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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926994/the-metabolic-response-to-stress-and-infection-in-critically-ill-children-the-opportunity-of-an-individualized-approach
#1
REVIEW
Valentina De Cosmi, Gregorio Paolo Milani, Alessandra Mazzocchi, Veronica D'Oria, Marco Silano, Edoardo Calderini, Carlo Agostoni
The metabolic response to stress and infection is closely related to the corresponding requirements of energy and nutrients. On a general level, the response is driven by a complex endocrine network and related to the nature and severity of the insult. On an individual level, the effects of nutritional interventions are highly variable and a possible source of complications. This narrative review aims to discuss the metabolic changes in critically-ill children and the potential of developing personalized nutritional interventions...
September 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926842/pharmacotherapy-with-thymoquinone-improved-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-integrity-and-functional-activity-enhanced-islets-revascularization-and-alleviated-metabolic-and-hepato-renal-disturbances-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-in-rats
#2
Adel Galal El-Shemi, Osama Adnan Kensara, Aiman Alsaegh, Mohammed Hasan Mukhtar
AIMS: This study is aimed at evaluating the antidiabetic effects of thymoquinone (TQ) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats, and exploring the possible underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in adult male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared STZ (65 mg/kg). After disease induction, 42 rats were equally assigned to: controls, STZ-diabetic group, and STZ-diabetic group treated with oral TQ (35 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks...
September 20, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926799/iron-deficiency-stimulates-anthocyanin-accumulation-in-grapevine-apical-leaves
#3
Leila Caramanico, Laura Rustioni, Gabriella De Lorenzis
Iron chlorosis is a diffuse disorder affecting Mediterranean vineyards. Beside the commonly described symptom of chlorophyll decrease, an apex reddening was recently observed. Secondary metabolites, such as anthocyanins, are often synthetized to cope with stresses in plants. The present work aimed to evaluate grapevine responses to iron deficiency, in terms of anthocyanin metabolism (reflectance spectrum, total anthocyanin content, HPLC profile and gene expression) in apical leaves of Cabernet sauvignon and Sangiovese grown in hydroponic conditions...
September 9, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926680/formic-acid-as-a-secondary-substrate-for-succinic-acid-production-by-metabolically-engineered-mannheimia-succiniciproducens
#4
Jung Ho Ahn, Junho Bang, Won Jun Kim, Sang Yup Lee
There has been much effort exerted to reduce one carbon (C1) gas emission to address climate change. As one promising way to more conveniently utilize C1 gas, several technologies have been developed to convert C1 gas into useful chemicals such as formic acid (FA). In this study, systems metabolic engineering was utilized to engineer Mannheimia succiniciproducens to efficiently utilize FA. (13) C isotope analysis of M. succiniciproducens showed that FA could be utilized through formate dehydrogenase (FDH) reaction and/or the reverse reaction of pyruvate formate lyase (PFL)...
September 19, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926613/human-in-the-loop-bayesian-optimization-of-wearable-device-parameters
#5
Myunghee Kim, Ye Ding, Philippe Malcolm, Jozefien Speeckaert, Christoper J Siviy, Conor J Walsh, Scott Kuindersma
The increasing capabilities of exoskeletons and powered prosthetics for walking assistance have paved the way for more sophisticated and individualized control strategies. In response to this opportunity, recent work on human-in-the-loop optimization has considered the problem of automatically tuning control parameters based on realtime physiological measurements. However, the common use of metabolic cost as a performance metric creates significant experimental challenges due to its long measurement times and low signal-to-noise ratio...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926512/orthosiphon-stamineus-misai-kucing-ameliorated-postmenopausal-osteoporosis-in-rat-model
#6
Rubiatul Adawiyah Bokhari, Seng Fong Lau, Suhaila Mohamed
OBJECTIVE: Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) or Misai Kucing (Java tea) is a popular herbal supplement from Southeast Asia for various metabolic, age-related diseases. This study investigated the potential use of OS leaf extracts to ameliorate osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. METHODS: Fifty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into eight groups (n = 7): SHAM (healthy sham control); OVX (ovarietomized) nontreated rats (negative control); OVX + Remifemin (100 mg/kg body weight), and 2% green tea extract (positive controls); OVX + OS 50% ethanolic and aqueous extracts, both at either 150 or 300 mg/kg...
September 18, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926411/lower-mitochondrial-dna-and-altered-mitochondrial-fuel-metabolism-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-in-cameroon
#7
Jennifer Jao, Kathleen M Powis, Brian Kirmse, Chunli Yu, Fanny Epie, Emmanuel Nshom, Elaine J Abrams, Rhoda S Sperling, Derek Leroith, Mitchell E Geffner, Irwin J Kurland, Hélène C F Côté
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate blood mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in HIV/antiretroviral (ARV)-exposed uninfected (HEU) vs. HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants and investigate differences in mitochondrial-related metabolites by exposure group. DESIGN: We enrolled a prospective cohort of HIV-infected and -uninfected pregnant woman/infant pairs in Cameroon. METHODS: Dried blood spot mtDNA:nuclear DNA ratio was measured by monochrome multiplex qPCR in HEU infants exposed to in utero ARVs and postnatal zidovudine (HEU-Z) or nevirapine (HEU-N), and in HUU infants at 6 weeks of life...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926319/case-246-mr-imaging-of-a-complex-cystic-mass-in-a-newborn-girl
#8
Aditi Shruti, George S Wu
History A 6-day-old female neonate presented to the outpatient pediatric surgery clinic for evaluation of a possible prenatal abdominal mass. The neonate was delivered at term via cesarean section due to macrosomia, with a reported birth weight of 11 lb 8.7 oz (5.23 kg). The patient's postnatal course was remarkable for resolving neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. A physical examination was remarkable for a palpable mass in the abdomen. Maternal risk factors included class II obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome...
October 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926298/association-between-coffee-consumption-and-circulating-levels-of-adiponectin-and-leptin
#9
Chang Beom Lee, Sung Hoon Yu, Na Yeon Kim, Seon Mee Kim, Sung Rae Kim, Seung Joon Oh, Sun Ha Jee, Jung Eun Lee
Coffee has been proposed to have benefits for chronic diseases; however, the relevant mechanism remains to be elucidated. We conducted a cross-sectional study and evaluated the levels of adiponectin and leptin in relation to coffee consumption. We included a total of 4406 individuals (men = 2587 and women = 1819) for adiponectin analysis and 2922 individuals (men = 1731 and women = 1191) for leptin analysis. Participants answered number of cups of coffee per week and types of coffee they consumed and their serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926236/biofilms-benefiting-plants-exposed-to-zno-and-cuo-nps-studied-with-a-root-mimetic-hollow-fiber-membrane
#10
Michelle Bonebrake, Kaitlyn C Anderson, Jonathan Valiente, Astrid Rosa Jacobson, Joan E McLean, Anne J Anderson, David W Britt
Plants exist with a consortium of microbes that influence plant health, including response to biotic and abiotic stress. While nanoparticle (NP) - plant interactions are increasingly studied, the effect of NPs on the plant microbiome is less researched. Here a root-mimetic hollow fiber membrane (HFM) is presented for generating biofilms of plant-associated microbes nurtured by artificial root exudates (AREs) to correlate exudate composition with biofilm formation and response to NPs. Two microbial isolates from field-grown wheat, a bacillus endophyte and a pseudomonad root surface colonizer, were examined on HFMs fed with AREs varying in N and C composition...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926137/metabolic-profile-of-rhizoma-coptidis-in-human-plasma-determined-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#11
Qing-Shan Zhang, Gao-Wa Wang, Zhi-Qiang Han, Xiang-Mei Chen, Risu Na, Haburi Jin, Ping Li, Renbatu Bu
RATIONALE: Rhizoma coptidis extract and its alkaloids show various pharmacological activities, but its metabolic profile in human plasma has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present research, the metabolism of Rhizoma coptidis at a clinical dose (5 g/60 kg/day) was systematically analyzed to determine its biotransformation processes in human plasma. METHODS: In this research, the metabolites of Rhizoma coptidis in human plasma after oral administration of Rhizoma coptidis extract at a clinical dose were investigated using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with high-resolution LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry...
September 19, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926112/chronic-kidney-disease-and-vitamin-d-metabolism-in-human-bone-marrow-derived-mscs
#12
REVIEW
Shuanhu Zhou, Julie Glowacki
Vitamin D that is synthesized in the skin or is ingested undergoes sequential steps of metabolic activation via a cascade of cytochrome P450 enzymatic hydroxylations in the liver and kidney to produce 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1α,25(OH)2 D). There are many tissues that are able to synthesize 1α,25(OH)2 D, but the biological significance of extrarenal hydroxylases is unresolved. Human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (marrow stromal cells, hMSCs) give rise to osteoblasts, and their differentiation is stimulated by 1α,25(OH)2 D...
August 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925651/exercise-stress-testing-indications-and-common-questions
#13
Kathryn K Garner, William Pomeroy, James J Arnold
Exercise stress testing is a validated diagnostic test for coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients, and is used in the evaluation of patients with known cardiac disease. Testing of asymptomatic patients is generally not indicated. It may be performed in select deconditioned adults before starting a vigorous exercise program, but no studies have compared outcomes from preexercise testing vs. encouraging light exercise with gradual increases in exertion. Preoperative exercise stress testing is helpful for risk stratification in patients undergoing vascular surgery or who have active cardiac symptoms before undergoing nonemergent noncardiac surgery...
September 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925569/prescribing-errors-intercepted-by-pharmacist-intervention-in-care-of-patients-hospitalised-with-breast-and-gynaecological-cancer-at-a-brazilian-teaching-hospital
#14
A C Ferracini, A T Rodrigues, A A de Barros, S F Derchain, P G Mazzola
Oncologic inpatients often require multiple drug therapy. They may be at higher risk of experiencing prescribing errors, which pharmacist interventions may help to avoid. This study aimed to evaluate the types of prescribing errors, pharmaceutical interventions and differences in clinical significance, in prescriptions for hospitalised patients with breast and gynaecological cancer. A cross-sectional, prospective study was conducted at the oncology ward of a clinic specialised in breast and gynaecology cancer...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925473/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-exacerbation-impact-of-comorbidities-on-length-and-costs-during-hospitalization
#15
C Terzano, V Colamesta, B Unim, S Romani, A Meneghini, G Volpe, G La Torre
OBJECTIVE: A retrospective cohort study was performed, using administrative database of the Local Health Unit Roma-A (LHU RM-A). The included subjects were residing in one of the four districts and were hospitalized for COPD exacerbation in healthcare facilities of the LHU during years 2010-2012. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of comorbidities, length and costs of hospital stay in patients with COPD exacerbations. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with other diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, chronic renal failure, depression) that can increase risk of mortality and hospitalization...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925048/the-association-between-insulin-resistance-metabolic-variables-and-depressive-symptoms-in-mexican-american-elderly-a-population-based-study
#16
Breno S Diniz, Susan Fisher-Hoch, Joseph McCormick
OBJECTIVE: Depressive symptoms are common among older adults with obesity and diabetes. Nonetheless, the mechanisms for this association are not clear but may involve changes in the insulin cascade signaling. We aimed to investigate the association, and potential mediators, between obesity, insulin resistance, and depressive symptoms among older adults from a homogenous cohort of Mexican-Americans. METHODS: We included a total of 500 Mexican-American older adults assessed in the Cameron County Health Study...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925005/simultaneous-qualitative-and-quantitative-analyses-of-triterpenoids-in-ilex-pubescens-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#17
Di Cao, Qing Wang, Jing Jin, Maosong Qiu, Lian Zhou, Xinghong Zhou, Hui Li, Zhongxiang Zhao
INTRODUCTION: Ilex pubescens Hook et Arn mainly contains triterpenoids that possess antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the triterpenoids in I. pubescens can be useful for determining the authenticity and quality of raw materials and guiding its clinical preparation. OBJECTIVES: To establish a method for rapid and comprehensive analysis of triterpenoids in I. pubescens using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS), which will also be applied to evaluate the contents of nine triterpenoids among root, root heartwood and root bark of I...
September 18, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924963/combining-metabolic-and-process-engineering-strategies-to-improve-recombinant-glycoprotein-production-and-quality
#18
Eric Karengera, Yves Durocher, Gregory De Crescenzo, Olivier Henry
Increasing recombinant protein production while ensuring a high and consistent protein quality remains a challenge in mammalian cell culture process development. In this work, we combined a nutrient substitution approach with a metabolic engineering strategy that improves glucose utilization efficiency. This combination allowed us to tackle both lactate and ammonia accumulation and investigate on potential synergistic effects on protein production and quality. To this end, HEK293 cells overexpressing the pyruvate yeast carboxylase (PYC2) and their parental cells, both stably producing the therapeutic glycoprotein interferon α2b (IFNα2b), were cultured in media deprived of glutamine but containing chosen substitutes...
September 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924743/a-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-for-pregnant-women-to-predict-the-pharmacokinetics-of-drugs-metabolized-via-several-enzymatic-pathways
#19
André Dallmann, Ibrahim Ince, Katrin Coboeken, Thomas Eissing, Georg Hempel
BACKGROUND: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling is considered a valuable tool for predicting pharmacokinetic changes in pregnancy to subsequently guide in-vivo pharmacokinetic trials in pregnant women. The objective of this study was to extend and verify a previously developed physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for pregnant women for the prediction of pharmacokinetics of drugs metabolized via several cytochrome P450 enzymes. METHODS: Quantitative information on gestation-specific changes in enzyme activity available in the literature was incorporated in a pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic model and the pharmacokinetics of eight drugs metabolized via one or multiple cytochrome P450 enzymes was predicted...
September 18, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924722/evaluation-of-heme-oxygenase-1-ho-1-in-cd-and-ni-induced-cytotoxicity-and-crosstalk-with-ros-quenching-enzymes-in-two-to-four-leaf-stage-seedlings-of-vigna-radiata
#20
Lovely Mahawar, Rajesh Kumar, Gyan Singh Shekhawat
Research on heme oxygenase in plants has received consideration in recent years due to its several roles in development, defense, and metabolism during various environmental stresses. In the current investigation, the role of heme oxygenase (HO) 1 was evaluated in reducing heavy metal (Cd and Ni) uptake and alleviating Cd and Ni toxicity effects in the hydroponically grown seedlings of Vigna radiata var. PDM 54. Seedlings were subjected to Cd- and Ni-induced oxidative stress independently at different concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 μM...
September 18, 2017: Protoplasma
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