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Cognitive science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213812/the-neuroscience-of-human-decision-making-through-the-lens-of-learning-and-memory
#1
Lesley K Fellows
We are called upon to make decisions, large and small, many times a day. Whether in the voting booth, the stock exchange, or the cafeteria line, we identify potential options, estimate and compare their subjective values, and make a choice. Decision-making has only recently become a focus for cognitive neuroscience. The last two decades have seen rapid progress in our understanding of the brain basis of at least some aspects of this rather complex aspect of cognition. This work has provided fresh perspectives on poorly understood brain regions, such as orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum...
February 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213052/n-3-fatty-acids-mediterranean-diet-and-cognitive-function-in-normal-aging-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Maria F Masana, Ai Koyanagi, Josep Maria Haro, Stefanos Tyrovolas
BACKGROUND: Intake of n-3 fatty acids and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) have been shown to slow the progression of age-related cognitive decline, but the results are mixed. We summarized and evaluated the effect of n-3 fatty acids and MedDiet on cognitive outcomes in a cognitively healthy aged population. METHODS: Relevant published studies from January 2000 to May 2015 were identified by searching three electronic databases: Pubmed, Web of Science/MEDLINE, and CINHAL...
February 14, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212897/representing-composed-meanings-through-temporal-binding
#3
Hugh Rabagliati, Leonidas A A Doumas, Douglas K Bemis
A key feature of human thought and language is compositionality, the ability to bind pre-existing concepts or word meanings together in order to express new ideas. Here we ask how newly composed complex concepts are mentally represented and matched to the outside world, by testing whether it is harder to verify if a picture matches the meaning of a phrase, like big pink tree, than the meaning of a single word, like tree. Five sentence-picture verification experiments provide evidence that, in fact, the meaning of a phrase can often be checked just as fast as the meaning of one single word (and sometimes faster), indicating that the phrase's constituent concepts can be represented and checked in parallel...
February 14, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211553/the-assessment-of-schizotypy-by-the-o-life-oxford-liverpool-inventory-for-feelings-and-experiences-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-affective-disorders
#4
Daria Dembińska-Krajewska, Janusz Rybakowski
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess schizotypy by using the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE), in the groups of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD) and unipolar (recurrent) depression (UD). An important element of the study was to compare - in terms of similarity - the results obtained in schizophrenia and BD, and - in terms of differences - the results obtained in BD and UD. METHODS: The study involved 58 patients with schizophrenia (35 men, 23 women, mean age = 34...
December 23, 2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208764/spatial-impairment-and-memory-in-genetic-disorders-insights-from-mouse-models
#5
Sang Ah Lee, Valter Tucci, Giorgio Vallortigara
Research across the cognitive and brain sciences has begun to elucidate some of the processes that guide navigation and spatial memory. Boundary geometry and featural landmarks are two distinct classes of environmental cues that have dissociable neural correlates in spatial representation and follow different patterns of learning. Consequently, spatial navigation depends both on the type of cue available and on the type of learning provided. We investigated this interaction between spatial representation and memory by administering two different tasks (working memory, reference memory) using two different environmental cues (rectangular geometry, striped landmark) in mouse models of human genetic disorders: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWScr(m+/p-) mice, n = 12) and Beta-catenin mutation (Thr653Lys-substituted mice, n = 12)...
February 9, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203635/grounded-understanding-of-abstract-concepts-the-case-of-stem-learning
#6
REVIEW
Justin C Hayes, David J M Kraemer
Characterizing the neural implementation of abstract conceptual representations has long been a contentious topic in cognitive science. At the heart of the debate is whether the "sensorimotor" machinery of the brain plays a central role in representing concepts, or whether the involvement of these perceptual and motor regions is merely peripheral or epiphenomenal. The domain of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning provides an important proving ground for sensorimotor (or grounded) theories of cognition, as concepts in science and engineering courses are often taught through laboratory-based and other hands-on methodologies...
2017: Cogn Res Princ Implic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199047/behavioural-treatment-strategies-improve-adherence-to-lifestyle-intervention-programmes-in-adults-with-obesity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
E Burgess, P Hassmén, M Welvaert, K L Pumpa
Poor adherence to lifestyle intervention remains a key factor hindering treatment effectiveness and health outcomes for adults with obesity. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine if behavioural treatment strategies (e.g. goal setting, motivational interviewing, relapse prevention, cognitive restructuring etc.) improve adherence to lifestyle intervention programmes in adults with obesity. Randomized controlled trials that investigated the use of behavioural treatment strategies in obesity management were identified by systematically reviewing the literature within Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science from their inception to August 2016...
February 15, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197115/application-and-evaluation-of-an-expert-judgment-elicitation-procedure-for-correlations
#8
Mariëlle Zondervan-Zwijnenburg, Wenneke van de Schoot-Hubeek, Kimberley Lek, Herbert Hoijtink, Rens van de Schoot
The purpose of the current study was to apply and evaluate a procedure to elicit expert judgments about correlations, and to update this information with empirical data. The result is a face-to-face group elicitation procedure with as its central element a trial roulette question that elicits experts' judgments expressed as distributions. During the elicitation procedure, a concordance probability question was used to provide feedback to the experts on their judgments. We evaluated the elicitation procedure in terms of validity and reliability by means of an application with a small sample of experts...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196717/perinatal-programming-by-inflammation
#9
Sarah J Spencer, Urs Meyer
Since Levine and then Barker's seminal work mid to late last century demonstrating the importance of early life environment, intensive research has revealed the plasticity, vulnerability and resilience of the developing brain to environmental challenges. In particular, early exposure to infectious pathogens and inflammatory stimuli has a lasting impact on brain and behavior. These data establish clear effects on vulnerability to later disease and neuroinflammatory injury, cognitive function and emotionality, and even responses to pain and susceptibility to metabolic disorders...
February 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195583/longitudinal-test-retest-neuroimaging-data-from-healthy-young-adults-in-southwest-china
#10
Wei Liu, Dongtao Wei, Qunlin Chen, Wenjing Yang, Jie Meng, Guorong Wu, Taiyong Bi, Qinglin Zhang, Xi-Nian Zuo, Jiang Qiu
Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) has been widely used to map the structure and function of the human brain, as well as its behavioral associations. However, to date, a large sample with a long-term longitudinal design and a narrow age-span has been lacking for the assessment of test-retest reliability and reproducibility of brain-behavior correlations, as well as the development of novel causal insights into these correlational findings. Here we describe the SLIM dataset, which includes brain and behavioral data across a long-term retest-duration within three and a half years, mMRI scans provided a set of structural, diffusion and resting-state functional MRI images, along with rich samples of behavioral assessments addressed-demographic, cognitive and emotional information...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195028/academic-judgments-under-uncertainty-a-study-of-collective-anchoring-effects-in-swedish-research-council-panel-groups
#11
Lambros Roumbanis
This article focuses on anchoring effects in the process of peer reviewing research proposals. Anchoring effects are commonly seen as the result of flaws in human judgment, as cognitive biases that stem from specific heuristics that guide people when they involve their intuition in solving a problem. Here, the cognitive biases will be analyzed from a sociological point of view, as interactional and aggregated phenomena. The article is based on direct observations of ten panel groups evaluating research proposals in the natural and engineering sciences for the Swedish Research Council...
February 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195025/the-depth-of-fields-managing-focus-in-the-epistemic-subcultures-of-mind-and-brain-science
#12
David Peterson
The 'psy' sciences emerged from the tangled roots of philosophy, physiology, biology and medicine, and these origins have produced heterogeneous fields. Scientists in these areas work in a complex, overlapping ecology of fields that results in the constant co-presence of dissonant theories, methods and research objects. This raises questions regarding how conceptual clarity is maintained. Using the optical metaphor 'depth of field', I show how researchers in all fields marginalize potential threats to routine scientific work by framing them as either too broad and imprecise or too narrow and technical...
February 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194998/-i-have-faith-in-science-and-in-god-common-sense-cognitive-polyphasia-and-attitudes-to-science-in-nigeria
#13
Bankole A Falade, Martin W Bauer
This study, of modern common sense in Nigeria, combines questionnaires and interviews to examine the compatibility and incompatibility of religion and science. Nigeria is a large country with a complex diversity of religious, ethnic and cultural practices that condition the reception and elaboration of science in everyday life. We find evaluative attitudes to science structured as 'progress', 'fear' and 'mythical image'. Scientific knowledge and religiosity have a direct bearing on expectations of progress and feeling of fear and worry about science; mythical image is independent of this...
February 1, 2017: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192674/designing-visual-aids-that-promote-risk-literacy
#14
Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Edward T Cokely
Background Effective risk communication is essential for informed decision making. Unfortunately, many people struggle to understand typical risk communications because they lack essential decision-making skills. Objective The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effect of numeracy on risk literacy, decision making, and health outcomes, and to evaluate the benefits of visual aids in risk communication. Method We present a conceptual framework describing the influence of numeracy on risk literacy, decision making, and health outcomes, followed by a systematic review of the benefits of visual aids in risk communication for people with different levels of numeracy and graph literacy...
February 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192038/corrigendum
#15
(no author information available yet)
Original article: Cohen, A. O., Breiner, K., Steinberg, L., Bonnie, R. J., Scott, E. S., Taylor-Thompson, K. A., Rudolf, M. D., Chein, J., Richeson, J. A., Heller, A. S., Silverman, M. R., Dellarco, D. V., Fair, D. A., Galván, A., & Casey, B. J. (2016). When is an adolescent an adult? Assessing cognitive control in emotional and nonemotional contexts. Psychological Science, 27, 549-562. doi: 10.1177/0956797615627625.
February 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189064/oral-application-of-carbon-nanofibers-in-rats-increases-blood-concentration-of-il6-and-il10-and-decreases-locomotor-activity
#16
Nina Vitalievna Sayapina, Tatyana Anantolievna Batalova, Alexander Alexandrovich Sergievich, Mikhail Anatolievich Shtarberg, Eugeny Alexandrovich Borodin, Pavel Pavlovich Khoroshikh, Vladimir Victorovich Chaika, Vladimir Valerievich Kodintsev, Alexey Anatolievich Vedyagin, Ilya Vladimirovich Mishakov, Antonis Vakis, Petra Henrich-Noack, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Ayse Basak Engin, Kirill Golokhvast
Carbon nanofibers (CNF) are versatile nanomaterials that are widely used in various fields of science and technology. As a consequence, animals as well as humans may be exposed to such compounds via different routes. We hypothesized that oral intake of CNF will lead to an inflammatory reaction and consequently induce behavioral impairments. To address this issue, rats were fed with 500mg/kgCNF for 14days and their locomotor activity, emotional status and cognition were quantified by testing the animals in an open field set-up, elevated plus maze and in the universal problem solving box which provides information about motivation and cognition...
January 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188946/integration-of-cognitive-skills-as-a-cross-cutting-theme-into-the-undergraduate-medical-curriculum-at-tehran-university-of-medical-sciences
#17
Akbar Soltani, Maryam Allaa, Hamideh Moosapour, Azadeh Aletaha, Farzaneh Shahrtash, Alireza Monajemi, Tohid Arastoo, Maryam Ahmadinejad, Azim Mirzazadeh, Mahboobeh Khabaz Mafinejad
Nowadays, improvement of thinking skills of students is one of the universally supported aims in the majority of medical schools. This study aims to design longitudinal theme of reasoning, problem-solving and decision-making into the undergraduate medical curriculum at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). A participatory approach was applied to design the curriculum during 2009-2011. The project was conducted by the contribution of representatives of both basic and clinical faculty members, students and graduates at Tehran University of Medical Sciences...
January 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185806/the-effect-of-acute-and-chronic-exercise-on-cognitive-function-and-academic-performance-in-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Joanna W Li, Helen O'Connor, Nicholas O'Dwyer, Rhonda Orr
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether exercise, proposed to enhance neuroplasticity and potentially cognitive function (CF) and academic performance (AP), may be beneficial during adolescence when important developmental changes occur. DESIGN: Systematic review evaluating the impact of acute or chronic exercise on CF and AP in adolescents (13-18 years). METHODS: Nine databases (AMED, AusportMed, CINAHL, COCHRANE, Embase, Medline, Scopus, SPORTdiscus, Web of Science) were searched from earliest records to 31st October 2016, using keywords related to exercise, CF, AP and adolescents...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182485/-wolves-canis-lupus-and-dogs-canis-familiaris-differ-in-following-human-gaze-into-distant-space-but-respond-similar-to-their-packmates-gaze-correction-to-werhahn-et-al-2016
#19
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) differ in following human gaze into distant space but respond similar to their packmates' gaze" by Geraldine Werhahn, Zsófia Virányi, Gabriela Barrera, Andrea Sommese and Friederike Range (Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2016[Aug], Vol 130[3], 288-298). In the article, the affiliations for the second and fifth authors should be Wolf Science Center, Ernstbrunn, Austria, and Comparative Cognition, Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna/ Medical University of Vienna/University of Vienna...
February 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176450/what-has-the-study-of-digital-games-contributed-to-the-science-of-expert-behavior
#20
Neil Charness
I review the historical context for modeling skilled performance in games. Using Newell's (1990) concept of time bands for explaining cognitive behavior, I categorize the current papers in terms of time scales, type of data, and analysis methodologies. I discuss strengths and weaknesses of these approaches for describing skill acquisition and why the study of digital games can address the challenges of replication and generalizability. Cognitive science needs to pay closer attention to population representativeness to enhance generalizability of findings, and to the social band of explanation, in order to explain why so few individuals reach expert levels of performance...
February 7, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
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