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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919938/outcomes-and-inequalities-in-diabetes-from-2004-2005-to-2011-2012-english-longitudinal-study
#1
Robert Fleetcroft, Miqdad Asaria, Shehzad Ali, Richard Cookson
BACKGROUND: Outcomes of diabetes care are unequal and the NHS has a duty to consider reducing inequality in healthcare outcomes. AIM: To quantify trends in socioeconomic inequality and diabetes outcomes. DESIGN AND SETTING: Whole-population longitudinal study of 32 482 neighbourhoods (Lower Layer Super Output Areas [LSOAs]) in England between 2004/2005 and 2011/2012. METHOD: Slope indices of inequality (SIIs) between neighbourhoods of great and little deprivation were measured annually for: glycated haemoglobin control in people with diabetes; emergency hospitalisation for diabetes; and amenable mortality from diabetes...
December 5, 2016: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918673/predictive-indicators-of-overuse-injuries-in-adolescent-endurance-athletes
#2
Daniel Martínez-Silván, Jaime Díaz-Ocejo, Andrew Murray
PURPOSE: To analyse the influence of training exposure and the utility of self-report questionnaires on predicting overuse injuries in adolescent endurance athletes. METHODS: 5 adolescent male endurance athletes (15.7 ± 1.4 yr) from a full-time sports academy answered 2 questionnaires (Recovery Cue; RC-q & Oslo Sports Trauma Research questionnaire; OSTRC-q) on a weekly basis for one season (37 wks) in order to detect (1) signs of overtraining and under-recovery (RC-q) and (2) early symptoms of lower limb injuries (OSTRC-q)...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918576/respect-ed-rates-of-pulmonary-emboli-pe-and-sub-segmental-pe-with-modern-computed-tomographic-pulmonary-angiograms-in-emergency-departments-a-multi-center-observational-study-finds-significant-yield-variation-uncorrelated-with-use-or-small-pe-rates
#3
David Mountain, Gerben Keijzers, Kevin Chu, Anthony Joseph, Catherine Read, Gabriel Blecher, Jeremy Furyk, Chrianna Bharat, Karthik Velusamy, Andrew Munro, Kylie Baker, Frances Kinnear, Ahses Mukherjee, Gina Watkins, Paul Buntine, Georgia Livesay, Daniel Fatovich
INTRODUCTION: Overuse of CT Pulmonary Angiograms (CTPA) for diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE), particularly in Emergency Departments (ED), is considered problematic. Marked variations in positive CTPA rates are reported, with American 4-10% yields driving most concerns. Higher resolution CTPA may increase sub-segmental PE (SSPE) diagnoses, which may be up to 40% false positive. Excessive use and false positives could increase harm vs. benefit. These issues have not been systematically examined outside America...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917983/conflicts-security-and-marginalisation-institutional-change-of-the-pastoral-commons-in-a-glocal-world
#4
T Haller, H Van Dijk, M Bollig, C Greiner, N Schareika, C Gabbert
This paper argues that pastoral commons are under increasing pressure not just from overuse by pastoralists themselves, but from land management policies. Since colonial times, these have been based on a persistent misconception of the nature of pastoral economies and combined with increasing land alienation and fragmentation through government policies and covert privatisation of pastures. The paper focuses especially on pastoral populations in African drylands and is based on long-term research by independent researchers summarising some of their experiences in western, eastern and southern Africa...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909252/nurses-as-antibiotic-brokers-institutionalized-praxis-in-the-hospital
#5
Alex Broom, Jennifer Broom, Emma Kirby, Graham Scambler
We are likely moving rapidly toward a post-antibiotic era, as a result of escalating antimicrobial resistance, rapidly declining antibiotic production and profligate overuse. Hitherto research has almost exclusively focused on doctors' prescribing, with nurses' roles in antibiotic use remaining virtually invisible. Drawing on interviews with 30 nurses, we focus on nurses as brokers of doctors' antibiotic decisions, nursing capacity to challenge doctors' decisions, and, "back stage" strategies for circumnavigating organizational constraints...
November 30, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908846/the-effectiveness-of-web-based-asthma-self-management-system-my-asthma-portal-map-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Sara Ahmed, Pierre Ernst, Susan J Bartlett, Marie-France Valois, Tasneem Zaihra, Guy Paré, Roland Grad, Owis Eilayyan, Robert Perreault, Robyn Tamblyn
BACKGROUND: Whether Web-based technologies can improve disease self-management is uncertain. My Asthma Portal (MAP) is a Web-based self-management support system that couples evidence-based behavioral change components (self-monitoring of symptoms, physical activity, and medication adherence) with real-time monitoring, feedback, and support from a nurse case manager. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the impact of access to a Web-based asthma self-management patient portal linked to a case-management system (MAP) over 6 months compared with usual care on asthma control and quality of life...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907023/field-trials-reveal-ecotype-specific-responses-to-mycorrhizal-inoculation-in-rice
#7
Abdala Gamby Diedhiou, Fatou Kine Mbaye, Daouda Mbodj, Mathieu Ndigue Faye, Sarah Pignoly, Ibrahima Ndoye, Koffi Djaman, Souleymane Gaye, Aboubacry Kane, Laurent Laplaze, Baboucarr Manneh, Antony Champion
The overuse of agricultural chemicals such as fertilizer and pesticides aimed at increasing crop yield results in environmental damage, particularly in the Sahelian zone where soils are fragile. Crop inoculation with beneficial soil microbes appears as a good alternative for reducing agricultural chemical needs, especially for small farmers. This, however, requires selecting optimal combinations of crop varieties and beneficial microbes tested in field conditions. In this study, we investigated the response of rice plants to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) under screenhouse and field conditions in two consecutive seasons in Senegal...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903837/the-effect-of-army-vest-design-on-the-occurrence-of-stress-fractures-and-overuse-injuries-in-female-military-recruits
#8
Ezequiel Palmanovich, M Frankl, M Nyska, I Hetsroni, N Constantini, L Trejo, R Bechar, G Novak, Z Lankovsky, G Mann
INTRODUCTION: Stress fractures (SFs) occur when microdamage caused by repetitive mechanical load exceeds the biological load-bearing capacity of the bone. The study objective was to test whether a vest specifically designed and manufactured for female recruits, compared with the standard vest used on a regular basis by Border Police recruits, would reduce the incidence of SF in female Border Police recruits. Data based on reports of military personnel show that women are more likely to sustain SFs...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902848/topiramate-in-migraine-prevention-a-2016-perspective
#9
Stephen D Silberstein
BACKGROUND: In evidence-based guidelines published in 2000, topiramate was a third-tier migraine preventive with no scientific evidence of efficacy; recommendation for its use reflected consensus opinion and clinical experience. Its neurostabilizing activity, coupled with its favorable weight profile, made topiramate an attractive alternative to other migraine preventives that caused weight gain. When guidelines for migraine prevention in episodic migraine were published in 2012, topiramate was included as a first-line option based on double-blind, randomized controlled trials involving nearly 3000 patients...
November 30, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901275/peripheral-nerve-blocks-for-the-treatment-of-headache-in-older-adults-a-retrospective-study
#10
Jacob R Hascalovici, Matthew S Robbins
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to provide demographical and clinical descriptions of patients age 65 years old and older who were treated with peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs) at our institution and evaluate the safety and efficacy of this treatment. BACKGROUND: Headache disorders are common, disabling chronic neurological diseases that often persist with advancing age. Geriatric headache management poses unique therapeutic challenges because of considerations of comorbidity, drug interactions, and adverse effects...
November 30, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900197/research-priorities-of-international-sporting-federations-and-the-ioc-research-centres
#11
Caroline F Finch, Scott Talpey, Ashley Bradshaw, Torbjorn Soligard, Lars Engebretsen
BACKGROUND/AIM: To be fully effective, the prevention of injury in sport and promotion of athlete's health needs to be both targeted and underpinned by scientific evidence. This study aimed to identify the research priorities of International Sporting Federation (ISFs) compared to the current research focus of the International Olympic Committee Research Centres (IOC-RCs). METHODS: Online survey of ISF Medical Chairpersons (n=22, 69% response) and IOC-RC Directors (n=7, 78% response)...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900170/low-fitness-low-body-mass-and-prior-injury-predict-injury-risk-during-military-recruit-training-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-the-british-army
#12
Mark Robinson, Andrew Siddall, James Bilzon, Dylan Thompson, Julie Greeves, Rachel Izard, Keith Stokes
BACKGROUND: Injuries sustained by military recruits during initial training impede training progression and military readiness while increasing financial costs. This study investigated training-related injuries and injury risk factors among British Army infantry recruits. METHODS: Recruits starting infantry training at the British Army Infantry Training Centre between September 2008 and March 2010 were eligible to take part. Information regarding lifestyle behaviours and injury history was collected using the Military Pre-training Questionnaire...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898920/effects-of-dietary-roughage-and-sulfur-in-diets-containing-corn-dried-distillers-grains-with-solubles-on-hydrogen-sulfide-production-and-fermentation-by-rumen-microbes-in-vitro
#13
E Y Binversie, M Ruiz-Moreno, A J Carpenter, B J Heins, G I Crawford, A DiCostanzo, M D Stern
Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) have been used in production animal diets; however, overuse of DDGS can cause toxic concentrations of ruminal hydrogen sulfide gas (HS), resulting in polioencephalomalacia, a deleterious brain disease. Because HS gas requires an acidic rumen environment and diet can influence ruminal pH, it has been postulated that dietary manipulation could help mitigate HS production. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of dietary roughage and sulfur concentrations on HS production and rumen fermentation...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896609/moral-polemics-of-far-reaching-economic-consequences-of-antibiotics-overuse
#14
Marek Vochozka, Anna Maroušková, Petr Šuleř
The unethical overuse of antibiotics to seek to achieve a shortening of the treatment period raises the cost of health services and poses a threat to humanity due to the gradual development of antibiotic resistance. Other consequences of our modern passion for antibiotics have appeared. Small concentrations of antibiotic residues in sewage waters slow down the metabolism of anaerobic microorganism thereby reducing the overall performance of the anaerobic fermentation used to detoxify and digest sewage and other collected organic wastes...
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894703/over-surgery-in-breast-cancer
#15
Fiona MacNeill, Andreas Karakatsanis
Breast surgery remains the original and most effective 'targeted' therapy: excision of early cancer is curative and for more advanced disease surgery improves local disease control. However in well intentioned pursuit of cure and local disease control, some cancers are over-treated resulting in major physical and emotional morbidity. Less breast surgery is safe, as evidenced by steady reductions in mortality and local recurrence; earlier diagnosis and widespread use of systemic therapies and radiotherapy have allowed more conservative surgery...
November 25, 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892894/overuse-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-and-its-consequences
#16
Marcin Kazberuk, Szymon Brzósko, Tomasz Hryszko, Beata Naumnik
Direct inhibition of H+ ion excretion to the gastric lumen makes proton pump inhibitors (PPI) the most effective drugs against gastric acid-related diseases. Over recent years usage of proton pump inhibitors has increased dramatically. Due to the low costs, high efficacy and rarity of adverse effects, their use is prevalent and often it does not correspond with existing medical guidelines. The literature lists stress ulcer prophylaxis among patients with low risk of bleeding, routine 'gastroprotective' medication during treatment and non-specific abdominal symptoms as the most common patterns of off-label PPI use...
October 14, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892497/optimising-antibiotic-usage-to-treat-bacterial-infections
#17
Iona K Paterson, Andy Hoyle, Gabriela Ochoa, Craig Baker-Austin, Nick G H Taylor
The increase in antibiotic resistant bacteria poses a threat to the continued use of antibiotics to treat bacterial infections. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics has been identified as a significant driver in the emergence of resistance. Finding optimal treatment regimens is therefore critical in ensuring the prolonged effectiveness of these antibiotics. This study uses mathematical modelling to analyse the effect traditional treatment regimens have on the dynamics of a bacterial infection. Using a novel approach, a genetic algorithm, the study then identifies improved treatment regimens...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891180/the-effect-of-foot-orthoses-with-forefoot-cushioning-or-metatarsal-pad-on-forefoot-peak-plantar-pressure-in-running
#18
Michaela Hähni, Anja Hirschmüller, Heiner Baur
BACKGROUND: Foot orthoses are frequently used in sports for the treatment of overuse complaints with sufficient evidence available for certain foot-related overuse pathologies like plantar fasciitis, rheumatoid arthritis and foot pain (e.g., metatarsalgia). One important aim is to reduce plantar pressure under prominent areas like metatarsal heads. For the forefoot region, mainly two common strategies exist: metatarsal pad (MP) and forefoot cushioning (FC). The aim of this study was to evaluate which of these orthosis concepts is superior in reducing plantar pressure in the forefoot during running...
2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886839/medial-elbow-injuries-in-the-throwing-athlete
#19
REVIEW
Jimmy H Daruwalla, Charles A Daly, John G Seiler
Medial elbow injuries in the throwing athlete are common and increasing in frequency. They occur due to repetitive supraphysiologic forces acting on the elbow during the overhead throw. Overuse and inadequate rest are salient risk factors for injury. Most athletes improve substantially with rest and nonoperative treatment, although some athletes may require surgical intervention to return to play. Because of advances in conservative and surgical treatments, outcomes after medial elbow injury have improved over time...
February 2017: Hand Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886834/upper-extremity-injuries-in-gymnasts
#20
REVIEW
Megan R Wolf, Daniel Avery, Jennifer Moriatis Wolf
Gymnastics is a unique sport, which loads the wrist and arms as weight-bearing extremities. Because of the load demands on the wrist in particular, stress fractures, physeal injury, and overuse syndromes may be observed. This spectrum of injury has been termed "gymnast's wrist," and incorporates such disorders as wrist capsulitis, ligamentous tears, triangular fibrocartilage complex tears, chondromalacia of the carpus, stress fractures, distal radius physeal arrest, and grip lock injury.
February 2017: Hand Clinics
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