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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352509/molecular-evidence-to-suggest-pigeon-type-chlamydia-psittaci-in-association-with-an-equine-foal-loss
#1
M Jelocnik, C Jenkins, B O'Rourke, J Barnwell, A Polkinghorne
Chlamydia psittaci is an important avian pathogen with spillover from infected wild and domesticated birds also posing a risk to human health. We recently reported a case of C. psittaci equine placentitis associated with further spillover to humans. Molecular typing of this case revealed it belonged to the 6BC clade of C. psittaci, a globally distributed highly virulent set of strains, typically linked to infection spillover from parrots. Equine chlamydiosis associated with C. psittaci infection has previously been reported elsewhere in countries where parrots are not endemic, however, raising questions over the identity of infecting C...
January 19, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351800/drug-resistance-genes-pvcrt-o-and-pvmdr-1-polymorphism-in-patients-from-malaria-endemic-south-western-coastal-region-of-india
#2
Shiny Joy, Benudhar Mukhi, Susanta K Ghosh, Rajeshwara N Achur, D Channe Gowda, Namita Surolia
BACKGROUND: Malaria is highly prevalent in many parts of India and is mostly caused by the parasite species Plasmodium vivax followed by Plasmodium falciparum. Chloroquine (CQ) is the first-line treatment for blood stage P. vivax parasites, but cases of drug resistance to CQ have been reported from India. One of the surveillance strategies which is used to monitor CQ drug resistance, is the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the associated gene markers. Susceptibility to CQ can also be determined by copy number assessment of multidrug resistant gene (mdr-1)...
January 19, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351657/characterization-of-the-spatial-and-temporal-distribution-of-nipah-virus-spillover-events-in-bangladesh-2007-2013
#3
Maria C Cortes, Simon Cauchemez, Noemie Lefrancq, Stephen P Luby, M Jahangir Hossain, Hossain M S Sazzad, Mahmudur Rahman, Peter Daszak, Henrik Salje, Emily S Gurley
Nipah virus is a zoonotic virus, harbored by bats and lethal to humans. Bat to human spillovers occur every winter in Bangladesh. However, there is significant heterogeneity in the number of spillovers detected by district and year that remains unexplained. We analyzed data from all 57 spillovers from 2007-2013 and found that temperature differences explained 36% of the year-to-year variation in the total number of spillovers each winter while distance to surveillance hospitals explained 45% of spatial heterogeneity...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350841/epidemiology-and-molecular-characterization-of-influenza-viruses-in-burkina-faso-sub-saharan-africa
#4
Armel M Sanou, Sampoko Carine M Wandaogo, Armel Poda, Laure Tamini, Anselme E Kyere, Tani Sagna, Macaire S Ouedraogo, Maude Pauly, Judith M Hübschen, Claude P Muller, Zekiba Tarnagda, Chantal J Snoeck
BACKGROUND: The importance of influenza viruses in respiratory infections in sub-Saharan Africa has been historically overlooked, including in Burkina Faso. This study therefore aimed at evaluating the prevalence and seasonal occurrence of influenza viruses in children under five years old, at risk of influenza-related complications, presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). The study also aimed at identifying the periods with increased influenza transmission for vaccination recommendations in Burkina Faso...
January 19, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350791/comparison-of-outpatient-medically-attended-and-community-level-influenza-like-illness-new-york-city-2013-2015
#5
Kate E Russell, Ashley Fowlkes, Melissa S Stockwell, Celibell Y Vargas, Lisa Saiman, Elaine L Larson, Philip LaRussa, Steve Di Lonardo, Michael Popowich, Kirsten St George, Andrea Steffens, Carrie Reed
BACKGROUND: Surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in the United States is primarily conducted through medical settings despite a significant burden of non-medically attended ILI. OBJECTIVES: To assess consistency between surveillance for respiratory viruses in outpatient and community settings using ILI surveillance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project (IISP) and the Mobile Surveillance for Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) and Influenza-Like Illness in the Community (MoSAIC) Study...
January 19, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350159/clinical-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-staphylococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-in-the-united-kingdom
#6
Hema Sharma, Debra Smith, Claire E Turner, Laurence Game, Bruno Pichon, Russell Hope, Robert Hill, Angela Kearns, Shiranee Sriskandan
Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) was originally described in menstruating women and linked to TSS toxin 1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus. Using UK national surveillance data, we ascertained clinical, molecular and superantigenic characteristics of TSS cases. Average annual TSS incidence was 0.07/100,000 population. Patients with nonmenstrual TSS were younger than those with menstrual TSS but had the same mortality rate. Children <16 years of age accounted for 39% of TSS cases, most caused by burns and skin and soft tissue infections...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350140/co-circulation-of-influenza-a-h5-h7-and-h9-viruses-and-co-infected-poultry-in-live-bird-markets-cambodia
#7
Paul F Horwood, Srey Viseth Horm, Annika Suttie, Sopheak Thet, Phalla Y, Sareth Rith, San Sorn, Davun Holl, Sothyra Tum, Sowath Ly, Erik A Karlsson, Arnaud Tarantola, Philippe Dussart
Longitudinal surveillance of 2 live bird markets in Cambodia revealed year-round, high co-circulation of H5, H7, and H9 influenza viruses. We detected influenza A viruses in 51.3% of ducks and 39.6% of chickens, and co-infections, mainly by H5 and H9 viruses, in 0.8% of ducks and 4.5% of chickens.
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350137/multiplex-pcr-based-next-generation-sequencing-and-global-diversity-of-seoul-virus-in-humans-and-rats
#8
Won-Keun Kim, Jin Sun No, Seung-Ho Lee, Dong Hyun Song, Daesang Lee, Jeong-Ah Kim, Se Hun Gu, Sunhye Park, Seong Tae Jeong, Heung-Chul Kim, Terry A Klein, Michael R Wiley, Gustavo Palacios, Jin-Won Song
Seoul virus (SEOV) poses a worldwide public health threat. This virus, which is harbored by Rattus norvegicus and R. rattus rats, is the causative agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans, which has been reported in Asia, Europe, the Americas, and Africa. Defining SEOV genome sequences plays a critical role in development of preventive and therapeutic strategies against the unique worldwide hantavirus. We applied multiplex PCR-based next-generation sequencing to obtain SEOV genome sequences from clinical and reservoir host specimens...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349398/unexplained-rupture-after-endovascular-aneurysm-repair
#9
Marie Josee Elizabeth van Rijn, Sander Ten Raa, Joke M Hendriks, Frederico Bastos Goncalves, Hence J M Verhagen
We present a case of a 70-year-old man who was admitted with rupture of an abdominal aneurysm 4 years after endovascular aneurysm repair. He was compliant with yearly follow-up computed tomography angiography. One month earlier, his computed tomography angiogram showed perfect exclusion of the aneurysm and no endoleak. We explanted the stent graft and confirmed effective sealing, and the graft was intact. We found no signs of infection during 2 years of follow-up. This rupture is nonpredictable and unexplained and illustrates that unremarkable imaging does not guarantee prevention of rupture...
September 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases and Innovative Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348170/crispr-rna-and-anti-crispr-protein-binding-to-the-xanthomonas-albilineans-csy1-csy2-heterodimer-in-the-type-i-f-crispr-cas-system
#10
Suji Hong, Donghyun Ka, Seo Jeong Yoon, Nayoung Suh, Migyeong Jeong, Jeong-Yong Suh, Euiyoung Bae
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins provide microbial adaptive immunity against bacteriophages. In type I-F CRISPR-Cas systems, multiple Cas proteins (Csy1-4) comprise a surveillance complex (Csy complex) with CRISPR RNA (crRNA) for target recognition. Here, we report the biochemical characterization of the Csy1-Csy2 subcomplex from Xanthomonas albilineans, including the analysis of its interaction with crRNA and also AcrF2, an anti-CRISPR (Acr) protein from a phage that infects Pseudomonas aeruginosa The X...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347972/extending-the-utility-of-the-who-recommended-assay-for-direct-detection-of-enteroviruses-from-clinical-specimen-for-resolving-poliovirus-co-infection
#11
Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas Faleye, Moses Olubusuyi Adewumi, Naomi Princess Ozegbe, Oluwaseun Elijah Ogunsakin, Grace Ariyo, Faith Wuraola Adeshina, Oluwaseun Sarah Ogunga, Similoluwa Deborah Oluwadare, Johnson Adekunle Adeniji
OBJECTIVES: In a polio-free world there might be reduced funding for poliovirus surveillance. There is therefore the need to ensure that enterovirologist globally, especially those outside the global polio laboratory network, can participate in poliovirus surveillance without neglecting their enterovirus type of interest. To accomplish this, assays are needed that allow such active participation. RESULTS: In this study we describes a sensitive and specific utility extension of the recently recommended WHO RT-snPCR assay that enables independent detection of the three poliovirus types especially in cases of co-infection...
January 18, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347937/monoclonal-antibody-based-colloid-gold-immunochromatographic-strip-for-the-rapid-detection-of-tomato-zonate-spot-tospovirus
#12
Yanbing Niu, Defu Wang, Liyan Cui, Baoxia Wang, Xiaojing Pang, Peixia Yu
BACKGROUND: Tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV), a new species of genus Tospovirus, caused significant losses in yield and problems in quality of many important vegetables and ornamentals in Southwest China and posed a serious threat to important economic crops for the local farmers. A convenient and reliable method was urgently needed for rapid detection and surveillance of TZSV. METHODS: The nucleocapsid protein (N) of TZSV was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified, and was used as the antigen to immunize BALB/c mice...
January 18, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347435/three-faces-of-node-importance-in-network-epidemiology-exact-results-for-small-graphs
#13
Petter Holme
We investigate three aspects of the importance of nodes with respect to susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) disease dynamics: influence maximization (the expected outbreak size given a set of seed nodes), the effect of vaccination (how much deleting nodes would reduce the expected outbreak size), and sentinel surveillance (how early an outbreak could be detected with sensors at a set of nodes). We calculate the exact expressions of these quantities, as functions of the SIR parameters, for all connected graphs of three to seven nodes...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346606/characteristics-of-cases-with-repeated-sexually-transmitted-infections-massachusetts-2014-2016
#14
Katherine K Hsu, Lauren E Molotnikov, Kathleen A Roosevelt, Heather R Elder, R Monina Klevens, Alfred DeMaria, Sevgi O Aral
Background: Persons with prior sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are at high risk for re-infection. No recent studies have examined the frequency with which persons within a geographic area are diagnosed and reported with multiple bacterial STIs over time. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, population-based study of confirmed syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infections reported to the Massachusetts state surveillance system within a two-year period, July 28, 2014 - July 27, 2016...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346336/respiratory-syncytial-virus-seasonality-united-states-2014-2017
#15
Erica Billig Rose, Alexandra Wheatley, Gayle Langley, Susan Gerber, Amber Haynes
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in young children worldwide (1-3). In the United States, RSV infection results in >57,000 hospitalizations and 2 million outpatient visits each year among children aged <5 years (3). Recent studies have highlighted the importance of RSV in adults as well as children (4). CDC reported RSV seasonality nationally, by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) regions* and for the state of Florida, using a new statistical method that analyzes polymerase chain reaction (PCR) laboratory detections reported to the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) (https://www...
January 19, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345996/delays-in-global-disease-outbreak-responses-lessons-from-h1n1-ebola-and-zika
#16
Steven J Hoffman, Sarah L Silverberg
In global disease outbreaks, there are significant time delays between the source of an outbreak and collective action. Some delay is necessary, but recent delays have been extended by insufficient surveillance capacity and time-consuming efforts to mobilize action. Three public health emergencies of international concern (PHEICs)-H1N1, Ebola, and Zika-allow us to identify and compare sources of delays and consider seven hypotheses about what influences the length of delays. These hypotheses can then motivate further research that empirically tests them...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345117/candida-auris-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-current-updates-on-an-emerging-multidrug-resistant-pathogen
#17
John Osei Sekyere
From 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a multidrug-resistant ascomycete yeast pathogen with the capacity for easy transmission between patients and hospitals, as well as persistence on environmental surfaces. Its association with high mortalities, breakthrough and persistent candidaemia, inconsistencies in susceptibility testing results, misidentification by available commercial identification systems and treatment failure, complicates its management and detection. Within the last nine years, C. auris has been increasingly reported from far-Eastern Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Europe, South and North America with substantial fatalities and misidentification...
January 18, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344838/association-between-human-brucellosis-and-adverse-pregnancy-outcome-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study
#18
Nesrin Ghanem-Zoubi, Silvia Pessah Eljay, Emilia Anis, Mical Paul
To investigate the association between the incidence of human brucellosis (HB) and adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs), a population-based, cross-sectional aggregate data study was conducted in Israel between 2010 and 2014. HB-endemic localities were matched by ethnicity, population size and socioeconomic status to localities with a low incidence of HB. We compared APO rates in high-incidence vs low-incidence localities. The primary outcome was intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD). Secondary outcomes were premature birth (less than 37 weeks), early or threatened labour and poor fetal growth...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344100/surgical-site-infection-prevention-an-analysis-of-compliance-with-good-practice-in-a-teaching-hospital
#19
Adriana Cristina de Oliveira, Camila Sarmento Gama
Background: Surgical teams play a critical role in reducing surgery-related risks during preoperative and intraoperative phases. Aim: To analyse the preoperative and intraoperative practices adopted by surgical teams in surgical site infections prevention. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted during April-September 2013 in a large university hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. It was conducted through observation of the surgical practice during preoperative and intraoperative phases of procedures used by a gastroenterological, cardiovascular and paediatric surgical team...
November 2017: Journal of Infection Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343690/experimental-infection-of-cattle-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-shows-the-attenuation-of-the-human-tubercle-bacillus-for-cattle
#20
Bernardo Villarreal-Ramos, Stefan Berg, Adam Whelan, Sebastien Holbert, Florence Carreras, Francisco J Salguero, Bhagwati L Khatri, Kerri Malone, Kevin Rue-Albrecht, Ronan Shaughnessy, Alicia Smyth, Gobena Ameni, Abraham Aseffa, Pierre Sarradin, Nathalie Winter, Martin Vordermeier, Stephen V Gordon
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is the collective term given to the group of bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB) in mammals. It has been reported that M. tuberculosis H37Rv, a standard reference MTBC strain, is attenuated in cattle compared to Mycobacterium bovis. However, as M. tuberculosis H37Rv was isolated in the early 1930s, and genetic variants are known to exist, we sought to revisit this question of attenuation of M. tuberculosis for cattle by performing a bovine experimental infection with a recent M...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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