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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944838/effect-of-antioxidant-of-bamboo-leaves-on-gene-expression-associated-with-mouse-embryonic-fibroblast-reproduction-and-embryonic-development
#1
Feng Yu, Xiaowei Qian, Zhanghui Zeng, Xiaoli Zhao, Rong Hou, Zhihe Zhang, Hongwu Bian, Ning Han, Junhui Wang, Muyuan Zhu
Antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) was certified to be a natural antioxidant by the Chinese Ministry of Health in 2003. However, the effects of AOB on animal reproductive and developmental functions remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of AOB on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells, and to examine the underlying molecular mechanism through which AOB affects the proliferation and apoptosis of MEFs. MEFs prepared from individual embryos were treated with various dosages of AOB...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944037/clonal-structure-through-space-and-time-high-stability-in-the-holothurian-stichopus-chloronotus-echinodermata
#2
Agathe Pirog, Pauline Gélin, Alexandre Bédier, Grégoire Bianchetti, Stéphane Georget, Patrick Frouin, Hélène Magalon
Sea cucumbers are increasingly exploited for human consumption and for their curative properties, and many wild populations are now depleted or in danger of extinction. While aquaculture is seen as an alternative to fisheries and as a mean to restore wild populations, more knowledge is needed on their reproductive strategies to render this practice efficient, notably for fissiparous holothurians, which are some of the mobile animals able of asexual reproduction by transverse fission. Little information is available on their population genetic diversity and structure...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943886/sleeping-site-ecology-but-not-sex-affect-ecto-and-hemoparasite-risk-in-sympatric-arboreal-primates-avahi-occidentalis-and-lepilemur-edwardsi
#3
May Hokan, Christina Strube, Ute Radespiel, Elke Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: A central question in evolutionary parasitology is to what extent ecology impacts patterns of parasitism in wild host populations. In this study, we aim to disentangle factors influencing the risk of parasite exposure by exploring the impact of sleeping site ecology on infection with ectoparasites and vector-borne hemoparasites in two sympatric primates endemic to Madagascar. Both species live in the same dry deciduous forest of northwestern Madagascar and cope with the same climatic constraints, they are arboreal, nocturnal, cat-sized and pair-living but differ prominently in sleeping site ecology...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943854/insulin-signaling-in-the-peripheral-and-central-nervous-system-regulates-female-sexual-receptivity-during-starvation-in-drosophila
#4
Sébastien Lebreton, Mikael A Carlsson, Peter Witzgall
Many animals adjust their reproductive behavior according to nutritional state and food availability. Drosophila females for instance decrease their sexual receptivity following starvation. Insulin signaling, which regulates many aspects of insect physiology and behavior, also affects reproduction in females. We show that insulin signaling is involved in the starvation-induced reduction in female receptivity. More specifically, females mutant for the insulin-like peptide 5 (dilp5) were less affected by starvation compared to the other dilp mutants and wild-type flies...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943090/genome-architecture-and-evolution-of-a-unichromosomal-asexual-nematode
#5
Hélène Fradin, Karin Kiontke, Charles Zegar, Michelle Gutwein, Jessica Lucas, Mikhail Kovtun, David L Corcoran, L Ryan Baugh, David H A Fitch, Fabio Piano, Kristin C Gunsalus
Asexual reproduction in animals, though rare, is the main or exclusive mode of reproduction in some long-lived lineages. The longevity of asexual clades may be correlated with the maintenance of heterozygosity by mechanisms that rearrange genomes and reduce recombination. Asexual species thus provide an opportunity to gain insight into the relationship between molecular changes, genome architecture, and cellular processes. Here we report the genome sequence of the parthenogenetic nematode Diploscapter pachys with only one chromosome pair...
September 14, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942525/subcutaneous-ovarian-tissue-transplantation-in-nonhuman-primates-duration-of-endocrine-function-and-normalcy-of-subsequent-offspring-as-demonstrated-by-reproductive-competence-oocyte-production-and-telomere-length
#6
David M Lee, Carrie M Thomas, Fuhua Xu, Richard R Yeoman, Jing Xu, Richard L Stouffer, Don P Wolf, Mary B Zelinski
PURPOSE: The main purposes of the study were to investigate the endocrine function of ovarian tissue transplanted to heterotopic subcutaneous sites and the reproductive competence and telomere length of a nonhuman primate originating from transplanted tissue. METHODS: Ovarian cortex pieces were transplanted into the original rhesus macaques in the arm subcutaneously, in the abdomen next to muscles, or in the kidney. Serum estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations were measured weekly for up to 8 years following tissue transplantation...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942476/predicting-early-pregnancy-in-egyptian-buffalo-cows-via-measuring-uterine-and-luteal-blood-flows-and-serum-and-saliva-progesterone
#7
Mohamed E Lasheen, Hussein M Badr, Mohamed M M Kandiel, Amal M Abo El-Maaty, Haney Samir, Mohamed Farouk, Mohamed H Eldawy
Various methods are being employed to detect early pregnancy in domestic animals. This study aimed to predict early pregnancy in buffaloes via measuring the corpus luteum (CL) diameter, the luteal blood flow (LBF) area, the uterine blood flow (UBF) vascularization area, and progesterones in saliva and serum for non-pregnant (NPBs, N = 12) and pregnant (PBs, N = 12) buffaloes. The results revealed that the CL diameter and the luteal color blood flow blue and red (P = 0.0001) areas of the pregnant animals kept increasing from day 1 to day 35 of the gestation period, but it decreased in NPBs on day 21 after reaching a peak from ovulation to day 18...
September 23, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942449/fshr-and-lhr-expression-and-signaling-as-well-as-maturation-and-apoptosis-of-cumulus-oocyte-complexes-following-treatment-with-fsh-receptor-binding-inhibitor-in-sheep
#8
Suocheng Wei, Xiaoyun Shen, Zhuandi Gong, Yingying Deng, Luju Lai, Haoqin Liang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Currently, it remains unknown whether FSH receptor binding inhibitor (FRBI) influences follicular development and reproduction functions in humans and animals. The present study aimed to investigate FRBI effects on in vitro maturation (IVM) and apoptosis of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) of sheep, to determine the effect of FRBI on mRNA and protein levels of FSHR and LHR in COCs, and to elucidate the signal pathway of FRBI effects. METHODS: COCs were in vitro cultured for 24h in the IVM media supplemented with varying concentrations of FRBI (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40µg/mL) and FSH (10IU/mL)...
September 22, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942304/neospora-caninum-and-bovine-neosporosis-current-vaccine-research
#9
V Marugan-Hernandez
Neospora caninum, a tissue cyst-forming parasite, is the causative agent of bovine neosporosis. It is considered to be one of the most important transmissible causes of reproductive failure in cattle; abortion and neonatal mortality result in significant economic losses within the cattle industry worldwide. The balance between acute (mediated by the tachyzoite stage) and persistent (mediated by the bradyzoite stage) phases of the infection is influenced by the immune status of the animal, and for pregnant cows (the intermediate host) immune status is critical for transplacental (i...
August 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941876/evolvability-of-flower-geometry-convergence-in-pollinator-driven-morphological-evolution-of-flowers
#10
REVIEW
Natalia Joanna Woźniak, Adrien Sicard
Flowers represent a key innovation during plant evolution. Driven by reproductive optimization, evolution of flower morphology has been central in boosting species diversification. In most cases, this has happened through specialized interactions with animal pollinators and subsequent reduction of gene flow between specialized morphs. While radiation has led to an enormous variability in flower forms and sizes, recurrent evolutionary patterns can be observed. Here, we discuss the targets of selection involved in major trends of pollinator-driven flower evolution...
September 20, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940809/effects-of-age-and-sex-ratios-on-offspring-recruitment-rates-in-translocated-black-rhinoceros
#11
Jay V Gedir, Peter R Law, Pierre du Preez, Wayne L Linklater
Success of animal translocations depends on improving post-release demographic rates toward establishment and subsequent growth of released populations. Short-term metrics for evaluating translocation success and its drivers, like post-release survival and fecundity, are unlikely to represent longer-term outcomes. We used information theory to investigate 25 years of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) translocations using the offspring recruitment rate (ORR) of translocated females - a metric integrating survival, fecundity and offspring recruitment at sexual maturity - to detect determinants of success...
September 22, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940594/characteristics-of-bioelectrical-activity-of-oviducts-and-uterus-during-early-pregnancy-in-sows-recorded-by-telemetry-method
#12
Bartosz Pawlinski, Malgorzata Domino, Romuald Zabielski, Katarzyna Siewruk, Malgorzata Polanska-Plachta, Zdzislaw Gajewski
The aim of the present study was to record the myoelectric activity of the reproduction tract in sows during the estrous phase and the early pregnancy period via telemetry recording system. In a total of eight non-pregnant pigs, the bioelectrical activity was recorded through three silicone electrodes sutured on the oviduct (isthmus and ampulla) and the uterine horn. Blood samples were collected to monitor the levels of progesterone (P4) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The estrous cycle was synchronized with eCG and hCG and the animals were subjected to artificial insemination (AI)...
September 21, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939807/a-single-dose-live-attenuated-vaccine-prevents-zika-virus-pregnancy-transmission-and-testis-damage
#13
Chao Shan, Antonio E Muruato, Brett W Jagger, Justin Richner, Bruno T D Nunes, Daniele B A Medeiros, Xuping Xie, Jannyce G C Nunes, Kaitlyn M Morabito, Wing-Pui Kong, Theodore C Pierson, Alan D Barrett, Scott C Weaver, Shannan L Rossi, Pedro F C Vasconcelos, Barney S Graham, Michael S Diamond, Pei-Yong Shi
Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital abnormities or fetal demise. The persistence of Zika virus in the male reproductive system poses a risk of sexual transmission. Here we demonstrate that live-attenuated Zika virus vaccine candidates containing deletions in the 3' untranslated region of the Zika virus genome (ZIKV-3'UTR-LAV) prevent viral transmission during pregnancy and testis damage in mice, as well as infection of nonhuman primates. After a single-dose vaccination, pregnant mice challenged with Zika virus at embryonic day 6 and evaluated at embryonic day 13 show markedly diminished levels of viral RNA in maternal, placental, and fetal tissues...
September 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939625/the-traf-mediated-gametogenesis-progression-tramgap-gene-is-required-for-megaspore-mother-cell-specification-and-gametophyte-development
#14
Sunil Kumar Singh, Vajinder Kumar Kumar, Ramamurthy Srinivasan, Paramvir Singh Ahuja, Shripad Ramchandra Bhat, Yelam Sreenivasulu
In plants, the role of TRAF-like proteins with meprin and the TRAF homology (MATH) domain is far from clear. In animals, these proteins serve as adapter molecules to mediate signal transduction from TNF-R to downstream effector molecules. A seed-sterile mutant with disrupted TRAF-like gene (At5g26290) exhibiting aberrant gametogenesis led us to investigate the developmental role of this gene in Arabidopsis. The mutation was semi-dominant and resulted in pleiotropic phenotypes with such features as short siliques with fewer ovules, pollen and seed sterility, altered MMC specification, and delayed programmed cell death in megaspores and the tapetum-features that overlapped those in other well-characterized mutants...
September 22, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938777/role-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-during-the-transition-from-incubation-behavior-to-rearing-behavior-in-the-female-native-thai-chicken
#15
S Namken, P Sinpru, B Kamkrathok, N Sartsoongnoen, Y Chaiseha
It is well documented that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an avian prolactin-releasing factor, regulating the reproductive cycle, that initiates and maintains incubation behavior in avian species. Native Thai chicken has strong maternal behaviors. Thus, it is an excellent animal model to study this phenomenon. Changes in the numbers of VIP neurons within the nucleus inferioris hypothalami (IH) and nucleus infundibuli hypothalami (IN) are associated with maternal behaviors in the native Thai chicken...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938749/the-testicular-transcriptome-associated-with-spermatogonia-differentiation-initiated-by-gonadotrophin-stimulation-in-the-juvenile-rhesus-monkey-macaca-mulatta
#16
Suresh Ramaswamy, William H Walker, Paula Aliberti, Rahil Sethi, Gary R Marshall, Alyxzandria Smith, Seyedmehdi Nourashrafeddin, Alicia Belgorosky, Uma R Chandran, Mark P Hedger, Tony M Plant
STUDY QUESTION: What is the genetic landscape within the testis of the juvenile rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) that underlies the decision of undifferentiated spermatogonia to commit to a pathway of differentiation when puberty is induced prematurely by exogenous LH and FSH stimulation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Forty-eight hours of gonadotrophin stimulation of the juvenile monkey testis resulted in the appearance of differentiating B spermatogonia and the emergence of 1362 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated testicular mRNAs encoding a complex network of proteins ranging from enzymes regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis to membrane receptors, and from juxtacrine and paracrine factors to transcriptional factors governing spermatogonial stem cell fate...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938519/gilaburu-viburnum-opulus-l-fruit-extract-alleviates-testis-and-sperm-damages-induced-by-taxane-based-chemotherapeutics
#17
Serpil Sarıözkan, Gaffari Türk, Ayşe Eken, Latife Çakır Bayram, Ayşe Baldemir, Gülden Doğan
In this study, it was aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of gilaburu (Viburnum opulus L., Glb) fruit extract on testis and sperm damages induced by docetaxel (DTX) and paclitaxel (PTX) chemotherapeutics in rats. Sixty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into 6 equal groups, 10 animals each. The groups were created as control (weekly i.p. saline injection), Glb (weekly i.p. saline injection and daily oral 100mg/kg Glb), DTX (weekly i.p. injection of 5mg/kg DTX), PTX (weekly i.p. injection of 4mg/kg PTX), DTX+Glb (weekly i...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938425/linking-stress-and-infertility-a-novel-role-for-ghrelin
#18
Luba Sominsky, Deborah M Hodgson, Eileen A McLaughlin, Roger Smith, Hannah M Wall, Sarah J Spencer
Infertility affects a remarkable one in four couples in developing countries. Psychological stress is a ubiquitous facet of life, and while stress affects us all at some point, prolonged or unmanageable stress may become harmful for some individuals, negatively impacting on their health, including fertility. For instance, women who struggle to conceive are twice as likely to suffer from emotional distress than fertile women. Assisted reproductive technology treatments place an additional physical, emotional and financial burden of stress, particularly on women, who are often exposed to invasive techniques associated with treatment...
July 27, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937260/the-effect-of-ht-2-toxin-on-ovarian-steroidogenesis-and-its-response-to-igf-i-leptin-and-ghrelin-in-rabbits
#19
A Kolesarova, N Maruniakova, A Kadasi, M Halenar, M Marak, A V Sirotkin
T-2 toxin and its metabolite HT-2 toxin are one of the most toxic mycotoxins of type A-trichothecenes, which are produced mainly by Fusarium species. Therefore, study of Fusarium toxins T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin is an essential issue because they could also play role in failures of reproductive functions as well as endocrine system of domestic animals. Assessment of the effect of A-trichothecene mycotoxin HT-2 toxin alone or combined with insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), leptin and ghrelin on estradiol secretion by rabbit ovarian fragments in vitro was done...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935936/evidence-of-auditory-insensitivity-to-vocalization-frequencies-in-two-frogs
#20
Sandra Goutte, Matthew J Mason, Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard, Fernando Montealegre-Z, Benedict D Chivers, Fabio A Sarria-S, Marta M Antoniazzi, Carlos Jared, Luciana Almeida Sato, Luís Felipe Toledo
The emergence and maintenance of animal communication systems requires the co-evolution of signal and receiver. Frogs and toads rely heavily on acoustic communication for coordinating reproduction and typically have ears tuned to the dominant frequency of their vocalizations, allowing discrimination from background noise and heterospecific calls. However, we present here evidence that two anurans, Brachycephalus ephippium and B. pitanga, are insensitive to the sound of their own calls. Both species produce advertisement calls outside their hearing sensitivity range and their inner ears are partly undeveloped, which accounts for their lack of high-frequency sensitivity...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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