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Qi-Gang Zhou, Daehoon Lee, Eun Jeoung Ro, Hoonkyo Suh
Hippocampus-dependent cognitive and emotional function appears to be regionally dissociated along the dorsoventral (DV) axis of the hippocampus. Recent observations that adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a critical role in both cognition and emotion raised an interesting question whether adult neurogenesis within specific subregions of the hippocampus contributes to these distinct functions. We examined the regional-specific and cell type-specific effects of fluoxetine, which requires adult hippocampal neurogenesis to function as an antidepressant, on the proliferation of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs)...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sung Min Jung, Dong-Ryeol Ryu, Clara Tammy Kim
OBJECTIVE: In hypertensive patients with proteinuria, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade would be beneficial for controlling both blood pressure and proteinuria. We aimed to evaluate prescription pattern of RAS blockade in Korean hypertensive patients with proteinuria. DESIGN AND METHOD: We used the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) Database for the analysis. It included randomly selected one million individuals in the National Health Insurance Database, which comprised 2...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Katya Zelentsova, Ziv Talmi, Ghada Abboud-Jarrous, Tamar Sapir, Tal Capucha, Maria Nassar, Tal Burstyn-Cohen
Neurons are continuously produced in brains of adult mammalian organisms throughout life - a process tightly regulated to ensure a balanced homeostasis. In the adult brain, quiescent Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) residing in distinct niches engage in proliferation, to self-renew and to give rise to differentiated neurons and astrocytes. The mechanisms governing the intricate regulation of NSC quiescence and neuronal differentiation are not completely understood. Here, we report the expression of Protein S (PROS1) in adult NSCs, and show that genetic ablation of Pros1 in neural progenitors increased hippocampal NSC proliferation by 47%...
October 18, 2016: Stem Cells
Christina R Tyler, Matthew T Labrecque, Elizabeth R Solomon, Xun Guo, Andrea M Allan
Exposure to arsenic, a common environmental toxin found in drinking water, leads to a host of neurological pathologies. We have previously demonstrated that developmental exposure to a low level of arsenic (50ppb) alters epigenetic processes that underlie deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis leading to aberrant behavior. It is unclear if arsenic impacts the programming and regulation of embryonic neurogenesis during development when exposure occurs. The master negative regulator of neural-lineage, REST/NRSF, controls the precise timing of fate specification and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs)...
October 14, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Qian Jiao, Li Wang, Zhichao Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Hanqi Yan, Wen Ma, Weilin Jin, Haixia Lu, Yong Liu
Different SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase-activating proteins (srGAPs) have different levels of expression and diverse functions during neural development. Although srGAP2 is expressed in developmental brain tissue, little is known about its influence on cellular development of the nervous system. In the current study, dynamic expression of endogenous srGAP2 during neural stem cell/progenitor cell (NSC/NPC) differentiation in vitro was investigated in order to elucidate the association between the dynamic expression of srGAP2 and neural development...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yun Zhao, Qiongyi Pang, Meixia Liu, Jingzi Pan, Bingwu Xiang, Tingting Huang, Fengxia Tu, Chan Liu, Xiang Chen
Using a model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), we have previously demonstrated that treadmill exercise promotes angiogenesis in the ischemic penumbra through caveolin-1/VEGF signaling pathways. However, the function of caveolin-1/VEGF signaling in neurogenesis after MCAO has not been determined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of treadmill exercise to promote neurogenesis after MCAO and whether caveolin-1/VEGF signaling pathways are involved. After MCAO, rats were subjected to a program of treadmill exercise...
October 17, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Jian Huang
Helicoverpa armigera causes serious damage to most crops around the world. However, the impacts of snow thickness on the H. armigera overwintering pupae are little known. A field experiment was employed in 2012-2015 at Urumqi, China. At soil depths of 5, 10, and 15 cm, overwintering pupae were embedded with four treatments: no snow cover (NSC), snow cover (SC), increasing snow thickness to 1.5 times the thickness of SC (ISSC-1), and to two times the thickness of SC (ISSC-2). Results suggested that snow cover and increasing snow thickness both significantly increased soil temperatures, which helped to decrease the mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP) of H...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
Justine Karst, Jacob Gaster, Erin Wiley, Simon M Landhäusser
How carbon (C) flows through plants into soils is poorly understood. Carbon exuded comes from a pool of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in roots. Simple models of diffusion across concentration gradients indicate that the more C in roots, the more C should be exuded from roots. However, the mechanisms underlying the accumulation and loss of C from roots may differ depending on the stress experienced by plants. Thus, stress type may influence exudation independent of NSC. We tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between NSC in fine roots and exudation of organic C in aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx...
October 15, 2016: Tree Physiology
Zhijian Cheng, Dale B Bosco, Li Sun, Xiaoming Chen, Yunsheng Xu, Wenjiao Tai, Ruth Didier, Jinhua Li, Jianqing Fan, Xijing He, Yi Ren
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes functional impairment as a result of the initial injury followed by secondary injury mechanism. SCI provokes an inflammatory response that causes secondary tissue damage and neurodegeneration. While, the use of neural stem cell (NSC) engraftment to mitigate secondary injury has been of interest to many researchers, it still faces several limitations. As such, we investigated if NSC-conditioned media (NSC-M) possesses therapeutic potential for the treatment of SCI. It has been proposed that many of the beneficial effects attributed to stem cell therapies are due to secreted factors...
October 12, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Dalia Shendi, Dirk Albrecht, Anjana Jain
Central nervous system (CNS) injuries and diseases result in neuronal damage, and loss of function. Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) has been shown to improve locomotor function after transplantation. However, due to the immune and inflammatory response at the injury site, the survival rate of the engrafted cells is low. Engrafted cell viability has been shown to increase when transplanted within a hydrogel. Hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels have natural anti-inflammatory properties and the backbone can be modified to introduce bioactive agents, such as anti-Fas, which we have previously shown to promote NSC survival while suppressing immune cell activity in bulk hydrogels in vitro...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Sara K Custer, Timra D Gilson, Hongxia Li, A Gary Todd, Jacob W Astroski, Hai Lin, Yunlong Liu, Elliot J Androphy
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an intractable neurodegenerative disease afflicting 1 in 6-10,000 live births. One of the key functions of the SMN protein is regulation of spliceosome assembly. Reduced levels of the SMN protein that are observed in SMA have been shown to result in aberrant mRNA splicing. SMN-dependent mis-spliced transcripts in motor neurons may cause stresses that are particularly harmful and may serve as potential targets for the treatment of motor neuron disease or as biomarkers in the SMA patient population...
2016: PloS One
Yu-Hui Yan, Shao-Heng Li, Hong-Yan Li, Ying Lin, Jing-Xian Yang
In recent years, neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation has been widely explored as a treatment for neurodegenerative diseases. NSCs are special cells that have some capacity for self-renewal and the potential to differentiate into multiple cell types. However, the inflammatory environment of diseased tissue is not conducive to the survival of transplanted cells. Osthole (Ost) is a principal bioactive component of Fructus Cnidii, Radix Angelicae Pubescentis and other traditional Chinese medicines. Ost has a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, and neuroprotection...
October 12, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Kurt Farrell, Ali Borazjani, Margot Damaser, Chandrasekhar R Kothapalli
Under disease or injury conditions in the central nervous system (CNS), activated microglia release cytokines and chemokines to modulate the microenvironment and influence tissue remodeling. To exploit the full potential of neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation approaches, a permissive microenvironment needs to be created for their survival, homing and differentiation. To investigate the role of chronically activated microglia in the fate of NSCs, spontaneously immortalized murine microglial cells (SIM-A9) were cocultured with embryonic murine cortical NSCs on 2D substrates or within 3D gels...
October 10, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
A Young Han, Hui Su Lee, Geun Hee Seol
This study assessed the effects of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel oil) and of trans-anethole, the main component of fennel oil, on extracellular Ca(2+)-induced store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) into vascular endothelial (EA) cells and their mechanisms of action. Components of fennel oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in EA cells was determined using Fura-2 fluorescence. In the presence of extracellular Ca(2+), fennel oil significantly increased [Ca(2+)]c in EA cells; this increase was significantly inhibited by the Ca(2+) channel blockers La(3+) and nifedipine...
October 6, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Christopher F Adams, Andrew W Dickson, Jan-Herman Kuiper, Divya M Chari
Tissue engineering studies are witnessing a major paradigm shift to cell culture on biomimetic materials that replicate native tissue features from which the cells are derived. Few studies have been performed in this regard for neural cells, particularly in nanomedicine. For example, platforms such as magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have proven efficient as multifunctional tools for cell tracking and genetic engineering of neural transplant populations. However, as far as we are aware, all current studies have been conducted using neural cells propagated on non-neuromimetic substrates that fail to represent the mechano-elastic properties of brain and spinal cord microenvironments...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
Qiang He, Zhanwei Jia, Ying Zhang, Xiumin Ren
We aimed to investigate the effect of morin hydrate on neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from mouse inner ear and its potential in protecting neuronal hearing loss. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays were employed to assess the effect of morin hydrate on the viability and proliferation of in vitro NSC culture. The NSCs were then differentiated into neurons, in which neurosphere formation and differentiation were evaluated, followed by neurite outgrowth and neural excitability measurements in the subsequent in vitro neuronal network...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Diane R Wang, Edward J Wolfrum, Parminder Virk, Abdelbagi Ismail, Anthony J Greenberg, Susan R McCouch
Rice plants (Oryza sativa) accumulate excess photoassimilates in the form of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in their stems prior to heading that can later be mobilized to supplement photosynthate production during grain-filling. Despite longstanding interest in stem NSC for rice improvement, the dynamics of NSC accumulation, remobilization, and re-accumulation that have genetic potential for optimization have not been systematically investigated. Here we conducted three pilot experiments to lay the groundwork for large-scale diversity studies on rice stem NSC...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Afra Hadjizadeh, Houman Savoji, Abdellah Ajji
Despite many of the studies being conducted, the electrospinning of poly (lactic acid) (PLA), dissolved in its common solvents, is difficult to be continuously processed for mass production. This is due to the polymer solution droplet drying. Besides, the poor stretching capability of the polymer solution limits the production of small diameter fibers. To address these issues, we have examined the two following objectives: first, using an appropriate solvent system for the mass production of fibrous mats with fine-tunable fiber diameters; second, nontoxicity of the mats towards Neural Stem Cell (NSC)...
2016: BioMed Research International
S Vijaya Laxmi, P Anil, G Rajitha, Asha Jyothi Rao, Peter A Crooks, B Rajitha
In the search of efficient anticancer agents, here, new 5-(4-alkylbenzyledene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione derivatives (5a-g) have been successfully synthesized and characterized and are evaluated for anticancer and antimicrobial activities using DNA cleavage studies. In vitro studies on anticancer activity of compound 5d (NSC: 768619/1) was done against the full panel of 60 human tumor cell lines. The five-level dose activity results revealed that, the compound 5d was active against all the cell lines, it has shown potential activity against leukemia SR (GI50: 2...
October 2016: Journal of Chemical Biology
Yan Zhao, Yuan Zuo, Jianming Jiang, Huibo Yan, Xiliang Wang, Hunjun Huo, Yulong Xiao
Spinal cord injury (SCI) comprises nerve and motor function disorders that may be caused by a variety of damaging factors and is challenging to treat. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regenerative effects of neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation combined with intraperitoneal injection of erythropoietin (EPO) on cross-sectional SCI in rats. A model of SCI was induced in 40 adult Wistar rats via the complete transection of the 10th thoracic vertebra (T10). The rats were allocated at random into 4 groups: Control, NSC, EPO and NSC + EPO groups (n=10 per group)...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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