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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922152/brain-biomarkers-in-familial-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-models
#1
Yafit Kuttner-Hirshler, Palamadai N Venkatasubramanian, Joan Apolinario, Jacqueline Bonds, Alice M Wyrwicz, Orly Lazarov
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive loss of memory and cognitive deterioration. It is thought that the onset of the disease takes place several decades before memory deficits are apparent. Reliable biomarkers for the diagnosis or prognostication of the disease are highly desirable. Neural stem cells (NSC) exist in the adult brain throughout life and give rise to neural progenitor cells (NPC), which differentiate into neurons or glia. The level of NPC proliferation and new neuron formation is significantly compromised in mouse models of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921550/sugars-from-woody-tissue-photosynthesis-reduce-xylem-vulnerability-to-cavitation
#2
Niels J F De Baerdemaeker, Roberto Luis Salomón, Linus De Roo, Kathy Steppe
Reassimilation of internal CO2 via woody tissue photosynthesis has a substantial effect on tree carbon income and wood production. However, little is known about its role in xylem vulnerability to cavitation and its implications in drought-driven tree mortality. Young trees of Populus nigra were subjected to light exclusion at the branch and stem levels. After 40 d, measurements of xylem water potential, diameter variation and acoustic emission (AE) were performed in detached branches to obtain acoustic vulnerability curves to cavitation following bench-top dehydration...
September 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916193/ferulic-acid-promotes-survival-and-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells-to-prevent-gentamicin-induced-neuronal-hearing-loss
#3
Lintao Gu, Xinhua Cui, Wei Wei, Jia Yang, Xuezhong Li
Neural stem cells (NSCs) have exhibited promising potential in therapies against neuronal hearing loss. Ferulic acid (FA) has been widely reported to enhance neurogenic differentiation of different stem cells. We investigated the role of FA in promoting NSC transplant therapy to prevent gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss. NSCs were isolated from mouse cochlear tissues to establish in vitro culture, which were then treated with FA. The survival and differentiation of NSCs were evaluated. Subsequently, neurite outgrowth and excitability of the in vitro neuronal network were assessed...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912673/improving-the-delivery-of-sod1-antisense-oligonucleotides-to-motor-neurons-using-calcium-phosphate-lipid-nanoparticles
#4
Liyu Chen, Clare Watson, Marco Morsch, Nicholas J Cole, Roger S Chung, Darren N Saunders, Justin J Yerbury, Kara L Vine
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting the upper and lower motor neurons in the motor cortex and spinal cord. Abnormal accumulation of mutant superoxide dismutase I (SOD1) in motor neurons is a pathological hallmark of some forms of the disease. We have shown that the orderly progression of the disease may be explained by misfolded SOD1 cell-to-cell propagation, which is reliant upon its active endogenous synthesis. Reducing the levels of SOD1 is therefore a promising therapeutic approach...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911165/cellular-retinoic-acid-binding-protein-1-modulates-stem-cell-proliferation-to-affect-learning-and-memory-in-male-mice
#5
Yu-Lung Lin, Shawna D Persaud, Jennifer Nhieu, Li-Na Wei
Retinoic acid (RA) is the active ingredient of vitamin A. It exerts its canonical activity by binding to nuclear RA receptors (RARs) to regulate gene expression. Increasingly, RA is also known to elicit nongenomic RAR-independent activities, most widely detected in activating extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. This study validated the functional role of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 1 (Crabp1) in mediating nongenomic activity in RA, specifically activating ERK1/2 to rapidly augment the cell cycle by expanding the growth 1 phase and slowing down embryonic stem cell and neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894864/neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-in-the-conductive-pedot-ha-cs-gel-scaffold-for-neural-tissue-engineering
#6
Shuping Wang, Shui Guan, Jianqiang Xu, Wenfang Li, Dan Ge, Changkai Sun, Tianqing Liu, Xuehu Ma
Engineering scaffolds with excellent electro-activity is increasingly important in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Herein, conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with hyaluronic acid (PEDOT-HA) nanoparticles were firstly synthesized via chemical oxidant polymerization. A three-dimensional (3D) PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold was then developed by introducing PEDOT-HA nanoparticles into a chitosan/gelatin (Cs/Gel) matrix. HA, as a bridge, not only was used as a dopant, but also combined PEDOT into the Cs/Gel via chemical crosslinking...
September 12, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893649/endothelial-cells-maintain-neural-stem-cells-quiescent-in-their-niche
#7
Patrick O Azevedo, Luiza Lousado, Ana E Paiva, Julia P Andreotti, Gabryella S P Santos, Isadora F G Sena, Pedro H D M Prazeres, Renato Filev, Akiva Mintz, Alexander Birbrair
Niches are specialized microenvironments that regulate stem cells activity. The neural stem cell (NSC) niche defines a zone in which NSCs are retained and produce new cells of the nervous system throughout life. Understanding the signaling mechanisms by which the nichecontrols theNSC fate is crucial for the success of clinical applications. In a recent study, Sato and colleagues, by using state-of-the-art techniques, including sophisticated in vivo lineage-tracing technologies, provide evidence that endothelial amyloid precursor protein (APP) is an important component of the NSC niche...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888173/lc-ms-ms-assay-for-the-quantitation-of-the-atr-kinase-inhibitor-vx-970-in-human-plasma
#8
Brian F Kiesel, Jonas Scemama, Robert A Parise, Liza Villaruz, Andre Iffland, Austin Doyle, Percy Ivy, Edward Chu, Christopher J Bakkenist, Jan H Beumer
DNA damaging chemotherapy and radiation are widely used standard-of-care modalities for the treatment of cancer. Nevertheless, the outcome for many patients remains poor and this may be attributed, at least in part, to highly effective DNA repair mechanisms. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) is a key regulator of the DNA-damage response (DDR) that orchestrates the repair of damaged replication forks. ATR is a serine/threonine protein kinase and ATR kinase inhibitors potentiate chemotherapy and radiation...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881312/lc-ms-ms-assay-for-the-quantitation-of-the-ribonucleotide-reductase-inhibitor-triapine-in-human-plasma
#9
Julia Matsumoto, Brian F Kiesel, Robert A Parise, Jianxia Guo, Sarah Taylor, Marilyn Huang, Julie L Eiseman, S Percy Ivy, Charles Kunos, Edward Chu, Jan H Beumer
The ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor and radiosensitizer triapine (3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP), NSC 663249) is clinically being evaluated via the intravenous (IV) route for the treatment of cervical and vulvar cancer in combination with primary cisplatin chemoradiation. The need for a 2-h infusion and frequent administration of triapine is logistically challenging, prompting us to pursue oral (PO) administration. In support of the clinical trial investigating oral triapine in combination with chemoradiation, we developed and validated a novel LC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of triapine in 50μL human plasma...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879461/perinatal-exposure-to-the-cyanotoxin-%C3%AE-n-m%C3%A3-thylamino-l-alanine-bmaa-results-in-long-lasting-behavioral-changes-in-offspring-potential-involvement-of-dna-damage-and-oxidative-stress
#10
Anthony Laugeray, Asma Oummadi, Clément Jourdain, Justyne Feat, Géraldine Meyer-Dilhet, Arnaud Menuet, Karen Plé, Marion Gay, Sylvain Routier, Stéphane Mortaud, Gilles J Guillemin
We recently demonstrated that perinatal exposure to the glutamate-related herbicide, glufosinate ammonium, has deleterious effects on neural stem cell (NSC) homeostasis within the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ), probably leading to ASD-like symptoms in offspring later in life. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether perinatal exposure to another glutamate-related toxicant, the cyanobacterial amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), might also trigger neurodevelopmental disturbances. With this aim, female mice were intranasally exposed to low doses of BMAA, 50 mg kg(-1) three times a week from embryonic days 7-10 to postnatal day 21...
September 6, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876356/a-versatile-upconversion-surface-evaluation-platform-for-bio-nano-surface-selection-for-the-nervous-system
#11
Libing Fu, Marco Morsch, Bingyang Shi, Guoying Wang, Albert Lee, Rowan Radford, Yiqing Lu, Dayong Jin, Roger Chung
There is considerable interest in developing diagnostic nanotools for early detection and delivery of various therapeutic agents for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, a key challenge remains in the selection of suitable surfaces to overcome the nano-bio interface issue, namely that many nanoparticle surfaces demonstrate instability when administered into biological environments and show substantial cytotoxicity to the central nervous system. In this study, we fabricated an evaluation platform for bio-nano surface selection based on the combination of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), cultured neural cells and zebra fish, and systemically demonstrated how it can evaluate the suitability of nanoparticle surfaces for applications in the central nervous system...
September 6, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874550/prenatal-neurogenesis-induction-therapy-normalizes-brain-structure-and-function-in-down-syndrome-mice
#12
Akiko Nakano-Kobayashi, Tomonari Awaya, Isao Kii, Yuto Sumida, Yukiko Okuno, Suguru Yoshida, Tomoe Sumida, Haruhisa Inoue, Takamitsu Hosoya, Masatoshi Hagiwara
Down syndrome (DS) caused by trisomy of chromosome 21 is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. Although the prenatal diagnosis of DS has become feasible, there are no therapies available for the rescue of DS-related neurocognitive impairment. A growth inducer newly identified in our screen of neural stem cells (NSCs) has potent inhibitory activity against dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) and was found to rescue proliferative deficits in Ts65Dn-derived neurospheres and human NSCs derived from individuals with DS...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864354/methods-of-reactivation-and-reprogramming-of-neural-stem-cells-for-neural-repair
#13
REVIEW
Zuojun Tian, Qiuge Zhao, Sangita Biswas, Wenbin Deng
Research on the biology of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) and induced NSCs (iNSCs), as well as NSC-based therapies for diseases in central nervous system (CNS) has started to generate the expectation that these cells may be used for treatments in CNS injuries or disorders. Recent technological progresses in both NSCs themselves and their derivatives have brought us closer to therapeutic applications. Adult neurogenesis presents in particular regions in mammal brain, known as neurogenic niches such as the dental gyrus (DG) in hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ), within which adult NSCs usually stay for long periods out of the cell cycle, in G0...
August 31, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861788/cellular-analysis-of-adult-neural-stem-cells-for-investigating-prion-biology
#14
Cathryn L Haigh
Traditional primary and secondary cell cultures have been used for the investigation of prion biology and disease for many years. While both types of cultures produce highly valid and immensely valuable results, they also have their limitations; traditional cell lines are often derived from cancers, therefore subject to numerous DNA changes, and primary cultures are labor-intensive and expensive to produce requiring sacrifice of many animals. Neural stem cell (NSC) cultures are a relatively new technology to be used for the study of prion biology and disease...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860504/small-molecule-based-lineage-switch-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-into-neural-stem-cells-and-functional-gabaergic-neurons
#15
Jihye Park, Nayeon Lee, Jaekwang Lee, Eun Kyung Choe, Min Kyung Kim, Jeonghoon Lee, Min Soo Byun, Myong-Wuk Chon, Seong Who Kim, C Justin Lee, Ju Han Kim, Jun Soo Kwon, Mi-Sook Chang
Cellular reprogramming using small molecules (SMs) without genetic modification provides a promising strategy for generating target cells for cell-based therapy. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) are a desirable cell source for clinical application due to their self-renewal capacity, easy obtainability and the lack of safety concerns, such as tumor formation. However, methods to convert hADSCs into neural cells, such as neural stem cells (NSCs), are inefficient, and few if any studies have achieved efficient reprogramming of hADSCs into functional neurons...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860453/phenology-dependent-variation-in-the-non-structural-carbohydrates-of-broadleaf-evergreen-species-plays-an-important-role-in-determining-tolerance-to-defoliation-or-herbivory
#16
Zhicheng Chen, Lin Wang, Yongxin Dai, Xianchong Wan, Shirong Liu
Two broadleaf evergreen canopy species (Schima superba and Engelhardia roxburghiana) with different phenologies in a subtropical region of southern China were used to determine the influence of leaf phenology on the impact of an insect pest attack. S. superba regenerates its leaves in February, while E. roxburghiana regenerates its leaves in May. The moth Thalassodes quadraria attacked the two broadleaf evergreen species in March to April, and the newly produced leaves were removed for S. superba but not for E...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852513/can-local-adaptation-explain-varying-patterns-of-herbivory-tolerance-in-a-recently-introduced-woody-plant-in-north-america
#17
Randall W Long, Susan E Bush, Kevin C Grady, David S Smith, Daniel L Potts, Carla M D'Antonio, Tom L Dudley, Shannon D Fehlberg, John F Gaskin, Edward P Glenn, Kevin R Hultine
Patterns of woody-plant mortality have been linked to global-scale environmental changes, such as extreme drought, heat stress, more frequent and intense fires, and episodic outbreaks of insects and pathogens. Although many studies have focussed on survival and mortality in response to specific physiological stresses, little attention has been paid to the role of genetic heritability of traits and local adaptation in influencing patterns of plant mortality, especially in non-native species. Tamarix spp. is a dominant, non-native riparian tree in western North America that is experiencing dieback in some areas of its range due to episodic herbivory by the recently introduced northern tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata)...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842429/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-hypoxic-preconditioned-human-periodontal-ligament-cells-secretome-in-an-experimental-model-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-key-role-of-il-37
#18
Sabrina Giacoppo, Soundara Rajan Thangavelu, Francesca Diomede, Placido Bramanti, Pio Conti, Oriana Trubiani, Emanuela Mazzon
Recent research has widely investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells and their secretory products, termed secretome, in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). The present study examined the capacity of the conditioned medium (CM) collected from human periodontal ligament cells under hypoxic condition medium (H-hPDLSCs-CM) to suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of MS. To induce EAE, female C57BL/6 mice were immunized with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein peptide35-55 At the onset of symptoms, H-hPDLSCs-CM was infused via the tail vein of mice...
August 23, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838333/hypoxia-stimulates-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-by-increasing-hif%C3%A2-1%C3%AE-expression-and-activating-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#19
C Qi, J Zhang, X Chen, J Wan, J Wang, P Zhang, Y Liu
Evidence indicates that after brain injury, neurogenesis is enhanced in regions such as hippocampus, striatum, and cortex. To study the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF‑1α) and Wnt signaling in cerebral ischemia/hypoxia-induced proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs), we investigated the proliferation of NSCs, expression of HIF‑1α, and activation of Wnt signaling under conditions of pathologic hypoxia in vitro. NSCs were isolated from 30-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats and subjected to 0.3% oxygen in a microaerophilic incubation system...
August 15, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837265/exposure-to-bmaa-mirrors-molecular-processes-linked-to-neurodegenerative-disease
#20
Joshua Beri, Tara Nash, Rubia M Martin, Michael S Bereman
The goal of this study is to investigate the molecular pathways perturbed by in vitro exposure of beta-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) to NSC-34 cells via contemporary proteomics. Our analysis of differentially regulated proteins reveals significant enrichment (p < 0.01) of pathways related to ER stress, protein ubiquitination, the unfolded protein response, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Upstream regulator analysis indicates that exposure to BMAA induces activation of transcription factors (X-box binding protein 1; nuclear factor 2 erythroid like 2; promyelocytic leukemia) involved in regulation of the UPR, oxidative stress, and cellular senescence...
July 24, 2017: Proteomics
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