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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350504/royal-darwinian-demons-enforced-changes-in-reproductive-efforts-do-not-affect-the-life-expectancy-of-ant-queens
#1
Alexandra Schrempf, Julia Giehr, Ramona Röhrl, Sarah Steigleder, Jürgen Heinze
One of the central tenets of life-history theory is that organisms cannot simultaneously maximize all fitness components. This results in the fundamental trade-off between reproduction and life span known from numerous animals, including humans. Social insects are a well-known exception to this rule: reproductive queens outlive nonreproductive workers. Here, we take a step forward and show that under identical social and environmental conditions the fecundity-longevity trade-off is absent also within the queen caste...
April 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346700/vitamin-d-status-in-wild-toque-macaques-macaca-sinica-in-sri-lanka
#2
Michael L Power, Wolfgang P J Dittus
The vitamin D receptor is found on most cells, including active immune cells, implying that vitamin D has important biological functions beyond calcium metabolism and bone health. Although captive primates should be given a dietary source of vitamin D, under free-living conditions vitamin D is not a required nutrient, but rather is produced in skin when exposed to UV-B light. The circulating level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) considered adequate for humans is a topic of current controversy. Levels of circulating 25-OH-D sufficient for good health for macaques and other Old World anthropoids are assumed to be the same as human values, but data from free-living animals are scant...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346691/reproductive-status-affects-the-feeding-ecology-and-social-association-patterns-of-female-squirrel-monkeys-saimiri-collinsi-in-an-amazonian-rainforest
#3
Luana V P Ruivo, Anita I Stone, Matthew Fienup
When making foraging decisions, female primates may follow specific behavioral strategies that reflect their reproductive state. Lactation is considered the most energetically costly phase for females, but we argue that gestation is also energetically expensive for squirrel monkeys. In this study, we examined whether female squirrel monkeys (a seasonally breeding primate) in different reproductive phases showed significant differences in their foraging ecology. We sampled two wild groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri collinsi) using the focal animal method, during 12 months (June 2014 to May 2015)...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346670/neospora-caninum-in-beef-herds-in-new-south-wales-australia-2-analysis-of-risk-factors
#4
B J Moloney, C Heuer, P D Kirkland
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of farm-level and animal-level factors on the seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and associations between seropositivity and reproductive outcomes. METHODS: A questionnaire for a cross-sectional survey was posted to the 63 properties with a herd size ≥50 beef breeding cows that had participated in a previous seroprevalence study. Correspondence analysis, which does not appear to have been used previously in any Australian studies of livestock diseases, was used in conjunction with logistic regression to analyse the data...
April 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346317/the-csf-immune-response-in-hiv-1-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis-macrophage-activation-correlates-of-disease-severity-and-effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#5
James E Scriven, Lisa M Graham, Charlotte Schutz, Thomas J Scriba, Katalin A Wilkinson, Robert J Wilkinson, David R Boulware, Britta C Urban, Graeme Meintjes, David G Lalloo
BACKGROUND: Immune modulation may improve outcome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. Animal studies suggest alternatively activated macrophages are detrimental but human studies are limited. We performed a detailed assessment of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune response and examined immune correlates of disease severity and poor outcome, and the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODOLOGY: We enrolled persons ≥18 years with first episode of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344404/a-combinatorial-model-for-effective-estrus-detection-in-murrah-buffalo
#6
Ramu Muthu Selvam, Govindaraju Archunan
BACKGROUND: Buffaloes are silent heat animals and lacunae in their estrus detection results a substantial economic loss in developing countries. Many advanced tools to aid heat detection have been developed but are neither affordable nor easily interpretable by marginal farmers. AIM: The present investigation was made to develop a cost-effective estrus detection model by combining several known estrus predicting parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Various signs of estrus were classified under major parameters such as visual, cow behavioral, bull behavioral, biochemical, and gyneco-clinical...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343269/neophobia-is-negatively-related-to-reversal-learning-ability-in-females-of-a-generalist-bird-of-prey-the-chimango-caracara-milvago-chimango
#7
Jorgelina María Guido, Laura Marina Biondi, Aldo Ivan Vasallo, Rubén Nestor Muzio
In an ever-changing environment, the ability to adapt choices to new conditions is essential for daily living and ultimately, for survival. Behavioural flexibility allows animals to maximise survival and reproduction in novel settings by adjusting their behaviour based on specific information and feedback acquired in their current environments. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that an individual's personality type can limit the extent to which the individual might behave flexibly, by influencing the way an individual pays attention to novelty and how much information it collects and stores, which in turn affects the individual's decision-making and learning process...
March 25, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342856/reproductive-endocrinology-of-vitamin-d
#8
Mette Lorenzen, Ida Marie Boisen, Li Juel Mortensen, Beate Lanske, Anders Juul, Martin Blomberg Jensen
Vitamin D is a versatile hormone with several functions beyond its well-established role in maintenance of skeletal health and calcium homeostasis. The effects of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D receptor, which is expressed together with the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in the reproductive tissues. The reproductive organs are therefore responsive to and able to metabolize vitamin D locally. The exact role remains to be clarified but several studies have suggested a link between vitamin D and production/release of reproductive hormones into circulation, which will be the main focus of this review...
March 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342438/-use-of-the-term-%C3%A2-pre-embryo%C3%A2-in-the-biomedical-literature-from-its-origin-to-the-present
#9
Modesto Ferrer Colomer, Luis Miguel Pastor
In this article, we present a review about the use of the term ″preembryo″ in the scientific literature as well as Bioethics from its origin, back in June 1979, to the end of the year 2014. We analyze their evolution along the time comparing with other terms commonly used in embryology. Also, we show the relevant journals in which this term appears, (offering the impact index within their specific field), and the authors who use it the most. The term ″preembryo″ arose in the scientific literature in 1979, remaining for about 6 years without reappearing in the scientific literature...
January 2017: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340893/reproductive-medicine-in-exotic-animal-species
#10
EDITORIAL
Vladimir Jekl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340892/reproductive-medicine-in-ferrets
#11
REVIEW
Vladimir Jekl, Karel Hauptman
In the United States, desexing is performed routinely in ferrets at the age of 6 weeks, therefore reproductive tract diseases are not so common. However, in Europe most ferrets are desexed when they are several months old, or they are kept as intact animals. For this reason, diseases of the reproductive organs and a prolonged estrus are far more frequent in Europe than in the United States. This article summarizes and reviews the anatomy, reproductive physiology, management of reproduction (including surgical and hormonal contraception) and reproductive tract diseases in male and female ferrets...
May 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339951/characterization-of-a-hypervirulent-fowl-adenovirus-4-with-the-novel-genotype-newly-prevalent-in-china-and-establishment-of-reproduction-infection-model-of-hydropericardium-syndrome-in-chickens
#12
Q Pan, L Liu, Y Gao, C Liu, X Qi, Y Zhang, Y Wang, K Li, L Gao, X Wang, H Cui
Severe hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) has been present in layers in the northeast of China since June 2015, with mortality rates varying from 30 to 90%. Dead layers had severe hydropericardium with pericardial volumes of 5 to 20 mL, as well as inclusion body hepatitis. Laboratory investigations led to the isolation of a fowl adenovirus strain, HLJFAd15, from the liver tissue of dead layers. Natural deletions of ORF19 and ORF27 were found in this clinical strain by complete genome sequencing, which was identified with the novel genotype recently prevalent in China...
March 4, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339648/three-dimensional-testicular-organoid-a-novel-tool-for-the-study-of-human-spermatogenesis-and-gonadotoxicity-in-vitro%C3%A2
#13
Samuel S Pendergraft, Hooman Sadri-Ardekani, Anthony Atala, Colin E Bishop
Existing methods for evaluating the potential gonadotoxicity of environmental agents and pharmaceutical compounds rely heavily on animal studies. The current gold standard in vivo functional assays in animals are limited in their human predictive capacity. In addition, existing human two-dimensional in vitro models of testicular toxicity do not accurately reflect the in vivo situation. A more reliable testicular in vitro model system is needed to better assess the gonadotoxic potential of drugs prior to progression into clinical trials...
February 17, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339553/de-and-recellularization-of-the-pig-uterus-a-bioengineering-pilot-study%C3%A2
#14
Hannes Campo, Pedro M Baptista, Nuria López-Pérez, Amparo Faus, Irene Cervelló, Carlos Simón
Absolute uterine factor infertility, or the absence of a functional uterus, has a prevalence of 3%-5% in the general population. Despite the great strides being made in reproductive medicine, patients diagnosed with absolute uterine factor infertility remain untreatable. The only available solution has been gestational surrogacy, but recently the Brannström group presented a viable alternative by reporting the first successful live birth after uterus transplantation. Similar to other transplantations, this approach has inherent limitations such as the paucity of donor organs and the need for long-term immunosuppression...
December 27, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338099/difference-in-diel-mating-time-contributes-to-assortative-mating-between-host-plant-associated-populations-of-chilo-suppressalis
#15
Wei-Li Quan, Wen Liu, Rui-Qi Zhou, Rong Chen, Wei-Hua Ma, Chao-Liang Lei, Xiao-Ping Wang
Behavioral isolation in animals can be mediated by inherent mating preferences and assortative traits, such as divergence in the diel timing of mating activity. Although divergence in the diel mating time could, in principle, promote the reproductive isolation of sympatric, conspecific populations, there is currently no unequivocal evidence of this. We conducted different mate-choice experiments to investigate the contribution of differences in diel mating activity to the reproductive isolation of the rice and water-oat populations of Chilo suppressalis...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336274/characterization-molecular-docking-dynamics-simulation-and-metadynamics-of-kisspeptin-receptor-with-kisspeptin
#16
Mohd Ashraf Rather, Syed Hussain Basha, Irfan Ahmad Bhat, Niti Sharma, Priyanka Nandanpawar, Mohan Badhe, Gireesh-Babu P, Aparna Chaudhari, Jitendra Kumar Sundaray, Rupam Sharma
We report molecular characterization of the kisspeptin receptor (kiss1r), an essential gatekeeper for reproduction and onset of puberty in vertebrates. The full-length cDNA sequence of kiss1r is 1786bp which consist of 5' UTR (untranslated region) 261bp, 3' UTR of 424bp and open reading frame of 1101 encoding a putative protein of 366 amino acids. Basal tissue expression pattern of kiss1r mRNA revealed that it is mainly expressed in the brain and testis. We also report the structure of the kiss1r, along with plausible activation mechanism of this receptor by kisspeptin using computational modelling and dynamic simulation approach of multiple 100ns of timescale...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336267/association-analysis-of-polymorphism-in-kiss1-gene-with-reproductive-traits-in-goats
#17
Mahmoud S El-Tarabany, Asmaa W Zaglool, Akram A El-Tarabany, Ashraf Awad
Understanding the genetic information of related genes is helpful for the selection and breeding course through marker assisted selection. The aim of the current study was to detect polymorphisms of the KiSS1 gene in 137 animals, including Baladi, Zaraibi and Damascus goat breeds by PCR-RFLP, and DNA sequencing and to investigate the association between these variants and reproductive traits. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence indicated the substitution of T with A at position 121 (T121A) in the intron 1 of the KiSS1 gene in all goat breeds...
March 18, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336173/effects-of-artesunate-on-some-biochemical-parameters-in-pregnant-albino-wistar-rats-challenged-with-lethal-strain-plasmodium-berghei-nk65-appreciating-the-activities-of-artemisinin-drugs-on-key-pregnancy-hormone-balance
#18
Chinaka O Nwaehujor, Onyeka V Asuzu, Daniel D Nwibo, Obichukwu C Nwobi, Ihechiluru I Ezeigbo
In humans, malaria in pregnancy can cause serious maternal and foetal morbidity and in extreme untreated cases, foetal mortality occurs. The therapeutic approach to curbing this malaise is the administration of an effective and/or combinations of anti-malaria medicaments. Acute or chronic administration of some of these drugs, however, gives rise to some adverse medical conditions including reproductive dysfunction, especially in pregnancy. Studies aimed at the hormonal interplays following administration of these drugs in pregnancy have been limited due to too few appropriate animal models...
March 20, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333929/the-rise-and-fall-of-rabies-in-japan-a-quantitative-history-of-rabies-epidemics-in-osaka-prefecture-1914-1933
#19
Aiko Kurosawa, Kageaki Tojinbara, Hazumu Kadowaki, Katie Hampson, Akio Yamada, Kohei Makita
Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0), the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated...
March 23, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333706/video-based-physiologic-monitoring-during-an-acute-hypoxic-challenge-heart-rate-respiratory-rate-and-oxygen-saturation
#20
Paul S Addison, Dominique Jacquel, David M H Foo, André Antunes, Ulf R Borg
BACKGROUND: The physiologic information contained in the video photoplethysmogram is well documented. However, extracting this information during challenging conditions requires new analysis techniques to capture and process the video image streams to extract clinically useful physiologic parameters. We hypothesized that heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation trending can be evaluated accurately from video information during acute hypoxia. METHOD: Video footage was acquired from multiple desaturation episodes during a porcine model of acute hypoxia using a standard visible light camera...
March 22, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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