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Christelle Sanchez, Gabriel Mazzucchelli, Cécile Lambert, Fanny Comblain, Edwin DePauw, Yves Henrotin
OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by cartilage degradation but also by other joint tissues modifications like subchondral bone sclerosis. In this study, we used a proteomic approach to compare secretome of osteoblast isolated from sclerotic (SC) or non sclerotic (NSC) area of OA subchondral bone. DESIGN: Secretome was analyzed using differential quantitative and relative label free analysis on nanoUPLC G2 HDMS system. mRNA of the more differentially secreted proteins were quantified by RT-PCR in cell culture from 5 other patients...
2018: PloS One
Bingbo Zhang, Wei Yan, Yanjing Zhu, Weitao Yang, Wenjun Le, Bingdi Chen, Rongrong Zhu, Liming Cheng
Patients are increasingly being diagnosed with neuropathic diseases, but are rarely cured because of the loss of neurons in damaged tissues. This situation creates an urgent clinical need to develop alternative treatment strategies for effective repair and regeneration of injured or diseased tissues. Neural stem cells (NSCs), highly pluripotent cells with the ability of self-renewal and potential for multidirectional differentiation, provide a promising solution to meet this demand. However, some serious challenges remaining to be addressed are the regulation of implanted NSCs, tracking their fate, monitoring their interaction with and responsiveness to the tissue environment, and evaluating their treatment efficacy...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
Mai-He Li, Yong Jiang, Ao Wang, Xiaobin Li, Wanze Zhu, Cai-Feng Yan, Zhong Du, Zheng Shi, Jingpin Lei, Leonie Schönbeck, Peng He, Fei-Hai Yu, Xue Wang
The low-temperature limited alpine treeline is one of the most obvious boundaries in mountain landscapes. The question of whether resource limitation is the physiological mechanism for the formation of the alpine treeline is still waiting for conclusive evidence and answers. We therefore examined non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and nitrogen (N) in treeline trees (TATs) and low-elevation trees (LETs) in both summer and winter in 11 alpine treeline cases ranging from subtropical monsoon to temperate continental climates across Eurasia...
March 12, 2018: Tree Physiology
Qing-Wei Wang, Lin Qi, Wangming Zhou, Cheng-Gang Liu, Dapao Yu, Limin Dai
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The growth limitation hypothesis (GLH) and carbon limitation hypothesis (CLH) are two dominant explanations for treeline formation. The GLH proposes that low temperature drives the treeline through constraining C sinks more than C sources, and it predicts that non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels are static or increase with elevation. Although the GLH has received strong support globally for evergreen treelines, there is still no consensus for deciduous treelines, which experience great asynchrony between supply and demand throughout the year...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
Xiao-Xiao Ma, Jin Liu, Chun-Man Wang, Jiang-Ping Zhou, Zhen-Zhou He, Han Lin
AIMS: This study was to determine whether curcumin had any effect on the proliferation of neural stem cell (NSC), analyze the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and Notch1 at transcription and protein level, and discuss the related mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: NSCs were harvested from E15 SD rat brain and cultured. All experiments were performed at the second passage. Cell cytotoxicity, cell viability, and proliferation assays were used to figure out the optimal concentration of curcumin, which can be used for the protein and mRNA studies...
March 12, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Asuka Mogi, Ryo Yomoda, Syunya Kimura, Chisato Tsushima, Jun Takouda, Miho Sawauchi, Tomoko Maekawa, Hidenobu Ohta, Satoshi Nishino, Masatake Kurita, Nariyasu Mano, Noriko Osumi, Takahiro Moriya
The mitotic activity of certain tissues in the body is closely associated with circadian clock function. However, the effects of growth factors on the molecular clockwork are not fully understood. Stimulation of neural stem cells (NSCs) with epidermal growth factor (EGF), a well-known mitogen, is known to cause synchronized cell cycle progression with a period of approximately 24 h, closely associated with the Per2 gene expression rhythm. Here, we examined the effects of EGF on the molecular clockwork of NSCs...
March 5, 2018: Neuroscience
Naohiro Uezono, Yicheng Zhu, Yusuke Fujimoto, Tetsuro Yasui, Taito Matsuda, Masahide Nakajo, Masahiko Abematsu, Takao Setoguchi, Shuji Mori, Hideo K Takahashi, Setsuro Komiya, Masahiro Nishibori, Kinichi Nakashima
Together with residual host neurons, transplanted neural stem cell (NSC)-derived neurons play a critical role in reconstructing disrupted neural circuits after spinal cord injury (SCI). Since a large number of tracts are disrupted and the majority of host neurons die around the lesion site as the damage spreads, minimizing this spreading and preserving the lesion site are important for attaining further improvements in reconstruction. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a damage-associated molecular pattern protein that triggers sterile inflammation after tissue injury...
March 8, 2018: Stem Cells
Ellen E Pflug, Nina Buchmann, Rolf T W Siegwolf, Marcus Schaub, Andreas Rigling, Matthias Arend
Drought is a major environmental constraint to trees, causing severe stress and thus adversely affecting their functional integrity. European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) is a key species in mesic forests that is commonly expected to suffer in a future climate with more intense and frequent droughts. Here, we assessed the seasonal response of leaf physiological characteristics of beech saplings to drought and drought release to investigate their potential to recover from the imposed stress and overcome previous limitations...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Agnese Gugliandolo, Sabrina Giacoppo, Marcello Ficicchia, Angelo Aliquò, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
Certain nutrients are able to exert health promoting effects. The consumption of Brassicaceae vegetables has increased given their reported beneficial effects on human health, due to their high content of nutraceutical compounds. The health benefits appear to be associated with the presence of glucosinolates and flavonoids. Certain nutraceutics have been revealed to have anti‑inflammatory action. In the present study, the anti‑inflammatory properties of Eruca sativa seed extract (ESE) were evaluated in NSC‑34 motor neurons exposed to the cell culture medium of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated RAW 264...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Zamanzima Mazibuko, Sunaina Indermun, Mershen Govender, Pradeep Kumar, Lisa C Du Toit, Yahya E Choonara, Girish Modi, Dinesh Naidoo, Viness Pillay
PURPOSE: This study aimed to develop and analyse poly(DL-lactic acid)-methacrylic acid nanospheres bound to the chelating ligand diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)  for the targeted delivery of amantadine in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: The nanospheres were prepared by a double emulsion solvent evaporation technique statistically optimized employing a 3-Factor Box-Behnken experimental design. Analysis of the particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity (Pdl), morphology, drug entrapment and drug release kinetics were carried out...
2018: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Seungwan Seo, Taimin Yang, Jiho Shin, Donghui Jo, Xiaodong Zou, Suk Bong Hong
Herein we report the synthesis and structures of two new small-pore aluminophosphate molecular sieves PST-13 and PST-14 with mutually connected 8-ring channels. The structure of PST-13, synthesized using diethylamine as an organic structure-directing agent, contains penta-coordinated framework Al atoms bridged by hydroxy groups and thus edge-sharing 3- and 5-rings. Upon calcination, PST-13 undergoes a transformation to PST-14 with loss of bridging hydroxy groups and occluded organic species. The structures of both materials consist "nonjointly" of pairs of previously undiscovered 1,5- and 1,6-open double 4-rings (d4rs) which are mirror images of each other...
March 5, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Xiwei Shan, Lyl Tomlinson, Qian Yang, Holly Colognato
The regulatory mechanisms that control neural stem cell (NSC) activation in the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) stem cell niche have been the focus of intense investigation, yet how the niche first develops and organizes is poorly understood. Here, we examined matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) for potential roles in V-SVZ stem cell niche development. MMP12 was found to promote appropriate niche cellular arrangements, the formation of specialized niche extracellular matrix, and the translational planar cell polarity of ependymal cells that surround and support niche NSCs...
February 28, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Wankyo Chung, Changik Jo, Woo Jin Chung, Dong Joon Kim
BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis is known to have low survival rate, and its assessment in relation with other fatal diseases will help us design appropriate health interventions. This study compares the mortality of liver cirrhosis with that of five major cancers (lung, colorectal, stomach, liver, and breast cancers). METHODS AND RESULTS: We used the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) which provides data for 1,025,340 representative samples of the 46,605,433 people in Korea from 2002 to 2010...
March 1, 2018: Hepatology International
Jung Seung Lee, Kisuk Yang, Ann-Na Cho, Seung-Woo Cho
Background: Biomaterials that promote the self-renewal ability and differentiation capacity of neural stem cells (NSCs) are desirable for improving stem cell therapy to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Incorporation of micro- and nanoparticles into stem cell culture has gained great attention for the control of stem cell behaviors, including proliferation and differentiation. Method: In this study, ferritin, an iron-containing natural protein nanoparticle, was applied as a biomaterial to improve the self-renewal and differentiation of NSCs and neural progenitor cells (NPCs)...
2018: Biomaterials Research
Dola Sengupta, Sandip Kar
Neural stem cells (NSCs) often give rise to a mixed population of cells during differentiation. However, the dynamical origin of these mixed states is poorly understood. In this article, our mathematical modeling study demonstrates that the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) mediated disparate differentiation dynamics of NSCs in central and peripheral nervous systems essentially function through two distinct bistable switches that are mutually interconnected via a mushroom-like bifurcation. Stochastic simulations of the model reveal that the mixed population originates due to the existence of these bistable switching regulations and that the maintenance of such mixed states depends on the level of stochastic fluctuations of the system...
February 27, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Hyewon Lee, Woojae Myung, Chunsoo Lee, Junbae Choi, Ho Kim, Bernard J Carroll, Doh Kwan Kim
We investigated the effects of a large range of clinical factors on the long-term risk of suicide in the general population of South Korea. We analyzed the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) database in South Korea. A total of 300,232 individuals were followed for up to 12 years. We obtained information on demographic variables (age and sex), lifestyle variables (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and exercise), psychiatric and physical disorders, laboratory examination results and physical examination findings...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Francesca L'Episcopo, Cataldo Tirolo, Maria F Serapide, Salvatore Caniglia, Nunzio Testa, Loredana Leggio, Silvia Vivarelli, Nunzio Iraci, Stefano Pluchino, Bianca Marchetti
Neuroinflammatory processes are recognized key contributory factors in Parkinson's disease (PD) physiopathology. While the causes responsible for the progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neuronal cell bodies in the subtantia nigra pars compacta are poorly understood, aging, genetics, environmental toxicity, and particularly inflammation, represent prominent etiological factors in PD development. Especially, reactive astrocytes, microglial cells, and infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages play dual beneficial/harmful effects, via a panel of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, neurotrophic and neurogenic transcription factors...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Chwee Tat Koe, Ye Sing Tan, Max Lönnfors, Seong Kwon Hur, Christine Siok Lan Low, Yingjie Zhang, Pakorn Kanchanawong, Vytas A Bankaitis, Hongyan Wang
A central feature of most stem cells is the ability to self-renew and undergo differentiation via asymmetric division. However, during asymmetric division the role of phosphatidylinositol (PI) lipids and their regulators is not well established. Here, we show that the sole type I PI transfer protein, Vibrator, controls asymmetric division of Drosophila neural stem cells (NSCs) by physically anchoring myosin II regulatory light chain, Sqh, to the NSC cortex. Depletion of vib or disruption of its lipid binding and transfer activities disrupts NSC polarity...
February 27, 2018: ELife
Han Gao, Lianrong Dou, Liang Shan, Yan Sun, Wentao Li
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are important cellular sources of transplantation therapies for Parkinson's disease. This study aimed to determine the effects of extracts of radix astragali on the proliferation and differentiation into dopamine (DA) neurons in NSCs. NSCs were dealt with astragaloside IV (ASI), astragalus polysaccharide (APS), and astraisoflavan (ASF), the main active ingredients of radix astragali. First, the results from cell-count kit-8 (CCK-8) assay showed that ASI, ASF, and APS had positive effects on the proliferation of NSCs...
February 23, 2018: Neuroreport
Katyayani Singh, Desirée Loreth, Bruno Pöttker, Kyra Hefti, Jürgen Innos, Kathrin Schwald, Heidi Hengstler, Lutz Menzel, Clemens J Sommer, Konstantin Radyushkin, Oliver Kretz, Mari-Anne Philips, Carola A Haas, Katrin Frauenknecht, Kersti Lilleväli, Bernd Heimrich, Eero Vasar, Michael K E Schäfer
Neuronal growth regulator 1 (NEGR1), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecule subgroup IgLON, has been implicated in neuronal growth and connectivity. In addition, genetic variants in or near the NEGR1 locus have been associated with obesity and more recently with learning difficulties, intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders. However, experimental evidence is lacking to support a possible link between NEGR1, neuronal growth and behavioral abnormalities. Initial expression analysis of NEGR1 mRNA in C57Bl/6 wildtype (WT) mice by in situ hybridization demonstrated marked expression in the entorhinal cortex (EC) and dentate granule cells...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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