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Cognitive science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918951/subjective-alcohol-responses-in-a-cross-sectional-field-based-study-of-adolescents-and-young-adults-effects-of-age-drinking-level-and-dependence-consequences
#1
Hayley Treloar, Mark A Celio, Stephen A Lisman, Robert Miranda, Linda P Spear
BACKGROUND: Adolescents are physically, cognitively, socially, and emotionally different than adults in ways that may partially explain why alcohol misuse typically develops during this period. Ample animal-science evidence and nascent ecological evidence points toward developmentally limited differences in sensitivity to alcohol's stimulatory and sedative effects. Field-based research methods were used to test for such age-related differences in a sample of adolescents through young adults...
November 16, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916427/tea-cocoa-coffee-and-affective-disorders-vicious-or-virtuous-cycle
#2
REVIEW
Tatiana García-Blanco, Alberto Dávalos, Francesco Visioli
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders is increasing worldwide, which underscores the importance of increasing research in this field, in terms of better detection, prevention based on improvement of lifestyle and diet, and effectiveness of treatment. Increasing evidence suggest that diet and exercise can affect proper neuronal development and physiology and protect the brain from neurological illnesses or injuries. Of note, cocoa, tea, and coffee are being actively investigated because they are rich in (poly)phenolic compounds that can modulate mental health, namely brain plasticity, behavior, mood, depression, and cognition...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914248/the-difficult-lives-of-individuals-with-bipolar-disorder-a-review-of-functional-outcomes-and-their-implications-for-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Michael J Gitlin, David J Miklowitz
BACKGROUND: Most longitudinal or treatment studies in bipolar disorder have used symptomatic or syndromal status as the primary outcome variable. More recently, psychosocial functioning has been highlighted as a key domain of outcome. Patients with bipolar disorder appear to be impaired in all functional domains, although the factors that cause impairment have not been clearly specified. METHODS: This paper reviews cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on functional impairment and its relationship to symptomatic, neurocognitive, personality, and stress variables in bipolar disorder; and the implications of these relationships for defining treatment targets...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911489/palliative-care-interventions-in-advanced-dementia
#4
REVIEW
Edel Murphy, Katherine Froggatt, Sheelah Connolly, Eamon O'Shea, Elizabeth L Sampson, Dympna Casey, Declan Devane
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a chronic, progressive and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disease. Advanced dementia is characterised by profound cognitive impairment, inability to communicate verbally and complete functional dependence. Usual care of people with advanced dementia is not underpinned universally by a palliative approach. Palliative care has focused traditionally on care of people with cancer but for more than a decade, there have been increased calls worldwide to extend palliative care services to include all people with life-limiting illnesses in need of specialist care, including people with dementia...
December 2, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909800/cognitive-dysfunction-in-adult-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Hao Meng, Jun Xu, Chenling Pan, Jiaxing Cheng, Yue Hu, Yin Hong, Yuehai Shen, Hua Dai
The objective of this study was to investigate cognitive dysfunction in 24-60-year-old neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients, demographically matched healthy subjects, and MS patients. We conducted a comprehensive literature review of the PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, CNKI, Wan Fang Date, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to May 2016 for case-control studies that reported cognitive test scores in NMO patients, healthy subjects, and MS patients. Outcome measures were cognitive function evaluations, including performance on attention, language, memory, information processing speed, and executive function tests...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909415/imagining-change-an-integrative-approach-toward-explaining-the-motivational-role-of-mental-imagery-in-pro-environmental-behavior
#6
Christine Boomsma, Sabine Pahl, Jackie Andrade
Climate change and other long-term environmental issues are often perceived as abstract and difficult to imagine. The images a person associates with environmental change, i.e., a person's environmental mental images, can be influenced by the visual information they come across in the public domain. This paper reviews the literature on this topic across social, environmental, and cognitive psychology, and the wider social sciences; thereby responding to a call for more critical investigations into people's responses to visual information...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909400/the-demise-of-the-synapse-as-the-locus-of-memory-a-looming-paradigm-shift
#7
Patrick C Trettenbrein
Synaptic plasticity is widely considered to be the neurobiological basis of learning and memory by neuroscientists and researchers in adjacent fields, though diverging opinions are increasingly being recognized. From the perspective of what we might call "classical cognitive science" it has always been understood that the mind/brain is to be considered a computational-representational system. Proponents of the information-processing approach to cognitive science have long been critical of connectionist or network approaches to (neuro-)cognitive architecture, pointing to the shortcomings of the associative psychology that underlies Hebbian learning as well as to the fact that synapses are practically unfit to implement symbols...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909039/algorithm-for-predicting-death-among-older-adults-in-the-home-care-setting-study-protocol-for-the-risk-evaluation-for-support-predictions-for-elder-life-in-the-community-tool-respect
#8
Amy T Hsu, Douglas G Manuel, Monica Taljaard, Mathieu Chalifoux, Carol Bennett, Andrew P Costa, Susan Bronskill, Daniel Kobewka, Peter Tanuseputro
INTRODUCTION: Older adults living in the community often have multiple, chronic conditions and functional impairments. A challenge for healthcare providers working in the community is the lack of a predictive tool that can be applied to the broad spectrum of mortality risks observed and may be used to inform care planning. OBJECTIVE: To predict survival time for older adults in the home care setting. The final mortality risk algorithm will be implemented as a web-based calculator that can be used by older adults needing care and by their caregivers...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906505/what-do-we-learn-about-development-from-baby-robots
#9
Pierre-Yves Oudeyer
Understanding infant development is one of the great scientific challenges of contemporary science. In addressing this challenge, robots have proven useful as they allow experimenters to model the developing brain and body and understand the processes by which new patterns emerge in sensorimotor, cognitive, and social domains. Robotics also complements traditional experimental methods in psychology and neuroscience, where only a few variables can be studied at the same time. Moreover, work with robots has enabled researchers to systematically explore the role of the body in shaping the development of skill...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902446/science-signaling-podcast-for-15-november-2016-a-new-type-of-kinase-inhibitor
#10
Hagit Eldar-Finkelman, Annalisa M VanHook
This Podcast features an interview with Hagit Eldar-Finkelman, author of a Research Article that appears in the 15 November 2016 issue of Science Signaling, about a newly developed inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). GSK-3 participates in several signaling networks and has been implicated in various pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases, cognitive impairments, and cancer. Licht-Murava et al developed L807mts, a substrate-competitive peptide inhibitor that blocks GSK-3 activity through an unusual mechanism...
November 15, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900583/does-elite-sport-degrade-sleep-quality-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Luke Gupta, Kevin Morgan, Sarah Gilchrist
BACKGROUND: Information on sleep quality and insomnia symptomatology among elite athletes remains poorly systematised in the sports science and medicine literature. The extent to which performance in elite sport represents a risk for chronic insomnia is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review was to profile the objective and experienced characteristics of sleep among elite athletes, and to consider relationships between elite sport and insomnia symptomatology...
November 29, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899471/when-science-becomes-too-easy-science-popularization-inclines-laypeople-to-underrate-their-dependence-on-experts
#12
Lisa Scharrer, Yvonne Rupieper, Marc Stadtler, Rainer Bromme
Science popularization fulfills the important task of making scientific knowledge understandable and accessible for the lay public. However, the simplification of information required to achieve this accessibility may lead to the risk of audiences relying overly strongly on their own epistemic capabilities when making judgments about scientific claims. Moreover, they may underestimate how the division of cognitive labor makes them dependent on experts. This article reports an empirical study demonstrating that this "easiness effect of science popularization" occurs when laypeople read authentic popularized science depictions...
November 29, 2016: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898705/the-role-of-the-amygdala-in-facial-trustworthiness-processing-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#13
Sara Santos, Inês Almeida, Bárbara Oliveiros, Miguel Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: Faces play a key role in signaling social cues such as signals of trustworthiness. Although several studies identify the amygdala as a core brain region in social cognition, quantitative approaches evaluating its role are scarce. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to assess the role of the amygdala in the processing of facial trustworthiness, by analyzing its amplitude BOLD response polarity to untrustworthy versus trustworthy facial signals under fMRI tasks through a Meta-analysis of effect sizes (MA)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896493/hearing-impairment-and-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-cohort-studies
#14
REVIEW
Yuqiu Zheng, Shengnuo Fan, Wang Liao, Wenli Fang, Songhua Xiao, Jun Liu
Observational studies suggested an association between hearing impairment and cognitive disorders. However, whether hearing impairment is an independent risk factor or a harbinger of Alzheimer's disease remains controversial. Our goal was to assess the association between hearing impairment (HI) and the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. We comprehensively searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases on January 19, 2016 to incorporate all the prospective cohort studies meeting the inclusion criteria to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis...
November 28, 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896035/a-large-scale-test-of-the-gaming-enhancement-hypothesis
#15
Andrew K Przybylski, John C Wang
A growing research literature suggests that regular electronic game play and game-based training programs may confer practically significant benefits to cognitive functioning. Most evidence supporting this idea, the gaming-enhancement hypothesis, has been collected in small-scale studies of university students and older adults. This research investigated the hypothesis in a general way with a large sample of 1,847 school-aged children. Our aim was to examine the relations between young people's gaming experiences and an objective test of reasoning performance...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895558/physics-of-the-mind
#16
Leonid I Perlovsky
Is it possible to turn psychology into "hard science"? Physics of the mind follows the fundamental methodology of physics in all areas where physics have been developed. What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, quantum physics, thermodynamics, theory of relativity, astrophysics… and a theory of superstrings? The common among all areas of physics is a methodology of physics discussed in the first few lines of the paper. Is physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe the mind based on the few first principles as physics does? The mind with its variabilities and uncertainties, the mind from perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas, to high cognition...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894458/personality-and-global-cognitive-decline-in-japanese-community-dwelling-elderly-people-a-10-year-longitudinal-study
#17
Yukiko Nishita, Chikako Tange, Makiko Tomida, Rei Otsuka, Fujiko Ando, Hiroshi Shimokata
OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal associations between the big five personality and changes in global cognitive function among community-dwelling elderly people involved in the National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging. METHODS: The participants were 594 individuals (age range 60-81years) and followed for 10years and tested six times. Personality was assessed by the Japanese version of NEO five factor inventory at baseline. Cognitive function was assessed by the Japanese version of Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) at all visits...
December 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894378/an-experimental-approach-to-linguistic-representation
#18
Holly P Branigan, Martin J Pickering
Within the cognitive sciences, most researchers assume that it is the job of linguists to investigate how language is represented, and that they do so largely by building theories based on explicit judgments about patterns of acceptability - whereas it is the task of psychologists to determine how language is processed, and that in doing so, they do not typically question the linguists' representational assumptions. We challenge this division of labor, by arguing that structural priming provides an implicit method of investigating linguistic representations that should end the current reliance on acceptability judgments...
November 29, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893997/psychometric-properties-of-dual-task-balance-and-walking-assessments-for-individuals-with-neurological-conditions-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Lei Yang, Freddy Man Hin Lam, Lin Rong Liao, Mei Zhen Huang, Cheng Qi He, Marco Yiu Chung Pang
BACKGROUND: The ability of performing a balance or walking task in conjunction with a secondary cognitive or motor task, referred to as dual-task (DT) ability, is essential in daily living. While there is some evidence that DT performance is impaired in individuals with neurological conditions, using reliable and valid tools to measure DT performance is essential. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of DT balance and walking assessments in individuals with different neurological conditions...
November 15, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893874/association-of-perivascular-localization-of-aquaporin-4-with-cognition-and-alzheimer-disease-in-aging-brains
#20
Douglas M Zeppenfeld, Matthew Simon, J Douglas Haswell, Daryl D'Abreo, Charles Murchison, Joseph F Quinn, Marjorie R Grafe, Randall L Woltjer, Jeffrey Kaye, Jeffrey J Iliff
Importance: Cognitive impairment and dementia, including Alzheimer disease (AD), are common within the aging population, yet the factors that render the aging brain vulnerable to these processes are unknown. Perivascular localization of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) facilitates the clearance of interstitial solutes, including amyloid-β, through the brainwide network of perivascular pathways termed the glymphatic system, which may be compromised in the aging brain. Objectives: To determine whether alterations in AQP4 expression or loss of perivascular AQP4 localization are features of the aging human brain and to define their association with AD pathology...
November 28, 2016: JAMA Neurology
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