keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cognitive science

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805567/nutrition-and-nonmotor-symptoms-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Laurie K Mischley
To date, no guidelines exist for the screening, evaluation, and management of nutritional status in PD. Dozens of studies demonstrate an association between diet in adulthood with subsequent risk of developing PD. Individuals with PD are at increased risk of malnutrition due to the increased metabolic demands and disease pathophysiology. Risk of malnutrition is further complicated by anosmia, swallowing difficulties, constipation, and drug-nutrient interactions. An emerging body of evidence suggests that the intestinal tract is affected early in the disease, creating therapeutic opportunities for early intervention...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805520/pace-team-response-shows-a-disregard-for-the-principles-of-science
#2
Jonathan Edwards
The PACE trial of cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exercise therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis has raised serious questions about research methodology. An editorial article by Geraghty gives a fair account of the problems involved, if anything understating the case. The response by White et al. fails to address the key design flaw, of an unblinded study with subjective outcome measures, apparently demonstrating a lack of understanding of basic trial design requirements. The failure of the academic community to recognise the weakness of trials of this type suggests that a major overhaul of quality control is needed...
August 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805188/managing-faecal-incontinence-in-people-with-advanced-dementia-resident-in-care-homes-finch-study-a-realist-synthesis-of-the-evidence
#3
Claire Goodman, Christine Norton, Marina Buswell, Bridget Russell, Danielle Harari, Rowan Harwood, Brenda Roe, Jo Rycroft-Malone, Vari M Drennan, Mandy Fader, Michelle Maden, Karen Cummings, Frances Bunn
BACKGROUND: Eighty per cent of care home residents in the UK are living with dementia. The prevalence of faecal incontinence (FI) in care homes is estimated to range from 30% to 50%. There is limited evidence of what is effective in the reduction and management of FI in care homes. OBJECTIVE: To provide a theory-driven explanation of the effectiveness of programmes that aim to improve FI in people with advanced dementia in care homes. DESIGN: A realist synthesis...
August 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804990/characterizing-the-experience-of-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-and-accompanying-delusions-in-individuals-with-a-diagnosis-of-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
L M Smith, L C Johns, Rlc Mitchell
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to inform ongoing attempts to identify clinically meaningful subcategories of auditory verbal hallucination (AVH), and to evaluate evidence that might pertain to the suitability of current psychological interventions for people with bipolar disorder (BD) who experience psychotic symptoms. METHODS: A comprehensive synthesis of findings on the phenomenology of AVH and delusions in BD is included, alongside a critical review of clinical and cognitive correlates...
August 14, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803699/crowdsourcing-samples-in-cognitive-science
#5
REVIEW
Neil Stewart, Jesse Chandler, Gabriele Paolacci
Crowdsourcing data collection from research participants recruited from online labor markets is now common in cognitive science. We review who is in the crowd and who can be reached by the average laboratory. We discuss reproducibility and review some recent methodological innovations for online experiments. We consider the design of research studies and arising ethical issues. We review how to code experiments for the web, what is known about video and audio presentation, and the measurement of reaction times...
August 10, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802183/very-low-birth-weight-is-associated-with-brain-structure-abnormalities-and-cognitive-function-impairments-a-systematic-review
#6
Fereshteh Farajdokht, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Reza Dehghani, Gisou Mohaddes, Leili Abedi, Ramin Bughchechi, Alireza Majdi, Javad Mahmoudi
Very low birth weight (VLBW) children are at risk of structural brain abnormalities and neurocognitive deficits. Since survival rate of the very low birth weight infants has increased over the past decade, a better understanding of the long-term neurocognitive outcomes is needed. The present systematic review investigated the association between VLBW and cognitive function as well as brain structure. PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched up from January 2000 to January 2015...
August 9, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799808/decision-making-among-patients-and-their-family-in-als-care-a-review
#7
Geraldine Foley, Geralyn Hynes
OBJECTIVES: Practice guidelines in ALS care emphasise the role of the patient and their family in the decision-making process. We aimed to examine the ALS patient/family relationship in the decision-making process and to ascertain how patients and their family can shape one another's decisions pertaining to care. METHODS: We conducted a review of peer-reviewed empirical research, published in full and in English between January 2007 and January 2017, relating to care decision-making among ALS patients and their family...
August 11, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799778/how-important-is-tryptophan-in-human-health
#8
Joanna Kałużna-Czaplińska, Paulina Gątarek, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Max Stanley Chartrand, Geir Bjørklund
Tryptophan (Trp) is an amino acid and an essential component of the human diet. It plays a crucial role in many metabolic functions. Clinicians can use Trp levels in the course of diagnosing various metabolic disorders and the symptoms associated with those diseases. Furthermore, supplementation with this amino acid is considered in the treatment of depression and sleep disorders, mainly due to the Trp relationship with the synthesis of serotonin (5-HT) and melatonin. It is also used in helping to resolve cognitive disorders, anxiety, or neurodegenerative diseases...
August 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799487/dementia-etiologies-and-remedies-in-traditional-persian-medicine-a-review-of-medicinal-plants-and-phytochemistry
#9
Laila Shirbeigi, Behnam Dalfardi, Zohre Abolhasanzade, Fatemeh Nejatbakhsh
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a chronic neurodegenerative disease causing progressive and gradual impairment of different brain's cognitive functions. The prevalence of dementia is about 3 to 7% in different parts of the world. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the etiologies of dementia according to the Traditional Persian Medicine scientists' viewpoint and introduce their recommended herbal remedies for this disease. METHOD: The authors explored six main Traditional Persian Medicine textbooks for the disease of dementia, its etiologies and related recommended herbal treatments...
August 10, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799240/adaptive-functioning-and-its-associated-factors-among-girl-children-residing-in-slum-areas-of-bhubaneswar-india
#10
Ansuman Panigrahi, Sai C Das, Prabhudarsan Sahoo
AIM: Adaptive functioning develops throughout early childhood, and its limitation is a reflection that the child has developmental or emotional problems or even mental retardation. Little is known about the adaptive functioning or developmental status of slum children. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken during the year 2014 to assess the status of adaptive functioning among girl children aged between 3 and 9 years residing in slum areas of Bhubaneswar and to explore the factors associated with poor adaptive functioning...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799207/the-relation-between-cognitive-and-metacognitive-strategic-processing-during-a-science-simulation
#11
Daniel L Dinsmore, Brian P Zoellner
BACKGROUND: This investigation was designed to uncover the relations between students' cognitive and metacognitive strategies used during a complex climate simulation. While cognitive strategy use during science inquiry has been studied, the factors related to this strategy use, such as concurrent metacognition, prior knowledge, and prior interest, have not been investigated in a multidimensional fashion. AIMS: This study addressed current issues in strategy research by examining not only how metacognitive, surface-level, and deep-level strategies influence performance, but also how these strategies related to each other during a contextually relevant science simulation...
August 10, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799199/refining-moral-agency-insights-from-moral-psychology-and-moral-philosophy
#12
Aimee Milliken
Research in moral psychology has recently raised questions about the impact of context and the environment on the way the human mind works. In a 2012 call to action, Paley wrote: "If some of the conclusions arrived at by moral psychologists are true, they are directly relevant to the way nurses think about moral problems, and present serious challenges to favoured concepts in nursing ethics, such as the ethics of care, virtue, and the unity of the person" (p. 80). He urges nurse ethicists and scholars to evaluate the impact these findings may have for moral theory...
August 11, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797618/risk-factors-for-falls-in-community-stroke-survivors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Tianma Xu, Lindy Clemson, Kate O'Loughlin, Natasha A Lannin, Catherine Dean, Gerald Koh
OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors for falls in community stroke survivors. DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive search for articles indexed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases was conducted. STUDY SELECTION: Prospective studies investigating fall risk factors in community stroke survivors were included. Reviewers in pair independently screened the articles and determined inclusion through consensus...
August 7, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797114/assessing-public-forecasts-to-encourage-accountability-the-case-of-mit-s-technology-review
#14
Jeffrey Funk
Although high degrees of reliability have been found for many types of forecasts purportedly due to the existence of accountability, public forecasts of technology are rarely assessed and continue to have a poor reputation. This paper's analysis of forecasts made by MIT's Technology Review provides a rare assessment and thus a means to encourage accountability. It first shows that few of the predicted "breakthrough technologies" currently have large markets. Only four have sales greater than $10 billion while eight technologies not predicted by Technology Review have sales greater than $10 billion including three with greater than $100 billion and one other with greater than $50 billion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794897/uncovering-capgras-delusion-using-a-large-scale-medical-records-database
#15
Vaughan Bell, Caryl Marshall, Zara Kanji, Sam Wilkinson, Peter Halligan, Quinton Deeley
BACKGROUND: Capgras delusion is scientifically important but most commonly reported as single case studies. Studies analysing large clinical records databases focus on common disorders but none have investigated rare syndromes. AIMS: Identify cases of Capgras delusion and associated psychopathology, demographics, cognitive function and neuropathology in light of existing models. METHOD: Combined computational data extraction and qualitative classification using 250 000 case records from South London and Maudsley Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) database...
July 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793239/ghosts-in-machine-learning-for-cognitive-neuroscience-moving-from-data-to-theory
#16
REVIEW
Thomas Carlson, Erin Goddard, David M Kaplan, Colin Klein, J Brendan Ritchie
The application of machine learning methods to neuroimaging data has fundamentally altered the field of cognitive neuroscience. Future progress in understanding brain function using these methods will require addressing a number of key methodological and interpretive challenges. Because these challenges often remain unseen and metaphorically "haunt" our efforts to use these methods to understand the brain, we refer to them as "ghosts". In this paper, we describe three such ghosts, situate them within a more general framework from philosophy of science, and then describe steps to address them...
August 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792862/nudging-and-boosting-steering-or-empowering-good-decisions
#17
Ralph Hertwig, Till Grüne-Yanoff
In recent years, policy makers worldwide have begun to acknowledge the potential value of insights from psychology and behavioral economics into how people make decisions. These insights can inform the design of nonregulatory and nonmonetary policy interventions-as well as more traditional fiscal and coercive measures. To date, much of the discussion of behaviorally informed approaches has emphasized "nudges," that is, interventions designed to steer people in a particular direction while preserving their freedom of choice...
August 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783469/the-effect-of-research-method-type-on-stereotypes-content-a-brief-research-report
#18
Daniel David, Aurelian Bizo, Alina Ioana Cimpean, Horea Oltean, Roxana Cardos, Radu Soflau, Alexandra Negut
Stereotype Content Model (SCM) emphasizes the content rather than the underlying processes of the stereotypes and the content might be influenced by several cultural dimensions (e.g., individualism vs. collectivism). The main dimensions of SCM, - namely warmth and competence-, underlying various contents, are assumed to be universal. However, from a cognitive science paradigm, we argue that different research methods (i.e., data collections and data analysis) might also yield different stereotype contents that might impact the universality versus specificity problem in the SCM...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780537/bushehr-elderly-health-beh-programme-study-protocol-and-design-of-musculoskeletal-system-and-cognitive-function-stage-ii
#19
Gita Shafiee, Afshin Ostovar, Ramin Heshmat, Hossein Darabi, Farshad Sharifi, Alireza Raeisi, Neda Mehrdad, Zhaleh Shadman, Faride Razi, Mohammad Reza Amini, Seyed Masoud Arzaghi, Hamidreza Aghaei Meybodi, Akbar Soltani, Iraj Nabipour, Bagher Larijani
INTRODUCTION: Musculoskeletal disorders and cognitive diseases are prevalent, and they are significant determinants of morbidity and mortality in older adults. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal and cognitive diseases and their risk factors and also to assess their associations during future follow-ups. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Bushehr Elderly Health (BEH) programme is a population-based prospective cohort study being conducted in Bushehr, a southern province of Iran...
August 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776663/case-conceptualization-research-in-cognitive-behavior-therapy-a-state-of-the-science-review
#20
Michael H Easden, Nikolaos Kazantzis
OBJECTIVE: Prominent models of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) assert that case conceptualization is crucial for tailoring interventions to adequately address the needs of the individual client. We aimed to review the research on case conceptualization in CBT. METHOD: We conducted a systematic search of PsychINFO, MEDLINE, Psychology and Behavioral Science Collection, and CINAHL databases to February 2016. RESULTS: A total of 24 studies that met inclusion criteria were identified...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
keyword
keyword
35859
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"