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Weiwei Zhu, Jing Li, Xipeng Sun, Qi Hua
OBJECTIVE: Several recent studies showed C825T polymorphism is related to cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases (CCVD) in normal population. However, studies on whether 825T allele influences the incidence of CCVD in hypertensive population are rare. DESIGN AND METHOD: 695 patients with essential hypertension were genotyped for C825T polymorphism of GNB3 gene and followed 8 years for major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs). Established cardiac and cerebrovascular risk factors were used to adjust the multivariate Cox analysis...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Nailliw Z Preite, Bruna P P Nascimento, Cynthia R Muller, Anna Laura V Americo, Talita S Higa, Fabiana S Evangelista, Carmen L Lancellotti, Felipe Dos Santos Henriques, Miguel Luiz Batista Júnior, Antonio C Bianco, Miriam Oliveira Ribeiro
The brown adipose tissue (BAT) mediates adaptive changes in metabolic rate by responding to the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) through β-adrenergic receptors (AR). Here we wished to define the role played by the ARβ3 isoform in this process. This study focused on the ARβ3 knockout mice (ARβ3KO), including responsiveness to cold exposure, diet-induced obesity, intolerance to glucose, dyslipidemia and lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT). ARβ3KO mice defend core temperature during cold exposure (4ºC for 5h), with faster BAT thermal response to Norepinephrine (NE) infusion when compared to wild-type (WT) mice...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Weiwei Zhu, Jing Li, Xipeng Sun, Qi Hua
OBJECTIVE: Several recent studies showed C825T polymorphism is related to cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases (CCVD) in normal population. However, studies on whether 825T allele influences the incidence of CCVD in hypertensive population are rare. DESIGN AND METHOD: 695 patients with essential hypertension were genotyped for C825T polymorphism of GNB3 gene and followed 8 years for major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs). Established cardiac and cerebrovascular risk factors were used to adjust the multivariate Cox analysis...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Vojtech Hainer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Carol Ann Greene, Colin R Green, Michelle E Dickinson, Virginia Johnson, Trevor Sherwin
The stroma, the middle layer of the cornea, is a connective tissue making up most of the corneal thickness. The stromal extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of highly organised lamellae which are made up of tightly packed fibrils primarily composed of collagens type I and V. This layer is interspersed with keratocytes, mesenchymal cells of neural crest origin. We have previously shown that adult corneal keratocytes exhibit phenotypic plasticity and can be induced into a neuronal phenotype. In the current study we evaluated the potential of keratocytes to produce collagen type II via phenotypic reprogramming with exogenous chondrogenic factors...
September 10, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Beata Modzelewska
One hundred and twenty years after the description of extracts from the adrenal medulla, the use of beta-blockers and beta-agonists evolved from antianginal drugs and tocolytics to ligand-directed signaling. Beta-blockers in the fields of obstetrics and gynecology have so far been limited to the consideration of continuing treatment of disorders of the cardiovascular system and other dysfunctions that started before pregnancy. Studies in recent years have shown that beta-adrenoceptor signaling might be crucial in carcinogenesis and metastasis, apoptosis and anoikis...
April 2016: Developmental Period Medicine
Amrita Singh, Carmine Fedele, Huimin Lu, Marja T Nevalainen, James H Keen, Lucia R Languino
: The alphavbeta3 integrin is known to be highly up-regulated during cancer progression and promotes a migratory and metastatic phenotype in many types of tumors. We hypothesized that the alphavbeta3 integrin is transferred through exosomes and, upon transfer, has the ability to support functional aberrations in recipient cells. Here, for the first time, it is demonstrated that alphavbeta3 is present in exosomes released from metastatic PC3 and CWR22Pc prostate cancer cells. Exosomal alphavbeta3 is transferred as a protein from donor to non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic cells since the beta3 protein or mRNA levels remain unaffected upon transcription and translation inhibition in recipient cells...
July 20, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Heno F Lopes, Maria Lúcia Corrêa-Giannella, Fernanda M Consolim-Colombo, Brent M Egan
The association of anthropometric (waist circumference) and hemodynamic (blood pressure) changes with abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism has been motivation for a lot of discussions in the last 30 years. Nowadays, blood pressure, body mass index/abdominal circumference, glycemia, triglyceridemia, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations are considered in the definition of Metabolic syndrome, referred as Visceral adiposity syndrome (VAS) in the present review. However, more than 250 years ago an association between visceral and mediastinal obesity with hypertension, gout, and obstructive apnea had already been recognized...
2016: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Enrico Guarnera, Eric Vanden-Eijnden
A method is proposed to identify target states that optimize a metastability index amongst a set of trial states and use these target states as milestones (or core sets) to build Markov State Models (MSMs). If the optimized metastability index is small, this automatically guarantees the accuracy of the MSM, in the sense that the transitions between the target milestones is indeed approximately Markovian. The method is simple to implement and use, it does not require that the dynamics on the trial milestones be Markovian, and it also offers the possibility to partition the system's state-space by assigning every trial milestone to the target milestones it is most likely to visit next and to identify transition state regions...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Lubica Horvathova, Alexandra Padova, Andrej Tillinger, Jana Osacka, Jozef Bizik, Boris Mravec
Accumulated evidence indicates that sympathetic nerves may potentiate tumor growth, including melanoma. To elucidate possible mechanisms for this effect, we performed chemical sympathectomy by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine hydrobromide (100 mg/kg of body weight); in nine adult male C57BL/6J mice; nine control mice received i.p. vehicle (VEH). Seven days later, all mice were injected subcutaneously with 3 × 10(3) B16-F10 melanoma cells. Mice were euthanized 20 d after injection of melanoma cells, for measurement of tumor weight and expression of genes related to sympathetic signaling, apoptosis, hypoxia and angiogenesis in tumor tissue...
September 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Yan Li, Ying Lei Wong, Fui Mee Ng, Boping Liu, Yun Xuan Wong, Zhi Ying Poh, Shuang Liu, Siew Wen Then, Michelle Yueqi Lee, Hui Qi Ng, Qiwei Huang, Alvin W Hung, Joseph Cherian, Jeffrey Hill, Thomas H Keller, CongBao Kang
Bacterial topoisomerases are attractive antibacterial drug targets because of their importance in bacterial growth and low homology with other human topoisomerases. Structure-based drug design has been a proven approach of efficiently developing new antibiotics against these targets. Past studies have focused on developing lead compounds against the ATP binding pockets of both DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. A detailed understanding of the interactions between ligand and target in a solution state will provide valuable information for further developing drugs against topoisomerase IV targets...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Xinming Su, Alison K Esser, Sarah R Amend, Jingyu Xiang, Yalin Xu, Michael H Ross, Gregory C Fox, Takayuki Kobayashi, Veronica Steri, Kirsten Roomp, Francesca Fontana, Michelle A Hurchla, Brett L Knolhoff, Melissa A Meyer, Elizabeth A Morgan, Julia C Tomasson, Joshua S Novack, Wei Zou, Roberta Faccio, Deborah V Novack, Stephen D Robinson, Steven L Teitelbaum, David G DeNardo, Jochen G Schneider, Katherine N Weilbaecher
Integrin β3 is critical for tumor invasion, neoangiogenesis, and inflammation, making it a promising cancer target. However, preclinical and clinical data of integrin β3 antagonists have demonstrated no benefit or worse outcomes. We hypothesized that integrin β3 could affect tumor immunity and evaluated tumors in mice with deletion of integrin β3 in macrophage lineage cells (β3KOM). β3KOM mice had increased melanoma and breast cancer growth with increased tumor-promoting M2 macrophages and decreased CD8(+) T cells...
June 15, 2016: Cancer Research
Marton Toth, Istvan Kondakor, Bela Faludi
The effects of initiation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on electroencephalographic (EEG) background activity were investigated in patients exhibiting both moderate (n = 13) and severe (n = 12) obstructive sleep apnea syndromes in the testing of the potential differences of alterations of brain electrical activity caused by chronic hypoxia between these two groups. A normal control group (n = 14) was also examined. Two EEG examinations were achieved in each group: before and after first-time CPAP therapy...
May 18, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
U Salge-Bartels, M Heiden, R Seitz, F Gieseler
INTRODUCTION: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an extremely aggressive tumour which metastasizes early. Even if chemotherapy can achieve an initial regression, relapses due to chemo-resistance are almost inevitable. Sethi et al (Nat Med. 1999;5:662-668) reported that matrix proteins are essentially involved in the development of drug resistance. SCLC cells in suspension culture secrete negligible amounts of matrix proteins AIM: For a more detailed study of the SCLC ability to produce matrix proteins we applied a recently introduced cell culture model of adherence selected SCLC (Salge et al...
April 2016: Thrombosis Research
Cheng-Ming Hsu, Pai-Mei Lin, Hsin-Ching Lin, Chi-Chih Lai, Chao-Hui Yang, Sheng-Fung Lin, Ming-Yu Yang
BACKGROUND: Genomic imprinting is associated with many human diseases, including various types of cancers, however, no studies on gene imprinting are related to squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) directly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, the expression of a panel of 15 imprinted genes in cancerous and non-cancerous tissues from 73 patients with SCCHN were investigated. RESULTS: Altered expression of carboxypeptidase A4 (CPA4); protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 9A (PPP1R9A); H19, imprinted maternally expressed transcript (non-protein coding) (H19); paternally expressed gene 3 antisense RNA 1 (PEG3-AS1); retrotransposon-like 1 (RTL1), insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2); solute carrier family 22 member 3 (SLC22A3); and gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor beta3 subunit (GABRB3) was observed...
May 2016: Anticancer Research
Ola Alsalman, Jan Ost, Robby Vanspauwen, Catherine Blaivie, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste
Vestibular signals are of significant importance for variable functions including gaze stabilization, spatial perception, navigation, cognition, and bodily self-consciousness. The vestibular network governs functions that might be impaired in patients affected with vestibular dysfunction. It is currently unclear how different brain regions/networks process vestibular information and integrate the information into a unified spatial percept related to somatosensory awareness and whether people with recurrent balance complaints have a neural signature as a trait affecting their development of chronic symptoms of vertigo...
2016: PloS One
Jean-Luc Balligand
Overstimulation of the orthosympathetic system leads to cardiovascular cell and tissue damage through prolonged activation of β-1-2 adrenergic receptors (BARs). The more recent identification of the third isotype of BAR (B3AR) in cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells with a distinctive coupling and effect on cardiac function and remodelling introduced a new facet to this paradigm. In particular, B3AR is up-regulated in cardiac disease and less prone to homologous desensitization, which may reinforce its influence on the diseased myocardium...
July 15, 2016: Cardiovascular Research
China Chien, Hsi-Yang Wu
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have suggested that the onset of alpha- (α) and beta- (β) adrenergic receptor activity is delayed in young animals. The use of alpha1- (α1-) antagonists for dysfunctional voiding, and beta3- (β3-) agonists for overactive bladder in younger children may not be indicated if maturation is required before bladder and urethral adrenergic receptors are active. OBJECTIVE: To determine the sex- and age-dependent responses of the bladder and external urethral sphincter (EUS) to α- and β-adrenergic agents in neonatal and young adult rats...
April 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
N Veit-Rubin, S Meyer, C Achtari
Overactive bladder is a highly prevalent clinical syndrome affecting up to 17% of women. It is often associated with urodynamic detrusor overactivity, leads to embarrassment and is frequently under-diagnosed and insufficiently treated. Its pathophysiology is complex and the numerous treatment modalities, some of them of poor evidence, aim to improve quality of life. When physiotherapy fails, anticholinergics are recommended as first-line medical treatment. They can be combined with or replaced by beta3-adrenergic agonists whereas sacral neuromodulation or posterior tibia nerve stimulation are considered an efficient alternative...
October 28, 2015: Revue Médicale Suisse
Silvia Giatti, Benedetta Foglio, Simone Romano, Marzia Pesaresi, Giancarlo Panzica, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Donatella Caruso, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi
The enzymatic conversion of progesterone and testosterone by the enzyme 5alpha-reductase exerts a crucial role in the control of nervous function. The effects of finasteride in the brain, an inhibitor of this enzyme used for the treatment of human benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenic alopecia, have been poorly explored. Therefore, the effects of a subchronic treatment with finasteride at low doses (3 mg/kg/day) and the consequences of its withdrawal on neuroactive steroid levels in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and some brain regions as well as on the expression of classical and non-classical steroid receptors have been evaluated in male rats...
2016: Neuroendocrinology
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