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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103325/assessing-fifty-years-of-general-health-surveillance-of-roe-deer-in-switzerland-a-retrospective-analysis-of-necropsy-reports
#1
Mirjam Pewsner, Francesco Carlo Origgi, Joachim Frey, Marie-Pierre Ryser-Degiorgis
General wildlife health surveillance is a valuable source of information on the causes of mortality, disease susceptibility and pathology of the investigated hosts and it is considered to be an essential component of early warning systems. However, the representativeness of data from such surveillance programs is known to be limited by numerous biases. The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus capreolus) is the most abundant ungulate and a major game species all over Europe. Yet, internationally available literature on roe deer pathology is scarce...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102579/anatomical-organization-and-somatic-axonal-components-of-the-lumbosacral-nerves-in-female-rabbits
#2
Yolanda Cruz, Isela Hernández-Plata, Rosa Angélica Lucio, René Zempoalteca, Francisco Castelán, Margarita Martínez-Gómez
AIM: To determine the anatomical organization and somatic axonal components of the lumbosacral nerves in female rabbits. METHODS: Chinchilla adult anesthetized female rabbits were used. Anatomical, electrophysiological, and histological studies were performed. RESULTS: L7, S1, and some fibers from S2 and S3 form the lumbosacral trunk, which gives origin to the sciatic nerve and innervation to the gluteal region. From S2 to S3 originates the pudendal nerve, whose branches innervates the striated anal and urethra sphincters, as well as the bulbospongiosus, ischiocavernosus, and constrictor vulvae muscles...
January 19, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100816/diets-derived-from-maize-monoculture-cause-maternal-infanticides-in-the-endangered-european-hamster-due-to-a-vitamin-b3-deficiency
#3
Mathilde L Tissier, Yves Handrich, Odeline Dallongeville, Jean-Patrice Robin, Caroline Habold
From 1735 to 1940, maize-based diets led to the death of hundreds of thousands of people from pellagra, a complex disease caused by tryptophan and vitamin B3 deficiencies. The current cereal monoculture trend restricts farmland animals to similarly monotonous diets. However, few studies have distinguished the effects of crop nutritional properties on the reproduction of these species from those of other detrimental factors such as pesticide toxicity or agricultural ploughing. This study shows that maize-based diets cause high rates of maternal infanticides in the European hamster, a farmland species on the verge of extinction in Western Europe...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100814/predicting-behavioural-responses-to-novel-organisms-state-dependent-detection-theory
#4
Pete C Trimmer, Sean M Ehlman, Andrew Sih
Human activity alters natural habitats for many species. Understanding variation in animals' behavioural responses to these changing environments is critical. We show how signal detection theory can be used within a wider framework of state-dependent modelling to predict behavioural responses to a major environmental change: novel, exotic species. We allow thresholds for action to be a function of reserves, and demonstrate how optimal thresholds can be calculated. We term this framework 'state-dependent detection theory' (SDDT)...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100685/heat-stress-induces-ferroptosis-like-cell-death-in-plants
#5
Ayelén Mariana Distéfano, María Victoria Martin, Juan Pablo Córdoba, Andrés Martín Bellido, Sebastián D'Ippólito, Silvana Lorena Colman, Débora Soto, Juan Alfredo Roldán, Carlos Guillermo Bartoli, Eduardo Julián Zabaleta, Diego Fernando Fiol, Brent R Stockwell, Scott J Dixon, Gabriela Carolina Pagnussat
In plants, regulated cell death (RCD) plays critical roles during development and is essential for plant-specific responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent, oxidative, nonapoptotic form of cell death recently described in animal cells. In animal cells, this process can be triggered by depletion of glutathione (GSH) and accumulation of lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated whether a similar process could be relevant to cell death in plants. Remarkably, heat shock (HS)-induced RCD, but not reproductive or vascular development, was found to involve a ferroptosis-like cell death process...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100209/lifelong-vegetarianism-and-breast-cancer-risk-a-large-multicentre-case-control-study-in-india
#6
Toral Gathani, Isobel Barnes, Raghib Ali, Rajkumar Arumugham, Raju Chacko, Raghunadharao Digumarti, Parimal Jivarajani, Ravi Kannan, Dasappa Loknatha, Hemant Malhotra, Beela S Mathew
BACKGROUND: The lower incidence of breast cancer in Asian populations where the intake of animal products is lower than that of Western populations has led some to suggest that a vegetarian diet might reduce breast cancer risk. METHODS: Between 2011 and 2014 we conducted a multicentre hospital based case-control study in eight cancer centres in India. Eligible cases were women aged 30-70 years, with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer (ICD10 C50). Controls were frequency matched to the cases by age and region of residence and chosen from the accompanying attendants of the patients with cancer or those patients in the general hospital without cancer...
January 18, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099476/whole-body-counter-evaluation-of-internal-radioactive-cesium-in-dogs-and-cats-exposed-to-the-fukushima-nuclear-disaster
#7
Seiichi Wada, Nobuhiko Ito, Masamichi Watanabe, Takehiko Kakizaki, Masahiro Natsuhori, Jun Kawamata, Yoshio Urayama
As a result of the 2011 nuclear incident that occurred at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, a large number of abandoned dogs and cats were left within the disaster zone. A small number of these animals were rescued and cared for at shelters. Prior to the dispersal of these animals to their owners or fosterers, we evaluated the degree of internal radiocesium contamination using a specially designed whole-body counter. We conducted 863 non-invasive measurements of gamma rays due to internal radioactive cesium for 68 dogs and 120 cats at one shelter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097049/sharing-refuges-on-arid-islands-ecological-and-social-influence-on-aggregation-behaviour-of-wall-geckos
#8
Raquel Vasconcelos, Sara Rocha, Xavier Santos
BACKGROUND: The extent of social behaviour among reptiles is underappreciated. Two types of aggregations are recognized in lizards: ecological and social, i.e., related to the attraction to a site or to animals of the same species, respectively. As most lizards are territorial, aggregations increase the probability of aggressive interactions among individuals, a density-dependent behaviour. METHODS: After some spurious observations of aggregation behaviour in the endemic Cabo Verde nocturnal gecko Tarentola substituta, we conducted a field-based study in order to thoroughly characterize it...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096618/evaluation-of-sperm-recovered-after-slaughter-from-cauda-epididymides-of-red-sokoto-bucks
#9
A H Abu, A I Kisani, T Ahemen
AIM: Viable spermatozoa could be recovered from the cauda epididymides for the purpose of preservation of genetic material of male animals with desirable traits and for use in reproductive biotechnology. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of storage time on testicular and epididymal biometry, sperm reserves and epididymal sperm characteristics of red Sokoto bucks post mortem. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Testes-epididymides were collected immediately after slaughter of mature red Sokoto bucks and transported in ice chest to the laboratory...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096494/reproductive-performance-primarily-depends-on-the-female-genotype-in-a-two-factorial-breeding-experiment-using-high-fertility-mouse-lines
#10
Martina Langhammer, Marten Michaelis, Michaela F Hartmann, Stefan A Wudy, Alexander Sobczak, Gerd Nürnberg, Norbert Reinsch, Jennifer Schön, Joachim M Weitzel
Mouse models showing an improved fertility phenotype are barely described in the literature. In the present study, we further characterized two outbred mouse models that have been selected for the phenotype 'high fertility' for more than 177 generations (fertility lines (FL) 1 and 2). In order to delineate the impact of males and females on fertility parameters, we performed a two-factorial breeding experiment by mating males and females of the three different genotypes (FL1, FL2, unselected control (Ctrl)) in all 9 possible combinations...
March 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096428/a-statistical-approach-to-understanding-reproductive-isolation-in-two-sympatric-species-of-tree-crickets
#11
Monisha Bhattacharya, Kavita Isvaran, Rohini Balakrishnan
In acoustically communicating animals, reproductive isolation between sympatric species is usually maintained through species-specific calls. This requires that the receiver be tuned to the conspecific signal. Mapping the response space of the receiver onto the signal space of the conspecific investigates this tuning. A combinatorial approach to investigating the response space is more informative as the influence on the receiver of the interactions between the features is also elucidated. However most studies have examined individual preference functions rather than the multivariate response space...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096421/rfamide-related-peptide-3-rfrp-3-suppresses-sexual-maturation-in-a-eusocial-mammal
#12
Diana E Peragine, Martha Pokarowski, Lucia Mendoza-Viveros, Ashlyn Swift-Gallant, Hai-Ying M Cheng, George E Bentley, Melissa M Holmes
Neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying social inhibition of puberty are not well understood. Here, we use a model exhibiting the most profound case of pubertal suppression among mammals to explore a role for RFamide-related peptide-3 [RFRP-3; mammalian ortholog to gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH)] in neuroendocrine control of reproductive development. Naked mole rats (NMRs) live in sizable colonies where breeding is monopolized by two to four dominant animals, and no other members exhibit signs of puberty throughout their lives unless they are removed from the colony...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095599/minerals-in-the-foods-and-diet-of-diademed-sifakas-are-they-nutritional-challenges
#13
Mitchell T Irwin, Jean-Luc Raharison, Colin A Chapman, Randall E Junge, Jessica M Rothman
: Minerals, though needed in small quantities, are essential to metabolic processes, and deficiencies can seriously threaten health, reproduction and survival. Despite this, few studies have measured mineral composition of wild primate foods and fewer have quantified mineral intake. Here we measured the concentration of nine minerals in 75 foods of diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema; five groups) in habitats with varying levels of disturbance at Tsinjoarivo and estimated daily intakes using focal-animal feeding data and intake rates over one year...
January 17, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095328/an-integrated-proteomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-perivitelline-fluid-proteins-in-a-freshwater-gastropod-laying-aerial-eggs
#14
Huawei Mu, Jin Sun, Horacio Heras, Ka Hou Chu, Jian-Wen Qiu
: Proteins of the egg perivitelline fluid (PVF) that surrounds the embryo are critical for embryonic development in many animals, but little is known about their identities. Using an integrated proteomic and transcriptomic approach, we identified 64 proteins from the PVF of Pomacea maculata - a freshwater snail adopting aerial oviposition. Proteins were classified into eight functional groups: major multifunctional perivitellin subunits, immune response, energy metabolism, protein degradation, oxidation-reduction, signaling and binding, transcription and translation, and others...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094804/six-years-in-the-life-of-a-mother-bear-the-longest-continuous-heart-rate-recordings-from-a-free-ranging-mammal
#15
Timothy G Laske, Paul A Iaizzo, David L Garshelis
Physiological monitoring of free-ranging wild animals is providing new insights into their adaptations to a changing environment. American black bears (Ursus americanus) are highly adaptable mammals, spending up to half the year hibernating, and the remainder of the year attempting to gain weight on a landscape with foods that vary seasonally and year to year. We recorded heart rate (HR) and corresponding activity of an adult female black bear over the course of six years, using an implanted monitor. Despite yearly differences in food, and an every-other year reproductive cycle, this bear exhibited remarkable consistency in HR and activity...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093679/effect-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-of-toll-like-receptor-4-tlr-4-on-reproductive-performance-and-immune-function-in-dairy-cows
#16
Takashi Shimizu, Yurie Kawasaki, Yuka Aoki, Fumie Magata, Chiho Kawashima, Akio Miyamoto
In dairy cows, inflammatory diseases caused by infection with pathogenic bacteria post calving affect ovarian functions. This study examined the relationship between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), reproductive performances [the number of artificial insemination (AI) application and days open], and immune cell functions (apoptosis and migration). Two hundred Holstein cows from the Obihiro University farm were included. The SNPs of TLR4 were genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method...
January 16, 2017: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092610/effects-of-antioxidant-vitamins-a-d-e-and-trace-elements-cu-mn-se-zn-on-some-metabolic-and-reproductive-profiles-in-dairy-cows-during-transition-period
#17
A Omur, A Kirbas, E Aksu, F Kandemir, E Dorman, O Kaynar, O Ucar
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of some antioxidant vitamins and trace elements on some metabolic and postpartum reproductive profiles in dairy cows during transition period. In the study, altogether 20 clinically healthy Brown Swiss dairy cows (aged 4-5 years-old) under the same management and feeding conditions in periparturient period were used. The animals were divided into two equal groups: control (C) and treatment (T) group (n=10 for each group). Vitamins (A, D, E) and trace elements (Cu, Mn, Se, Zn) were administered intramuscularly into the cows of the T group, while isotonic saline, as placebo, was injected subcutaneously into those in the C group...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092229/decamethylcyclopentasiloxane-d5
#18
(no author information available yet)
Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5; CAS No. 541-02-6) is a precursor in the production of siloxane polymers for industry and medicine and is a carrier ingredient in many toiletries and cosmetics. D5 has a relatively low order of toxicity following acute administration via the oral, dermal, and inhalation routes of exposure. It is not considered to be a dermal or eye irritant or a dermal sensitizer. There is no appreciable dermal absorption of D5 based on results from in vivo and in vitro studies. It has not been shown to be genotoxic/mutagenic when tested in a number of short-term in vitro and in vivo assays and did not cause reproductive or developmental toxicity in rats...
January 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089945/zearalenone-exposure-impairs-ovarian-primordial-follicle-formation-via-down-regulation-of-lhx8-expression-in-vitro
#19
Guo-Liang Zhang, Xiao-Feng Sun, Yan-Zhong Feng, Bo Li, Ya-Peng Li, Fan Yang, Charles Martin Nyachoti, Wei Shen, Shi-Duo Sun, Lan Li
Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic mycotoxin mainly produced as a secondary metabolite by numerous species of Fusarium. Previous work showed that ZEA had a negative impact on domestic animals with regard to reproduction. The adverse effects and the mechanisms of ZEA on mammalian ovarian folliculogenesis remain largely unknown, particularly its effect on primordial follicle formation. Thus, we investigated the biological effects of ZEA exposure on murine ovarian germ cell cyst breakdown and primordial follicle assembly...
January 12, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089514/reproductive-conflict-and-the-evolution-of-menopause-in-killer-whales
#20
Darren P Croft, Rufus A Johnstone, Samuel Ellis, Stuart Nattrass, Daniel W Franks, Lauren J N Brent, Sonia Mazzi, Kenneth C Balcomb, John K B Ford, Michael A Cant
Why females of some species cease ovulation prior to the end of their natural lifespan is a long-standing evolutionary puzzle [1-4]. The fitness benefits of post-reproductive helping could in principle select for menopause [1, 2, 5], but the magnitude of these benefits appears insufficient to explain the timing of menopause [6-8]. Recent theory suggests that the cost of inter-generational reproductive conflict between younger and older females of the same social unit is a critical missing term in classical inclusive fitness calculations (the "reproductive conflict hypothesis" [6, 9])...
January 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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