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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151265/cnn3-regulates-neural-tube-morphogenesis-and-neuronal-stem-cell-properties
#1
Dirk Junghans, Sebastian Herzog
Calponin 3 (Cnn3) is a member of the calponin family of actin binding molecules that is highly expressed in the mammalian brain and has been shown to control dendritic spine morphology, density and plasticity by regulating actin cytoskeletal reorganization and dynamics. However, little is known about the role of Cnn3 during embryonic development. In this study we analyzed mutant animals deficient in Cnn3 to gain a better understanding of its role in brain morphogenesis. Embryos lacking Cnn3 exhibited massive malformation of the developing brain including exoencephaly, closure defects at the rostral neural tube and strong enlargement of brain tissue...
November 19, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150616/nmr-metabolomics-for-stem-cell-type-discrimination
#2
Franca Castiglione, Monica Ferro, Evangelos Mavroudakis, Rosalia Pellitteri, Patrizia Bossolasco, Damiano Zaccheo, Massimo Morbidelli, Vincenzo Silani, Andrea Mele, Davide Moscatelli, Lidia Cova
Cell metabolism is a key determinant factor for the pluripotency and fate commitment of Stem Cells (SCs) during development, ageing, pathological onset and progression. We derived and cultured selected subpopulations of rodent fetal, postnatal, adult Neural SCs (NSCs) and postnatal glial progenitors, Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (OECs), respectively from the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the olfactory bulb (OB). Cell lysates were analyzed by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy leading to metabolites identification and quantitation...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149553/cobalt-sulfide-quantum-dots-embedded-n-s-doped-carbon-nanosheets-with-superior-reversibility-and-rate-capability-for-sodium-ion-batteries
#3
Qiubo Guo, Yifan Ma, Tingting Chen, Qiuying Xia, Mei Yang, Hui Xia, Yan Yu
Metal sulfides are promising anode materials for sodium-ion batteries due to their large specific capacities. The practical application of metal sulfides in sodium-ion batteries, however, are still limited due to their large volume expansion, poor cycling stability, and sluggish electrode kinetics. In this work, a unique two-dimensional heterostructure of CoSx (CoS and Co9S8) quantum dots embedded N/S-doped carbon nanosheets (CoSx@NSC) is prepared by a facile sol-gel method. The CoSx quantum dots are in-situ formed within ultrafine carbon nanosheets without further sulfidation, thus resulting in ultrafine CoSx particle size and embedded heterostructure...
November 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141824/inhibition-of-neurogenesis-in-a-case-of-marburg-variant-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Celia Oreja-Guevara, Ulises Gómez-Pinedo, Julia García-López, Rafael Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto Valverde-Moyano, Alberto Rabano-Gutierrez, Jordi A Matías-Guiu, Ines González-Suárez, Jorge Matías-Guiu
INTRODUCTION: Neural stem cells (NSC) are located essentially in the subventricular zone (SVZ), subgranular zone (SGZ), and along the central canal of the spinal cord. These cells can proliferate in vitro and differentiate into neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astroglia, thus contributing to repair in multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a pathological study to analyse neurogenic response in a patient with Marburg variant MS. METHODS: We present the case of a 27-year-old immunocompetent patient with Marburg variant MS, a fulminant form of the disease...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141232/foxp1-promotes-embryonic-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-by-repressing-jagged1-expression
#5
Luca Braccioli, Stephin J Vervoort, Youri Adolfs, Cobi J Heijnen, Onur Basak, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Cora H Nijboer, Paul J Coffer
Mutations in FOXP1 have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders including intellectual disability and autism; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain ill-defined. Here, we demonstrate with RNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing that FOXP1 directly regulates genes controlling neurogenesis. We show that FOXP1 is expressed in embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs), and modulation of FOXP1 expression affects both neuron and astrocyte differentiation. Using a murine model of cortical development, FOXP1-knockdown in utero was found to reduce NSC differentiation and migration during corticogenesis...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140156/conditioned-medium-from-human-gingival-mesenchymal-stem-cells-protects-motor-neuron-like-nsc-34-cells-against-scratch-injury-induced-cell-death
#6
Thangavelu Soundara Rajan, Francesca Diomede, Placido Bramanti, Oriana Trubiani, Emanuela Mazzon
Neuronal cell death is a normal process during central nervous system (CNS) development and is also involved in the death of motor neurons in diverse spinal motor neuron degenerative diseases. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of secretory factors released from human gingival mesenchymal stem cells (hGMSCs) in mechanically injured murine motor-neuron-like NSC-34 cells. The cells were exposed to scratch injury and the markers for apoptosis and oxidative stress were examined. Immunocytochemistry results showed that proapoptotic markers cleaved caspase-3 and Bax were elevated while anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was suppressed in scratch-injured NSC-34 cells...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138802/in-vitro-investigation-of-the-mechanism-underlying-the-effect-of-ginsenoside-on-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells-subjected-to-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reperfusion
#7
Jian Gao, Huajing Bai, Qiang Li, Jian Li, Feng Wan, Mo Tian, Yuanyuan Li, Yilun Song, Jianping Zhang, Yinchu Si
The present study comprised a series of experiments to investigate the mechanism underlying the effect of ginsenoside on the self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) undergoing oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) in vitro. The NSCs, which were isolated from the hippocampus of embryonic day 17 embryo rats, were subjected to OGD/R to establish an in vitro model of brain ischemia-reperfusion, following which different doses of ginsenoside were administered to the model...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133796/pd-supported-on-carbon-containing-nickel-nitrogen-and-sulfur-for-ethanol-electrooxidation
#8
Zi-Rui Yang, Shang-Qing Wang, Jing Wang, Ai-Ju Zhou, Chang-Wei Xu
Carbon material containing nickel, nitrogen and sulfur (Ni-NSC) has been synthesized using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as precursor by annealing treatment with a size from 200 to 300 nm. Pd nanoparticles supported on the Ni-NSC (Pd/Ni-NSC) are used as electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. Due to the synergistic effect between Pd and Ni, S, N, free OH radicals can form on the surface of Ni, N and S atoms at lower potentials, which react with CH3CO intermediate species on the Pd surface to produce CH3COO(-) and release the active sites...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133625/the-interplay-of-peptide-affinity-and-scaffold-stiffness-on-neuronal-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells
#9
Jessica M Stukel, Rebecca Kuntz Willits
Cells are sensitive to physical cues in their environment, such as the stiffness of the substrate, peptide density, and peptide affinity. Understanding how neural stem cells (NSCs) sense and respond to these matrix cues has the potential to improve disease outcome, particularly if a regenerative response can be exploited. While the material properties are known to influence other stem cells, little is known about how NSC differentiation is altered by this interplay of mechanical, or bulk properties, with peptide concentration and affinity, or microscale properties...
November 14, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130544/identification-of-gene-expression-signatures-across-different-types-of-neural-stem-cells-with-the-monte-carlo-feature-selection-method
#10
Lei Chen, JiaRui Li, Yu-Hang Zhang, KaiYan Feng, ShaoPeng Wang, YunHua Zhang, Tao Huang, Xiangyin Kong, Yu-Dong Cai
Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) are a group of multi-potent, self-renewing progenitor cells that contribute to the generation of new neurons and oligodendrocytes. Three subtypes of NSCs can be isolated based on the stages of the NSC lineage, including quiescent neural stem cells (qNSCs), activated neural stem cells (aNSCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Although it is widely accepted that these three groups of NSCs play different roles in the development of the nervous system, their molecular signatures are poorly understood...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129682/spatial-and-sex-dependent-responses-of-adult-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-to-alcohol-consumption
#11
Erica L McGrath, Junling Gao, Yong-Fang Kuo, Tiffany J Dunn, Moniqua J Ray, Kelly T Dineley, Kathryn A Cunningham, Bhupendra S Kaphalia, Ping Wu
Chronic alcohol abuse results in alcohol-related neurodegeneration, and critical gaps in our knowledge hinder therapeutic development. Neural stem cells (NSCs) are a subpopulation of cells within the adult brain that contribute to brain maintenance and recovery. While it is known that alcohol alters NSCs, little is known about how NSC response to alcohol is related to sex, brain region, and stage of differentiation. Understanding these relationships will aid in therapeutic development. Here, we used an inducible transgenic mouse model to track the stages of differentiation of adult endogenous NSCs and observed distinct NSC behaviors in three brain regions (subventricular zone, subgranular zone, and tanycyte layer) after long-term alcohol consumption...
November 3, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128319/a-proteomic-investigation-into-mechanisms-underpinning-corticosteroid-effects-on-neural-stem-cells
#12
Rawaa S Al-Mayyahi, Luke D Sterio, Joanne B Connolly, Christopher F Adams, Wa'il A Al-Tumah, Jon Sen, Richard D Emes, Sarah R Hart, Divya M Chari
Corticosteroids (CSs) are widely used clinically, for example in pediatric respiratory distress syndrome, and immunosuppression to prevent rejection of stem cell transplant populations in neural cell therapy. However, such treatment can be associated with adverse effects such as impaired neurogenesis and myelination, and increased risk of cerebral palsy. There is increasing evidence that CSs can adversely influence key biological properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) but the molecular mechanisms underpinning such effects are largely unknown...
November 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127399/radial-extracorporeal-shock-wave-therapy-enhances-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells-by-notch-pi3k-akt-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#13
Jing Zhang, Nan Kang, Xiaotong Yu, Yuewen Ma, Xining Pang
Neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation play a pivotal role in the repair of brain function in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) is a non-invasive and innovative treatment for many conditions, yet little is known about the effects of this treatment on NSCs. Mouse NSCs (NE-4C) were exposed to rESWT with 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 bar (500 impulses, and 2 Hz) in vitro. Cell viability test results indicated that rESWT, at a dose of 2...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126932/docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-enhances-the-therapeutic-potential-of-neonatal-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-post-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Hussein Ghazale, Naify Ramadan, Sara Mantash, Kazem Zibara, Sally El-Sitt, Hala Darwish, Farah Chamaa, Rose Mary Boustany, Stefania Mondello, Wassim Abou-Kheir, Jihane Soueid, Firas Kobeissy
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide with 1.5 million people inflicted yearly. Several neurotherapeutic interventions have been proposed including drug administration as well as cellular therapy involving neural stem cells (NSCs). Among the proposed drugs is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid, exhibiting neuroprotective properties. In this study, we utilized an innovative intervention of neonatal NSCs transplantation in combination with DHA injections in order to ameliorate brain damage and promote functional recovery in an experimental model of TBI...
November 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125897/image-analysis-of-neural-stem-cell-division-patterns-in-the-zebrafish-brain
#15
Valerio Lupperger, Felix Buggenthin, Prisca Chapouton, Carsten Marr
Proliferating stem cells in the adult body are the source of constant regeneration. In the brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) divide to maintain the stem cell population and generate neural progenitor cells that eventually replenish mature neurons and glial cells. How much spatial coordination of NSC division and differentiation is present in a functional brain is an open question. To quantify the patterns of stem cell divisions, one has to (i) identify the pool of NSCs that have the ability to divide, (ii) determine NSCs that divide within a given time window, and (iii) analyze the degree of spatial coordination...
November 10, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115993/adjudin-preconditioned-neural-stem-cells-enhance-neuroprotection-after-ischemia-reperfusion-in-mice
#16
Tingting Zhang, Xiao Yang, Tengyuan Liu, Jiaxiang Shao, Ningzhen Fu, Aijuan Yan, Keyi Geng, Weiliang Xia
BACKGROUND: Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) has been proposed as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury. However, existing evidence has also challenged this therapy on its limitations, such as the difficulty for stem cells to survive after transplantation due to the unfavorable microenvironment in the ischemic brain. Herein, we have investigated whether preconditioning of NSCs with adjudin, a small molecule compound, could enhance their survivability and further improve the therapeutic effect for NSC-based stroke therapy...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115610/overexpression-of-mir%C3%A2-21-promotes-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-neural-differentiation-via-the-wnt-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-catenin-signaling-pathway-in-vitro
#17
Wei-Min Zhang, Zhi-Ren Zhang, Xi-Tao Yang, Yong-Gang Zhang, Yan-Sheng Gao
The primary aim of the present study was to examine the effects of microRNA‑21 (miR‑21) on the proliferation and differentiation of rat primary neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro. miR‑21 was overexpressed in NSCs by transfection with a miR‑21 mimic. The effects of miR‑21 overexpression on NSC proliferation were revealed by Cell Counting kit 8 and 5‑ethynyl‑2'‑deoxyuridine incorporation assay, and miR‑21 overexpression was revealed to increase NSC proliferation. miR‑21 overexpression was confirmed using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR)...
October 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115443/erythropoietin-signaling-increases-neurogenesis-and-oligodendrogenesis-of-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-following-spinal-cord-injury-both-in%C3%A2-vivo-and-in%C3%A2-vitro
#18
Hui Zhang, Xiao Fang, Dake Huang, Qingli Luo, Meijuan Zheng, Kangkang Wang, Le Cao, Zongsheng Yin
Erythropoietin (Epo) promotes functional recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI); however, the exact underlying mechanisms are yet to be determined. Although endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult spinal cord are a therapeutic target in SCI models, the effect of Epo on this NSC population remains unknown. The present study investigated the effects of Epo on endogenous NSCs in the adult spinal cord both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vivo analyses, normal rats (Normal) and SCI contusion model rats (SCI) received either recombinant human Epo or saline treatment for 7 days (5,000 U/kg), and spinal cords were subsequently analyzed at 2, 8, and 14 days...
October 25, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114922/regulation-and-effects-of-neurotrophic-factors-after-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-disease
#19
Bo Li, Yun Gao, Wei Zhang, Jian-Rong Xu
According to much research, neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease (AD) are correlated with alternations of neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor. The experimental illumination of neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation to eliminate AD symptoms is being explored frequently, and we have acknowledged that neurotrophic factors may play a pivotal role in cognitive improvement. However, the relation between the reversal of cognitive deficits after NSC transplantation and directed alternations of neurotrophic factors is not clearly expounded...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112735/whole-tree-distribution-and-temporal-variation-of-non-structural-carbohydrates-in-broadleaf-evergreen-trees
#20
Merryn G Smith, Rebecca E Miller, Stefan K Arndt, Sabine Kasel, Lauren T Bennett
Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) form a fundamental yet poorly quantified carbon pool in trees. Studies of NSC seasonality in forest trees have seldom measured whole-tree NSC stocks and allocation among organs, and are not representative of all tree functional types. Non-structural carbohydrate research has primarily focussed on broadleaf deciduous and coniferous evergreen trees with distinct growing seasons, while broadleaf evergreen trees remain under-studied despite their different growth phenology. We measured whole-tree NSC allocation and temporal variation in Eucalyptus obliqua L'Hér...
November 3, 2017: Tree Physiology
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