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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107775/beta-caryophyllene-protects-against-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-attenuating-inflammation-and-metabolic-dysregulation-in-mice
#1
Zoltan V Varga, Csaba Matyas, Katalin Erdelyi, Resat Cinar, Daniela Nieri, Andrea Chicca, Balazs Tamas Nemeth, Janos Paloczi, Tamas Lajtos, Lukas Corey, Gyorgy Hasko, Bin Gao, George Kunos, Jürg Gertsch, Pal Pacher
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) is a plant-derived FDA approved food additive with anti-inflammatory properties. Some of its beneficial effects in vivo reported to involve activation of cannabinoid 2 receptors (CB2) that are predominantly expressed in immune cells. Herein, we evaluated the translational potential of BCP using a well-established model of chronic and binge alcohol-induced liver injury. METHODS: In this study we investigated the effects of BCP on liver injury induced by chronic plus binge alcohol feeding in mice in vivo by using biochemical assays, real-time PCR and histology analyses...
January 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107751/molecular-modeling-study-of-cp-690550-derivatives-as-jak3-kinase-inhibitors-through-combined-3d-qsar-molecular-docking-and-dynamics-simulation-techniques
#2
Jing Li Wang, Li Ping Cheng, Tian Chi Wang, Wei Deng, Fan Hong Wu
To develop more potent JAK3 kinase inhibitors, a series of CP-690550 derivatives were investigated using combined molecular modeling techniques, such as 3D-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD). The leave-one-out correlation (q(2)) and non-cross-validated correlation coefficient (r(2)) of the best CoMFA model are 0.715 and 0.992, respectively. The q(2) and r(2) values of the best CoMSIA model are 0.739 and 0.995, respectively. The steric, electrostatic, and hydrophobic fields played important roles in determining the inhibitory activity of CP-690550 derivatives...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107695/antibacterial-activity-computational-analysis-and-host-toxicity-study-of-thymol-sulfonamide-conjugates
#3
Shasank S Swain, Sudhir K Paidesetty, Rabindra N Padhy
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) are notorious pathogenic multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in both hospital and community sectors, and today the first antibacterial drug sulfamethoxazole is ineffective. The monoterpene phenol, thymol was conjugated with seven sulfa drug derivatives individually, adopting the dye-azo synthesis protocol, and conjugates were characterized using spectral analysis techniques such as, UV, FTIR, MS, HPLC, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and SEM...
January 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107649/rpa-interacts-with-hira-and-regulates-h3-3-deposition-at-gene-regulatory-elements-in-mammalian-cells
#4
Honglian Zhang, Haiyun Gan, Zhiquan Wang, Jeong-Heon Lee, Hui Zhou, Tamas Ordog, Marc S Wold, Mats Ljungman, Zhiguo Zhang
The histone chaperone HIRA is involved in depositing histone variant H3.3 into distinct genic regions, including promoters, enhancers, and gene bodies. However, how HIRA deposits H3.3 to these regions remains elusive. Through a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) screening, we identified single-stranded DNA binding protein replication protein A (RPA) as a regulator of the deposition of newly synthesized H3.3 into chromatin. We show that RPA physically interacts with HIRA to form RPA-HIRA-H3.3 complexes, and it co-localizes with HIRA and H3...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107648/parp-1-controls-the-adipogenic-transcriptional-program-by-parylating-c-ebp%C3%AE-and-modulating-its-transcriptional-activity
#5
Xin Luo, Keun Woo Ryu, Dae-Seok Kim, Tulip Nandu, Carlos J Medina, Rebecca Gupte, Bryan A Gibson, Raymond E Soccio, Yonghao Yu, Rana K Gupta, W Lee Kraus
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a post-translational modification of proteins mediated by PARP family members, such as PARP-1. Although PARylation has been studied extensively, few examples of definitive biological roles for site-specific PARylation have been reported. Here we show that C/EBPβ, a key pro-adipogenic transcription factor, is PARylated by PARP-1 on three amino acids in a conserved regulatory domain. PARylation at these sites inhibits C/EBPβ's DNA binding and transcriptional activities and attenuates adipogenesis in various genetic and cell-based models...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107623/dna-advanced-glycation-end-products-dna-ages-are-elevated-in-urine-and-tissue-in-an-animal-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#6
Richard Jaramillo, Sarah C Shuck, Yin S Chan, Xueli Liu, Steven E Bates, Punnajit P Lim, Daniel Tamae, Sandrine Lacoste, Timothy R O'Connor, John Stephen Termini
More precise identification and treatment monitoring of prediabetic/diabetic individuals will require additional biomarkers to complement existing diagnostic tests. Candidates include hyperglycemia-induced adducts such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs) of proteins, lipids, and DNA. The potential for DNA-AGEs as diabetic biomarkers was examined in a longitudinal study using the Leprdb/db animal model of metabolic syndrome. The DNA-AGE, N2-(1-carboxyethyl)-2´-deoxyguanosine (CEdG) was quantified by mass spectrometry using isotope dilution from urine and tissue of hyperglycemic and normoglycemic mice...
January 20, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107606/dishevelled-segment-polarity-protein-3-dvl3-a-novel-and-easily-applicable-recurrence-predictor-in-localized-prostate-adenocarcinoma
#7
Pil-Jong Kim, Ji Y Park, Hong-Gee Kim, Yong Mee Cho, Heounjeong Go
OBJECTIVE: To identify new biomarkers for the biochemical recurrence (BCR) of prostate adenocarcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical information of 500 prostate adenocarcinoma patients and their 152 RNA-sequencing and protein-array data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were separated into a discovery-set and a validation-set. Each dataset was analyzed according to the Gleason grade groups reflecting BCR. The results obtained from the analysis using TCGA dataset were confirmed by immunohistochemistry analyses of the confirmation cohort composed of 395 localized prostate adenocarcinoma patients...
January 20, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107544/cutaneous-hpv8-and-mmupv1-e6-proteins-target-the-notch-and-tgf-%C3%AE-tumor-suppressors-to-inhibit-differentiation-and-sustain-keratinocyte-proliferation
#8
Jordan M Meyers, Aayushi Uberoi, Miranda Grace, Paul F Lambert, Karl Munger
Cutaneous beta-papillomaviruses are associated with non-melanoma skin cancers that arise in patients who suffer from a rare genetic disorder, Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) or after immunosuppression following organ transplantation. Recent studies have shown that the E6 proteins of the cancer associated beta human papillomavirus (HPV) 5 and HPV8 inhibit NOTCH and TGF-β signaling. However, it is unclear whether disruption of these pathways may contribute to cutaneous HPV pathogenesis and carcinogenesis...
January 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107510/effect-of-the-crystal-environment-on-side-chain-conformational-dynamics-in-cyanovirin-n-investigated-through-crystal-and-solution-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#9
Logan S Ahlstrom, Ivan I Vorontsov, Jun Shi, Osamu Miyashita
Side chains in protein crystal structures are essential for understanding biochemical processes such as catalysis and molecular recognition. However, crystal packing could influence side-chain conformation and dynamics, thus complicating functional interpretations of available experimental structures. Here we investigate the effect of crystal packing on side-chain conformational dynamics with crystal and solution molecular dynamics simulations using Cyanovirin-N as a model system. Side-chain ensembles for solvent-exposed residues obtained from simulation largely reflect the conformations observed in the X-ray structure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107503/osteopontin-affects-insulin-vesicle-localization-and-ca2-homeostasis-in-pancreatic-beta-cells-from-female-mice
#10
Anna Wendt, Inês G Mollet, Anki Knutsson, Victor S Bolmgren, Anna Hultgårdh-Nilsson, Maria F Gomez, Lena Eliasson
Type 2 diabetic patients suffer from insulin resistance and reduced insulin secretion. Osteopontin (OPN), a versatile protein expressed in several tissues throughout the body including the islets of Langerhans, has previously been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. Here we have investigated the role of OPN in insulin secretion using an OPN knock out mouse model (OPN-/-). Ultra-structural analyzes of islets from OPN-/- and WT mice indicated weaker cell-cell connections between the islet cells in the OPN-/- mouse compared to WT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107494/protective-roles-for-rgs2-in-a-mouse-model-of-house-dust-mite-induced-airway-inflammation
#11
Tresa George, Matthew Bell, Mainak Chakraborty, David P Siderovski, Mark A Giembycz, Robert Newton
The GTPase-accelerating protein, regulator of G-protein signalling 2 (RGS2) reduces signalling from G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that signal via Gαq. In humans, RGS2 expression is up-regulated by inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs) such that synergy is produced in combination. This may contribute to the superior clinical efficacy of ICS/LABA therapy in asthma relative to ICS alone. In a murine model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced airways inflammation, three weeks of intranasal HDM (25 μg, 3×/week) reduced lung function and induced granulocytic airways inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107462/cytochrome-c-oxidase-biogenesis-and-metallochaperone-interactions-steps-in-the-assembly-pathway-of-a-bacterial-complex
#12
Sonja Schimo, Ilka Wittig, Klaas M Pos, Bernd Ludwig
Biogenesis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a complex process involving the coordinate expression and assembly of numerous subunits (SU) of dual genetic origin. Moreover, several auxiliary factors are required to recruit and insert the redox-active metal compounds, which in most cases are buried in their protein scaffold deep inside the membrane. Here we used a combination of gel electrophoresis and pull-down assay techniques in conjunction with immunostaining as well as complexome profiling to identify and analyze the composition of assembly intermediates in solubilized membranes of the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107452/mice-lacking-hbp1-function-are-viable-and-fertile
#13
Cassy M Spiller, Dagmar Wilhelm, David A Jans, Josephine Bowles, Peter Koopman
Fetal germ cell development is tightly regulated by the somatic cell environment, and is characterised by cell cycle states that differ between XY and XX gonads. In the testis, gonocytes enter G1/G0 arrest from 12.5 days post coitum (dpc) in mice and maintain cell cycle arrest until after birth. Failure to correctly maintain G1/G0 arrest can result in loss of germ cells or, conversely, germ cell tumours. High mobility group box containing transcription factor 1 (HBP1) is a transcription factor that was previously identified in fetal male germ cells at the time of embryonic cell cycle arrest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107429/deficient-cholesterol-esterification-in-plasma-of-apoc2-knockout-zebrafish-and-familial-chylomicronemia-patients
#14
Chao Liu, Daniel Gaudet, Yury I Miller
Hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2) is an obligatory cofactor for lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the major enzyme catalyzing plasma triglyceride hydrolysis. We have created an apoc2 knockout zebrafish model, which mimics the familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) in human patients with a defect in the APOC2 or LPL gene. In this study, we measured plasma levels of free cholesterol (FC) and cholesterol esters (CE) and found that apoc2 mutant zebrafish have a significantly higher FC to CE ratio (FC/CE), when compared to the wild type...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107409/targeted-deletion-of-a-plasmodium-site-2-protease-impairs-life-cycle-progression-in-the-mammalian-host
#15
Konstantinos Koussis, Evi Goulielmaki, Anna Chalari, Chrislaine Withers-Martinez, Inga Siden-Kiamos, Kai Matuschewski, Thanasis G Loukeris
Site-2 proteases (S2P) belong to the M50 family of metalloproteases, which typically perform essential roles by mediating activation of membrane-bound transcription factors through regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP). Protease-dependent liberation of dormant transcription factors triggers diverse cellular responses, such as sterol regulation, Notch signalling and the unfolded protein response. Plasmodium parasites rely on regulated proteolysis for controlling essential pathways throughout the life cycle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107370/neuronal-injury-and-glial-changes-are-hallmarks-of-open-field-blast-exposure-in-swine-frontal-lobe
#16
Srinivasu Kallakuri, Alok Desai, Ke Feng, Sharvani Tummala, Tal Saif, Chaoyang Chen, Liying Zhang, John M Cavanaugh, Albert I King
With the rapid increase in the number of blast induced traumatic brain injuries and associated neuropsychological consequences in veterans returning from the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, the need to better understand the neuropathological sequelae following exposure to an open field blast exposure is still critical. Although a large body of experimental studies have attempted to address these pathological changes using shock tube models of blast injury, studies directed at understanding changes in a gyrencephalic brain exposed to a true open field blast are limited and thus forms the focus of this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107361/dectin-3-is-not-required-for-protection-against-cryptococcus-neoformans-infection
#17
Althea Campuzano, Natalia Castro-Lopez, Karen L Wozniak, Chrissy M Leopold Wager, Floyd L Wormley
C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are diverse, trans-membrane proteins that function as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) which are necessary for orchestrating immune responses against pathogens. CLRs have been shown to play a major role in recognition and protection against fungal pathogens. Dectin-3 (also known as MCL, Clecsf8, or Clec4d) is a myeloid cell-specific CLR that recognizes mycobacterial trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) as well as α-mannans present in the cell wall of fungal pathogens. To date, a potential role for Dectin-3 in the mediation of protective immune responses against C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107228/contribution-of-oxidative-stress-to-non-aids-events-in-hiv-infected-patients
#18
Mar Masiá, Sergio Padilla, Marta Fernández, Xavier Barber, Santiago Moreno, José Antonio Iribarren, Joaquín Portilla, Alejandro Peña, Francesc Vidal, Félix Gutiérrez
OBJECTIVE: Recognition of potentially modifiable mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of non-AIDS events (NAEs) might help improve outcomes of HIV-infected individuals. HIV infection has been associated with increased oxidative stress. We assessed the association between F2-isoprostanes and serious NAEs, and whether they improve the predictive performance of inflammation and coagulation biomarkers. METHODS: Prospective multicenter cohort. Individuals who had an incident serious NAE and two sex and age matched participants with no events were selected...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107009/nmr-and-computation-reveal-a-pressure-sensitive-folded-conformation-of-trp-cage
#19
Soichiro Kitazawa, Martin J Fossat, Scott A McCallum, Angel E Garcia, Catherine Ann Royer
Beyond defining the structure and stability of folded states of proteins, primary amino acid sequences determine all of the features of their conformational landscapes. Characterizing how sequence modulates the population of protein excited states or folding pathways requires atomic level detailed structural and energetic information. Such insight is essential for improving protein design strategies, as well as for interpreting protein evolution. Here, high pressure NMR and molecular dynamics simulations were combined to probe the conformational landscape of a small model protein, the tryptophan cage variant, Tc5b...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106912/the-phycocyanobilin-chromophore-of-streptophyte-algal-phytochromes-is-synthesized-by-hy2
#20
Nathan C Rockwell, Shelley S Martin, Fay-Wei Li, Sarah Mathews, John Clark Lagarias
Land plant phytochromes perceive red and far-red light to control growth and development, using the linear tetrapyrrole (bilin) chromophore phytochromobilin (PΦB). Phytochromes from streptophyte algae, sister species to land plants, instead use phycocyanobilin (PCB). PCB and PΦB are synthesized by different ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductases (FDBRs): PΦB is synthesized by HY2, whereas PCB is synthesized by PcyA. The pathway for PCB biosynthesis in streptophyte algae is unknown. We used phylogenetic analysis and heterologous reconstitution of bilin biosynthesis to investigate bilin biosynthesis in streptophyte algae...
January 20, 2017: New Phytologist
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