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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432768/the-fate-of-recently-fixed-carbon-after-drought-release-towards-unravelling-c-storage-regulation-in-tilia-platyphyllos-and-pinus-sylvestris
#1
Lucía Galiano Pérez, Galina Timofeeva, Matthias Saurer, Rolf Siegwolf, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Robert Hommel, Arthur Gessler
Carbon reserves are important for maintaining tree function during and after stress. Increasing tree mortality driven by drought globally has renewed the interest in how plants regulate allocation of recently fixed C to reserve formation. Three year-old seedlings of two species (Tilia platyphyllos, Pinus sylvestris) were exposed to two intensities of experimental drought during ~ 10 weeks and (13) C pulse labelling was subsequently applied with rewetting. Tracking the (13) C-label across different organs and C compounds (soluble sugars, starch, myo-inositol, lipids and cellulose), together with the monitoring of gas exchange and C mass balances over time, allowed for the identification of variations in C allocation priorities and tree C balances that are associated to drought effects and subsequent drought release...
April 22, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431087/a-method-for-learning-a-sparse-classifier-in-the-presence-of-missing-data-for-high-dimensional-biological-datasets
#2
Kristen Severson, Brinda Monian, J Christopher Love, Richard D Braatz
Motivation: This work addresses two common issues in building classification models for biological or medical studies: learning a sparse model, where only a subset of a large number of possible predictors is used, and training in the presence of missing data. This work focuses on supervised generative binary classification models, specifically linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The parameters are determined using an expectation maximization algorithm to both address missing data and introduce priors to promote sparsity...
April 18, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429571/melatonin-antagonizes-interleukin-18-mediated-inhibition-on-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#3
Zheng Li, Xingye Li, Matthew T V Chan, William Ka Kei Wu, DunXian Tan, Jianxiong Shen
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing, pluripotent and undifferentiated cells which have the potential to differentiate into neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. NSC therapy for tissue regeneration, thus, gains popularity. However, the low survivals rate of the transplanted cell impedes its utilities. In this study, we tested whether melatonin, a potent antioxidant, could promote the NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation, especially, in the presence of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18)...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425854/rationale-design-synthesis-cytotoxicity-evaluation-and-molecular-docking-studies-of-1-3-4-oxadiazole-analogues
#4
Mohamed Jawed Ahsan, Arun Choupra, Rakesh Kumar Sharma, Surender Singh Jadav, Mohd Zaheen Hassan, Mohammed Afroz Bakht, Pannala Padmaja, Abdulmalik Bin Saleh Al-Tamimi, Mohammed H Geesi
We report herein, the synthesis of two new series of oxadiazole analogues, and their cytotoxicity evaluation. The oxadiazole analogues (5a-h and 12a-h) were structurally related to the heterocyclic (1,3,4- oxadiazole) linked aryl core of IMC-038525 (tubulin polymerization inhibitor), NSC 776715, and NSC 776716, with further modification by incorporating methylene linker. The title compounds (5a-h and 12a-h) were synthesized in good yields, and were characterized by IR, NMR, and mass spectral data. The cytotoxicity evaluation was carried out according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI US) Protocol against NCI-60 human cell lines derived from nine different panels...
April 19, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423196/melatonin-enhances-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-and-engraftment-by-increasing-mitochondrial-function
#5
Miguel Mendivil-Perez, Viviana Soto-Mercado, Ana Guerra-Librero, Beatriz I Fernandez-Gil, Javier Florido, Ying-Qiang Shen, Miguel A Tejada, Vivian Capilla-Gonzalez, Iryna Rusanova, José M Garcia-Verdugo, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo, Luis Carlos López, Carlos Velez-Pardo, Marlene Jimenez-Del-Rio, José M Ferrer, Germaine Escames
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are regarded as a promising therapeutic approach to protecting and restoring damaged neurons in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (PD and AD, respectively). However, new research suggests that NSC differentiation is required to make this strategy effective. Several studies have demonstrated that melatonin increases mature neuronal markers, which reflects NSC differentiation into neurons. Nevertheless, the possible involvement of mitochondria in the effects of melatonin during NSC differentiation has not yet been fully established...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422949/heparin-binding-egf-like-growth-factor-promotes-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-expression-and-protects-the-enteric-nervous-system-after-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#6
Yu Zhou, Yijie Wang, Jacob Olson, Jixin Yang, Gail E Besner
BACKGROUND: Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with alterations of the ENS, with loss of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expressing neurons in the intestine. The aims of this study were to investigate the roles of heparin binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation, nNOS expression, and effects on ENS integrity during experimental NEC. METHODS: The effects of HB-EGF on NSC differentiation and nNOS production were determined using cultured enteric NSC...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421542/neural-stem-cell-transplantation-promotes-functional-recovery-from-traumatic-brain-injury-via-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-mediated-neuroplasticity
#7
Liu-Lin Xiong, Yue Hu, Piao Zhang, Zhuo Zhang, Li-Hong Li, Guo-Dong Gao, Xin-Fu Zhou, Ting-Hua Wang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces cognitive impairments, motor and behavioral deficits. Previous evidences have suggested that neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation could facilitate functional recovery from brain insults, but their underlying mechanisms remains to be elucidated. Here, we established TBI model by an electromagnetic-controlled cortical impact device in the rats. Then, 5 μl NSCs (5.0 × 10(5)/μl), derived from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mouse, was transplanted into the traumatic brain regions of rats at 24 h after injury...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421538/roles-of-nitric-oxide-synthase-isoforms-in-neurogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Cheong-Meng Chong, Nana Ai, Minjing Ke, Yuan Tan, Zhijian Huang, Yong Li, Jia-Hong Lu, Wei Ge, Huanxing Su
Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical gas, acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the central nervous system (CNS). It has been widely explored as a mediator of neuroinflammation, neuronal damages, and neurodegeneration at its pathological levels. Recently, increasing evidence suggests that NO plays key roles in mediating adult neurogenesis, the process of neural stem cells (NSCs) to generate newborn neurons for replacing damaged neurons or maintaining the function of the brain. NO synthase (NOS) is a major enzyme catalyzing the generation of NO in the brain...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419930/design-synthesis-and-anticancer-potential-of-nsc-319745-hydroxamic-acid-derivatives-as-dnmt-and-hdac-inhibitors
#9
Zigao Yuan, Qinsheng Sun, Dan Li, Shuangshuang Miao, Shaopeng Chen, Lu Song, Chunmei Gao, Yuzong Chen, Chunyan Tan, Yuyang Jiang
DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important epigenetic targets during anticancer drug development. Recent study indicates that DNMT inhibitors and HDAC inhibitors display synergistic effects in certain cancers, therefore, development of molecules targeting both DNMT and HDAC is of therapeutic advantage against these cancers. Based on the structure of DNMT inhibitor NSC-319745 and the pharmacophore characteristics of HDAC inhibitors, a series of hydroxamic acid derivatives of NSC-319745 were designed and synthesized as DNMT and HDAC multifunctional inhibitors...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399262/significant-contribution-from-foliage-derived-aba-in-regulating-gas-exchange-in-pinus-radiata
#10
Patrick J Mitchell, Scott A M McAdam, Elizabeth A Pinkard, Timothy J Brodribb
The complex regulatory system controlling stomata involves physical and chemical signals that affect guard cell turgor to bring about changes in stomatal conductance (gs). Abscisic acid (ABA) closes stomata, yet the mechanisms controlling foliar ABA status in tree species remain unclear. The importance of foliage-derived ABA in regulating gas exchange was evaluated under treatments that affected phloem export through girdling and reduced water availability in the tree species, Pinus radiata (D. Don). Branch- and whole-plant girdling increased foliar ABA levels leading to declines in gs, despite no change in plant water status...
February 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392899/scutellarin-may-alleviate-cognitive-deficits-in-a-mouse-model-of-hypoxia-by-promoting-proliferation-and-neuronal-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells
#11
Wei-Wei Wang, Jian-Hong Han, Lin Wang, Tian-Hao Bao
OBJECTIVES: Scutellarin, a flavonoid extracted from the medicinal herb Erigeron breviscapus Hand-Mazz, protects neurons from damage and inhibits glial activation. Here we examined whether scutellarin may also protect neurons from hypoxia-induced damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were exposed to hypoxia for 7 days and then administered scutellarin (50 mg/kg/d) or vehicle for 30 days Cognitive impairment in the two groups was assessed using the Morris water maze test, cell proliferation in the hippocampus was compared using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry, and hippocampal levels of nestin and neuronal class III β-tubulin (Tuj-1) were measured using Western blotting...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392608/stem-girdling-indicates-prioritized-carbon-allocation-to-the-root-system-at-the-expense-of-radial-stem-growth-in-norway-spruce-under-drought-conditions
#12
Walter Oberhuber, Andreas Gruber, Gina Lethaus, Andrea Winkler, Gerhard Wieser
The early culmination of maximum radial growth (RG) in late spring has been found in several coniferous species in a dry inner Alpine environment. We hypothesized that an early decrease in RG is an adaptation to cope with drought stress, which might require an early switch of carbon (C) allocation to belowground organs. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally subjected six-year-old Norway spruce saplings (tree height: 1.35 m; n = 80 trees) to two levels of soil water availability (watered versus drought conditions) and manipulated tree C status by physically blocking phloem transport at three girdling dates (GD)...
June 2017: Environmental and Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390174/suppression-of-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-expression-by-antisense-oligonucleotides-inhibits-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-in-rat-models-with-focal-cerebral-infarction
#13
Chao Li, Li-He Che, Lei Shi, Jin-Lu Yu
This study is designed to investigate the role of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) antisense oligonucleotide (ASODN) on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in rat models with focal cerebral infarction (CI). Seventy-five Sprague-Dawlay (SD) rats were randomly divided into the control, sham, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), MCAO + nonsense oligonucleotide (NODN) and MCAO + ASODN groups. Proliferation and differentiation of NSCs were detected by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and immunofluorescence staining, respectively...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385247/enzymatic-synthesis-of-n-succinyl-chitosan-collagen-peptide-copolymer-and-its-characterization
#14
Yao Xiao, Hongyu Ge, Shengqiong Zou, Huigao Wen, Ya Li, Lihong Fan, Lingling Xiao
Collagen peptide (COP) grafted N-succinyl chitosan (NSC) was prepared by using microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) as biocatalyst. The catalyzed reaction displayed high efficiency, high selectivity, mild reaction condition and environmental friendliness. The degree of substitution (DS) of N-succinyl chitosan-collagen peptide (NSC-COP)depended on the reaction time, the reaction temperature, the mass ratio of COP to NSC and the mass ratio of MTGase to NSC. NSC-COP showed excellent moisture absorption and retention properties...
June 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367160/neural-stem-cell-heterogeneity-through-time-and-space-in-the-ventricular-subventricular-zone
#15
Gabrielle Rushing, Rebecca A Ihrie
BACKGROUND: The origin and classification of neural stem cells (NSCs) has been a subject of intense investigation for the past two decades. Efforts to categorize NSCs based on their location, function and expression have established that these cells are a heterogeneous pool in both the embryonic and adult brain. The discovery and additional characterization of adult NSCs has introduced the possibility of using these cells as a source for neuronal and glial replacement following injury or disease...
August 2016: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366560/stem-cells-and-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-direct-comparison-of-the-efficacy-of-multiple-types-of-stem-cells
#16
Christopher J McCulloh, Jacob K Olson, Yu Zhou, Yijie Wang, Gail E Besner
PURPOSE: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of gastrointestinal morbidity and mortality in premature infants. While studies have shown potential for stem cell (SC) therapy in experimental NEC, no study has compared different SC side-by-side. Our purpose was to determine whether one type of SC may more effectively treat NEC than others. METHODS: Four SC were compared: (1) amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal SC (AF-MSC); (2) amniotic fluid-derived neural SC (AF-NSC); (3) bone marrow-derived mesenchymal SC (BM-MSC); and (4) neonatal enteric neural SC (E-NSC)...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365374/harnessing-neural-stem-cells-for-treating-psychiatric-symptoms-associated-to-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-and-epilepsy
#17
REVIEW
Trenton Lippert, Lindsey Gelineau, Eleonora Napoli, Cesar V Borlongan
Brain insults with progressive neurodegeneration are inherent in pathological symptoms that represent many psychiatric illnesses. Neural network disruptions characterized by impaired neurogenesis have been recognized to precede, accompany, and possibly even exacerbate the evolution and progression of symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Here, we focus on the neurodegeneration and the resulting psychiatric symptoms observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and epilepsy, in an effort to show that these two diseases are candidate targets for stem cell therapy...
March 29, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358766/early-complications-and-associated-perioperative-factors-in-nonsyndromic-craniosynostosis
#18
Yunhe Lu, Abdulsamad Ghanem, Tianyi Cai, Junyi Yang, Xiongzheng Mu
This is the first Eastern center-based retrospective report on early complications and associated perioperative factors of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis (NSC). The authors' purpose is to tailor preoperative counseling, convey objective perioperative data, and determinants for early complications in NSC so as to enhance exchanges with international center. Inclusion criteria required a diagnosis of NSC confirmed by 3-dimentional computed tomography scans and complete medical record. Genetic evidence of syndromic craniosynostosis was excluded...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352345/niche-astrocytes-promote-the-survival-proliferation-and-neuronal-differentiation-of-co-transplanted-neural-stem-cells-following-ischemic-stroke-in-rats
#19
Li Luo, Kaihua Guo, Wenguo Fan, Yinghong Lu, Lizhi Chen, Yang Wang, Yijia Shao, Gongxiong Wu, Jie Xu, Lanhai Lü
Niche astrocytes have been reported to promote neuronal differentiation through juxtacrine signaling. However, the effects of astrocytes on neuronal differentiation following ischemic stroke are not fully understood. In the present study, transplanted astrocytes and neural stem cells (NSCs) were transplanted into the ischemic striatum of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model rats 48 h following surgery. It was observed that the co-transplantation of astrocytes and NSCs resulted in a higher ratio of survival and proliferation of the transplanted NSCs, and neuronal differentiation, in MCAO rats compared with NSC transplantation alone...
February 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346495/the-incidence-and-prevalence-of-pterygium-in-south-korea-a-10-year-population-based-korean-cohort-study
#20
Tyler Hyungtaek Rim, Min Jae Kang, Moonjung Choi, Kyoung Yul Seo, Sung Soo Kim
Although numerous population-based studies have reported the prevalences and risk factors for pterygium, information regarding the incidence of pterygium is scarce. This population-based cohort study aimed to evaluate the South Korean incidence and prevalence of pterygium. We retrospectively obtained data from a nationally representative sample of 1,116,364 South Koreans in the Korea National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC). The associated sociodemographic factors were evaluated using multivariable Cox regression analysis, and the hazard ratios and confidence intervals were calculated...
2017: PloS One
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