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Joseph Pergolizzi, Maribeth Kowalski, Ellie He
Objectives. : This study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of a once-daily, single-entity, extended-release hydrocodone bitartrate (HYD) among patients with chronic noncancer and non-neuropathic pain who required opioid rotation from a previous analgesic regimen that primarily consisted of immediate-release (IR) oxycodone. Methods. : Post hoc analyses of a primary study that assessed HYD 20 to 120 mg over a 52-week period are presented. The primary study included a dose titration period (up to 45 days), a 52-week maintenance period, and an optional taper period (up to 14 days)...
March 28, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Rohit Aiyer, Vivek Jain, Anurag Bhatia, Boris Mekinulov, Semih Gungor
We report a case of a 57-year-old male patient with intrathecal morphine pump failure who presented with psychosis as part of a clinical presentation of opioid withdrawal. The patient was being treated for chronic back pain with an intrathecal morphine pump for several years. The patient spontaneously started to experience psychotic symptoms which included disorganized thinking, delusional thoughts, paranoia, auditory and visual hallucinations. Upon interrogation of intrathecal pump, it was found not to be functioning, thereby not delivering intrathecal morphine...
February 28, 2017: Pain Management
Delia Dima, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Ioana Frinc, Sergiu Pasca, Lorand Magdo, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, Mihai Muresan, Cosmin Lisencu, Alexandru Irimie, Mihnea Zdrenghea
Pain is commonly diagnosed with respect to cancer and heart diseases, being a major symptom in most neoplastic diseases. Uncontrolled pain leads to a decrease in the quality of life and an increase in the morbidity of the patient. Opioids represent the best analgetic supportive therapy and are frequently used in patients suffering from cancer and experiencing a high level of pain. Opioid treatment starts with a gradual titration of the dose until the minimum effective dose and the maximum tolerated dose are determined...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
S Nalamachu, J Gudin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Kimberson Cochien Tanco, Ali Haider, Courtney Maligi, Minjeong Park, Diane D Liu, Eduardo Bruera
95 Background: The Edmonton Classification System for Cancer Pain (ECS-CP) has been shown to predict pain management complexity based on five features: pain mechanism, incident pain, psychological distress, addictive behavior, and cognitive function. The main objective of our study was to explore the association between increasing sum of negative ECS-CP features and achievement of good pain control at first follow up visit at an outpatient palliative care clinic. METHODS: Initial and follow up clinical information of 409 eligible supportive care outpatients such as patient demographics, ECS-CP assessment, morphine equivalent daily dose (MEDD), opioid rotation, Edmonton Symptom Assessment Score (ESAS), and personalized pain goal (PPG) were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Sara Dost, Marieberta Vidal, Saneese Stephen, Karen Baumgartner, Jimin Wu, Diane D Liu, Sriram Yennu, Eduardo Bruera
197 Background: Inpatients with cancer frequently undergo conversions from IV to PO hydromorphone (HM) or opioid rotation (OR) from IV HM to another PO opioid prior to discharge. Currently used conversion ratios (CR) between IV and PO HM range from 2-5 and opioid rotation ratios (ORR) between IV HM and oral morphine equivalent daily dose (MEDD) range from 10-20. This large variation in ratios may lead to uncontrolled pain or overdosing. Our aim was to determine the accurate CR from IV to PO HM and ORR from IV HM to PO morphine and oxycodone (measured as MEDD)...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Akhila Reddy, Ulrich S Schuler, Maxine de la Cruz, Sriram Yennurajalingam, Jimin Wu, Diane Liu, Eduardo Bruera
BACKGROUND: Methadone has been associated with lower overall survival (OS) in patients with chronic pain. There are no data available on the association of methadone with OS in cancer patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare the OS in cancer outpatients undergoing opioid rotation (OR) to methadone and other strong opioids. DESIGN: Demographics, symptoms, and morphine equivalent daily dose (MEDD) were collected in patients who underwent OR from strong opioids to either methadone or other strong opioids and returned for a follow-up within six weeks...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Allen A Lee, William L Hasler
The use of opioids for the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain is growing at an alarming rate. Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OBD) is a common adverse effect of long-term opioid treatment manifesting as constipation, nausea, and vomiting. These effects are primarily mediated by peripheral μ-opioid receptors with resultant altered GI motility and function. As a result, patients may present with opioid-induced constipation (OIC), opioid-induced nausea and vomiting (OINV), and/or narcotic bowel syndrome (NBS)...
November 2, 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Gabriela P Peirano, Guillermo P Mammana, Mariela S Bertolino, Tania Pastrana, Gloria F Vega, Jorgelina Russo, Gabriela Varela, Ernesto Vignaroli, Raúl Ruggiero, Arnaldo Armesto, Gabriela Camerano, Graciela Dran
PURPOSE: The use of methadone for cancer pain is limited by the need of expertise and close titration due to variable half-life. Yet, it is a helpful palliative strategy in low-resources countries given its long-acting effect at low cost and worth additional study. Our aim was to describe the prescription and outcomes of methadone as a first-line treatment for cancer pain in a tertiary palliative care unit (PCU) in Argentina. METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records of patients with moderate to severe cancer pain seen at the PCU in 1-year period, who initiated strong opioids at the first consultation...
August 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Elias Veizi, Melissa Tornero-Bold, Salim M Hayek
INTRODUCTION: Intrathecal therapy [IT] has become an important modality for treatment of intractable cancer and noncancer pain although adverse events limit its effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case series was to report and discuss the lower limb edema from IT hydromorphone and morphine therapy and its resolution or nonrecurrence upon rotating the IT solution to fentanyl. METHODS: Case series. RESULTS: Five patients, 4 women and 1 man, 55 to 67 years old implanted with IT delivery device systems [IDDS] were treated with continuous infusion of hydromorphone [4 subjects] at 95 ± 40 mcg/24 hours and morphine [1 subject] at 0...
2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Agnieszka M Jurga, Ewelina Rojewska, Anna Piotrowska, Wioletta Makuch, Dominika Pilat, Barbara Przewlocka, Joanna Mika
Accumulating evidence indicates that microglial TLR2 and TLR4 play a significant role in nociception. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the contribution of TLR2 and TLR4 and their adaptor molecules to neuropathy and their ability to amplify opioid effectiveness. Behavioral tests (von Frey's and cold plate) and biochemical (Western blot and qRT-PCR) analysis of spinal cord and DRG tissue were conducted after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve. Repeated intrathecal administration of LPS-RS (TLR2 and TLR4 antagonist) and LPS-RS Ultrapure (TLR4 antagonist) attenuated allodynia and hyperalgesia...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Nobushige Yabe, Shinji Murai, Yoko Harada, Takahiro Yokose, Takamichi Yokoe, Ippei Oto, Takahisa Yoshikawa, Kenjiro Kitasato, Hirotomo Shimizu, Hiromitsu Jinno, Yuko Kitagawa
A 51-year-old woman had previously received treatment for breast cancer at another hospital but had refused early and aggressive treatment. Therefore, she was treated with symptomatic therapy. As her disease progressed, the patient wished to receive palliative care, and was transferred to a palliative care hospital. However, based on her general condition, it was determined that aggressive treatment should not be abandoned, and she was referred to our hospital for treatment. During her initial visit, the patient was found to have left breast cancer with chest wall invasion, right breast metastasis, multiple liver and lung metastases, left pleural effusion accompanied by pleural dissemination, and left upper limb edema...
November 2015: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Jeffrey Gudin, Jeffrey Fudin, Srinivas Nalamachu
Levorphanol is a potent opioid analgesic that was first approved for use in the United States in 1953. Levorphanol is approved for use in moderate to severe pain where an opioid analgesic is appropriate. Levorphanol has a wide range of activities including mu opioid agonism, delta agonism, kappa1 and kappa3 receptor agonism, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonism and reuptake inhibition of both norepinephrine and serotonin. This multimodal profile might prove effective for pain syndromes that are refractory to other opioid analgesics, such as central and neuropathic pain and opioid-induced hyperalgesia...
January 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Jayne Pawasauskas
Opioid rotation is a practice used when patients with chronic pain have insufficient analgesia, experience unwanted opioid-related adverse reactions, or other pharmacologic challenges with their current opioid. Methadone is an opioid with unique pharmacological properties, which render it clinically distinct from other opioids. The drug's potential clinical benefits in treating nociceptive and neuropathic pain are coupled with risks of serious, life-threatening adverse reactions. Its unique pharmacokinetic profile contributes added complexity; therefore, clinicians should be experienced with its dosing and monitoring...
September 2015: Journal of Opioid Management
Veronica Carullo, Ingrid Fitz-James, Ellise Delphin
Opioids are utilized frequently for the treatment of moderate to severe acute pain in the perioperative setting, as well as in the treatment of cancer-related pain. When prescribing chronic opioid therapy to patients with chronic pain, it is crucial for the practitioner to be aware not only of the issues of tolerance and withdrawal, but also to have knowledge of the possibility for opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). An understanding of the differences between tolerance and OIH when escalating opioid therapy allows the titration of opioid as well as nonopioid analgesics in order to obtain maximum control of both chronic and acute pain...
2015: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
Akhila Reddy, Supakarn Tayjasanant, Ali Haider, Yvonne Heung, Jimin Wu, Diane Liu, Sriram Yennurajalingam, Suresh Reddy, Maxine de la Cruz, Eden Mae Rodriguez, Jessica Waletich, Marieberta Vidal, Joseph Arthur, Carolyn Holmes, Kimmie Tallie, Angelique Wong, Rony Dev, Janet Williams, Eduardo Bruera
BACKGROUND: Transdermal fentanyl (TDF) is 1 of the most common opioids prescribed to patients with cancer. However, the accurate opioid rotation ratio (ORR) from other opioids to TDF is unknown, and various currently used methods result in wide variation of the ORR. The objective of this study was to determine the ORR of the oral morphine equivalent daily dose (MEDD) to the TDF dose when correcting for the MEDD of breakthrough opioids (the net MEDD) in cancer outpatients. METHODS: The records of 6790 consecutive patients were reviewed at the authors' supportive care center from 2010 to 2013 to identify those who underwent rotation from other opioids to TDF...
January 1, 2016: Cancer
Hyun-Jun Kim, Young Saing Kim, Se Hoon Park
BACKGROUND: For cancer patients with inadequate pain relief, a switch to an alternative opioid is the preferred option for symptomatic improvement. However, multiple opioids are often simultaneously administered for anecdotal reasons. This prospective study evaluated pain response to either opioid rotation or combination in patients with uncontrolled cancer pain. METHODS: Patients suffering with uncontrolled cancer pain despite dose titration were randomly assigned to opioid rotation group or opioid combination group...
September 16, 2015: BMC Palliative Care
Doralina L Anghelescu, Jennifer M Snaman, Luis Trujillo, April D Sykes, Y Yuan, Justin N Baker
BACKGROUND: Patient controlled anesthesia (PCA) is increasingly used to manage pain in pediatric cancer patients and is important in the treatment of escalating pain at the end of life. The description of the use of opioid PCA in this population has been limited. PROCEDURE: This retrospective chart review of the last 2 weeks of life addressed the following objectives: (1) to describe the patient population treated with opioid PCA; (2) to describe the morphine-equivalent doses (MED) (mg/kg/day); and (3) to describe the pain scores (PS)...
July 2015: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Jesús González-Barboteo, Xavier Gómez-Batiste Alentorn, Felipe A Calvo Manuel, Vicente Alberola Candel, M Amalia Palacios Eito, Isabel Sánchez-Magro, Marta Neira Álvarez, F Javier Pérez Martín, Josep Porta-Sales
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of opioid rotation (OR) to manage cancer pain. To describe the adverse events (AEs) associated with OR. SETTING: Thirty-nine tertiary hospital services. PATIENTS: Sixty-seven oncological patients with cancer-related pain treated at outpatient clinics. INTERVENTION: Prospective multicenter study. Pain intensity was scored using a Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) of 0-10. Average pain (AP) intensity in the last 24 hours, breakthrough pain (BTP), and the number of episodes of BTP on the days before and 1 week after OR were assessed...
November 2014: Journal of Opioid Management
Stephan A Schug, Chandani Chandrasena
INTRODUCTION: Cancer pain is one of the most important symptoms of malignant disease, which has a major impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. Therefore, it needs to be treated appropriately after a careful assessment of the types and causes of pain. AREAS COVERED: The mainstay of cancer pain management is systemic pharmacotherapy. This is, in principle, still based on the WHO guidelines initially published in 1986. Although these have been validated, they are not evidence-based...
January 2015: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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