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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932977/human-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-rescues-cognitive-defects-in-app-ps1-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-by-enhancing-neuronal-connectivity-and-metabolic-activity
#1
Xueyuan Li, Hua Zhu, Xicai Sun, Fuxing Zuo, Jianfeng Lei, Zhanjing Wang, Xinjie Bao, Renzhi Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most frequent type of dementia, is featured by Aβ pathology, neural degeneration and cognitive decline. To date, there is no cure for this disease. Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation provides new promise for treating AD. Many studies report that intra-hippocampal transplantation of murine NSCs improved cognition in rodents with AD by alleviating neurodegeneration via neuronal complement or replacement. However, few reports examined the potential of human NSC transplantation for AD...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931507/hiv-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-efavirenz-reduces-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Jingji Jin, Bethany Grimmig, James Izzo, Lecia A M Brown, Charles Hudson, Adam J Smith, Jun Tan, Paula C Bickford, Brian Giunta
The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). There is evidence that neural stem cells (NSCs) can migrate to sites of brain injury such as those caused by inflammation and oxidative stress, which are pathological features of HAND. Thus, reductions in NSCs may contribute to HAND pathogenesis. Since the HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz (EFV) has previously been associated with cognitive deficits and promotion of oxidative stress pathways, we examined its effect on NSCs in vitro as well as in C57BL/6J mice...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914013/inhibitory-effect-of-homocysteine-on-rat-neural-stem-cell-growth-in-vitro-is-associated-with-reduced-protein-levels-and-enzymatic-activities-of-aconitase-and-respiratory-complex-iii
#3
Xu-Mei Zhang, Ya-Qian Zhao, Hai Yan, Huan Liu, Guo-Wei Huang
Increased blood plasma concentration of the sulphur amino acid homocysteine (Hcy) is considered as an independent risk factor of the neurodegenerative diseases. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms by which Hcy leads to neurotoxicity have yet to be clarified. Recent research has suggested that neurotoxicity of Hcy may involve negative regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation. In the current study, primary NSCs were isolated from neonatal rat brain hippocampus and the inhibition in cell growth was observed after exposure to l50 μM and 500 μM L-Hcy...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908784/cisplatin-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-is-associated-with-impaired-cognitive-function-in-rats
#4
Naomi Lomeli, Kaijun Di, Jennifer Czerniawski, John F Guzowski, Daniela A Bota
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is commonly reported following the administration of chemotherapeutic agents and comprises a wide variety of neurological problems. No effective treatments for CRCI are currently available. Here we examined the mechanisms involving cisplatin-induced hippocampal damage following cisplatin administration in a rat model and in cultured rat hippocampal neurons and neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC). We also assessed the protective effects of the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine in mitigating these damages...
November 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897217/self-healing-polysaccharide-based-hydrogels-as-injectable-carriers-for-neural-stem-cells
#5
Zhao Wei, Jingyi Zhao, Yong Mei Chen, Pengbo Zhang, Qiqing Zhang
Self-healing injectable hydrogels can be formulated as three-dimensional carriers for the treatment of neurological diseases with desirable advantages, such as avoiding the potential risks of cell loss during injection, protecting cells from the shearing force of injection. However, the demands for biocompatible self-healing injectable hydrogels to meet above requirements and to promote the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into neurons remain a challenge. Herein, we developed a biocompatible self-healing polysaccharide-based hydrogel system as a novel injectable carrier for the delivery of NSCs...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894403/conditioned-medium-from-neural-stem-cells-inhibits-glioma-cell-growth
#6
Z Li, Q Zhong, H Liu, P Liu, J Wu, D Ma, X Chen, X Yang
Malignant glioma is one of the most common brain tumors in the central nervous system. Although the significant progress has been made in recent years, the mortality is still high and 5-year survival rate is still very low. One of the leading causes to the high mortality for glioma patients is metastasis and invasion. An efficient method to control the tumor metastasis is a promising way to treat the glioma. Previous reports indicated that neural stem cells (NSCs) were served as a delivery vector to the anti-glioma therapy...
October 31, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889774/stimulation-of-suicidal-erythrocyte-death-by-the-cdc25-inhibitor-nsc-95397
#7
Mohamed Jemaà, Morena Mischitelli, Myriam Fezai, Mustafa Almasry, Caterina Faggio, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The CDC25B inhibitor NSC-95397 triggers apoptosis of tumor cells and is thus considered for the treatment of malignancy. The substance is effective in part by modification of gene expression. Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells erythrocytes may undergo eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Eryptosis may be triggered by increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i), oxidative stress, ceramide, as well as activation of protein kinases...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881004/monitoring-in-real-time-the-effect-of-tlx-overexpression-on-proliferation-and-migration-of-c6-cells
#8
G L Li, S H Fang, B Xu
Orphan nuclear receptor TLX has been shown to play an essential role in regulating the self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs). However, TLX overexpression in NSCs induces long-term NSC expansion and further leads to glioma initiation in mouse when combined with p53 mutations. Whether overexpression of TLX plays a role in glioma stem cell (GSC) proliferation and migration still remains largely unknown. In this study, we infected C6 cells, a special glioma cell line which is mainly composed of cancer stem cells(CSCs), with lentiviruses expressing GFP(LV-GFP) or GFP-T2A-TLX(LV-TLX) and then monitored cell proliferation and migration using the real-time analyzer system (RTCA, xCELLigence, Roche)...
November 24, 2016: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862776/from-anthramycin-to-pyrrolobenzodiazepine-pbd-containing-antibody-drug-conjugates-adcs
#9
REVIEW
Julia Mantaj, Paul J M Jackson, Khondaker M Rahman, David E Thurston
The pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines (PBDs) are a family of sequence-selective DNA minor-groove binding agents that form a covalent aminal bond between their C11-position and the C2-NH2 groups of guanine bases. The first example of a PBD monomer, the natural product anthramycin, was discovered in the 1960s, and the best known PBD dimer, SJG-136 (also known as SG2000, NSC 694501 or BN2629), was synthesized in the 1990s and has recently completed Phase II clinical trials in patients with leukaemia and ovarian cancer...
November 15, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860527/roles-of-ppar-transcription-factors-in-the-energetic-metabolic-switch-occurring-during-adult-neurogenesis
#10
E Di Giacomo, E Benedetti, L Cristiano, A Antonosante, M d'Angelo, A Fidoamore, D Barone, S Moreno, R Ippoliti, M P Cerù, A Giordano, A Cimini
PPARs are a class of ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the superfamily of receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones, retinoids and vitamin D that control the expression of a large number of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and death. The role of PPARs in the CNS has been primarily associated with lipid and glucose metabolism; however, these receptors are also implicated in neural cell differentiation and death, as well as neuronal maturation...
November 18, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859176/nitrogen-addition-affects-chemical-compositions-of-plant-tissues-litter-and-soil-organic-matter
#11
Jun Liu, Nana Wu, Hui Wang, Jianfei Sun, Bo Peng, Ping Jiang, Edith Bai
Increasing nitrogen (N) deposition or fertilization has been found to significantly affect carbon (C) cycling. However, a comprehensive understanding of how different C chemical components of plant, litter, and soil would respond to external N addition is still lacking. We compiled data of 1,160 observations from 52 individual studies and conducted a meta-analysis of N addition effects on 18 variables related to C chemical compositions in terrestrial ecosystems. Results showed that plant lignin (+7.13%), plant protein (+25...
July 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857750/transplantation-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-modified-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-promotes-the-recovery-of-neurological-function-following-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage
#12
Yue Yao, Xiang-Rong Zheng, Shan-Shan Zhang, Xia Wang, Xiao-He Yu, Jie-Lu Tan, Yu-Jia Yang
Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSC) transplantation has been shown to effectively improve neurological function in rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a signaling protein that stimulates angiogenesis and improves neural regeneration. We hypothesized that transplantation of VEGF-transfected NSCs would alleviate hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in neonatal rats. We produced and transfected a recombinant lentiviral vector containing the VEGF165 gene into cultured NSCs...
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854261/taking-advantage-of-nature-s-gift-can-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-improve-myelin-regeneration
#13
REVIEW
Rainer Akkermann, Janusz Joachim Jadasz, Kasum Azim, Patrick Küry
Irreversible functional deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS) are directly correlated to axonal damage and loss. Neurodegeneration results from immune-mediated destruction of myelin sheaths and subsequent axonal demyelination. Importantly, oligodendrocytes, the myelinating glial cells of the central nervous system, can be replaced to some extent to generate new myelin sheaths. This endogenous regeneration capacity has so far mainly been attributed to the activation and recruitment of resident oligodendroglial precursor cells...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851980/co-delivery-of-zinc-and-5-aminosalicylic-acid-from-alginate-n-succinyl-chitosan-blend-microspheres-for-synergistic-therapy-of-colitis
#14
Haogang Duan, Shaoyu Lü, Hongyan Qin, Chunmei Gao, Xiao Bai, Yuhui Wei, Xin'an Wu, Mingzhu Liu, Xinyu Zhang, Zhen Liu
The present study developed novel zinc ion cross-linked alginate/N-succinyl-chitosan (NSC) blend microspheres (MS) for co-delivery of zinc and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) for synergistic therapy of colitis. Physicochemical characterization of blend MS was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). In vitro release studies demonstrated that blend MS has a pH-dependent release property. Both 5-ASA and zinc have lower release in acid medium and higher release in colonic environment...
November 13, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851909/systemic-cisplatin-exposure-during-infancy-and-adolescence-causes-impaired-cognitive-function-in-adulthood
#15
Tami John, Naomi Lomeli, Daniela A Bota
Cancer survivors diagnosed during infancy and adolescence may be at risk for chemotherapy-related cognitive impairments (CRCI), however the effects of pediatric chemotherapy treatment on adulthood cognitive function are not well understood. Impairments in memory, attention and executive function affect 15-50% of childhood leukemia survivors related to methotrexate exposure. Systemic cisplatin is used to treat a variety of childhood and adult cancers, yet the risk and extent of cognitive impairment due to platinum-based chemotherapy in pediatric patients is unknown...
November 13, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849577/vegf-preconditioning-leads-to-stem-cell-remodeling-and-attenuates-age-related-decay-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#16
Tamar Licht, Gadiel Rothe, Tirzah Kreisel, Brachi Wolf, Ofra Benny, Alasdair G Rooney, Charles Ffrench-Constant, Grigori Enikolopov, Eli Keshet
Several factors are known to enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis but a factor capable of inducing a long-lasting neurogenic enhancement that attenuates age-related neurogenic decay has not been described. Here, we studied hippocampal neurogenesis following conditional VEGF induction in the adult brain and showed that a short episode of VEGF exposure withdrawn shortly after the generation of durable new vessels (but not under conditions where newly made vessels failed to persist) is sufficient for neurogenesis to proceed at a markedly elevated level for many months later...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849036/enterovirus-71-infection-of-motor-neuron-like-nsc-34-cells-undergoes-a-non-lytic-exit-pathway
#17
Issac Horng Khit Too, Huimin Yeo, October Michael Sessions, Benedict Yan, Eshele Anak Libau, Josephine L C Howe, Ze Qin Lim, Shalini Suku-Maran, Wei-Yi Ong, Kaw Bing Chua, Boon Seng Wong, Vincent T K Chow, Sylvie Alonso
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, is regarded as the most important neurotropic virus worldwide. EV71 is believed to replicate in muscles and infect motor neurons to reach the central nervous system (CNS). To further investigate the mechanisms involved, we have employed the motor neuron cell line NSC-34. NSC-34 cells were permissive to EV71 and virus production yields were strain-dependent with differential efficacy at the entry, replication and egress steps. Furthermore, unlike all the other cell lines previously reported, EV71-infected NSC-34 cells neither displayed cytopathic effect nor underwent apoptosis...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830160/usp9x-deletion-elevates-the-density-of-oligodendrocytes-within-the-postnatal-dentate-gyrus
#18
Sabrina Oishi, Oressia Zalucki, Susitha Premarathne, Stephen A Wood, Michael Piper
Neural stem cells (NSCs) within the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus reside in the subgranular zone (SGZ). A dynamic network of signaling mechanisms controls the balance between the maintenance of NSC identity, and their subsequent differentiation into dentate granule neurons. Recently, the ubiquitin-specific protease 9 X-linked (USP9X) was shown to be important for hippocampal morphogenesis, as mice lacking this gene exhibited a higher proportion of proliferating NSCs, yet a decrease in neuronal numbers, within the postnatal dentate gyrus...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829440/wrn-targeted-therapy-using-inhibitors-nsc-19630-and-nsc-617145-induce-apoptosis-in-htlv-1-transformed-adult-t-cell-leukemia-cells
#19
R Moles, X T Bai, H Chaib-Mezrag, C Nicot
BACKGROUND: Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a lymphoproliferative malignancy with a dismal prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Recent evidence shows that HTLV-1-transformed cells present defects in both DNA replication and DNA repair, suggesting that these cells might be particularly sensitive to treatment with a small helicase inhibitor. Because the "Werner syndrome ATP-dependent helicase" encoded by the WRN gene plays important roles in both cellular proliferation and DNA repair, we hypothesized that inhibition of WRN activity could be used as a new strategy to target ATLL cells...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822507/traumatic-brain-injury-stimulates-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-via-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-pathway-activation
#20
Xiaoting Wang, Pich Seekaew, Xiang Gao, Jinhui Chen
Neural stem cells in the adult brain possess the ability to remain quiescent until needed in tissue homeostasis or repair. It was previously shown that traumatic brain injury (TBI) stimulated neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation in the adult hippocampus, indicating an innate repair mechanism, but it is unknown how TBI promotes NSC proliferation. In the present study, we observed dramatic activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in the hippocampus of mice with TBI from controlled cortical impact (CCI)...
September 2016: ENeuro
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