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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551921/-management-of-anticoagulant-and-antiplatelet-therapy-in-patients-undergoing-planned-endoscopic-procedures
#1
REVIEW
Orly Sneh Arbib, Yaron Niv, Dorit Blickstein
Antithrombotic and antiplatelet therapy is widely used for primary and secondary prevention of venous and arterial diseases. Hemorrhage is a frequent complication in patients taking these drugs, especially during and post invasive procedures. There are several oral anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs that differ from each other in the mechanism of action and metabolism, the need for drug monitoring, antidote, and the peri-procedural management of the drug. The risk of bleeding in gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures can be high (≥ 1...
April 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551788/functional-role-of-mitochondria-in-arrhythmogenesis
#2
Jessica Gambardella, Daniela Sorriento, Michele Ciccarelli, Carmine Del Giudice, Antonella Fiordelisi, Luigi Napolitano, Bruno Trimarco, Guido Iaccarino, Gaetano Santulli
Growing evidence indicate that mitochondria play a functional role in arrhythmogenesis. We report here the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of these highly dynamic organelles in the regulation of cell metabolism, action potential and, overall, heart excitability. In particular, we examine the role of cardiac mitochondria in linking metabolism and cell excitability. The importance of the main mitochondrial channels is evaluated as well, including the recently identified calcium uniporter. Promises and pitfalls of potential therapeutic strategies targeting mitochondrial pathways are also assessed...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551786/mitochondrial-bioenergetics-during-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#3
Alicia E Consolini, María I Ragone, Patricia Bonazzola, Germán A Colareda
During ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) mitochondria suffer a deficiency to supply the cardiomyocyte with chemical energy, but also contribute to the cytosolic ionic alterations especially of Ca(2+). Their free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]m) mainly depends on mitochondrial entrance through the uniporter (UCam) and extrusion in exchange with Na(+) (mNCX) driven by the electrochemical gradient (ΔΨm). Cardiac energetic is frequently estimated by the oxygen consumption, which determines metabolism coupled to ATP production and to the maintaining of ΔΨm...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551780/mitochondrial-calcium-handling-in-physiology-and-disease
#4
Veronica Granatiero, Diego De Stefani, Rosario Rizzuto
Calcium (Ca(2+)) accumulation inside mitochondria represents a pleiotropic signal controlling a wide range of cellular functions, including key metabolic pathways and life/death decisions. This phenomenon has been first described in the 1960s, but the identity of the molecules controlling this process remained a mystery until just few years ago, when both mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and release systems were genetically dissected. This finally opened the possibility to develop genetic models to directly test the contribution of mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis to cellular functions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551743/effects-of-deltamethrin-on-striatum-and-hippocampus-mitochondrial-integrity-and-the-protective-role-of-quercetin-in-rats
#5
Salim Gasmi, Rachid Rouabhi, Mohamed Kebieche, Samira Boussekine, Aya Salmi, Nadjiba Toualbia, Chahinez Taib, Zina Bouteraa, Hajer Chenikher, Sara Henine, Belgacem Djabri
The present work is to evaluate the neurotoxicity induced by pyrethroid insecticide "Deltamethrin" at 0.32 mg/kg/day in two main regions of the Wistar rat brain (hippocampus and striatum) and the protective effects of Quercetin at 10 mg/kg/day on this toxicity after 90 days of exposure. The assay of brain parameters showed that Deltamethrin caused a significant increase of mitochondrial metabolite level (proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates) and enzyme activity (glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase); a decreased amount of mitochondrial glutathione level and catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities; and an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) acid levels of the two regions...
May 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551379/review-of-1-000-consecutive-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-runs-as-a-quality-initiative
#6
Harold N Lovvorn, Daphne C Hardison, Heidi Chen, Ashly C Westrick, Melissa E Danko, Brian C Bridges, William F Walsh, John B Pietsch
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a resource-intensive mode of life-support potentially applicable when conventional therapies fail. Given the initial success of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to support neonates and infants in the 1980s, indications have expanded to include adolescents, adults, and selected moribund patients during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This single-institution analysis was conducted to evaluate programmatic growth, outcomes, and risk for death despite extracorporeal membrane oxygenation across all ages and diseases...
May 24, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551332/association-between-thyroid-hormones-and-trail
#7
Stella Bernardi, Fleur Bossi, Barbara Toffoli, Fabiola Giudici, Alessandra Bramante, Giulia Furlanis, Elisabetta Stenner, Paola Secchiero, Giorgio Zauli, Renzo Carretta, Bruno Fabris
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggest that a circulating protein called TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) might have a role in the regulation of body weight and metabolism. Interestingly, thyroid hormones seem to increase TRAIL tissue expression. This study aimed at evaluating whether overt thyroid disorders affected circulating TRAIL levels. METHODS: TRAIL circulating levels were measured in euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid patients before and after thyroid function normalization...
May 24, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551194/effects-of-shortening-the-close-up-period-length-coupled-with-increased-supply-of-metabolizable-protein-on-performance-and-metabolic-status-of-multiparous-holstein-cows
#8
T Amirabadi Farahani, H Amanlou, M Kazemi-Bonchenari
This experiment was conducted to compare conventional (CON; 21 d) and shortened (SH; 10 d) close-up period, and evaluate the effect of shortened close-up period combined with feeding different metabolizable protein (MP) levels on dry matter (DM) intake, metabolic status, and performance of dairy cows. Forty-eight multiparous Holstein cows with similar parity, body weight (BW), and previous lactation milk yield were divided into 2 groups. The first group (n = 24) received the far-off diet from -60 to -21 d (CON), and the second group (n = 24) received same far-off diet from -60 to -10 d (SH) relative to expected parturition...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551188/regulatory-effect-of-dietary-intake-of-chromium-propionate-on-the-response-of-monocyte-derived-macrophages-from-holstein-cows-in-mid-lactation
#9
M Garcia, Y Qu, C M Scholte, D O'Connor, W Rounds, K M Moyes
Chromium (Cr) has been reported to enhance immune function and improve insulin sensitivity and performance in beef and dairy cattle. However, its effect on bovine macrophage inflammatory and metabolic response is unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of dietary Cr on the inflammatory and metabolic response of polarized macrophages ex vivo. Twelve primiparous and 16 multiparous healthy Holstein cows in mid lactation (143 ± 37 d in milk) were enrolled in this study. Cows were fed a common total mixed ration once per day that was top-dressed with 200 g of ground corn containing 1 of 2 dietary treatments: control (CTL, no Cr supplementation) or Cr propionate (CrP, 8 mg of Cr/cow per day) for 35 d...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551184/the-effect-of-different-treatments-for-early-lactation-hyperketonemia-on-blood-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-plasma-nonesterified-fatty-acids-glucose-insulin-and-glucagon-in-dairy-cattle
#10
S Mann, F A Leal Yepes, E Behling-Kelly, J A A McArt
Despite increased efforts in preventing the occurrence of metabolic disorders in transition cows, hyperketonemia remains a frequent early-lactation metabolic disease affecting an average of 40% of cows in herds in the United States. Despite the demonstrated economic effect of this disorder, controlled clinical trials comparing different treatment strategies in affected cows are lacking. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of treatment with intravenous glucose, oral propylene glycol, or a combination of both on the reduction in blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations of early-lactation hyperketonemic dairy cows...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551162/association-of-sympathovagal-imbalance-with-cognitive-impairment-in-type-2-diabetes
#11
Pal Auroprajna, Basanta Manjari Naik, Jaya Prakash Sahoo, Gorantla Shravya Keerthi, Manohar Pavanya, Gopal Krushna Pal
OBJECTIVE: Sympathovagal imbalance (SVI) has been reported to be associated with metabolic derangements in type 2 diabetes. We investigated the association of SVI with cognitive impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Patients with a new diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (n=43) and age-matched healthy control subjects (n=43) were recruited for the study. Body mass index and blood pressure measurements were recorded. SVI was assessed by spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), and cognitive function was assessed by recording the positive wave that appears in 300 milliseconds from application of stimulus in event-related potential tracing (P300)...
May 24, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550894/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-gastrectomy-on-the-development-of-metabolic-bone-disease
#12
Yuki Higashi, Takashi Fujimura, Katsunobu Oyama, Jun Kinoshita, Tomoharu Miyashita, Hidehiro Tajima, Sachio Fushida, Tetsuo Ohta
BACKGROUND: Metabolic bone disease after gastrectomy is one of the complications leading to deterioration in quality of life. The exact mechanism of the metabolic bone disease remains unclear. To clarify the cause of metabolic bone disease after gastrectomy, we evaluated the associations between the method of gastrectomy and the development of metabolic bone disease in a rat model. METHODS: Rats were assigned to four groups as follows: (1) sham operation (control group); (2) resection of the glandular stomach with Billroth I reconstruction (RGBI group); (3) Roux-en-Y anastomosis preserving the secretory function of the whole stomach (PSRY group); and (4) total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction (TGRY group)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550831/-relevance-of-omega-3-and-omega-6-omega-3-ratio-in-preventing-cognitive-impairment
#13
Belina Nunes, Cristina Pinho, Cláudia Sousa, Alan Rocha Melo, Narcisa Bandarra, Maria Carolina Silva
INTRODUCTION: The epidemiological and social relevance of dementia and mild cognitive impairment increases with life expectancy and prevalence of metabolic disorders. The recognition of an important role for dietary nutrients on cognitive functioning opens new preventive strategies. This work analyses the association between erythrocyte omega-3 index and omega-6 / omega-3 ratio and cognitive performance/ mild cognitive impairment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We selected a random sample of individuals registered at a health centre aged ≥ 55 years...
March 31, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550500/acute-and-long-term-effects-of-intracerebroventricular-administration-of-%C3%AE-ketoisocaproic-acid-on-oxidative-stress-parameters-and-cognitive-and-noncognitive-behaviors
#14
Luciane Taschetto, Giselli Scaini, Hugo G Zapelini, Ândrea C Ramos, Giulia Strapazzon, Vanessa M Andrade, Gislaine Z Réus, Monique Michels, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, João Quevedo, Patrícia F Schuck, Gustavo C Ferreira, Emilio L Streck
Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is biochemically characterized by elevated levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine, as well as their corresponding transaminated branched-chain α-keto acids in tissue and biological fluids. Neurological symptoms and cerebral abnormalities, whose mechanisms are still unknown, are typical of this metabolic disorder. In the present study, we evaluated the early effects (1 h after injection) and long-term effects (15 days after injection) of a single intracerebroventricular administration of α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) on oxidative stress parameters and cognitive and noncognitive behaviors...
May 27, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550474/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-coactivator-1%C3%AE-pgc-1%C3%AE-gene-expression-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-on-hemodialysis-relation-to-hemodialysis-related-cardiovascular-morbidity-and-mortality
#15
Eman Tayae Elsayed, Rasha Adel Nassra, Yasmine Salah Naga
PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to investigate some of the key regulators of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in ESRD patients on hemodialysis (ESRD/HD) focusing on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ-coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) gene expression and its relation to ESRD/HD-related cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and mortality in an effort to identify new potential targets for pharmacological interventions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The expression of PGC-1α and one of its downstream genes: COX6C were evaluated in 49 ESRD/HD patients and in 33 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects as controls using quantitative real-time PCR...
May 26, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550439/baseline-anthropometric-and-metabolic-parameters-correlate-with-weight-loss-in-women-1-year-after-laparoscopic-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#16
Sans Arnaud, Bailly Laurent, Anty Rodolphe, Sielezenef Igor, Gugenheim Jean, Tran Albert, Gual Philippe, Iannelli Antonio
BACKGROUND: In this study, we explored in a prospective cohort of morbidly obese women undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGP) correlations between baseline anthropometrics, metabolic parameters, resting energy expenditure (REE), body composition, and 1-year % excess body mass index loss (%EBMIL). We also investigated risk factors for insufficient %EBMIL. METHODS: One hundred three consecutive women were prospectively evaluated at baseline (age 40...
May 26, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550391/gut-liver-axis-cirrhosis-and-portal-hypertension-the-chicken-and-the-egg
#17
Juan P Arab, Rosa M Martin-Mateos, Vijay H Shah
The term gut-liver axis is used to highlight the close anatomical and functional relationship between the intestine and the liver. The intestine has a highly specialized epithelial membrane which regulates transport across the mucosa. Due to dysbiosis, impairment of the intestinal barrier and altered immunity status, bacterial products can reach the liver through the portal vein, where they are recognized by specific receptors, activate the immune system and lead to a proinflammatory response. Gut microbiota and bacterial translocation play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases, including alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, and its complications, such as portal hypertension, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatic encephalopaty...
May 26, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550093/causal-effect-of-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-type-1-on-coronary-heart-disease
#18
REVIEW
Ci Song, Stephen Burgess, John D Eicher, Christopher J O'Donnell, Andrew D Johnson
BACKGROUND: Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) plays an essential role in the fibrinolysis system and thrombosis. Population studies have reported that blood PAI-1 levels are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, it is unclear whether the association reflects a causal influence of PAI-1 on CHD risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: To evaluate the association between PAI-1 and CHD, we applied a 3-step strategy. First, we investigated the observational association between PAI-1 and CHD incidence using a systematic review based on a literature search for PAI-1 and CHD studies...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550081/randomized-controlled-trial-for-the-effect-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-vascular-stiffness-in-ckd
#19
Adeera Levin, Mila Tang, Taylor Perry, Nadia Zalunardo, Monica Beaulieu, Joshua A Dubland, Kelly Zerr, Ognjenka Djurdjev
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D is implicated in vascular health in CKD. This study compared placebo, calcifediol, and calcitriol treatment with changes in vascular stiffness, BP, proteinuria, mineral metabolism parameters, C-reactive protein, and fibroblast growth factor 23 in patients with stable CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in outpatient CKD clinics in Vancouver, Canada, from February of 2011 to August of 2014, enrolling 119 patients with an eGFR of 15-45 ml/min per 1...
May 26, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549908/elucidation-of-the-intestinal-absorption-of-para-aminobenzoic-acid-a-marker-for-dietary-intake
#20
Teruko Imai, Keiichiro Tanaka, Takahiro Yonemitsu, Yuta Yakushiji, Kayoko Ohura
para-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA) has long been used as an indicator of the completeness of 24-hour urine collection by determination of total urinary excretion of PABA and its metabolite, N-acetyl-PABA. N-Acetyl-PABA is formed by human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) in liver and intestine. This intestinal metabolism may reduce the urinary recovery of PABA due to secretion of N-acetyl-PABA into the intestinal lumen. In the present study, the effect of intestinal metabolism of PABA on its absorption was quantitatively evaluated by the in situ single-pass perfusion method using rat intestine expressing rat arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (Nat2), which is similar to human NAT1...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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