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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544390/phenotypic-plasticity-and-remodeling-in-the-stress-induced-caenorhabditis-elegans-dauer
#1
REVIEW
Rebecca J Androwski, Kristen M Flatt, Nathan E Schroeder
Organisms are often capable of modifying their development to better suit their environment. Under adverse conditions, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans develops into a stress-resistant alternative larval stage called dauer. The dauer stage is the primary survival stage for C. elegans in nature. Large-scale tissue remodeling during dauer conveys resistance to harsh environments. The environmental and genetic regulation of the decision to enter dauer has been extensively studied. However, less is known about the mechanisms regulating tissue remodeling...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544226/short-term-rapamycin-treatment-increases-ovarian-lifespan-in%C3%A2-young-and-middle-aged-female-mice
#2
Xiaowei Dou, Yan Sun, Jiazhao Li, Jing Zhang, Dandan Hao, Wenwen Liu, Rui Wu, Feifei Kong, Xiaoxu Peng, Jing Li
Although age-related ovarian failure in female mammals cannot be reversed, recent strategies have focused on improving reproductive capacity with age, and rapamycin is one such intervention that has shown a potential for preserving the ovarian follicle pool and preventing premature ovarian failure. However, the application is limited because of its detrimental effects on follicular development and ovulation during long-term treatment. Herein, we shortened the rapamycin administration to 2 weeks and applied the protocol to both young (8 weeks) and middle-aged (8 months) mouse models...
May 22, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543867/an-age-dependent-fitness-cost-of-migration-old-trans-saharan-migrating-spoonbills-breed-later-than-those-staying-in-europe-and-late-breeders-have-lower-recruitment
#3
Tamar Lok, Linde Veldhoen, Otto Overdijk, Joost M Tinbergen, Theunis Piersma
Migration is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom. On the basis of the considerable variation that exists between and within species, and even within populations, we may be able to infer the (age- and sex-specific) ecological trade-offs and constraints moulding migration systems from assessments of fitness associated with migration and wintering in different areas. During three consecutive breeding seasons, we compared the reproductive performance (timing of breeding, breeding success, chick body condition and post-fledging survival) of Eurasian spoonbills Platalea leucorodia that breed at a single breeding site in The Netherlands, but migrate different distances (ca...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542265/ovarian-features-in-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-fawns-and-does
#4
G D A Gastal, A Hamilton, B G Alves, S G S de Tarso, J M Feugang, W J Banz, G A Apgar, C K Nielsen, E L Gastal
The knowledge about ovarian reserve is essential to determine the reproductive potential and to improve the methods of fertility control for overpopulated species, such as white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the female reproductive tract of white-tailed deer, focusing on ovarian features. Genital tracts from 8 prepubertal and 10 pubertal females were used to characterize the preantral follicle population and density, morphology, distribution of follicular classes; stromal cell density; and apoptosis in the ovary...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541751/a-novel-experimental-model-of-colorectal-endometriosis
#5
Anastasia Prodromidou, Vasilios Pergialiotis, Kitty Pavlakis, Laskarina Maria Korou, Maximos Frountzas, Dimitrios Dimitroulis, Georgios Vaos, Despina N Perrea
PURPOSE: Endometriosis is a disease that affects 6-10% of the female population, mainly women of reproductive age, and causes a variety of cyclic symptoms. Deep infiltrating endometriosis and in particular bowel involvement presents a challenge for modern surgery. To date, there are no experimental animal models in this field, demonstrating experimental induction of endometriosis directly attached to surface of the colon imitating human colorectal endometriosis; hence, the implementation of novel pharmaceutical and surgical strategies for the management of colorectal endometriosis is mainly limited to clinical studies...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541153/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-a-4-7-mg-deslorelin-acetate-implant-on-egg-laying-in-cockatiels-nymphicus-hollandicus
#6
Noémie M Summa, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Emma L Wils-Plotz, Nerisa E Riedl, Philip H Kass, Michelle G Hawkins
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of administration of a 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implant on egg laying in healthy cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus). ANIMALS 52 cockatiels. PROCEDURES 26 breeding pairs (a female and its respective male in each pair) were selected on the basis of their history of egg laying. Female birds were sedated and received a 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implant (n = 13) or placebo implant (13) in the subcutaneous tissues between the scapulae. Male and female birds of each breeding pair were placed in separate but adjacent cages...
June 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539446/infectious-prions-in-the-pregnancy-microenvironment-of-cwd-infected-reeves-muntjac-deer
#7
Amy V Nalls, Erin McNulty, Clare E Hoover, Laura A Pulscher, Edward A Hoover, Candace K Mathiason
Ample evidence exists for the presence of infectious agents at the maternal-fetal interface, often with grave outcomes to the developing fetus (i.e. zika virus, brucella, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasma). While less studied, pregnancy-related transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) have been implicated in several species, including humans. Our previous work has shown that prions can be transferred from mother-to-offspring resulting in the development of clinical TSE disease in offspring born to CWD-infected muntjac dams (64)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539434/estrogens-in-male-physiology
#8
REVIEW
Paul S Cooke, Manjunatha K Nanjappa, CheMyong Ko, Gail S Prins, Rex A Hess
Estrogens have historically been associated with female reproduction, but work over the last two decades established that estrogens and their main nuclear receptors (ESR1 and ESR2) and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) also regulate male reproductive and nonreproductive organs. 17β-Estradiol (E2) is measureable in blood of men and males of other species, but in rete testis fluids, E2 reaches concentrations normally found only in females and in some species nanomolar concentrations of estrone sulfate are found in semen...
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539002/from-in-vivo-to-in-vitro-the-medical-device-testing-paradigm-shift
#9
Dayna Kerecman Myers, Alan M Goldberg, Albrecht Poth, Michael F Wolf, Joseph Carraway, James McKim, Kelly P Coleman, Richard Hutchinson, Ronald Brown, Harald F Krug, Anthony Bahinski, Thomas Hartung
Amid growing efforts to advance the replacement, reduction, and refinement of the use of animals in research, there is a growing recognition that in vitro testing of medical devices can be more effective, both in terms of cost and time, and also more reliable than in vivo testing. Although the technological landscape has evolved rapidly in support of these concepts, regulatory acceptance of alternative testing methods has not kept pace. Despite the acceptance by regulators of some in vitro tests (cytotoxicity, gene toxicity, and some hemocompatibility assays), many toxicity tests still rely on animals (irritation, sensitization, acute toxicity, reproductive/developmental toxicity), even where other industrial sectors have already abandoned them...
May 25, 2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537489/hydrogen-sulfide-as-a-potential-target-in-preventing-spermatogenic-failure-and-testicular-dysfunction
#10
Jing Wang, Wan Wang, Shuangyue Li, Yi Han, Ping Zhang, Guoliang Meng, Yujiao Xiao, Liping Xie, Xin Wang, Jiahao Sha, Qi Chen, Philip K Moore, Rui Wang, Wenpei Xiang, Yong Ji
AIMS: Testis and sperm are particularly susceptible to inflammation and oxidative stress. Although Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been considered as an important biological signaling molecule in inflammatory and oxidative stress processes, its role in male reproductive system was poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of H2S in the regulation of male reproductive system. RESULTS: We found that both sub-fertile and infertile patients, especially asthenospermic patients, exhibited a decreased concentration of H2S in their seminal plasma and diminished expression of H2S-generating enzyme (cystathionine β-synthase, CBS) in sperm...
May 24, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535868/helicobacter-infection-significantly-alters-pregnancy-success-in-laboratory-mice
#11
Tara C Bracken, Caitlin A Cooper, Zil Ali, Ha Truong, Julie M Moore
Helicobacter spp. are gram-negative, helically shaped bacteria that cause gastric and enterohepatic infections in mammalian species. Although Helicobacter infection frequently is implicated to interfere with reproductive success, few experimental data support these claims. We therefore retrospectively investigated the effect of Helicobacter infection on murine pregnancy outcome after the identification of endemic Helicobacter infection in an animal research facility. Multiplex conventional PCR analysis was used to characterize Helicobacter infection status in one inbred and 2 transgenic strains of mice in 2 self-contained rooms assigned to the same investigator...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534818/a-review-of-the-impact-of-maternal-obesity-on-the-cognitive-function-and-mental-health-of-the-offspring
#12
REVIEW
Laura Contu, Cheryl A Hawkes
Globally, more than 20% of women of reproductive age are currently estimated to be obese. Children born to obese mothers are at higher risk of developing obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes, stroke, and asthma in adulthood. Increasing clinical and experimental evidence suggests that maternal obesity also affects the health and function of the offspring brain across the lifespan. This review summarizes the current findings from human and animal studies that detail the impact of maternal obesity on aspects of learning, memory, motivation, affective disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and neurodegeneration in the offspring...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533461/interspecific-visual-signalling-in-animals-and-plants-a-functional-classification
#13
REVIEW
Tim Caro, William L Allen
Organisms frequently gain advantages when they engage in signalling with individuals of other species. Here, we provide a functionally structured framework of the great variety of interspecific visual signals seen in nature, and then describe the different signalling mechanisms that have evolved in response to each of these functional requirements. We propose that interspecific visual signalling can be divided into six major functional categories: anti-predator, food acquisition, anti-parasite, host acquisition, reproductive and agonistic signalling, with each function enabled by several distinct mechanisms...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532834/effects-of-feeding-green-microalgae-on-ovarian-activity-reproductive-hormones-and-metabolic-parameters-of-boer-goats-in-arid-subtropics
#14
W Senosy, A Y Kassab, A A Mohammed
The present study aimed to improve ovarian follicle development and plasma metabolites and hormone concentrations upon supplementation of Boer goats with green microalga (Dunaliella salina; 10 g/head/day) (N = 20; MAT group) compared to control (N = 10; not receive microalgae) in subtropics. Estrus was synchronized in all animals by two intramuscular administration of 12.5 mg dinoprost 11 days a part. MAT group was supplemented with Dunaliella salina for 11 days (from the day of first injection of dinoprost till the second injection)...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532825/growth-performance-reproductive-traits-and-offspring-survivability-of-genetically-modified-rams-overexpressing-toll-like-receptor-4
#15
Yu-Chang Yao, Hong-Bing Han, Xu-Ting Song, Shou-Long Deng, Yu-Feng Liu, Ming-Hai Lu, Yun-Hai Zhang, Mei-Yu Qi, Hai-Juan He, Su-Mei Wang, Guo-Shi Liu, Wu Li, Zheng-Xing Lian
Genetic modification provides a means to enhancing disease resistance in animals. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a member of the TLR family, is critical for the recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria by host immune cells, which initiates cell activation and subsequently triggers a proinflammatory response to the invading pathogens. In this study, the first generation of genetically modified (GM) sheep overexpressing TLR4 was produced by microinjection for better disease resistance...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532789/recombination-in-jxa1-r-vaccine-and-nadc30-like-strain-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-viruses
#16
Jiankui Liu, Xia Zhou, Junqiong Zhai, Chunhua Wei, Ailing Dai, Xiaoyan Yang, Manlin Luo
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is considered one of the most devastating swine diseases worldwide, resulting in immense economic losses. PRRS virus (PRRSV) has undergone rapid evolution since its first recognition in 1990s. In the present study, a PRRSV strain named FJXS15 causing high morbidity and mortality was isolated from piglets and sows from a farm participating in vaccination in China. Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses revealed that FJXS15 was highly similar to the JXA1-R vaccine strain (a live attenuated virus vaccine strain derived from the highly pathogenic PRRSV JXA1) in the ORF1a (nt 901-)-ORF4 (-nt 419) coding regions, as well as to FJZ03 (lineage 1, NADC30-like) in the 5'-UTR, ORF5a-ORF7 coding regions, and 3'-UTR, suggestive of a natural recombination event...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532521/animal-board-invited-review-sheep-birth-distribution-in-past-herds-a-review-for-prehistoric-europe-6th-to-3rd-millennia-bc
#17
M Balasse, A Tresset, A Bălăşescu, E Blaise, C Tornero, H Gandois, D Fiorillo, É Á Nyerges, D Frémondeau, E Banffy, M Ivanova
In temperate latitudes sheep have a seasonal reproductive behaviour, which imposes strong constraints on husbandry in terms of work organization and availability of animal products. During the last 50 years, researchers have focused on understanding the mechanisms driving small ruminants' reproduction cycles and finding ways to control them. This characteristic is inherited from their wild ancestor. However, the history of its evolution over the 10 millennia that separates present day European sheep from their Near Eastern ancestors' remains to be written...
May 23, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532427/microrna-275-and-its-target-vitellogenin-2-are-crucial-in-ovary-development-and-blood-digestion-of-haemaphysalis-longicornis
#18
Jiawei Hao, Jin Luo, Ze Chen, Qiaoyun Ren, Jinxia Guo, Xiaocui Liu, Qiuyu Chen, Feng Wu, Zhen Wang, Jianxun Luo, Hong Yin, Hui Wang, Guangyuan Liu
BACKGROUND: The hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis is widely distributed in eastern Asia, New Zealand and Australia and is considered the major vector of Theileria and Babesia, harmful parasites to humans and animals. Female ticks need successful blood meals to complete the life-cycle. Therefore, elucidation of the underlying molecular mechanisms of H. longicornis development and reproduction is considered important for developing control strategies against the tick and tick-borne pathogens...
May 22, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531316/a-comprehensive-method-to-quantify-adaptations-by-male-and-female-mice-with-hot-flashes-induced-by-the-neurokinin-b-receptor-agonist-senktide
#19
Ashley A Krull, Sarah A Larsen, Donald K Clifton, Genevieve Neal-Perry, Robert A Steiner
Vasomotor symptoms (VMS, or hot flashes) plague millions of reproductive age men and women who have natural or iatrogenic loss of sex steroid production. Many affected individuals are left without treatment options because of contraindications to hormone replacement therapy and the lack of equally effective non-hormonal alternatives. Moreover, development of safer, more effective therapies has been stymied by the lack of an animal model that recapitulates the hot flash phenomenon and enables direct testing of hypotheses regarding the pathophysiology underlying hot flashes...
May 22, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531286/is-foetal-hyperexposure-to-androgens-a-cause-of-pcos
#20
Panagiota Filippou, Roy Homburg
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting reproductive-aged women. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is still not completely understood but recent evidence suggests that the intra-uterine environment may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, in particular, hyperexposure of the foetus to androgens. High concentrations of maternal serum testosterone during pregnancy have been shown to influence behaviour during childhood, the prevalence of autism disorders and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentrations in adolescence...
May 20, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
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