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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109039/nkx2-5-regulates-endothelin-converting-enzyme-1-during-pharyngeal-arch-patterning
#1
Jennifer M Iklé, Andre L P Tavares, Marisol King, Hailei Ding, Sophie Colombo, Beth A Firulli, Anthony B Fiulli, Kimara L Targoff, Deborah Yelon, David E Clouthier
In gnathostomes, dorsoventral (D-V) patterning of neural crest cells (NCC) within the pharyngeal arches is crucial for the development of hinged jaws. One of the key signals that mediates this process is Endothelin-1 (EDN1). Loss of EDN1 binding to the Endothelin-A receptor (EDNRA) results in loss of EDNRA signaling and subsequent facial birth defects in humans, mice and zebrafish. A rate-limiting step in this crucial signaling pathway is the conversion of immature EDN1 into a mature active form by Endothelin converting enzyme-1 (ECE1)...
January 20, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107504/sox10-nano-lantern-reporter-human-ips-cells-a-versatile-tool-for-neural-crest-research
#2
Tomoko Horikiri, Hiromi Ohi, Mitsuaki Shibata, Makoto Ikeya, Morio Ueno, Chie Sotozono, Shigeru Kinoshita, Takahiko Sato
The neural crest is a source to produce multipotent neural crest stem cells that have a potential to differentiate into diverse cell types. The transcription factor SOX10 is expressed through early neural crest progenitors and stem cells in vertebrates. Here we report the generation of SOX10-Nano-lantern (NL) reporter human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPS) by using CRISPR/Cas9 systems, that are beneficial to investigate the generation and maintenance of neural crest progenitor cells. SOX10-NL positive cells are produced transiently from hiPS cells by treatment with TGFβ inhibitor SB431542 and GSK3 inhibitor CHIR99021...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104549/mechanisms-of-silver_nanoparticles-induced-hypopigmentation-in-embryonic-zebrafish
#3
Lian Xu, Qin-Han Xu, Xin-Ying Zhou, Li-Yan Yin, Peng-Peng Guan, Ting Zhang, Jing-Xia Liu
Silver_nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been reported to inhibit specification of erythroid cells and to induce spinal cord deformities and cardiac arrhythmia in vertebrates, but have not been implicated in development of neural crest (NC) and pigment cells in an in vivo model yet. In current study, down-regulated expressions of NC genes pax7 and foxd3, melanophore genes mitfa and dct, and xanthophore gene gch2 in AgNPs-exposed embryos were revealed by microarray, qRT-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH)...
January 12, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104388/the-nedd4-binding-protein-3-is-required-for-anterior-neural-development-in-xenopus-laevis
#4
Lena-Maria Kiem, Petra Dietmann, Alexander Linnemann, Michael J Schmeisser, Susanne J Kühl
The Fezzin family member Nedd4-binding protein 3 (N4BP3) is known to regulate axonal and dendritic branching. Here, we show that n4bp3 is expressed in the neural tissue of the early Xenopus laevis embryo including the eye, the brain and neural crest cells. Knockdown of N4bp3 in the Xenopus anterior neural tissue results in severe developmental impairment of the eye, the brain and neural crest derived cranial cartilage structures. Moreover, we demonstrate that N4bp3 depletion leads to a significant reduction of both eye and brain specific marker genes and reduced neural crest cell migration...
January 16, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102940/effect-of-cast-modification-on-denture-base-adaptation-following-maxillary-complete-denture-processing
#5
Mohammed E Sayed, Amit Porwal, David Ehrenberg, Saul Weiner
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of cast modifications on denture base adaptation in coronal and sagittal projections following maxillary complete denture processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 edentulous maxillary casts (n = 10) were distributed among six groups. Group 1 was the control group with no modification, groups 2 through 6 included a butterfly postdam preparation, groups 3 and 4 also included a 10-mm wide/4-mm deep box with addition of four round holes in group 4, and groups 5 and 6 also included a 20-mm wide/4-mm deep box with addition of four round holes in group 6...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102010/a-muscular-imprint-on-the-anterolateral-surface-of-the-proximal-femurs-of-the-krapina-neandertal-collection
#6
Maria Giovanna Belcastro, Valentina Mariotti
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to report and interpret a feature on the anterolateral surface of the proximal femurs of the Krapina hominid collection that we briefly described in 2006 (Periodicum Biologorum, 108, 319-329). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recorded the presence or absence of the feature in all the proximal femurs of the Krapina collection (six specimens recordable) and in 622 modern human adult femurs. RESULTS: The feature consists in a series of crests delimitating three raised or depressed areas...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097889/titanium-cages-versus-autogenous-iliac-crest-bone-grafts-in-anterior-cervical-discectomy-and-fusion-treatment-of-patients-with-cervical-degenerative-diseases-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Ming-Hao Shao, Fan Zhang, Jun Yin, Hao-Cheng Xu, Fei-Zhou Lyu
OBJECTIVE: A systematic review and partial meta-analysis is conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of anterior cervical decompression and fusion procedures employing either rectangular titanium cages or iliac crest autografts in patients suffering from cervical degenerative disc diseases. METHODS: Medline, PubMed, CENTRAL, and Google Scholar databases were searched until June 2015, using keywords cervical discectomy; bone transplantation; titanium cages; iliac crest autografts...
January 18, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097682/evaluation-of-perforated-demineralized-dentin-scaffold-on-bone-regeneration-in-critical-size-sheep-iliac-defects
#8
Md Arafat Kabir, Masaru Murata, Toshiyuki Akazawa, Kaoru Kusano, Katsuhisa Yamada, Manabu Ito
OBJECTIVES: Regenerating critical-size bone injury is a major problem that continues to inspire the design of new graft materials. Therefore, tissue engineering has become a novel approach for targeting bone regeneration applications. Human teeth are a rich source of stem cells, matrix, trace metal ions, and growth factors. A vital tooth-derived demineralized dentin matrix is acid-insoluble and composed of cross-linked collagen with growth factors. In this study, we recycled human non-functional tooth into a unique geometric dentin scaffold, entitled perforated root-demineralized dentin matrix (PR-DDM)...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097242/anterior-to-psoas-atp-fusion-of-the-lumbar-spine-evolution-of-a-technique-facilitated-by-changes-in-equipment
#9
Cristian Gragnaniello, Kevin Seex
BACKGROUND: Lateral interbody cages have been proven useful in spinal fusions. Spanning both lateral cortical rims while sparing the Anterior Longitudinal Ligament, the lateral interbody cages restore and maintain disc height while adding stability prior to supplemental fixation. The standard approach for their insertion is by a 90-degree lateral transpsoas method. This is relatively bloodless compared to other techniques although has its limitations, requiring neuro-monitoring and being, at times, very difficult at L4/5 due to iliac crest obstruction or an anterior plexus position...
December 2016: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096186/translation-reprogramming-is-an-evolutionarily-conserved-driver-of-phenotypic-plasticity-and-therapeutic-resistance-in-melanoma
#10
Paola Falletta, Luis Sanchez-Del-Campo, Jagat Chauhan, Maike Effern, Amy Kenyon, Christopher J Kershaw, Robert Siddaway, Richard Lisle, Rasmus Freter, Matthew J Daniels, Xin Lu, Thomas Tüting, Mark Middleton, Francesca M Buffa, Anne E Willis, Graham Pavitt, Ze'ev A Ronai, Tatjana Sauka-Spengler, Michael Hölzel, Colin R Goding
The intratumor microenvironment generates phenotypically distinct but interconvertible malignant cell subpopulations that fuel metastatic spread and therapeutic resistance. Whether different microenvironmental cues impose invasive or therapy-resistant phenotypes via a common mechanism is unknown. In melanoma, low expression of the lineage survival oncogene microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) correlates with invasion, senescence, and drug resistance. However, how MITF is suppressed in vivo and how MITF-low cells in tumors escape senescence are poorly understood...
January 17, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095644/xenopus-as-a-model-organism-to-study-heterotrimeric-g-protein-pathway-during-collective-cell-migration-of-neural-crest
#11
REVIEW
G Toro-Tapia, S Villaseca, J I Leal, A Beyer, J Fuentealba, M Torrejón
Collective cell migration is essential in many fundamental aspects of normal development, like morphogenesis, organ formation, wound healing and immune responses, as well as in the etiology of severe pathologies, like cancer metastasis. In spite of the huge amount of data accumulated on cell migration, such a complex process involves many molecular actors, some of which still remain to be functionally characterized. One of these signals is the heterotrimeric G-protein pathway that has been studied mainly in gastrulation movements...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095517/radiographic-evaluation-of-crestal-bone-level-in-split-crest-and-immediate-implant-placement-minimum-5-year-follow-up
#12
Giovanni B Bruschi, Paolo Capparé, Fabrizio Bravi, Nicola Grande, Enrico Gherlone, Giorgio Gastaldi, Roberto Crespi
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the radiographic bone level changes of implants positioned via the split-crest procedure both in the maxilla and mandible at a long-term follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one patients were retrospectively enrolled in the study. The placement of 137 dental implants was performed in the edentulous premolar or molar region after a split-crest ridge expansion procedure. Implants followed a delayed loading protocol. Intraoral digital radiographs were performed at baseline, upon implant placement, at 70 days (following placement of the provisional prosthesis), and on a yearly basis during followup...
January 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093608/spatiotemporal-drivers-of-energy-expenditure-in-a-coastal-marine-fish
#13
Jacob W Brownscombe, Steven J Cooke, Andy J Danylchuk
Animal behavior and energy expenditure often vary significantly across the landscape, and quantifying energy expenditure over space and time provides mechanistic insight into ecological dynamics. Yet, spatiotemporal variability in energy expenditure has rarely been explored in fully aquatic species such as fish. Our objective was to quantify spatially explicit energy expenditure for a tropical marine teleost fish, bonefish (Albula vulpes), to examine how bonefish energetics vary across landscape features and temporal factors...
January 16, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093204/chin-symphysis-bone-allograft-and-platelet-rich-fibrin-is-the-combination-effective-in-repair-of-alveolar-cleft
#14
Bijan Movahedian Attar, Navid Naghdi, Milad Etemadi Sh, Mojdeh Mehdizadeh
PURPOSE: Secondary grafting of alveolar defects with iliac crest bone is a common treatment method in cleft patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of symphysis bone, allograft, and platelet-rich fibrin in regeneration of alveolar defects compared with iliac bone graft. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized clinical trial, patients with unilateral alveolar defects were divided randomly into two categories. Group A comprised patients in whom the combination of chin symphysis bone plus allogeneic bone material plus leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin was considered for treatment...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092363/mouse-models-of-uv-induced-melanoma-genetics-pathology-and-clinical-relevance
#15
Chi-Ping Day, Rachel Marchalik, Glenn Merlino, Helen Michael
Melanocytes, a neural crest cell derivative, produce pigment to protect keratinocytes from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Although melanocytic lesions such as nevi and cutaneous malignant melanomas are known to be associated with sun exposure, the role of UVR in oncogenesis is complex and has yet to be clearly elucidated. UVR appears to have a direct mutational role in inducing or promoting melanoma formation as well as an indirect role through microenvironmental changes. Recent advances in the modeling of human melanoma in animals have built platforms upon which prospective studies can begin to investigate these questions...
January 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089170/iliolumbar-artery-a-useful-pedicle-for-the-iliac-crest-free-flap-in-maxillofacial-reconstruction
#16
T Singh, K Andi
The iliac crest free flap is commonly used in maxillofacial reconstruction, and is typically supplied by the deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA). However, the iliolumbar artery is an alternative blood supply that can potentially be used in such reconstructions. We describe the anatomy of the iliolumbar artery and review publications about its clinical use. We raised four cadaveric iliac crest free flaps using both the DCIA and the iliolumbar artery to illustrate its use in reconstructing maxillofacial defects...
January 11, 2017: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087736/imputation-of-orofacial-clefting-data-identifies-novel-risk-loci-and-sheds-light-on-the-genetic-background-of-cleft-lip-%C3%A2-cleft-palate-and-cleft-palate-only
#17
Kerstin U Ludwig, Anne C Böhmer, John Bowes, Miloš Nikolić, Nina Ishorst, Niki Wyatt, Nigel L Hammond, Lina Gölz, Frederic Thieme, Sandra Barth, Hannah Schuenke, Johanna Klamt, Malte Spielmann, Khalid Aldhorae, Augusto Rojas-Martinez, Markus M Nöthen, Alvaro Rada-Iglesias, Michael J Dixon, Michael Knapp, Elisabeth Mangold
Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P) is among the most common human birth defects with multifactorial etiology. Here, we present results from a genome-wide imputation study of nsCL/P in which, after adding replication cohort data, four novel risk loci for nsCL/P are identified (at chromosomal regions 2p21, 14q22, 15q24 and 19p13). On a systematic level, we show that the association signals within this high-density dataset are enriched in functionally-relevant genomic regions that are active in both human neural crest cells (hNCC) and mouse embryonic craniofacial tissue...
January 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087321/enteric-nervous-system-development-a-crest-cell-s-journey-from-neural-tube-to-colon
#18
REVIEW
Nandor Nagy, Allan M Goldstein
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is comprised of a network of neurons and glial cells that are responsible for coordinating many aspects of gastrointestinal (GI) function. These cells arise from the neural crest, migrate to the gut, and then continue their journey to colonize the entire length of the GI tract. Our understanding of the molecular and cellular events that regulate these processes has advanced significantly over the past several decades, in large part facilitated by the use of rodents, avians, and zebrafish as model systems to dissect the signals and pathways involved...
January 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087132/practice-patterns-of-thoracic-radiotherapy-for-extensive-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer-survey-of-us-academic-thoracic-radiation-oncologists
#19
Carl M Post, Vivek Verma, Timur Mitin, Charles B Simone
PURPOSE: Despite the recent CREST trial demonstrating a survival benefit to thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) for patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) with response to chemotherapy, as well as endorsement by current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, TRT may not be uniformly delivered in clinical practice across all circumstances. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We surveyed US academic thoracic radiation oncologists regarding their practice patterns for TRT and assessed conditions in which withholding TRT could be warranted...
December 22, 2016: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079995/effects-of-cell-cycle-phases-on-the-induction-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-toward-dopaminergic-like-cells
#20
Nareshwaran Gnanasegaran, Vijayendran Govindasamy, Premasangery Kathirvaloo, Sabri Musa, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by tremors and cognitive issues, and is due to the death of dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons in brain circuits that are responsible for producing neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). Currently, cell replacement therapies are underway to overcome existing therapeutic approaches such as drug treatments and electrical stimulation. Among the widely available sources, dental pulp stem cells from deciduous teeth (DPSC) have gained popularity due to their neural crest origin and inherent propensity toward neuronal lineage...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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