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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150233/management-of-first-depression-or-generalized-anxiety-disorder-episode-in-adults-in-primary-care-a-systematic-metareview
#1
Damien Driot, Michel Bismuth, Adrien Maurel, Julie Soulie-Albouy, Jordan Birebent, Stéphane Oustric, Julie Dupouy
CONTEXT: General Practitioners (GPs) are the leading antidepressants prescribers in Europe and in France. Difficulties in implementing existing recommendations in daily practice have been described. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to elaborate two algorithms to guide GPs in the patient management for a first major depressive disorder (MDD) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) episode in primary care. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Cochrane, and ISI Web of Science were explored using mainly the following keywords: depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, antidepressive agents or antidepressant...
November 14, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149149/decreased-regional-grey-matter-volume-in-women-with-chronic-whiplash-associated-disorders-relationships-with-cognitive-deficits-and-disturbed-pain-processing
#2
Iris Coppieters, Robby De Pauw, Karen Caeyenberghs, Lieven Danneels, Jeroen Kregel, Astrid Pattyn, Mira Meeus, Barbara Cagnie
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (CWAD) are characterized by pain of traumatic origin, cognitive deficits, and central sensitization (CS). Previous neuroimaging studies revealed altered grey matter volume (GMV) in mild traumatic brain injury patients and chronic pain conditions also characterized by CS. It can therefore be hypothesized that GMV alterations also play a role in the persistent complaints of CWAD. However, brain alterations remain poorly investigated in these patients...
November 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147562/cognitive-computing-and-escience-in-health-and-life-science-research-artificial-intelligence-and-obesity-intervention-programs
#3
REVIEW
Thomas Marshall, Tiffiany Champagne-Langabeer, Darla Castelli, Deanna Hoelscher
Objective: To present research models based on artificial intelligence and discuss the concept of cognitive computing and eScience as disruptive factors in health and life science research methodologies. Methods: The paper identifies big data as a catalyst to innovation and the development of artificial intelligence, presents a framework for computer-supported human problem solving and describes a transformation of research support models. This framework includes traditional computer support; federated cognition using machine learning and cognitive agents to augment human intelligence; and a semi-autonomous/autonomous cognitive model, based on deep machine learning, which supports eScience...
December 2017: Health Information Science and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143541/the-efficacy-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-chinese-people-a-meta-analysis
#4
Ting Kin Ng, Daniel Fu Keung Wong
OBJECTIVE: Over the past decade, cognitive behavioral therapy has been applied to an increasingly wider range of disorders and problems in Chinese societies. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the studies on cognitive behavioral therapy for Chinese clients. The purpose of this meta-analytic study was to examine the overall efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for Chinese people. METHOD: A literature search was conducted using electronic databases, including Web of Science, PsycINFO and PubMed...
November 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140557/withdrawn-pharmacological-cardioversion-for-atrial-fibrillation-and-flutter
#5
REVIEW
John Cordina, Gillian E Mead
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the commonest cardiac dysrhythmia. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There are two approaches to the management of atrial fibrillation: controlling the ventricular rate or converting to sinus rhythm in the expectation that this would abolish its adverse effects. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of pharmacological cardioversion of atrial fibrillation in adults on the annual risk of stroke, peripheral embolism, and mortality...
November 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137891/human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-and-gulf-war-illness-gwi-hla-drb1-13-02-spares-subcortical-atrophy-in-gulf-war-veterans
#6
Lisa M James, Peka Christova, Brian E Engdahl, Scott M Lewis, Adam F Carpenter, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
BACKGROUND: Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a multisystem disorder that has affected a substantial number of veterans who served in the 1990-91 Gulf War. The brain is prominently affected, as manifested by the presence of neurological, cognitive and mood symptoms. We reported previously on the protective role of six Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles in GWI (Georgopoulos et al., 2016) and their association with regional brain function (James et al., 2016). More recently, we reported on the presence of subcortical brain atrophy in GWI (Christova et al...
November 9, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137441/aberrations-in-circulating-inflammatory-cytokine-levels-in-patients-with-down-syndrome-a-meta-analysis
#7
Yan Zhang, Meng Che, Jing Yuan, Yun Yu, Chang Cao, Xiao-Yan Qin, Yong Cheng
Evidence suggests that immune system alterations in Down syndrome (DS) may be early events that drive neuropathological and cognitive changes of Alzheimer's disease. The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate whether there is an abnormal cytokine profile in DS patients when compared with healthy control (HC) subjects. A systematic search of Pubmed and Web of Science identified 19 studies with 957 DS patients and 541 HC subjects for this meta-analysis. Random effects meta-analysis demonstrated that patients with DS had significantly increased circulating tumor necrosis factor-α (Hedges' g = 1...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133765/geriatric-anesthesia-related-morbidity-and-mortality-in-china-current-status-and-trend
#8
REVIEW
Yang Liu, Wei Xiao, Ling-Zhong Meng, Tian-Long Wang
OBJECTIVE: The population of elderly patients and the amount of geriatric anesthesia have been growing rapidly in China. Thus, understanding the morbidity and mortality associated with geriatric anesthesia in China is critical to the improvement of anesthesia quality and outcome. The aim of the review was to discuss the geriatric anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality in China, as well as to point out the future trend. DATA SOURCES: Articles in this review were all searched from Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, PubMed, and Web of Science databases, based on the reports originated in China from January 2011 to December 2016...
November 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133413/socioeconomic-status-and-genetic-influences-on-cognitive-development
#9
David N Figlio, Jeremy Freese, Krzysztof Karbownik, Jeffrey Roth
Accurate understanding of environmental moderation of genetic influences is vital to advancing the science of cognitive development as well as for designing interventions. One widely reported idea is increasing genetic influence on cognition for children raised in higher socioeconomic status (SES) families, including recent proposals that the pattern is a particularly US phenomenon. We used matched birth and school records from Florida siblings and twins born in 1994-2002 to provide the largest, most population-diverse consideration of this hypothesis to date...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130838/the-psychology-of-rituals-an-integrative-review-and-process-based-framework
#10
Nicholas M Hobson, Juliana Schroeder, Jane L Risen, Dimitris Xygalatas, Michael Inzlicht
Traditionally, ritual has been studied from broad sociocultural perspectives, with little consideration of the psychological processes at play. Recently, however, psychologists have begun turning their attention to the study of ritual, uncovering the causal mechanisms driving this universal aspect of human behavior. With growing interest in the psychology of ritual, this article provides an organizing framework to understand recent empirical work from social psychology, cognitive science, anthropology, behavioral economics, and neuroscience...
November 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129030/effects-of-cpap-and-mandibular-advancement-device-treatment-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Martha Schwartz, Luis Acosta, Yuan-Lung Hung, Mariela Padilla, Reyes Enciso
The purpose of this review is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) in improving the quality of life (sleepiness, cognitive, and functional outcomes) in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Authors identified randomized, placebo-controlled studies from MEDLINE through PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Studies were assessed for inclusion and exclusion criteria, as well as risk of bias...
November 11, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128777/a-systematic-review-of-heart-failure-dyadic-self-care-interventions-focusing-on-intervention-components-contexts-and-outcomes
#12
REVIEW
Harleah G Buck, Anna Stromberg, Misook L Chung, Kristine A Donovan, Karen Harkness, Allison M Howard, Naoko Kato, Randall Polo, Lorraine S Evangelista
BACKGROUND: Having support from an informal carer is important for heart failure patients. Carers have the potential to improve patient self-care. At the same time, it should be acknowledged that caregiving could affect the carer negatively and cause emotional reactions of burden and stress. Dyadic (patient and informal carer) heart failure self-care interventions seek to improve patient self-care such as adherence to medical treatment, exercise training, symptom monitoring and symptom management when needed...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128685/unravelling-positive-aspects-of-caregiving-in-dementia-an-integrative-review-of-research-literature
#13
REVIEW
Doris S F Yu, Sheung-Tak Cheng, Jungfang Wang
BACKGROUND: Family caregiving is the crucial informal care resource to lessen the burdens associated with dementia. Research in this field has focused on reducing the caregiver's burden, but little attention has been given to promoting the positive aspects of caregiving. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic critical review of research on the nature of positive aspects of caregiving, and the factors predicting this phenomenon among family caregivers of dementia patients, with the ultimate purpose of gaining insights to explain how and why it emerges...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126825/artificial-intelligence-in-medical-practice-the-question-to-the-answer
#14
REVIEW
D Douglas Miller, Eric W Brown
Computer science advances and ultra-fast computing speeds find artificial intelligence (AI) broadly benefitting modern society - forecasting weather, recognizing faces, detecting fraud, and deciphering genomics. AI's future role in medical practice remains an unanswered question. Machines (computers) learn to detect patterns not decipherable using biostatistics by processing massive datasets (big data) through layered mathematical models (algorithms). Correcting algorithm mistakes (training) adds to AI predictive model confidence...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121090/differences-between-racing-and-non-racing-drivers-a-simulator-study-using-eye-tracking
#15
Peter M van Leeuwen, Stefan de Groot, Riender Happee, Joost C F de Winter
Motorsport has developed into a professional international competition. However, limited research is available on the perceptual and cognitive skills of racing drivers. By means of a racing simulator, we compared the driving performance of seven racing drivers with ten non-racing drivers. Participants were tasked to drive the fastest possible lap time. Additionally, both groups completed a choice reaction time task and a tracking task. Results from the simulator showed faster lap times, higher steering activity, and a more optimal racing line for the racing drivers than for the non-racing drivers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115065/editor-s-introduction-and-review-coordination-and-context-in-cognitive-science
#16
Christopher T Kello
The role of coordination in cognitive science has been on the rise in recent years, in terms of coordination among neurons, coordination among sensory and motor systems, and coordination among individuals. Research has shown that coordination patterns corresponding to cognitive activities depend on the various contexts in which the underlying interactions are situated. The present issue of Topics in Cognitive Science centers on studies of coordination that address the role of context in shaping or interpreting dynamical patterns of human behavior...
November 8, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114235/biofunctional-understanding-and-conceptual-control-searching-for-systematic-consensus-in-systemic-cohesion
#17
Asghar Iran-Nejad, Fareed Bordbar
For first generation scientists after the cognitive revolution, knowers were in active control over all (stages of) information processing. Then, following a decade of transition shaped by intense controversy, embodied cognition emerged and suggested sources of control other than those implied by metaphysical information processing. With a thematic focus on embodiment science and an eye toward systematic consensus in systemic cohesion, the present study explores the roles of biofunctional and conceptual control processes in the wholetheme spiral of biofunctional understanding (see Iran-Nejad and Irannejad, 2017b, Figure 1)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114234/gender-specific-covariations-between-competencies-interest-and-effort-during-science-learning-in-virtual-environments
#18
Eva Christophel, Wolfgang Schnotz
Women are still underrepresented in engineering courses although some German universities offer separate women's engineering courses which include virtual STEM learning environments. To outline information about fundamental aspects relevant for virtual STEM learning, one has to reveal which similarities both genders in virtual learning show. Moreover, the question arises as to whether there are in fact differences in the virtual science learning of female and male learners. Working with virtual STEM learning environments requires strategic and arithmetic-operative competences...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113810/the-search-image-as-link-between-sensation-perception-and-action
#19
Morten Tønnessen
In this paper, it is argued that Jakob von Uexküll's "search image" notion, the original version of this notion within ethology, is still of use. A search image, in Uexküll's sense, is an imagined object that an organism has in mind when it searches for something. Uexküll's conception of the search image is useful both for understanding the theoretical context of contemporary notions of search images, and with an eye to envisioning possible future developments of the idea. Uexküll's classical notion differs from contemporary versions in that it has a wider application, and is therefore of greater relevance to theoretical biology and cognitive science...
November 4, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113571/dual-task-assessment-protocols-in-concussion-assessment-a-systematic-literature-review
#20
Michelle Kleiner, Lynne Wong, Alexandra Dubé, Katie Wnuk, Susan W Hunter, Laura J Graham
Study Design Systematic review. Background When assessed in isolation, balance and neurocognitive testing may not be sufficiently responsive to capture changes that occur with concussion. Normal daily activities require simultaneous cognitive and physical demands. Therefore, a dual-task assessment paradigm should be considered to identify performance deficits. Objectives To evaluate the literature and identify dual-task testing protocols associated with changes in gait after concussion. Methods A systematic review of articles of individuals with concussion who underwent dual-task testing with a combination of motor and cognitive tasks...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
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