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Growth differentiation factor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106769/tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-gastrointestinal-cancers-progress-in-basic-and-clinical-research
#1
REVIEW
Takehiko Yokobori, Masahiko Nishiyama
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily proteins have many important biological functions, including regulation of tissue differentiation, cell proliferation, and migration in both normal and cancer cells. Many studies have reported that TGF-β signaling is associated with disease progression and therapeutic resistance in several cancers. Similarly, TGF-β-induced protein (TGFBI)-a downstream component of the TGF-β signaling pathway-has been shown to promote and/or inhibit cancer. Here, we review the state of basic and clinical research on the roles of TGF-β and TGFBI in gastrointestinal cancers...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106505/pulp-vascularization-during-tooth-development-regeneration-and-therapy
#2
C Rombouts, T Giraud, C Jeanneau, I About
The pulp is a highly vascularized tissue situated in an inextensible environment surrounded by rigid dentin walls, with the apical foramina being the only access. The pulp vascular system is not only responsible for nutrient supply and waste removal but also contributes actively to the pulp inflammatory response and subsequent regeneration. This review discusses the underlying mechanisms of pulp vascularization during tooth development, regeneration, and therapeutic procedures, such as tissue engineering and tooth transplantation...
February 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105348/thyroid-like-low-grade-nasopharyngeal-papillary-adenocarcinoma-a-case-report
#3
Taro Horino, Osamu Ichii, Kazu Hamada-Ode, Tatsuki Matsumoto, Yoshiko Shimamura, Kosuke Inoue, Yoshio Terada
Thyroid-like low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma (TL-LGNPPA) is a rare neoplasm characterized by morphological analogy to papillary thyroid carcinoma and abnormal expression of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). We herein report a rare case of TL-LGNPPA with a review of its clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics. The patient was a 25-year-old Japanese woman complaining of a 2-year history of fever of unknown origin. There were no remarkable physical findings and the laboratory tests, including C-reactive protein levels, were normal...
December 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105240/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-enhances-stemness-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells-through-activation-of-wnt-signaling
#4
Woo-Jin Bae, Sang-Hyuk Lee, Young-Soo Rho, Bon-Seok Koo, Young-Chang Lim
Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) ligands, including TGFβ1, are multifunctional cytokines known as key regulators of cell growth, differentiation and inflammation. Dysregulated TGFβ signaling is common in numerous solid tumors, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Previously, TGFβ ligands were also reported to be associated with an enhancement of stemness in glioma stem-like cells. However, their role in HNSCC cancer stem cells (CSCs) has not been explored. The present study demonstrated that TGFβ1 enriches the properties of HNSCC CSCs...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105202/increased-expression-of-urotensin-ii-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
Dian-Gang Liu, Jing Chen, Hong-Xia Wang, Bao-Xin Li
Urotensin II (UII) and the urotensin II receptor (UT) exhibit mitogenic effects on tumor growth. Our previous study demonstrated that the UII/UT system is upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and may enhance the proliferation of human hepatoma cells. However, the clinical significance of UII/UT expression in HCC remains unclear. The present study assessed UII messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in 129 surgical specimens obtained from HCC patients using reverse transcription quantitative-polymerase chain reaction...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105126/hmgb1-promotes-the-secretion-of-multiple-cytokines-and-potentiates-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-through-the-ras-mapk-signaling-pathway
#6
Lin Feng, Deting Xue, Erman Chen, Wei Zhang, Xiang Gao, Jiawei Yu, Yadong Feng, Zhijun Pan
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein has been previously been detected in the inflammatory microenvironment of bone fractures. It is well known that HMGB1 acts as a chemoattractant to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, the effects of HMGB1 on cytokine secretion from MSCs were determined, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects of HMGB1 on osteogenic differentiation were elucidated. To detect cytokine secretion, antibody array assays were performed, which demonstrated that HGMB1 induced the differential secretion of cytokines that are predominantly associated with cell development, regulation of growth and cell migration, stress responses, and immune system functions...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105105/silencing-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-promotes-thyroid-cancer-cell-apoptosis-and-inhibits-invasion-by-downregulating-wwp2-wwp9-vegf-and-vegfr2
#7
Zhong-Yang Ding, Yun-Juan Huang, Jian-Dong Tang, Gan Li, Pan-Qiang Jiang, Hao-Tian Wu
Adaptation to hypoxia is an important process physiologically and pathologically. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) participates in the cancer biology of numerous endocrine tumors, including their proliferation and differentiation. In the present study, the hypothesis that HIF-1α promotes tumorigenesis in thyroid cancer via upregulating angiogenesis-associated markers is investigated. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis were used to examine the expression of HIF-1α in thyroid cancer cell lines, and to detect the expression of WW domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (WWP)2, WWP9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) in MZ-CRC-1 and TT thyroid cancer cells...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104757/analysis-and-identification-of-the-grem2-heparin-heparan-sulfate-binding-motif
#8
Chandramohan Kattamuri, Kristof Nolan, Thomas B Thompson
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) are regulated by extracellular antagonists of the DAN (differential screening selected gene aberrative in neuroblastoma) family. Similar to the BMP ligands, certain DAN family members have been shown to interact with heparin and heparan sulfate (HS). Structural studies of DAN family members Gremlin-1 and Gremlin-2 have revealed a dimeric growth-factor like fold where a series of lysine residues cluster along one face of the protein. In this study, we used mutagenesis, heparin binding measurements, and cell surface binding analysis to identify lysine residues that are important for heparin/HS binding in Gremlin-2...
January 19, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104681/copy-number-variations-of-e2f1-a-new-genetic-risk-factor-for-testicular-cancer
#9
Maria Santa Rocca, Andrea Di Nisio, Arianna Marchiori, Marco Ghezzi, Giuseppe Opocher, Carlo Foresta, Alberto Ferlin
Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is one of the most heritable forms of cancer. In last years many evidence suggested that constitutional genetic factors, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms, can increase its risk. However, the possible contribution of copy-number variations (CNVs) in TGCT susceptibility has not been substantially addressed. Indeed, an increasing number of studies have focused on the effect of CNVs on gene expression and on the role of these structural genetic variations as risk factors for different forms of cancer...
January 19, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104586/synergy-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-and-epidermal-growth-factor-co-administration-on-intestinal-adaptation-in-neonatal-piglets-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#10
David W Lim, Crystal L Levesque, Donna F Vine, Mitsuru Muto, Jacob R Koepke, Patrick N Nation, Pamela R Wizzard, Julang Li, David L Bigam, Patricia L Brubaker, Justine M Turner, Paul W Wales
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment enhance intestinal adaptation. To determine whether these growth factors exert synergistic effects on intestinal growth and function, GLP-2 and EGF-containing media (EGF-cm) were administered, alone and in combination, in neonatal piglet with short bowel syndrome (SBS). METHODS: Neonatal Landrace/Large White piglets were block-randomized to 75% mid-intestinal (JI group) or distal-intestinal (JC group) resection or sham control, with 7-d infusion of saline (control), intravenous human GLP-2 (11 nmol/kg/day) alone, enteral EGF-cm (80 μg/kg/day) alone, or GLP-2 and EGF-cm in combination...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103506/the-effect-of-anti-angiogenic-drugs-on-regulatory-t-cells-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#11
REVIEW
Chenxi Hu, Xiaodong Jiang
A benefit of anti-angiogenic drugs is improved tumor immune tolerance. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the tumor microenvironment mediate tumor immune tolerance and anti-angiogenic drugs not only indirectly affect Tregs via dendritic cells (DCs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) but they can also act directly on Tregs causing immunosuppression. Specifically, these drugs may induce differentiation and chemotaxis and reduce the number and function of Tregs by targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) on the cell surface...
January 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102559/effect-of-bone-like-hydroxyapatite-poly-amino-acid-loaded-with-rifapentine-microspheres-on-bone-and-joint-tuberculosis-in-vitro
#12
Yuwu Liu, Dianming Jiang
Rifapentine-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres (RPMs)-loaded bone-like hydroxyapatite/poly amino acid (BHA/PAA) is effective in curing S. aureus-induced chronic osteomyelitis. This study continues to investigate the effect of RPM-loaded BHA/PAA on the bacterial growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), cell proliferation and differentiation in MTB H37Rv-infected MG63 cells. Furthermore, whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was activated by RPM-loaded BHA/PAA was explored. We found the bactec growth index of H37Rv was significantly inhibited by RPM-loaded BHA/PAA...
January 19, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102541/tgf-%C3%AE-regulation-of-encephalitogenic-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-multiple-sclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Priscilla W Lee, Mary E Severin, Amy E Lovett-Racke
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has been shown to influence the differentiation and function of T cells. The role that TGF-β plays in immune-mediated disease, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), has become a major area of investigation since CD4(+) T cells appear to be a major mediator of autoimmunity. This review provides an analysis of the literature on the role that TGF-β plays in the generation and regulation of encephalitogenic and regulatory T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, as well as in T cells of MS patients...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102497/regulated-partitioning-of-fixed-carbon-14-c-sodium-na-potassium-k-and-glycine-betaine-determined-salinity-stress-tolerance-of-gamma-irradiated-pigeonpea-cajanus-cajan-l-millsp
#14
Pankaj Kumar, Vasundhara Sharma, Chobhe Kapil Atmaram, Bhupinder Singh
Soil salinity is a major constraint that limits legume productivity. Pigeonpea is a salt sensitive crop. Seed gamma irradiation at a very low dose (2.5 Gy) is known to enhance seedling establishment, plant growth and yield of cereals and other crops. The present study conducted using two genetically diverse varieties of pigeonpea viz., Pusa-991 and Pusa-992 aimed at establishing the role of pre-sowing seed gamma irradiation at 0, 0.0025, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1 kGy on plant growth, seed yield and seed quality under salt stress at 0, 80 and 100 mM NaCl (soil solution EC equivalent 1...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101577/viscumins-functionally-modulate-cell-motility-associated-gene-expression
#15
Sonja Schötterl, Miriam Hübner, Angela Armento, Vivien Veninga, Naita Maren Wirsik, Simon Bernatz, Hans Lentzen, Michel Mittelbronn, Ulrike Naumann
In Europe extracts from Viscum album L., the European white-berry mistletoe, are widely used as a complementary cancer therapy. Viscumins (mistletoe lectins, ML) have been scrutinized as important active components of mistletoe and exhibit a variety of anticancer effects such as stimulation of the immune system, induction of cytotoxicity, reduction of tumor cell motility as well as changes in the expression of genes associated with cancer development and progression. By microarray expression analysis, quantitative RT-PCR and RT-PCR based validation of microarray data we demonstrate for the Viscum album extract Iscador Qu and for the lectins Aviscumine and ML-1 that in glioma cells these drugs differentially modulate the expression of genes involved in the regulation of cell migration and invasion, including processes modulating cell architecture and cell adhesion...
February 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101355/undifferentiated-carcinoma-of-the-gallbladder-with-endothelial-differentiation-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Yoshitaka Furuya, Kenzo Hiroshima, Takashi Wakahara, Harutoshi Akimoto, Hironobu Yanagie, Kenichi Harigaya, Hiroshi Yasuhara
Undifferentiated carcinoma of the gallbladder is a rare cancer type with a poor prognosis. The present study described a case of undifferentiated gallbladder carcinoma of the spindle- and giant-cell type, according to the 2010 World Health Organization classification. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that the tumor consisted of dense interlacing bundles of spindle-shaped cells. No evidence of cartilaginous, osseous or rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation was observed. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that spindle- and polygonal-shaped cells of the undifferentiated carcinoma were positive for cytokeratin AE1/3, vimentin and vascular endothelial growth factor...
December 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101242/screening-and-analysis-of-breast-cancer-genes-regulated-by-the-human-mammary-microenvironment-in-a-humanized-mouse-model
#17
Mingjie Zheng, Jue Wang, Lijun Ling, Dandan Xue, Shui Wang, Yi Zhao
Tumor microenvironments play critical regulatory roles in tumor growth. Although mouse cancer models have contributed to the understanding of human tumor biology, the effectiveness of mouse cancer models is limited by the inability of the models to accurately present humanized tumor microenvironments. Previously, a humanized breast cancer model in severe combined immunodeficiency mice was established, in which human breast cancer tissue was implanted subcutaneously, followed by injection of human breast cancer cells...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101231/the-biological-significance-of-methylome-differences-in-human-papilloma-virus-associated-head-and-neck-cancer
#18
Maria J Worsham, Kang Mei Chen, Indrani Datta, Josena K Stephen, Dhananjay Chitale, Alexandra Gothard, George Divine
In recent years, studies have suggested that promoter methylation in human papilloma virus (HPV) positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a mechanistic role and has the potential to improve patient survival. The present study aimed to replicate key molecular findings from previous analyses of the methylomes of HPV positive and HPV negative HNSCC in an independent cohort, to assess the reliability of differentially methylated markers in HPV-associated tumors. HPV was measured using real-time quantitative PCR and the biological significance of methylation differences was assessed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA)...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101225/monocytic-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-as-a-potent-suppressor-of-tumor-immunity-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
Katarzyna Pogoda, Maria Pyszniak, Paweł Rybojad, Jacek Tabarkiewicz
Immunotherapy is a promising therapeutic option for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who do not qualify for surgery. In patients with advanced NSCLC, systemic immune suppression is frequently observed, therefore, researchers are investigating the tumor microenvironment for less invasive and more effective methods of treating lung cancer. Monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (Mo-MDSCs) are potent suppressors of tumor immunity; therefore, this population may significantly impede the application of immunotherapy to treat cancer...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101144/histopathological-findings-in-systemic-sclerosis-related-myopathy-fibrosis-and-microangiopathy-with-lack-of-cellular-inflammation
#20
Claudio Corallo, Maurizio Cutolo, Nila Volpi, Daniela Franci, Margherita Aglianò, Antonio Montella, Chiara Chirico, Stefano Gonnelli, Ranuccio Nuti, Nicola Giordano
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to identify specific histopathological features of skeletal muscle involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. METHODS: A total of 35 out of 112 SSc-patients (32%, including 81% female and 68% diffuse scleroderma) presenting clinical, biological and electromyographic (EMG) features of muscle weakness, were included. Patients underwent vastus lateralis biopsy, assessed for individual pathologic features including fibrosis [type I collagen (Coll-I), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)], microangiopathy [cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31), pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), anti-angiogenic VEGF-A165b], immune/ inflammatory response [CD4, CD8, CD20, human leucocyte antigens ABC (HLA-ABC)], and membranolytic attack complex (MAC)...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
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