Read by QxMD icon Read

reproduction animal

Julia Fernandez Puñal de Araújo, Priscila Lang Podratz, Eduardo Merlo, Isabela Valim Sarmento, Charles Santos da Costa, Oscar Mauricio Santamaria Niño, Rodrigo Alves Faria, Leandro Ceotto Freitas Lima, Jones Bernardes Graceli
Organotin (OTs) compounds are organometallic compounds that are widely used in industry, such as in the manufacture of plastics, pesticides, paints, and others. OTs are released into the environment by anthropogenic actions, leading to contact with aquatic and terrestrial organisms that occur in animal feeding. Although OTs are degraded environmentally, reports have shown the effects of this contamination over the years because it can affect organisms of different trophic levels. OTs act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which can lead to several abnormalities in organisms...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Jenny Q Ouyang, Scott Davies, Davide Dominoni
Alternation between day and night is a predictable environmental fluctuation that organisms use to time their activities. Since the invention of artificial lighting, this predictability has been disrupted and continues to change in a unidirectional fashion with increasing urbanization. As hormones mediate individual responses to changing environments, endocrine systems might be one of the first systems affected, as well as being the first line of defense to ameliorate any negative health impacts. In this Review, we first highlight how light can influence endocrine function in vertebrates...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
P A Stapleton, C R McBride, J Yi, A B Abukabda, T R Nurkiewicz
Preconceptive health encompasses male and female reproductive capability. In females, this takes into account each of the stages of the estrous cycle. Microvascular reactivity varies throughout the estrous cycle in response to hormonal changes and in preparation for pregnancy. Microvascular alterations in response to engineered nanomaterial (ENM) exposure have been described within 24-hours of inhalation; however, the impact upon the uterine vasculature at differing estrous stages and at late-stage pregnancy is unclear...
March 12, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
S Bertolini, A Rosamilia, C Caruso, C Maurella, F Ingravalle, A Quasso, P L Acutis, M Pitti, L Masoero, G Ru
BACKGROUND: Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) causes neonatal mortality and reproductive failure in goats. Despite its impact on herd reproductive performance, few studies have investigated the risk factors associated with CpHV-1 infection. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify potential herd- and host-level risk factors associated with CpHV-1 prevalence in a goat population with heterogeneous seropositivity for CpHV-1. RESULTS: Blood samples and individual data from 4542 goats were collected from 255 herds in Piedmont, Italy...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Sarah L Bornbusch, Jonathan S Lefcheck, J Emmett Duffy
Eusociality, one of the most complex forms of social organization, is thought to have evolved in several animal clades in response to competition for resources and reproductive opportunities. Several species of snapping shrimp in the genus Synalpheus, the only marine organisms known to exhibit eusociality, form colonies characterized by high reproductive skew, and aggressive territoriality coupled with cooperative defense. In eusocial Synalpheus colonies, individual reproduction is limited to female 'queens', whose fecundity dictates colony growth...
2018: PloS One
Sellappan Selvaraju, Sivashanmugam Parthipan, Lakshminarayana Somashekar, B Krishnan Binsila, Atul P Kolte, Arunachalam Arangasamy, Janivara Parameshwaraiah Ravindra, Stephen A Krawetz
With artificial insemination (AI) and other precision dependent assisted reproductive technologies (ART) being followed in large scale in human and animal reproduction, assessing semen quality and fertilizability is under continuous scrutiny. Various tests have been developed to predict semen quality, but so far no single, highly reliable test is available. In this regard, transcriptomic profiling of spermatozoa assumes significance as it carries the information about spermatogenesis, sperm function, and paternal roles in post-fertilization events...
March 14, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
S C Mills, J L O'Donnell, G Bernardi, R Beldade
Group-living animals commonly display differences in behaviour, physiology and endocrine profiles between conspecifics within the group, which are tightly linked to reproduction. Teleosts exhibit a variety of social systems, where social status, as well as sex, has been linked to different androgen and oestrogen profiles. Levels of gonadal androgen and oestrogen were investigated as a function of sex and position in a social hierarchy in free-living individuals of the skunk anemonefish Amphiprion akallopisos, a protandrous pomacentrid fish with a size-based dominance hierarchical social system...
March 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Éverton L Vogt, Jorge F A Model, Anapaula S Vinagre
Organotins (OTs) are considered some of the most toxic chemicals introduced into aquatic environments by anthropogenic activities. They are widely used for agricultural and industrial purposes and as antifouling additives on boat hull's paints. Even though the use of OTs was banned in 2008, elevated levels of OTs can still be detected in aquatic environments. OTs' deleterious effects upon wildlife and experimental animals are well documented and include endocrine disruption, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, and metabolic dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Katherine A Farquharson, Carolyn J Hogg, Catherine E Grueber
Successfully establishing captive breeding programs is a priority across diverse industries to address food security, demand for ethical laboratory research animals, and prevent extinction. Differences in reproductive success due to birth origin may threaten the long-term sustainability of captive breeding. Our meta-analysis examining 115 effect sizes from 44 species of invertebrates, fish, birds, and mammals shows that, overall, captive-born animals have a 42% decreased odds of reproductive success in captivity compared to their wild-born counterparts...
March 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Rabia Latif
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review is to explore the effects of chocolate consumption during pregnancy on fetus and mother herself. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials/quasi-experimental/observational/controlled before and after studies involving chocolate/cocoa/cacao consumption (irrespective of type or dose, composition, exposure period, and method of administration) among pregnant women/animals; and measuring any outcome (beneficial or harmful) related to fetus or mother after chocolate exposure were included...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Natalia Pascuali, Leopoldina Scotti, Mariana Di Pietro, Gonzalo Oubiña, Diana Bas, María May, Antonio Gómez Muñoz, Patricia S Cuasnicú, Débora J Cohen, Marta Tesone, Dalhia Abramovich, Fernanda Parborell
STUDY QUESTION: Is ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) an ovarian protective agent during alkylating chemotherapy? SUMMARY ANSWER: Local administration of C1P drastically reduces ovarian damage induced by cyclophosphamide (Cy) via protection of follicular reserve, restoration of hormone levels, inhibition of apoptosis and improvement of stromal vasculature, while protecting fertility, oocyte quality and uterine morphology. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cancer-directed therapies cause accelerated loss of ovarian reserve and lead to premature ovarian failure (POF)...
March 9, 2018: Human Reproduction
Dong-Xu Han, Yue Xiao, Chang-Jiang Wang, Hao Jiang, Yan Gao, Bao Yuan, Jia-Bao Zhang
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) has key roles in animal reproduction, including spermatogenesis and ovarian maturation. Many factors influence FSH secretion. However, despite the broad functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) via the regulation of target genes, little is known about their roles in FSH secretion. Our previous results suggested that miR-186-5p targets the 3' UTR of FSHb; therefore, we examined whether miR-186-5p could regulate FSH secretion in rat anterior adenohypophyseal cells. miR-186-5p was transfected into rat anterior pituitary cells...
2018: PloS One
Dana K Briscoe, Sabrina Fossette, Kylie L Scales, Elliott L Hazen, Steven J Bograd, Sara M Maxwell, Elizabeth A McHuron, Patrick W Robinson, Carey Kuhn, Daniel P Costa, Larry B Crowder, Rebecca L Lewison
Characterizing habitat suitability for a marine predator requires an understanding of the environmental heterogeneity and variability over the range in which a population moves during a particular life cycle. Female California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus ) are central-place foragers and are particularly constrained while provisioning their young. During this time, habitat selection is a function of prey availability and proximity to the rookery, which has important implications for reproductive and population success...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Nathan W Burke, Russell Bonduriansky
Facultative reproductive strategies that incorporate both sexual and parthenogenetic reproduction should be optimal, yet are rarely observed in animals. Resolving this paradox requires an understanding of the economics of facultative asexuality. Recent work suggests that switching from parthenogenesis to sex can be costly and that females can resist mating to avoid switching. However, it remains unclear whether these costs and resistance behaviors are dependent on female age. We addressed these questions in the Cyclone Larry stick insect, Sipyloidea larryi , by pairing females with males (or with females as a control) in early life prior to the start of parthenogenetic reproduction, or in mid- or late life after a period of parthenogenetic oviposition...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Gavin G Cotterill, Paul C Cross, Eric K Cole, Rebecca K Fuda, Jared D Rogerson, Brandon M Scurlock, Johan T du Toit
Providing food to wildlife during periods when natural food is limited results in aggregations that may facilitate disease transmission. This is exemplified in western Wyoming where institutional feeding over the past century has aimed to mitigate wildlife-livestock conflict and minimize winter mortality of elk ( Cervus canadensis ). Here we review research across 23 winter feedgrounds where the most studied disease is brucellosis, caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus Traditional veterinary practices (vaccination, test-and-slaughter) have thus far been unable to control this disease in elk, which can spill over to cattle...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Alexandra Martins, Lúcia Guilhermino
The environmental contamination by microplastics is a global challenge to ecosystem and human health, and the knowledge on the long-term effects of such particles is limited. Thus, the effects of microplastics and post-exposure recovery were investigated over 4 generations (F0 , F1 , F2 , F3 ) using Daphnia magna as model. Effect criteria were parental mortality, growth, several reproductive parameters, and population growth rate. Microplastics exposure (0.1mg/l of pristine polymer microspheres 1-5μm diameter) caused parental mortality (10-100%), and significantly (p≤0...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
L A Mendes, V L Maria, J J Scott-Fordsmand, M J B Amorim
Effects of pollutants are mostly assessed using standard testing procedures, which cover a fraction of the animals' life cycle. Although, in nature species are exposed during multiple generations of sub-lethal doses of persistent chemicals. In the present study, we focused on the multigenerational (MG) effects of silver in Folsomia candida during 6 generations using the EC50 for reproduction as exposure concentration. We tested 9 different exposure scenarios, going from continuous 6 generations Ag exposure over pulse exposure (i...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nynke J van den Hoogen, Jacob Patijn, Dick Tibboel, Bert A Joosten, Maria Fitzgerald, Charlie Ht Kwok
Noxious stimulation at critical stages of development has long-term consequences on somatosensory processing in later life, but it is not known whether this developmental plasticity is restricted to nociceptive pathways. Here we investigate the effect of repeated neonatal noxious or innocuous hind-paw stimulation upon adult spinal dorsal horn cutaneous mechanical sensitivity. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes received four unilateral left hind-paw needle pricks (NP, n=13) or four tactile (cotton swab touch) stimuli, per day (TC, n=11) for the first 7 days of life...
March 8, 2018: Pain
Juan M Losada, Andrew B Leslie
Background and Aims: Form and function relationships in plant reproductive structures have long fascinated biologists. Although the intricate associations between specific pollinators and reproductive morphology have been widely explored among animal-pollinated plants, the evolutionary processes underlying the diverse morphologies of wind-pollinated plants remain less well understood. Here we study how this diversity may have arisen by focusing on two conifer species in the pine family that have divergent reproductive cone morphologies at pollination...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Botany
Kelli A Fagan, Jintao Luo, Ross C Lagoy, Frank C Schroeder, Dirk R Albrecht, Douglas S Portman
Biological sex, a fundamental dimension of internal state, can modulate neural circuits to generate behavioral variation. Understanding how and why circuits are tuned by sex can provide important insights into neural and behavioral plasticity. Here we find that sexually dimorphic behavioral responses to C. elegans ascaroside sex pheromones are implemented by the functional modulation of shared chemosensory circuitry. In particular, the sexual state of a single sensory neuron pair, ADF, determines the nature of an animal's behavioral response regardless of the sex of the rest of the body...
March 3, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"