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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078757/lamellar-events-related-to-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor-signaling-in-two-models-relevant-to-endocrinopathic-laminitis
#1
H E Lane, T A Burns, O C Hegedus, M R Watts, P S Weber, K A Woltman, R J Geor, L J McCutcheon, S C Eades, L E Mathes, J K Belknap
BACKGROUND: Insulin dysregulation, obesity, and exposure to high-non structural carbohydrate (NSC) forage are risk factors for equine metabolic syndrome (EMS)-associated laminitis (EMSAL); high systemic insulin concentrations in EMSAL are proposed to induce cellular dysregulation in the digital lamellae through activation of the IGF-1 receptor. OBJECTIVES: To use a dietary challenge model (DCM) and a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC) model to assess lamellar growth factor-related signaling...
January 11, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063006/therapeutic-value-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-promoting-neural-stem-cell-survival-and-differentiation-and-protecting-against-neuronal-hearing-loss
#2
Zhao Han, Cong-Pin Wang, Ning Cong, Yu-Yan Gu, Rui Ma, Fang-Lu Chi
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor that modulates survival and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). We investigated the function of NGF in promoting growth and neuronal differentiation of NSCs isolated from mouse cochlear tissue, as well as its protective properties against gentamicin (GMC) ototoxicity. NSCs were isolated from the cochlea of mice and cultured in vitro. Effect of NGF on survival, neurosphere formation, and differentiation of the NSCs, as well as neurite outgrowth and neural excitability in the subsequent in vitro neuronal network, was examined...
January 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058575/study-on-reproductive-performance-of-holstein-x-lai-sind-crossbred-dairy-heifers-and-cows-at-smallholdings-in-ho-chi-minh-city-vietnam
#3
Cuong Nguyen-Kien, Nguyen Van Khanh, Christian Hanzen
The reproductive performance of Holstein x Lai Sind crossbred dairy heifers and cows was evaluated at smallholdings in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). The data of 232 heifers and 244 cows (261 lactations) from 35 small dairy farms was collected over a 2-year period, from 2013 to 2014. The overall mean for age at first service (AFS), days between first and last service (DFLS), and age at conception (AC) of heifers was 479 (±80), 38 (±80), and 517 (±114) days, respectively. Average number of services per conception (NSC), conception rate (CR), and conception rate at first service (CRFS) was 1...
January 5, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049438/important-modifications-by-sugammadex-a-modified-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-of-ion-currents-in-differentiated-nsc-34-neuronal-cells
#4
Hung-Te Hsu, Yi-Ching Lo, Yan-Ming Huang, Yu-Ting Tseng, Sheng-Nan Wu
BACKGROUND: Sugammadex (SGX) is a modified γ-cyclodextrin used for reversal of steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents during general anesthesia. Despite its application in clinical use, whether SGX treatment exerts any effects on membrane ion currents in neurons remains largely unclear. In this study, effects of SGX treatment on ion currents, particularly on delayed-rectifier K(+) current [I K(DR)], were extensively investigated in differentiated NSC-34 neuronal cells. RESULTS: After cells were exposed to SGX (30 μM), there was a reduction in the amplitude of I K(DR) followed by an apparent slowing in current activation in response to membrane depolarization...
January 3, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049045/in-vitro-models-reveal-differences-in-the-developmental-neurotoxicity-of-an-environmental-polycylic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-mixture-compared-to-benzo-a-pyrene-neuronotypic-pc12-cells-and-embryonic-neural-stem-cells
#5
Theodore A Slotkin, Samantha Skavicus, Jennifer Card, Richard T Di Giulio, Frederic J Seidler
In addition to their carcinogenic activity, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected to be developmental neurotoxicants. We evaluated the effects of PAHs with two in vitro models that assess distinct "decision nodes" in neurodifferentiation: neuronotypic PC12 cells, which characterize the transition from cell replication to neurodifferentiation, neurite outgrowth and neurotransmitter specification; and embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs), which evaluate the origination of neurons and glia from precursors...
December 31, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043791/the-alteration-of-serine-transporter-activity-in-a-cell-line-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als
#6
Na-Young Lee, Yunha Kim, Hoon Ryu, Young-Sook Kang
The alteration of d-serine levels is associated with the pathogenesis of sporadic ALS and mutant SOD1 (G93A) animal model of ALS. However, the exact mechanism of d-serine transport is not known in ALS. To better understand the distribution of d-serine in ALS, we determined the activity and the expression of serine transporter in a motor neuronal cell line model of ALS (NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells). The uptake of [(3)H]d-serine was significantly lower in NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells than in control NSC-34 and NSC-34/hSOD1(wt) cells...
December 31, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043665/angioscopic-observation-of-extremely-late-arterial-repair-after-intracoronary-implantation-of-the-first-generation-sirolimus-eluting-stents
#7
Minoru Ichikawa, Kazunori Bando, Yoshiyuki Kijima
BACKGROUND: Arterial repair delays after intracoronary implantation of Cypher sirolimus-eluting stents (SES), a representative first-generation drug-eluting stent. It remains unclear whether this delay would catch up with bare metal stents (BMS) during extremely long observation. The aim of this study was angioscopic observation of extremely late arterial repair after Cypher SES implantation. METHODS: Thirty-seven SES and 17 BMS were implanted into 22 and 9 patients with angina pectoris, respectively...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039164/altorfev-facilitates-the-prediction-of-alternative-open-reading-frames-in-eukaryotic-mrnas
#8
Alex V Kochetov, Jens Allmer, Alexandra I Klimenko, Bulat S Zuraev, Yury G Matushkin, Sergey A Lashin
MOTIVATION: Protein synthesis is not a straight forward process and one gene locus can produce many isoforms, for example, by starting mRNA translation from alternative start sites. altORF evaluator (altORFev) predicts alternative open reading frames within eukaryotic mRNA translated by a linear scanning mechanism and its modifications (leaky scanning and reinitiation). The program reveals the efficiently translated altORFs recognized by the majority of 40S ribosomal subunits landing on the 5'-end of an mRNA...
December 30, 2016: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038988/serial-in-vivo-imaging-of-transplanted-allogeneic-neural-stem-cell-survival-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#9
Amit K Srivastava, Sarah K Gross, Akshata A Almad, Camille A Bulte, Nicholas J Maragakis, Jeff W M Bulte
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are being investigated as a possible treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) through intraspinal transplantation, but no longitudinal imaging studies exist that describe the survival of engrafted cells over time. Allogeneic firefly luciferase-expressing murine NSCs (Luc(+)-NSCs) were transplanted bilaterally (100,000 cells/2μl) into the cervical spinal cord (C5) parenchyma of pre-symptomatic (63day-old) SOD1(G93A) ALS mice (n=14) and wild-type age-matched littermates (n=14)...
December 28, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028093/sapwood-stored-resources-decline-in-whitebark-and-lodgepole-pines-attacked-by-mountain-pine-beetles-coleoptera-curculionidae
#10
Eleanor C Lahr, Anna Sala
Recent outbreaks of forest insects have been directly linked to climate change-induced warming and drought, but effects of tree stored resources on insects have received less attention. We asked whether tree stored resources changed following mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack and whether they affected beetle development. We compared initial concentrations of stored resources in the sapwood of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026149/arctigenin-protects-against-neuronal-hearing-loss-by-promoting-neural-stem-cell-survival-and-differentiation
#11
Xinghua Huang, Mo Chen, Yan Ding, Qin Wang
Neuronal hearing loss has become a prevalent health problem. This study focused on the function of arctigenin (ARC) in promoting survival and neuronal differentiation of mouse cochlear neural stem cells (NSCs), and its protection against gentamicin (GMC) induced neuronal hearing loss. Mouse cochlea was utilized to isolate NSCs, which were subsequently cultured in vitro. The effects of ARC on NSC survival, neurosphere formation, differentiation of NSCs, neurite outgrowth and neural excitability in neuronal network in vitro were examined...
December 27, 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025992/mir-124-promotes-the-neuronal-differentiation-of-mouse-inner-ear-neural-stem-cells
#12
Di Jiang, Jintao Du, Xuemei Zhang, Wei Zhou, Lin Zong, Chang Dong, Kaitian Chen, Yu Chen, Xihui Chen, Hongyan Jiang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) act as key regulators in neuronal development, synaptic morphogenesis and plasticity. However, their role in the neuronal differentiation of inner ear neural stem cells (NSCs) remains unclear. In this study, 6 miRNAs were selected and their expression patterns during the neuronal differentiation of inner ear NSCs were examined by RT-qPCR. We demonstrated that the culture of spiral ganglion stem cells present in the inner ears of newborn mice gave rise to neurons in vitro. The expression patterns of miR‑124, miR‑132, miR‑134, miR‑20a, miR‑17-5p and miR‑30a-5p were examined during a 14-day neuronal differentiation period...
November 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013061/voltage-and-receptor-mediated-activation-of-a-non-selective-cation-channel-in-rat-carotid-body-glomus-cells
#13
Jiaju Wang, James O Hogan, Donghee Kim
A recent study showed that hypoxia activates a Ca(2+)-sensitive, Na(+)-permeable non-selective cation channel (NSC) in carotid body glomus cells. We studied the effects of mitochondrial inhibitors that increase Ca(2+) influx via Ca(2+) channel (Cav), and receptor agonists that release Ca(2+) from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) on NSC. Mitochondrial inhibitors (NaCN, FCCP, H2S, NO) elevated [Ca(2+)]i and activated NSC. Angiotensin II and acetylcholine that elevate [Ca(2+)]i via the Gq-IP3 pathway activated NSC. However, endothelin-1 (Gq) and 5-HT (Gq) showed little or no effect on [Ca(2+)]i and did not activate NSC...
December 21, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010041/release-of-resource-constraints-allows-greater-carbon-allocation-to-secondary-metabolites-and-storage-in-winter-wheat
#14
Jianbei Huang, Almuth Hammerbacher, Lenka Forkelová, Henrik Hartmann
The atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) is rapidly increasing and this may have substantial impact on how plants allocate metabolic resources. A thorough understanding of allocation priorities can be achieved by modifying [CO2 ] over a large gradient, including low [CO2 ], thereby altering plant carbon (C) availability. Such information is of critical importance for understanding plant responses to global environmental change. We quantified the percentage of daytime whole-plant net assimilation (A) allocated to night-time respiration (R), structural growth (SG), nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and secondary metabolites (SMs) during 8 weeks of vegetative growth in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) growing at low, ambient, and elevated [CO2 ] (170, 390 and 680 ppm)...
December 23, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008081/thermotolerance-and-heat-stress-responses-of-douglas-fir-and-ponderosa-pine-seedling-populations-from-contrasting-climates
#15
Danielle E Marias, Frederick C Meinzer, David R Woodruff, Katherine A McCulloh
Temperature and the frequency and intensity of heat waves are predicted to increase throughout the 21st century. Germinant seedlings are expected to be particularly vulnerable to heat stress because they are in the boundary layer close to the soil surface where intense heating occurs in open habitats. We quantified leaf thermotolerance and whole-plant physiological responses to heat stress in first-year germinant seedlings in two populations each of Pinus ponderosa P. and C. Lawson (PIPO) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb...
December 21, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998102/three-dimensional-stiff-graphene-scaffold-on-neural-stem-cells-behavior
#16
Qinqin Ma, Lingyan Yang, Ziyun Jiang, Qin Song, Miao Xiao, Dong Zhang, Xun Ma, Tieqiao Wen, Guosheng Cheng
Physical cues of the scaffolds, elasticity, and stiffness significantly guide adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of stem cells. In addressable microenvironments constructed by three-dimensional graphene foams (3D-GFs), neural stem cells (NSCs) interact with and respond to the structural geometry and mechanical properties of porous scaffolds. Our studies aim to investigate NSC behavior on the various stiffness of 3D-GFs. Two kinds of 3D-GFs scaffolds present soft and stiff properties with elasticity moduli of 30 and 64 kPa, respectively...
December 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995505/cd-inhibition-and-ph-improvement-via-a-nano-submicron-mineral-based-soil-conditioner
#17
Shanke Liu, Huan Li, Cheng Han, Xuebin Sheng, Jianming Liu
Cd contamination of rice in recent years has aroused a nationwide concern on the potential health risk to people in China. A significant increase of soil acidification in major Chinese croplands improves available Cd content by crops, and this further pushes a heavier burden on controlling Cd contamination. Therefore, it is urgent to find a workable and green way to control Cd contamination, i.e., decrease Cd content in rice, for people's health in China, as other countries in the world. From chemical and economic points, stabilizing/solidifying Cd may be a feasible way except in-situ ways such as removing it by the absorption of special plants and ex-situ ones such as removing the contaminated soil and treating it by special equipment...
December 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987059/melatonin-increases-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-in-cultured-neural-stem-cells
#18
Majid Ghareghani, Heibatollah Sadeghi, Kazem Zibara, Nazanin Danaei, Hassan Azari, Amir Ghanbari
Neural stem cell (NSC) culture is a remarkable tool to investigate the potential therapeutic benefits of drugs in neurological diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of melatonin on proliferation and differentiation of NSCs in vitro. NSCs were isolated and expanded from mouse embryonic E14 cortex, and the effect of various concentrations of melatonin (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM) on NSC proliferation was assessed by MTT and neurosphere assay. Results showed that melatonin significantly increased NSC viability and NSC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, in comparison to controls...
December 16, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981499/direct-conversion-of-somatic-cells-into-induced-neurons
#19
REVIEW
Na An, Huiming Xu, Wei-Qiang Gao, Hao Yang
The progressive loss and degeneration of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), as a result of traumas or diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's disease, stroke, and traumatic injury to the brain and spinal cord, can usually have devastating effects on quality of life. The current strategies available for treatments are described including drug delivery, surgery, electrical stimulation, and cell-based tissue engineering approaches. However, apart from cell-based therapy, other attempts are limited in improving clinical outcomes...
December 16, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979915/neural-stem-cell-based-anti-cancer-gene-therapy-a-first-in-human-study-in-recurrent-high-grade-glioma-patients
#20
Jana Portnow, Timothy W Synold, Behnam Badie, Revathiswari Tirughana, Simon F Lacey, Massimo D'Apuzzo, Marianne Z Metz, Joseph Najbauer, Victoria Bedell, Tien Vo, Margarita Gutova, Paul Frankel, Mike Y Chen, Karen S Aboody
PURPOSE: Human neural stem cells (NSCs) are inherently tumor-tropic, making them attractive drug delivery vehicles. Toward this goal, we retrovirally transduced an immortalized, clonal NSC line to stably express cytosine deaminase (HB1.F3.CD.C21; CD-NSCs), which converts the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Recurrent high grade glioma patients underwent intracranial administration of CD-NSCs during tumor resection or biopsy...
December 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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