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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650638/identification-and-structure-activity-relationships-of-novel-compounds-that-potentiate-the-activities-of-antibiotics-in-escherichia-coli
#1
Keith M Haynes, Narges Abdali, Varsha Jhawar, Helen I Zgurskaya, Jerry M Parks, Adam T Green, Jerome Yves Baudry, Valentin V Rybenkov, Jeremy C Smith, John K Walker
In Gram-negative bacteria, efflux pumps are able to prevent effective cellular concentrations from being achieved for a number of antibiotics. Small molecule adjuvants that act as efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) have the potential to reinvigorate existing antibiotics that are currently ineffective due to efflux mechanisms. Through a combination of rigorous experimental screening and in silico virtual screening we recently identified novel classes of EPIs that interact with the membrane fusion protein AcrA, a critical component of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump in E...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648093/s-nitrosylation-of-ras-mediates-nitric-oxide-dependent-post-injury-neurogenesis-in-a-seizure-model
#2
Ana Isabel Santos, Bruno Pereira Carreira, Alicia Izquierdo-Álvarez, Elena Ramos, Ana Sofia Lourenço, Daniela Santos, Maria Inês Morte, Luís Filipe Ribeiro, Ana Marreiros, Nuria Sánchez-López, Anabel Marina, Caetana Monteiro Carvalho, Antonio Martínez-Ruiz, Inês M Araújo
AIMS: Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the upregulation of endogenous neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and in the hippocampus after injury. One of the main neurogenic pathways activated by NO is the ERK/MAPK pathway, downstream of the EGF receptor. However, the mechanism by which NO stimulates cell proliferation through activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway remains unknown, although p21Ras seems to be one of the earliest targets of NO. Here, we aimed to study the possible neurogenic action of NO by post-translational modification of p21Ras as a relevant target for early neurogenic events promoted by NO in neural stem cells (NSC)...
June 24, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646295/the-role-of-socio-economic-status-and-neighborhood-social-capital-on-loneliness-among-older-adults-evidence-from-the-sant-boi-aging-study
#3
Joan Domènech-Abella, Jordi Mundó, Elvira Lara, Maria Victoria Moneta, Josep Maria Haro, Beatriz Olaya
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study is to analyze the role of age in the association between socio-economic status (SES) and loneliness as well as the role of neighborhood social capital (NSC) in the association between individual social capital and loneliness. METHODS: Data include a representative population-based sample from Sant Boi de Llobregat (a suburb of Barcelona) of 1124 adults aged 50 and over. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the survey data...
June 23, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643190/mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-neural-differentiation-of-human-ipsc-is-modulated-by-idebenone-in-a-developmental-stage-dependent-manner
#4
J Augustyniak, J Lenart, M Zychowicz, P P Stepien, L Buzanska
Idebenone, the synthetic analog of coenzyme Q10 can improve electron transport in mitochondria. Therefore, it is used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other cognitive impairments. However, the mechanism of its action on neurodevelopment is still to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that the cellular response of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) to idebenone depends on the stage of neural differentiation. When: neural stem cells (NSC), early neural progenitors (eNP) and advanced neural progenitors (NP) have been studied a significant stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis was observed only at the eNP stage of development...
June 22, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642684/ferulic-acid-improves-functional-recovery-after-acute-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats-by-inducing-hypoxia-to-inhibit-microrna-590-and-elevate-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-expressions
#5
Zhenjie Li, Shengyun Wang, Wenfang Li, Hongbin Yuan
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the leading cause of paralysis, disability and even death in severe cases, and neural stem cells (NSCs) transplant has been employed for repairing SCI. Ferulic acid (FA) is able to promote neurogenesis in various stem cell therapies. We aimed to investigate the effect of FA on NSC transplant therapy, and the underlying mechanism, in improving functional recovery in SCI rat model. A rat model of SCI was established, which then received transplant of NSCs with or without FA pre-treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641519/neural-stem-cells-and-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-model-rare-cns-diseases
#6
Lidia De Filippis, Cristina Zalfa, Daniela Ferrari
Despite the great effort spent over the last decades to unravel the pathological mechanisms underpinning the development of central nervous system disorders, most of them remain still unclear. In particular, the study of rare brain diseases is hurdled by the lack of post-mortem samples and of reliable epidemiological studies, thus the setting of in vitro modeling systems appears essential to dissect the puzzle of genetic and environmental alterations affecting neural cells viability and functionality The isolation and expansion in vitro of embryonic (ESC) and fetal neural stem cells (NSC) from human tissue has efficiently allowed to model several neurological diseases "in a dish" and has also provided a novel platform to test potential therapeutic strategies in a pre-clinical setting...
June 15, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639376/mfat-1-transgene-protects-cultured-adult-neural-stem-cells-against-cobalt-chloride-mediated-hypoxic-injury-by-activating-nrf2-are-pathways
#7
Junfeng Yu, Haiyuan Yang, Bin Fang, Zhengwei Zhang, Ying Wang, Yifan Dai
Ischemic stroke is a devastating neurological disorder and one of the leading causes of death and serious disability in adults. Adult neural stem cell (NSC) replacement therapy is a promising treatment for both structural and functional neurological recovery. However, for the treatment to work, adult NSCs must be protected against hypoxic-ischemic damage in the ischemic penumbra. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of the mfat-1 transgene on cobalt chloride (CoCl2 )-induced hypoxic-ischemic injury in cultured adult NSCs as well as its underlying mechanisms...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638936/nuclear-receptors-in-neural-stem-progenitor-cell-homeostasis
#8
REVIEW
Dimitrios Gkikas, Matina Tsampoula, Panagiotis K Politis
In the central nervous system, embryonic and adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) generate the enormous variety and huge numbers of neuronal and glial cells that provide structural and functional support in the brain and spinal cord. Over the last decades, nuclear receptors and their natural ligands have emerged as critical regulators of NSC homeostasis during embryonic development and adult life. Furthermore, substantial progress has been achieved towards elucidating the molecular mechanisms of nuclear receptors action in proliferative and differentiation capacities of NSCs...
June 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637347/mechanisms-underlying-the-long-term-survival-of-the-monocot-dracaena-marginata-under-drought-conditions
#9
Radek Jupa, Roman Plichta, Zuzana Paschová, Nadezhda Nadezhdina, Roman Gebauer
Efficient water management is essential for the survival of vascular plants under drought stress. While interrelations among drought stress, plant anatomy and physiological functions have been described in woody dicots, similar research is very limited for non-palm arborescent and shrubby monocots despite their generally high drought tolerance. In this study, potted transplants of Dracaena marginata Lam. in primary growth stage were exposed to several short- and long-term drought periods. Continuous measurements of sap flow and stem diameter, the evaluation of capacitance and leaf conductance, the quantification of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), and organ-specific anatomical analyses were performed to reveal the mechanisms promoting plant resistance to limited soil moisture...
June 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629696/new-criteria-to-determine-the-destabilization-of-the-acidogenic-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-organic-fraction-of-municipal-solid-waste-ofmsw-with-mixed-sludge-ms
#10
R Angeriz-Campoy, L A Fdez-Güelfo, Vinay Kumar Tyagi, C J Álvarez-Gallego, L I Romero-García
Effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on bio-hydrogen production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and mixed sludge (MS) in dry thermophilic conditions (55°C and 20% total solids) was investigated. A decreasing sequence of six HRTs, from 2.9 to 0.8-days, was performed to evaluate the stability of the system and the influence of HRT on the organic matter solubilization, the daily hydrogen production (HP) and the specific hydrogen production (SHP). Best results were obtained operating at 1...
June 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628390/influence-of-screw-surface-treatment-on-retention-of-implant-supported-fixed-partial-dentures
#11
Marcos Boaventura de Moura, Renata Borges Rodrigues, Leandro Moreira Pinto, Cleudmar Amaral de Araújo, Veridiana Resende Novais, Paulo César Simamoto Júnior
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of DLC (Diamond-like carbon) coating on the removal torque of prefabricated implant screws after cyclic loading. Four groups with two crowns supported by two implants (n=5) were obtained according to splinted and non-splinted prosthesis, using titanium or DLC screw (STi, SC, NSTi and NSC). The prosthetic screws were tightened at 32Ncm, retightened, and the specimens were submitted to 106 mechanical cycles (4Hz/98N). After cyclic loading, loosening torque was evaluated and the final measurements were performed...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Oral Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627367/nrf2-pathway-activation-upon-rotenone-treatment-in-human-ipsc-derived-neural-stem-cells-undergoing-differentiation-towards-neurons-and-astrocytes
#12
Francesca Pistollato, David Canovas-Jorda, Dimitra Zagoura, Anna Bal-Price
Activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway occurs ubiquitously in most cell types upon induction of oxidative stress. Rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, can be used to trigger oxidative stress, stimulate the activation of Nrf2 pathway in neuronal and astrocytic cells and assess neurotoxicity. We have previously demonstrated that an acute treatment with rotenone can induce Nrf2 activation, which leads to astrocyte activation and dopaminergic (DA) neuronal cell death in a mixed neuronal/astrocytic cell model derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)...
June 13, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627180/nano-ce2o2s-with-highly-enriched-oxygen-deficient-ce3-sites-supported-by-n-and-s-dual-doped-carbon-as-an-active-oxygen-supply-catalyst-for-oxygen-reduction-reaction
#13
Liu Yang, Zhuang Cai, Liang Hao, Zipeng Xing, Ying Dai, Xin Xu, Siyu Pan, Yaqiang Duan, Jinlong Zou
Design of rare-earth-metal oxide/oxysulfide catalysts with high activity and durability for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is still a grand challenge at present. In this study, Ce-species (Ce2O2S/CeO2)/N, S dual-doped carbon (Ce-species/NSC) catalysts with promising oxygen storage/release capacity are prepared at different temperatures (800-1000 oC) to enhance the ORR efficiency. Mechanisms for the effects of temperature on crystalline phase transition between CeO2 and Ce2O2S and structure evolution of Ce-species/NSCs are inferred to better understand their catalytic activity...
June 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625813/neurogenesis-in-the-aging-brain
#14
REVIEW
Deana M Apple, Rene Solano-Fonseca, Erzsebet Kokovay
Adult neurogenesis is the process of producing new neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs) for integration into the brain circuitry. Neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. However, during aging, NSCs and their progenitors exhibit reduced proliferation and neuron production, which is thought to contribute to age-related cognitive impairment and reduced plasticity that is necessary for some types of brain repair...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623786/proteolytic-processed-form-of-cxcl12-abolishes-migration-and-induces-apoptosis-in-neural-stem-cells-in-vitro
#15
Taís Adelita, Roberta Sessa Stilhano, Sang Won Han, Giselle Zenker Justo, Marimelia Porcionatto
The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult mammalian brain hosts full potential neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs are able to respond to extracellular signals in the brain, amplifying the pool of progenitor cells and giving rise to neuroblasts that show ability to migrate towards an injury site. These signals can come from vascular system, cerebrospinal fluid, glial cells, or projections of neurons in adjoining regions. CXCL12, a chemokine secreted after brain injury, reaches the SVZ in a gradient manner and drives neuroblasts towards the lesion area...
June 4, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620076/superior-long-term-synaptic-memory-induced-by-combining-dual-pharmacological-activation-of-pka-and-erk-with-an-enhanced-training-protocol
#16
Rong-Yu Liu, Curtis Neveu, Paul Smolen, Leonard J Cleary, John H Byrne
Developing treatment strategies to enhance memory is an important goal of neuroscience research. Activation of multiple biochemical signaling cascades, such as the protein kinase A (PKA) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, is necessary to induce long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF), a correlate of long-term memory (LTM). Previously, a computational model was developed which correctly predicted a novel enhanced training protocol that augmented LTF by searching for the protocol with maximal overlap of PKA and ERK activation...
July 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619719/hypothalamic-regulation-of-regionally-distinct-adult-neural-stem-cells-and-neurogenesis
#17
Alex Paul, Zayna Chaker, Fiona Doetsch
Neural stem cells (NSCs) in specialized niches in the adult mammalian brain generate neurons throughout life. NSCs in the adult mouse ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) exhibit a regional identity, and depending on their location, generate distinct olfactory bulb interneuron subtypes. Here we show that the hypothalamus, a brain area regulating physiological states, provides long-range regionalized input to the V-SVZ niche and can regulate specific NSC subpopulations. Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons selectively innervate the anterior ventral V-SVZ and promote the proliferation of Nkx2...
June 15, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612130/acute-brain-diseases-as-triggers-for-stress-cardiomyopathy-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes
#18
Deena M Nasr, Sara Tomasini, Abhiram Prasad, Alejandro A Rabinstein
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy (NSC) among patients admitted to our neuroscience intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: Following institutional review board approval, consecutive adult patients admitted to the NICU between 2009 and 2013 with definite and possible NSC were included. Data on patient demographics, baseline clinical information, cardiac function, and laboratory values were collected...
June 13, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611587/downregulation-of-microrna-193b-3p-promotes-autophagy-and-cell-survival-by-targeting-tsc1-mtor-signaling-in-nsc-34-cells
#19
ChunYu Li, YongPing Chen, XuePing Chen, QianQian Wei, Bei Cao, HuiFang Shang
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the death of upper and lower motor neurons. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are reported to be closely related to the development of ALS. However, the precise functions of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of ALS remain largely unknown. In previous studies, we determined that miRNA-193b-3p was significantly downregulated in patients with sporadic ALS (sALS). Here, we observed that miRNA-193b-3p was downregulated in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS and promoted cell death in NSC-34 cells...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603556/could-miscanthus-replace-maize-as-the-preferred-substrate-for-anaerobic-digestion-in-the-united-kingdom-future-breeding-strategies
#20
Sarah J Purdy, Anne L Maddison, Christopher P Nunn, Ana Winters, Emma Timms-Taravella, Charlotte M Jones, John C Clifton-Brown, Iain S Donnison, Joe A Gallagher
Fodder maize is the most commonly used crop for biogas production owing to its high yields, high concentrations of starch and good digestibility. However, environmental concerns and possible future conflict with land for food production may limit its long-term use. The bioenergy grass, Miscanthus, is a high-yielding perennial that can grow on marginal land and, with 'greener' environmental credentials, may offer an alternative. To compete with maize, the concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and digestibility may need to be improved...
June 2017: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
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