have become a serious public health issue worldwide. Moreover, childhood eating habits are strongly related to metabolic syndrome in adults. Thus, we aimed to investigate the preventive role of exercise training undertaken concurrently with a high fructose diet on cardiac function, hemodynamics, cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress in male rats after weaning...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930589/hypertriglyceridemic-waist-phenotype-and-metabolic-abnormalities-in-hypertensive-adults-a-strobe-compliant-study
#19
Shuang Chen, Xiaofan Guo, Shasha Yu, Hongmei Yang, Guozhe Sun, Zhao Li, Yingxian Sun
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype and metabolic abnormalities in hypertensive adults.A cross-sectional study, with a sample of 5919 hypertensive adults (2892 men and 3027 women) aged 35 years or older, was recruited from rural areas of China. The participants underwent anthropometric measurements and laboratory examinations. The self-reported information was collected by trained personnel. The HTGW phenotype was defined as elevated triglycerides and elevated waist circumference...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930524/dietary-protein-and-fat-intake-in-relation-to-risk-of-colorectal-adenoma-in-korean
#20
Sun Young Yang, Young Sun Kim, Jung Eun Lee, Jueun Seol, Ji Hyun Song, Goh Eun Chung, Jeong Yoon Yim, Sun Hee Lim, Joo Sung Kim
Consumption of red meat and alcohol are known risk factors for colorectal cancer, but associations for dietary fat remain unclear. We investigated the associations of dietary fat, protein, and energy intake with prevalence of colorectal adenoma.We performed a prospective cross-sectional study on asymptomatic persons who underwent a screening colonoscopy at a single center during a routine health check-up from May to December 2011. Dietary data were obtained via a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), assisted by a registered dietician...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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