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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330163/affective-stimuli-in-behavioural-interventions-soliciting-for-health-check-up-services-and-the-service-users-socioeconomic-statuses-a-study-at-japanese-pachinko-parlours
#1
Naoki Kondo, Yoshiki Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomically vulnerable people are likely to have more health risks because of inadequate behaviour choices related to chronic social stresses. Brain science suggests that stress causes cognitively biased automatic decision making, preferring instant stress relief and pleasure (eg, smoking, alcohol use and drug abuse) as opposed to reflectively seeking health-maintenance services (eg, health check-ups). As such, hedonic stimuli that nudge people towards preventive actions could reduce health behaviour disparities...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329978/data-quality-over-data-quantity-in-computational-cognitive-neuroscience
#2
Antonio Kolossa, Bruno Kopp
We analyzed factors that may hamper the advancement of computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN). These factors include a particular statistical mindset, which paves the way for the dominance of statistical power theory and a preoccupation with statistical replicability in the behavioral and neural sciences. Exclusive statistical concerns about sampling error occur at the cost of an inadequate representation of the problem of measurement error. We contrasted the manipulation of data quantity (sampling error, by varying the number of subjects) against the manipulation of data quality (measurement error, by varying the number of data per subject) in a simulated Bayesian model identifiability study...
January 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329293/cognitive-deficits-and-educational-loss-in-children-with-schistosome-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Amara E Ezeamama, Amaya L Bustinduy, Allan K Nkwata, Leonardo Martinez, Noel Pabalan, Michael J Boivin, Charles H King
BACKGROUND: By means of meta-analysis of information from all relevant epidemiologic studies, we examined the hypothesis that Schistosoma infection in school-aged children (SAC) is associated with educational loss and cognitive deficits. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This review was prospectively registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42016040052). Medline, Biosis, and Web of Science were searched for studies published before August 2016 that evaluated associations between Schistosoma infection and cognitive or educational outcomes...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329288/soil-transmitted-helminth-infection-loss-of-education-and-cognitive-impairment-in-school-aged-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Noel Pabalan, Eloisa Singian, Lani Tabangay, Hamdi Jarjanazi, Michael J Boivin, Amara E Ezeamama
BACKGROUND: Evidence of an adverse influence of soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections on cognitive function and educational loss is equivocal. Prior meta-analyses have focused on randomized controlled trials only and have not sufficiently explored the potential for disparate influence of STH infection by cognitive domain. We re-examine the hypothesis that STH infection is associated with cognitive deficit and educational loss using data from all primary epidemiologic studies published between 1992 and 2016...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327349/status-of-the-trait-concept-in-contemporary-personality-psychology-are-the-old-questions-still-the-burning-questions
#5
Małgorzata Fajkowska, Shulamith Kreitler
This special issue of Journal of Personality addresses one of the cardinal concerns of personality psychology, namely, the status of traits in contemporary personality science. Trait theory is a major scientific model for personality explanation and research. Although there have been critiques of traits, typically formulated from the point of view of the social-cognitive perspective, the trait approach can be viewed as a continuously developing paradigm. However, personality psychology persists in tackling burning questions concerning the status of traits that need to be answered...
February 2018: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326402/ageing-in-individuals-with-intellectual-disability-issues-and-concerns-in-hong-kong
#6
REVIEW
M My Tse, R Yc Kwan, J L Lau
INTRODUCTION: The increasing longevity of people with intellectual disability is testimony to the positive developments in medical intervention. Nonetheless early-onset age-related issues and concerns cause deterioration of their overall well-being. This paper aimed to explore the issues and concerns about individuals with intellectual disability as they age. METHODS: Articles that discussed people with intellectual disability over 30 years of age, and those that identified ageing health issues and concerns were included...
January 12, 2018: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325450/symptom-science-omics-supports-common-biological-underpinnings-across-symptoms
#7
Maura K McCall, Ansley Grimes Stanfill, Elizabeth Skrovanek, Jessica Renee Pforr, Susan W Wesmiller, Yvette P Conley
For precision health care to be successful, an in-depth understanding of the biological mechanisms for symptom development and severity is essential. Omics-based research approaches facilitate identification of the biological underpinnings of symptoms. We reviewed literature for omics-based approaches and exemplar symptoms (sleep disruption, cognitive impairment, fatigue, gastrointestinal [GI] distress, and pain) to identify genes associated with the symptom or symptoms across disease processes. The review yielded 27 genes associated with more than one symptom...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324240/cognitive-science-in-the-era-of-artificial-intelligence-a-roadmap-for-reverse-engineering-the-infant-language-learner
#8
Emmanuel Dupoux
Spectacular progress in the information processing sciences (machine learning, wearable sensors) promises to revolutionize the study of cognitive development. Here, we analyse the conditions under which 'reverse engineering' language development, i.e., building an effective system that mimics infant's achievements, can contribute to our scientific understanding of early language development. We argue that, on the computational side, it is important to move from toy problems to the full complexity of the learning situation, and take as input as faithful reconstructions of the sensory signals available to infants as possible...
January 8, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319610/the-effectiveness-of-online-pain-resources-for-health-professionals-a-systematic-review-with-subset-meta-analysis-of-educational-intervention-studies
#9
Christina Liossi DPsych, Alessandro Failo PhD, Daniel E Schoth PhD, Glyn Williams Md, Richard Howard Md
Online educational interventions are increasingly developed for health professionals and students, although graduate and undergraduate medical curricular often contain limited information about how to assess and manage pain. This study reviews the literature on the effectiveness of pain-related online educational resources. Studies were identified via a search of Medline, PsychINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and OpenGrey databases. Search terms included three concept blocks: (i) type of intervention - online education, computer-based, e-learning, web-based, and internet-based; (ii) population - pediatrician, physician, nurse, psychologist, medical; (iii) outcome - pain*...
January 9, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319333/an-investigation-of-executive-functioning-in-pediatric-anxiety
#10
Yolanda E Murphy, Anna Luke, Elle Brennan, Sarah Francazio, Isabella Christopher, Christopher A Flessner
Although science's understanding (e.g., etiology, maintaining factors, etc.) of pediatric anxiety and related problems has grown substantially over recent years, several aspects to anxiety in youths remain elusive, particularly with relation to executive functioning. To this end, the current study sought to examine several facets to executive functioning (i.e., cognitive flexibility, inhibition, planning, working memory) within a transdiagnostic sample of youths exhibiting varying degrees of anxiety symptoms...
January 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313802/augmenting-cognitive-training-in-older-adults-the-act-study-design-and-methods-of-a-phase-iii-tdcs-and-cognitive-training-trial
#11
Adam J Woods, Ronald Cohen, Michael Marsiske, Gene E Alexander, Sara J Czaja, Samuel Wu
BACKGROUND: Adults over age 65 represent the fastest growing population in the US. Decline in cognitive abilities is a hallmark of advanced age and is associated with loss of independence and dementia risk. There is a pressing need to develop effective interventions for slowing or reversing the cognitive aging process. While certain forms of cognitive training have shown promise in this area, effects only sometimes transfer to neuropsychological tests within or outside the trained domain...
December 4, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310724/effect-of-long-term-nutraceutical-and-dietary-supplement-use-on-cognition-in-the-elderly-a-10-year-systematic-review-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#12
Nathan M D'Cunha, Ekavi N Georgousopoulou, Lakshika Dadigamuwage, Jane Kellett, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Jackson Thomas, Andrew J McKune, Duane D Mellor, Nenad Naumovski
Nutraceuticals have generated interest as a way to mitigate the cognitive decline in older adults. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the evidence for these claims from the scientific literature in randomised, double-blinded, controlled trials (duration: ≥1 year; participants: n≥100; age(mean): ≥65 years). Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we searched four electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL and Web of Science) and identified twenty-five studies published between the 15·June·2006 and 14·June·2016...
January 9, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310468/lidocaine-dose-response-effect-on-postoperative-cognitive-deficit-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression
#13
Mohammad Reza Habibi, Valiollah Habibi, Ali Habibi, Aria Soleimani
The true influence of the perioperative intravenous lidocaine on the development of postoperative cognitive deficit (POCD) in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains controversial. The principal aim is to undertake a meta-regression to determine whether moderator variables mediate the relationship between lidocaine and POCD. Areas covered: We searched the Web of Science, PubMed database, Scopus and the Cochrane Library database (up to June 2017) and systematically reviewed a list of retrieved articles...
January 9, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308739/neurostimulation-in-clinical-and-sub-clinical-eating-disorders-a-systematic-update-of-the-literature
#14
Bethan Dalton, Savani Bartholdy, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt
INTRODUCTION: Whilst psychological therapies are the main approach to treatment of eating disorders (EDs), advances in aetiological research suggest the need for the development of more targeted, brain-focused treatments. A range of neurostimulation approaches, most prominently repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS), are rapidly emerging as potential novel interventions. We have previously reviewed these techniques as potential treatments of EDs...
January 7, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304923/potentially-modifiable-risk-factors-for-long-term-cognitive-impairment-after-critical-illness-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Amra Sakusic, John C O'Horo, Mikhail Dziadzko, Dziadzko Volha, Rashid Ali, Tarun D Singh, Rahul Kashyap, Ann M Farrell, John D Fryer, Ronald Petersen, Ognjen Gajic, Alejandro A Rabinstein
Long-term cognitive impairment is common in survivors of critical illness. Little is known about the etiology of this serious complication. We sought to summarize current scientific knowledge about potentially modifiable risk factors during intensive care unit (ICU) treatment that may play a substantial role in the development of long-term cognitive impairment. All searches were run on October 1, 2017. The search strategy included Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid CDR, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effect, Scopus, and Web of Science, and included MeSH headings and keywords related to intensive care, critical care, and cognitive disorders...
January 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301289/local-choices-rationality-and-the-contextuality-of-decision-making
#16
Ivo Vlaev
Rational explanation is ubiquitous in psychology and social sciences, ranging from rational analysis, expectancy-value theories, ideal observer models, mental logic to probabilistic frameworks, rational choice theory, and informal "folk psychological" explanation. However, rational explanation appears to be challenged by apparently systematic irrationality observed in psychological experiments, especially in the field of judgement and decision-making (JDM). Here, it is proposed that the experimental results require not that rational explanation should be rejected, but that rational explanation is local, i...
January 2, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299877/cocoa-flavanol-supplementation-and-exercise-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Lieselot Decroix, Danusa Dias Soares, Romain Meeusen, Elsa Heyman, Cajsa Tonoli
BACKGROUND: Cocoa flavanols (CFs) have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities and can improve vascular function. It has recently been suggested that CF intake may improve exercise performance and recovery. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the literature on the effects of CF intake on exercise performance and recovery and exercise-induced changes in vascular function, cognitive function, oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic parameters. METHODS: Two electronic databases (Pubmed and Web of Science) were searched for studies examining the combination of CF intake and exercise in humans (up to 28 March 2017)...
January 3, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298441/impact-of-auditory-integrative-training-ait-on-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-its-effect-on-behavioural-and-social-emotions-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#18
Laila Al-Ayadhi, Abdulrahman Alhowikan, Dost Halepoto
OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of auditory integrative training (AIT) on inflammatory biomarker transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and to assess its effect on social behaviours in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study 15 subjects (14 males, I female) with ASD aged 3-12 years were recruited. All subjects were screened for autism by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Plasma levels of TGF-β1 in all subjects were measured using sandwich enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) immediately after the AIT sessions and after 1 and 3 months...
January 3, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290330/affective-science-and-avoidant-end-of-life-communication-can-the-science-of-emotion-help-physicians-talk-with-their-patients-about-the-end-of-life
#19
Jesse A Soodalter, Greg J Siegle, Michele Klein-Fedyshin, Robert Arnold, Yael Schenker
Despite believing end-of-life (EOL) discussions with patients are important, doctors often do not have them. Multiple factors contribute to this shortfall, which interventions including reimbursement changes and communication skills training have not significantly improved to date. One commonly cited but under-researched reason for physician avoidance of EOL discussion is emotional difficulty. High occupational demand for frequent difficult discussions may overload physicians' normal emotional functioning, leading to avoidance or failure...
December 11, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286493/twenty-five-years-of-the-national-academy-of-medical-sciences-of-ukraine-progress-and-priorities-for-future-of-radiation-medicine-and-biology
#20
D Bazyka
After the creation of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine in 1993 the Research Center for Radiation Medicine was among the first institutions to join the Academy (fig. 1). Estab lishing the Academy was among the first steps of the independent Ukrainian government and aimed to provide a high level health care for population. It was extremely needed for the minimization of Chornobyl medical consequences. This choice was related to a growing recognition of the scientific research in fulfilling the Сenter's mission - study of the effects of low dose radiation on human body and radiation protection of the exposed population...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
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