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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353222/cohort-study-of-cervical-ossification-of-posterior-longitudinal-ligament-in-a-korean-populations-demographics-of-prevalence-surgical-treatment-and-disability
#1
Jaeyong Shin, Yong Wook Kim, Sang Gyu Lee, Eun-Cheol Park, Seo Yeon Yoon
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the demographic characteristics of cervical ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) including prevalence, surgical treatment, and disability in Korean population using Korean National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) data, and to analyze association between accessibility for surgical treatment and socioeconomic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A population-based cohort study was conducted using stratified representative sampling from NHIS-NSC data from the year 2002 to 2013...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348653/non-structural-carbohydrates-regulated-by-season-and-species-in-the-subtropical-monsoon-broad-leaved-evergreen-forest-of-yunnan-province-china
#2
Wande Liu, Jianrong Su, Shuaifeng Li, Xuedong Lang, Xiaobo Huang
Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) play important roles in adapting to environments in plants. Despite extensive research on the seasonal dynamics and species differences of NSC, the relative contributions of season and species to NSC is not well understood. We measured the concentration of starch, soluble sugar, NSC, and the soluble sugar:starch ratio in leaves, twigs, trunks and roots of twenty dominant species for dry and wet season in monsoon broad-leaved evergreen forest, respectively. The majority of concentration of NSC and starch in the roots, and the leaves contained the highest concentration of soluble sugar...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344868/laser-capture-microdissection-for-the-analysis-of-rat-and-human-spinal-cord-ependyma-by-qpcr
#3
Daniel Garcia-Ovejero, Beatriz Paniagua-Torija, Angel Arevalo-Martin, Beatriz Navarro-Galve, Eduardo Molina-Holgado
In the last few decades many efforts have been dedicated to decipher the nature and regenerative potential of neurogenic niches and endogenous stem cells after damage of the central nervous system. In the spinal cord, it has been largely focused on the ependymal region, which hosts neural precursors/stem cells (NSC) in rodents but differs between species and ages. In the current chapter, we detail our protocol to study the gene expression profile of this region using fresh frozen blocks of rat and human post-mortem spinal cords...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344417/the-effect-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-on-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#4
REVIEW
Wei Qin, Shiya Chen, Shasha Yang, Qian Xu, Chuanshan Xu, Jing Cai
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are special types of cells with the potential for self-renewal and multi-directional differentiation. NSCs are regulated by multiple pathways and pathway related transcription factors during the process of proliferation and differentiation. Numerous studies have shown that the compound medicinal preparations, single herbs, and herb extracts in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have specific roles in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs. In this study, we investigate the markers of NSCs in various stages of differentiation, the related pathways regulating the proliferation and differentiation, and the corresponding transcription factors in the pathways...
December 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335608/n6-methyladenosine-rna-modification-regulates-embryonic-neural-stem-cell-self-renewal-through-histone-modifications
#5
Yang Wang, Yue Li, Minghui Yue, Jun Wang, Sandeep Kumar, Robert J Wechsler-Reya, Zhaolei Zhang, Yuya Ogawa, Manolis Kellis, Gregg Duester, Jing Crystal Zhao
Internal N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification is widespread in messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and is catalyzed by heterodimers of methyltransferase-like protein 3 (Mettl3) and Mettl14. To understand the role of m6A in development, we deleted Mettl14 in embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) in a mouse model. Phenotypically, NSCs lacking Mettl14 displayed markedly decreased proliferation and premature differentiation, suggesting that m6A modification enhances NSC self-renewal. Decreases in the NSC pool led to a decreased number of late-born neurons during cortical neurogenesis...
January 15, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327199/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-regulates-equilibrium-between-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis-in-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-crosstalk-with-wnt-and-notch-signaling
#6
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Sachi Bharti, Virendra Tiwari, Jitendra Singh, Parul, Shubha Shukla
Neurogenesis involves generation of functional newborn neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs). Insufficient formation or accelerated degeneration of newborn neurons may contribute to the severity of motor/nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the functional role of adult neurogenesis in PD is yet not explored and whether glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) affects multiple steps of adult neurogenesis in PD is still unknown. We investigated the possible underlying molecular mechanism of impaired adult neurogenesis associated with PD...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324904/prohibitin-plays-a-critical-role-in-enterovirus-71-neuropathogenesis
#7
Issac Horng Khit Too, Isabelle Bonne, Eng Lee Tan, Justin Jang Hann Chu, Sylvie Alonso
A close relative of poliovirus, enterovirus 71 (EV71) is regarded as an important neurotropic virus of serious public health concern. EV71 causes Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and has been associated with neurological complications in young children. Our limited understanding of the mechanisms involved in its neuropathogenesis has hampered the development of effective therapeutic options. Here, using a two-dimensional proteomics approach combined with mass spectrometry, we have identified a unique panel of host proteins that were differentially and dynamically modulated during EV71 infection of motor-neuron NSC-34 cells, which are found at the neuromuscular junctions where EV71 is believed to enter the central nervous system...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316558/neural-stem-cells-expressing-bfgf-reduce-brain-damage-and-restore-sensorimotor-function-after-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#8
Qingsong Ye, Yanqing Wu, Jiamin Wu, Shuang Zou, Ali Ahmed Al-Zaazaai, Hongyu Zhang, Hongxue Shi, Ling Xie, Yanlong Liu, Ke Xu, Huacheng He, Fabiao Zhang, Yiming Ji, Yan He, Jian Xiao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) causes severe brain damage and significantly increases neonatal morbidity and mortality. Increasing evidences have verified that stem cell-based therapy has the potential to rescue the ischemic tissue and restore function via secreting growth factors after HI. Here, we had investigated whether intranasal neural stem cells (NSCs) treatment improves the recovery of neonatal HI, and NSCs overexpressing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has a better therapeutic effect for recovery than NSCs treatment only...
December 22, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315268/mirna-influences-in-neuroblast-modulation-an-introspective-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Vanessa Zammit, Byron Baron, Duncan Ayers
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common occurring solid paediatric cancer in children under the age of five years. Whether of familial or sporadic origin, chromosome abnormalities contribute to the development of NB and cause dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs). MiRNAs are small non-coding, single stranded RNAs that target messenger RNAs at the post-transcriptional levels by repressing translation within all facets of human physiology. Such gene 'silencing' activities by miRNAs allows the development of regulatory feedback loops affecting multiple functions within the cell, including the possible differentiation of neural stem cell (NSC) lineage selection...
January 9, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311336/troy-brain-stem-cells-cycle-through-quiescence-and-regulate-their-number-by-sensing-niche-occupancy
#10
Onur Basak, Teresa G Krieger, Mauro J Muraro, Kay Wiebrands, Daniel E Stange, Javier Frias-Aldeguer, Nicolas C Rivron, Marc van de Wetering, Johan H van Es, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Benjamin D Simons, Hans Clevers
The adult mouse subependymal zone provides a niche for mammalian neural stem cells (NSCs). However, the molecular signature, self-renewal potential, and fate behavior of NSCs remain poorly defined. Here we propose a model in which the fate of active NSCs is coupled to the total number of neighboring NSCs in a shared niche. Using knock-in reporter alleles and single-cell RNA sequencing, we show that the Wnt target Tnfrsf19/Troy identifies both active and quiescent NSCs. Quantitative analysis of genetic lineage tracing of individual NSCs under homeostasis or in response to injury reveals rapid expansion of stem-cell number before some return to quiescence...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299997/systemic-and-local-cues-drive-neural-stem-cell-niche-remodelling-during-neurogenesis-in-drosophila
#11
Pauline Spéder, Andrea H Brand
Successful neurogenesis requires adequate proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) and their progeny, followed by neuronal differentiation, maturation and survival. NSCs inhabit a complex cellular microenvironment, the niche, which influences their behaviour. To ensure sustained neurogenesis, niche cells must respond to extrinsic, environmental changes whilst fulfilling the intrinsic requirements of the neurogenic program and adapting their roles accordingly. However, very little is known about how different niche cells adjust their properties to such inputs...
January 4, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298609/interferon-%C3%AE-promotes-neuronal-repair-by-transplanted-neural-stem-cells-in-ischemic-rats
#12
Guilong Zhang, Xiaoyuan Guo, Lukui Chen, Bingqian Li, Bin Gu, Hong Wang, Guojian Wu, Jun Kong, Wanghao Chen, Yongbo Yu
Ischemic stroke represents the leading cause of adult neurological disability, with no effective therapeutic strategy. Stem cell transplantation promises a new promising for treating stroke, via cell replacement and cytokines paracrine. However, due to the effect of hostile immune microenvironment, the survival and differentiation of stem cells is limited in vivo. Furthermore, the delayed inflammatory response to stroke induced secondary neurological injury. IFN-γ as pro-inflammatory cytokine has the potential to protect stem cell population during inflammatory response, as well stimulates neurogenesis of stem cells...
January 3, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297316/a-database-of-human-genes-and-a-gene-network-involved-in-response-to-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-infection
#13
Elena V Ignatieva, Alexander V Igoshin, Nikolay S Yudin
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne encephalitis is caused by the neurotropic, positive-sense RNA virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). TBEV infection can lead to a variety of clinical manifestations ranging from slight fever to severe neurological illness. Very little is known about genetic factors predisposing to severe forms of disease caused by TBEV. The aims of the study were to compile a catalog of human genes involved in response to TBEV infection and to rank genes from the catalog based on the number of neighbors in the network of pairwise interactions involving these genes and TBEV RNA or proteins...
December 28, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296036/a-unified-dose-response-relationship-to-predict-high-dose-fractionation-response-in-the-lung-cancer-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy
#14
Than S Kehwar, Kashmiri L Chopra, Durg V Rai
Aim: This study is designed to investigate the superiority and applicability of the model among the linear-quadratic (LQ), linear-quadratic-linear (LQ-L) and universal-survival-curve (USC) models by fitting published radiation cell survival data of lung cancer cell lines. Materials and Method: The radiation cell survival data for small cell (SC) and non-small cell (NSC) lung cancer cell lines were obtained from published reports, and were used to determine the LQ and cell survival curve parameters, which ultimately were used in the curve fitting of the LQ, LQ-L and USC models...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296000/non-canonical-wnt-signaling-regulates-neural-stem-cell-quiescence-during-homeostasis-and-after-demyelination
#15
Manideep Chavali, Michael Klingener, Alexandros G Kokkosis, Yury Garkun, Sylwia Felong, Arianna Maffei, Adan Aguirre
Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in a specialized microenvironment, the subventricular zone (SVZ), which provides them with unique signaling cues to control their basic properties and prevent their exhaustion. While the signaling mechanisms that regulate NSC lineage progression are well characterized, the molecular mechanisms that trigger the activation of quiescent NSCs during homeostasis and tissue repair are still unclear. Here, we uncovered that the NSC quiescent state is maintained by Rho-GTPase Cdc42, a downstream target of non-canonical Wnt signaling...
January 2, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290028/carboxybetaine-modified-succinylated-chitosan-based-beads-encourage-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-min-6-to-form-islet-like-spheroids-under-in-vitro-conditions
#16
Valeria Perugini, Mark Best, Sandeep Kumar, Anna L Guildford, Adrian J Bone, Wendy M Macfarlane, Matteo Santin, Gary J Phillips
In vitro, pancreatic β-cells tend to reduce their ability to aggregate into islets and lose insulin-producing ability, likely due to insufficient cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions that are essential for β-cell retention, viability and functionality. In response to these needs, surfaces of succinylated chitosan-based beads (NSC) were modified with zwitterionic carboxy-betaine (CB) moieties, a compatible osmolyte known to regulate cellular hydration state, and used to promote the formation of β-cell spheroids using a conventional 2D cell culture technique...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287246/neural-stem-cells-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Roberto Sacco, Emanuele Cacci, Gaia Novarino
The precise control of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation is crucial for the development and function of the human brain. Here, we review the emerging links between the alteration of embryonic and adult neurogenesis and the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs) such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia (SCZ), as well as the advances in stem cell-based modeling and the novel therapeutic targets derived from these studies.
December 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287093/direct-exposure-to-mild-heat-promotes-proliferation-and-neuronal-differentiation-of-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-in-vitro
#18
Md Emon Hossain, Kentaro Matsuzaki, Masanori Katakura, Naotoshi Sugimoto, Abdullah Al Mamun, Rafiad Islam, Michio Hashimoto, Osamu Shido
Heat acclimation in rats is associated with enhanced neurogenesis in thermoregulatory centers of the hypothalamus. To elucidate the mechanisms for heat acclimation, we investigated the effects of direct mild heat exposure on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs). The NSCs/NPCs isolated from forebrain cortices of 14.5-day-old rat fetuses were propagated as neurospheres at either 37.0°C (control) or 38.5°C (mild heat exposure) for four days, and the effects on proliferation were investigated by MTS cell viability assay, measurement of neurosphere diameter, and counting the total number of cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285679/human-neural-stem-cell-extracellular-vesicles-improve-tissue-and-functional-recovery-in-the-murine-thromboembolic-stroke-model
#19
Robin L Webb, Erin E Kaiser, Shelley L Scoville, Tyler A Thompson, Sumbul Fatima, Chirayukumar Pandya, Karishma Sriram, Raymond L Swetenburg, Kumar Vaibhav, Ali S Arbab, Babak Baban, Krishnan M Dhandapani, David C Hess, M N Hoda, Steven L Stice
Over 700 drugs have failed in stroke clinical trials, an unprecedented rate thought to be attributed in part to limited and isolated testing often solely in "young" rodent models and focusing on a single secondary injury mechanism. Here, extracellular vesicles (EVs), nanometer-sized cell signaling particles, were tested in a mouse thromboembolic (TE) stroke model. Neural stem cell (NSC) and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) EVs derived from the same pluripotent stem cell (PSC) line were evaluated for changes in infarct volume as well as sensorimotor function...
December 28, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281841/developmental-emergence-of-adult-neural-stem-cells-as-revealed-by-single-cell-transcriptional-profiling
#20
Scott A Yuzwa, Michael J Borrett, Brendan T Innes, Anastassia Voronova, Troy Ketela, David R Kaplan, Gary D Bader, Freda D Miller
Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) derive from embryonic precursors, but little is known about how or when this occurs. We have addressed this issue using single-cell RNA sequencing at multiple developmental time points to analyze the embryonic murine cortex, one source of adult forebrain NSCs. We computationally identify all major cortical cell types, including the embryonic radial precursors (RPs) that generate adult NSCs. We define the initial emergence of RPs from neuroepithelial stem cells at E11.5. We show that, by E13...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
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