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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788733/sulindac-induces-differentiation-of-glioblastoma-stem-cells-making-them-more-sensitive-to-oxidative-stress
#1
S Kesaraju Allani, H Weissbach, M A Lopez Toledano
Glioblastoma tumors (GBM) are very heterogeneous, being comprised of several cell subtypes, including glioblastoma stem cells (GSC). These tumors have a high rate of recurrence after initial treatment and one of the most prevalent theories to explain this is the cancer stem cell theory, which proposes that glioblastomas arise from mutations that transform normal neural stem cells (NSC) into GSC, which are highly resistant to oxidative stress and anti-cancer therapies. Sulindac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has been shown to protect the normal cells against oxidative damage by initiating a preconditioning response, but selectively sensitizes several cancer cell lines to agents that affect mitochondrial respiration, resulting in enhanced killing of the cancer cells...
March 14, 2018: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786763/mir-124-promotes-proliferation-and-neural-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells-through-targeting-dact1-and-activating-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathways
#2
Shujie Jiao, Yaling Liu, Yaobing Yao, Junfang Teng
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent and undifferentiated cells with the potential to differentiate into neuronal lineages and gliocytes. NSCs have the ability to generate and regenerate the brain, indicating the possibility of cell-based therapies for neurological disorders. miR-124 has been demonstrated as a modulator in the survival, expansion, and differentiation of NSCs. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of miR-124 in NSC development are still far from being understood. The expressions of miR-124, dishevelled binding antagonist of beta-catenin 1 (DACT1), ki-67, Nestin, β-tubulin III, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), β-catenin, cyclinD1, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) were examined by qRT-PCR or western blot...
May 21, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779889/epithelial-sodium-channel-regulates-adult-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-in-a-flow-dependent-manner
#3
David Petrik, Michael H Myoga, Sofia Grade, Niklas J Gerkau, Melanie Pusch, Christine R Rose, Benedikt Grothe, Magdalena Götz
One hallmark of adult neurogenesis is its adaptability to environmental influences. Here, we uncovered the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) as a key regulator of adult neurogenesis as its deletion in neural stem cells (NSCs) and their progeny in the murine subependymal zone (SEZ) strongly impairs their proliferation and neurogenic output in the olfactory bulb. Importantly, alteration of fluid flow promotes proliferation of SEZ cells in an ENaC-dependent manner, eliciting sodium and calcium signals that regulate proliferation via calcium-release-activated channels and phosphorylation of ERK...
May 9, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779213/differential-toxicity-of-tdp-43-isoforms-depends-on-their-sub-mitochondrial-localization-in-neuronal-cells
#4
Illari Salvatori, Alberto Ferri, Silvia Scaricamazza, Ilaria Giovannelli, Alessia Serrano, Simona Rossi, Nadia D'Ambrosi, Mauro Cozzolino, Andrea Di Giulio, Sandra Moreno, Cristiana Valle, Maria Teresa Carrì
TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is an RNA binding protein and a major component of protein aggregates found in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and several other neurodegenerative diseases. TDP-43 exists as a full length protein and as two shorter forms of 25 and 35 kDa. Full length mutant TDP-43s found in ALS patients re-localize from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and in part to mitochondria, where they exert a toxic role associated with neurodegeneration. However, induction of mitochondrial damage by TDP-43 fragments is yet to be clarified...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777716/probability-of-viral-labeling-of-neural-stem-cells-in-vivo
#5
Gregory W Kirschen, Shaoyu Ge, Il Memming Park
In the neuroscience field over the past several decades, viral vectors have become powerful gene delivery systems to study neural populations of interest. For neural stem cell (NSC) biology, such viruses are often used to birth-date and track NSCs over developmental time in lineage tracing experiments. Yet, the probability of successful infection of a given stem cell in vivo remains unknown. This information would be helpful to inform investigators interested in titrating their viruses to selectively target sparsely-populated clusters of cells in the nervous system...
May 16, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770969/homeostatic-levels-of-nonstructural-carbohydrates-after-13-yr-of-drought-and-irrigation-in-pinus-sylvestris
#6
Leonie Schönbeck, Arthur Gessler, Günter Hoch, Nate G McDowell, Andreas Rigling, Marcus Schaub, Mai-He Li
Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) are important for the growth and survival of trees. Drought may lead to a decrease in tree growth and to NSC depletion, whereas increased soil moisture in otherwise dry ecosystems may increase growth and NSC concentrations. A long-term (13 yr) irrigation experiment was conducted in a Pinus sylvestris-dominated forest located at the dry margin of the species in southern Switzerland. We measured the relative leaf area, growth, NSCs, needle δ13 C, [N] and [P] in trees on control and irrigated plots...
May 17, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765864/non-canonical-post-transcriptional-rna-regulation-of-neural-stem-cell-potential
#7
REVIEW
Chiara Rolando, Verdon Taylor
Adult brain structures and complexity emerge from a single layer of neuroepithelial cells that early during the development give rise to neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs persist in restricted regions of the postnatal brain where they support neurogenesis throughout life thus allowing brain plasticity and adaptation. NSC regulation involves a precise coordination of intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms that finely modulate the neurogenic process. Here we will discuss new mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene regulation that act in the embryonic and adult brain to regulate NSC maintenance and differentiation...
November 9, 2017: Brain Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765861/mitochondrial-metabolism-mediated-regulation-of-adult-neurogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Ruth Beckervordersandforth
The life-long generation of new neurons from radial glia-like neural stem cells (NSCs) is achieved through a stereotypic developmental sequence that requires precise regulatory mechanisms to prevent exhaustion or uncontrolled growth of the stem cell pool. Cellular metabolism is the new kid on the block of adult neurogenesis research and the identity of stage-specific metabolic programs and their impact on neurogenesis turns out to be an emerging research topic in the field. Mitochondrial metabolism is best known for energy production but it contains a great deal more...
November 9, 2017: Brain Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765412/neural-stem-cell-conditioned-medium-ameliorated-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#9
HongNa Yang, Cuilan Wang, Hui Chen, Lan Li, Shuang Ma, Hao Wang, YaRu Fu, Tingyu Qu
Introduction: Our previous study suggested that NSC-CM (neural stem cell-conditioned medium) inhibited cell apoptosis in vitro . In addition, many studies have shown that neurotrophic factors and microparticles secreted into a conditioned medium by NSCs had neuroprotective effects. Thus, we hypothesized that NSC-CM had the capacity of protecting against cerebral I/R injury. Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery as an animal model of cerebral I/R injury were randomly assigned to two groups: the control group and NSC-CM-treated group...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763928/identification-and-verification-of-candidate-genes-regulating-neural-stem-cells-behavior-under-hypoxia
#10
Zhongju Shi, Zhijian Wei, Jiahe Li, Shiyang Yuan, Bin Pan, Fujiang Cao, Hengxing Zhou, Yan Zhang, Yao Wang, Shiwei Sun, Xiaohong Kong, Shiqing Feng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in a hypoxic environment, and hypoxia plays an important role in their development and differentiation. This study aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms by which hypoxia affects NSC behavior. METHODS: In the current study, we downloaded the gene expression dataset GSE68572 and identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by analyzing high-throughput gene expression in hypoxic and normoxic NSCs. Subsequently, we analyzed these data using a combined bioinformatics approach and predicted the microRNAs (miRNAs) targeting the key gene using miRNA databases...
May 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763775/glycosaminoglycan-based-hybrid-hydrogel-encapsulated-with-polyelectrolyte-complex-nanoparticles-for-endogenous-stem-cell-regulation-in-central-nervous-system-regeneration
#11
Wei-Hong Jian, Huan-Chih Wang, Chen-Hsiang Kuan, Ming-Hong Chen, Hsi-Chin Wu, Jui-Sheng Sun, Tzu-Wei Wang
The poor regenerative capability of stem cell transplantation in the central nervous system limits their therapeutic efficacy in brain injuries. The sustained inflammatory response, lack of structural support, and trophic factors deficiency restrain the integration and long-term survival of stem cells. Instead of exogenous stem cell therapy, here we described the synthesis of nanohybrid hydrogel containing sulfated glycosaminoglycan-based polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles (PCN) to mimic the brain extracellular matrix and control the delivery of stromal-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and basic fibroblast factor (bFGF) in response to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) for recruiting endogenous neural stem cells (NSC) and regulating their cellular fate...
May 8, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760724/adult-neural-stem-cells-basic-research-and-production-strategies-for-neurorestorative-therapy
#12
REVIEW
E M Samoilova, V A Kalsin, N M Kushnir, D A Chistyakov, A V Troitskiy, V P Baklaushev
Over many decades, constructing genetically and phenotypically stable lines of neural stem cells (NSC) for clinical purposes with the aim of restoring irreversibly lost functions of nervous tissue has been one of the major goals for multiple research groups. The unique ability of stem cells to maintain their own pluripotent state even in the adult body has made them into the choice object of study. With the development of the technology for induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and direct transdifferentiation of somatic cells into the desired cell type, the initial research approaches based on the use of allogeneic NSCs from embryonic or fetal nervous tissue are gradually becoming a thing of the past...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758571/effects-of-a-20-min-nap-post-normal-and-jet-lag-conditions-on-p300-components-in-athletes
#13
Elisabeth Petit, Hubert Bourdin, Grégory Tio, Omer Yenil, Emmanuel Haffen, Fabienne Mougin
Post-lunch sleepiness belongs to biological rhythms. Athletes take a nap to counteract afternoon circadian nadir, in prevision of disturbed sleep. This study examined the effects of brief post-lunch nap on vigilance in young and healthy athletes. The P300 components, physiological and cognitive performances were assessed either after nap or rest, following a night of normal sleep (NSC) or simulated jet lag condition (5-h advance-JLC). P300 wave is the positive deflection at about 300 ms in response to a rare stimulus, representing higher information processing...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756516/transplantation-of-a-peripheral-nerve-with-neural-stem-cells-plus-lithium-chloride-injection-promote-the-recovery-of-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Li-Qun Zhang, Wen-Ming Zhang, Lingxiao Deng, Zi-Xing Xu, Wen-Bin Lan, Jian-Hua Lin
Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) holds great potential for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, transplanted NSCs poorly survive in the SCI environment. We injected NSCs into tibial nerve and transplanted tibial nerve into a hemisected spinal cord and investigated the effects of lithium chloride (LiCl) on the survival of spinal neurons, axonal regeneration, and functional recovery. Our results show that most of the transplanted NSCs expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein, while there was no obvious expression of nestin, neuronal nuclei, or acetyltransferase found in NSCs...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751248/evaluation-of-glucose-and-insulin-response-to-haylage-diets-with-different-content-of-nonstructural-carbohydrates-in-2-breeds-of-horses
#15
S Lindåse, C Müller, K Nostell, J Bröjer
Information about the effect of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) in forage on the postprandial glucose and insulin response in horses is scarce. This is of interest as postprandial hyperinsulinemia in horses is a risk factor for laminitis. In addition, insulin sensitivity (IS) differs between breeds. The aim was to evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin response to haylage diets with different NSC content in horses of 2 different breeds and to evaluate the relationship between the postprandial insulin response and measures of IS derived from a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT)...
April 9, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748539/sirt1-activation-with-neuroheal-is-neuroprotective-but-sirt2-inhibition-with-ak7-is-detrimental-for-disconnected-motoneurons
#16
David Romeo-Guitart, Tatiana Leiva-Rodríguez, María Espinosa-Alcantud, Núria Sima, Alejandro Vaquero, Helena Domínguez-Martín, Diego Ruano, Caty Casas
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activity is neuroprotective, and we have recently demonstrated its role in the retrograde degenerative process in motoneurons (MNs) in the spinal cord of rats after peripheral nerve root avulsion (RA) injury. SIRT2 has been suggested to exert effects opposite those of SIRT1; however, its roles in neurodegeneration and neuron response after nerve injury remain unclear. Here we compared the neuroprotective potentials of SIRT1 activation and SIRT2 inhibition in a mouse model of hypoglossal nerve axotomy...
May 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748210/novel-fluoroindenoisoquinoline-non-camptothecin-topoisomerase-i-inhibitors
#17
Laetitia Marzi, Keli Agama, Junko Murai, Simone Difilippantonio, Amy James, Cody J Peer, William D Figg, Daniel Beck, Mohamed S A Elsayed, Mark Cushman, Yves Pommier
Contrary to other anticancer targets, topoisomerase I (TOP1) is targeted by only one chemical class of FDA-approved drugs: topotecan and irinotecan, the derivatives of the plant alkaloid, camptothecin. The indenoisoquinolines LMP400, LMP744 and LMP776 are novel non-camptothecin TOP1 inhibitors in clinical trial, which overcome the limitations of camptothecins. To further improve metabolic stability, their methoxy groups have been replaced by a fluorine, as in the fluoroindenoisoquinolines NSC 781517 (LMP517), NSC 779135 (LMP135) and NSC 779134 (LMP134)...
May 10, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747816/gangliosides-in-nerve-cell-specification
#18
Yutaka Itokazu, Jing Wang, Robert K Yu
The central nervous system is generated from progenitor cells that are recognized as neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs are defined as undifferentiated neural cells that are characterized by the capacity for self-renewal and multipotency. Throughout neural development, NSCs undergo proliferation, migration, and cellular differentiation, and dynamic changes are observed in the composition of carbohydrate-rich molecules, including gangliosides. Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids with essential and multifaceted functions in brain development and NSC maintenance, which reflects the complexity of brain development...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743148/when-should-surgery-be-used-for-recurrent-ovarian-carcinoma
#19
M Bommert, P Harter, F Heitz, A du Bois
Cytoreductive surgery is an important column in the treatment of primary ovarian cancer. Surgical outcome is one of the most important prognostic factors and one of the few prognostic variables that can be influenced by therapists. Retrospective studies suggested that only complete cytoreduction was associated with a benefit. Therefore, definition of predictors of complete resection is of the utmost importance to avoid surgical burden in patients with both limited benefit of the procedure and limited overall life expectancy...
May 7, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740381/effect-of-statins-on-survival-following-stroke-in-patients-with-cancer
#20
Ye Sel Kim, Moo-Seok Park, Jun-Hwa Lee, Jong-Won Chung, Mi Ji Lee, Chi Kyung Kim, Jin-Man Jung, Kyungmi Oh, Oh Young Bang, Geong-Moon Kim, Ji-Mi Choi, Juneyoung Lee, Chin Sang Chung, Kwang Ho Lee, Woo-Keun Seo
The objective of this study was to investigate the potential benefits of statin therapy initiation in acute stroke in patients with active cancer. This study was conducted in two parts. First, data from patients who are presented with stroke and active cancer were obtained from prospectively collected multicenter hospital-based stroke registries. Patients were classified into statin user and non-user groups; the statin group was further divided into low-potency and high-potency statin subgroups. The primary outcome was time to mortality...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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