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Infection surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654637/pathways-and-progress-to-enhanced-global-sexually-transmitted-infection-surveillance
#1
Melanie M Taylor, Eline Korenromp, Teodora Wi
Melanie Taylor and colleagues discuss global initiatives for surveillance of sexually transmitted diseases.
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654310/unique-infectious-strategy-of-h5n1-avian-influenza-virus-is-governed-by-the-acid-destabilized-property-of-hemagglutinin
#2
Tomo Daidoji, Yohei Watanabe, Yasuha Arai, Junichi Kajikawa, Ryohei Hirose, Takaaki Nakaya
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus emerged in 1997 as a zoonotic disease in Hong Kong. It has since spread to Asia and Europe and is a serious threat to both the poultry industry and human health. For effective surveillance and possible prevention/control of HPAI H5N1 viruses, it is necessary to understand the molecular mechanism underlying HPAI H5N1 pathogenesis. The hemagglutinin (HA) protein of influenza A viruses (IAVs) is one of the major determinants of host adaptation, transmissibility, and viral virulence...
June 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652937/primary-health-clinic-toilet-bathroom-surface-swab-sampling-can-indicate-community-profile-of-sexually-transmitted-infections
#3
Philip M Giffard, Jiunn-Yih Su, Patiyan Andersson, Deborah C Holt
BACKGROUND: The microbiome of built environment surfaces is impacted by the presence of humans. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that analysis of surface swabs from clinic toilet/bathroom yields results correlated with sexually transmitted infection (STI) notifications from corresponding human populations. We extended a previously reported study in which surfaces in toilet/bathroom facilities in primary health clinics in the Australian Northern Territory (NT) were swabbed then tested for nucleic acid from the STI agents Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652821/hiv-risk-and-barriers-to-care-for-african-born-immigrant-women-a-sociocultural-outlook
#4
Olihe N Okoro, Shanasha O Whitson
BACKGROUND: Data from the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 2015 show that African-born (AB) women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV. In 2015, these women accounted for more than half (54%) of all new cases of HIV reported among females in Minnesota and 34% of all known female cases in the state. This study was a needs assessment for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in vulnerable subgroups within the AB population and adequacy of HIV care for AB persons...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652214/elevated-levels-of-vwf-and-hmgb1-are-associated-with-disease-severity-and-clinical-outcome-of-scrub-typhus
#5
Hongliu Chen, Zong Ning, Ying Qiu, Yuanli Liao, Haihua Chang, Yuanyuan Ai, Yinghua Wei, Yiming Deng, Ying Shen
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether von Willebrand factor (vWF) and high mobility group box 1(HMGB1) were associated with severity and clinical outcome of scrub typhus and to seek novel biomarkers for surveillance and prognosis prediction of this infection. METHODS: Serum concentrations of vWF and HMGB1 were measured twice by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for scrub typhus patients (n = 103), one prior to doxycycline therapy and the other at the 7th day of doxycycline therapy, and once for health controls (n = 32)...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650987/accuracy-of-zika-virus-disease-case-definition-during-simultaneous-dengue-and-chikungunya-epidemics
#6
José Ueleres Braga, Clarisse Bressan, Ana Paula Razal Dalvi, Guilherme Amaral Calvet, Regina Paiva Daumas, Nadia Rodrigues, Mayumi Wakimoto, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Carlos Brito, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Patrícia Brasil
BACKGROUND: Zika is a new disease in the American continent and its surveillance is of utmost importance, especially because of its ability to cause neurological manifestations as Guillain-Barré syndrome and serious congenital malformations through vertical transmission. The detection of suspected cases by the surveillance system depends on the case definition adopted. As the laboratory diagnosis of Zika infection still relies on the use of expensive and complex molecular techniques with low sensitivity due to a narrow window of detection, most suspected cases are not confirmed by laboratory tests, mainly reserved for pregnant women and newborns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650982/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-among-pregnant-women-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#7
Meseret Abebe, Ibrahim Ali, Samuel Ayele, Johakim Overbo, Abraham Aseffa, Adane Mihret
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is highly endemic in several African countries with high mortality rate among pregnant women. The prevalence of antibodies to HEV in Ethiopian pregnant women is not known. The study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HEV IgM among pregnant women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 386 serum samples were collected from pregnant women between April 2014 to January 2015 in Gandhi Memorial Hospital and four selected Health centers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650381/potential-for-immune-driven-viral-polymorphisms-to-compromise-antiretroviral-based-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-prevention-of-hiv-1-infection
#8
Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Zabrina L Brumme, Emily Adland, Gustavo Reyes-Terán, Santiago Avila-Rios, Carlos R Mejía-Villatoro, Tsunefusa Hayashida, Takayuki Chikata, Giang Van Tran, Kinh Van Nguyen, Rita I Meza, Elsa Y Palou, Humberto Valenzuela-Ponce, Juan M Pascale, Guillermo Porras-Cortés, Marvin Manzanero, Guinevere Q Lee, Jeffrey N Martin, Mary N Carrington, Mina John, Simon Mallal, Art F Y Poon, Philip Goulder, Masafumi Takiguchi, Shinichi Oka
OBJECTIVE: Long-acting rilpivirine is a candidate for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for prevention of HIV-1 infection. However, rilpivirine resistance mutations at reverse transcriptase codon 138 (RT-E138X) occur naturally in a minority of HIV-1-infected persons; in particular those expressing Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-B*18 where RT-E138X arises as an immune escape mutation. We investigate the global prevalence, B*18-linkage and replicative cost of RT-E138X and its regional implications for rilpivirine PrEP...
June 23, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650313/molecular-mechanisms-and-epidemiology-of-resistance-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-the-middle-east-region
#9
Grace El Moujaber, Marwan Osman, Rayane Rafei, Fouad Dabboussi, Monzer Hamze
PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a commensal bacterium that normally colonizes the human nasopharyngeal cavity. Once disseminated, it can cause several diseases, ranging from non-invasive infections such as acute otitis media and sinusitis through to invasive infections with higher mortality, including meningitis and septicaemia. Since the identification of the first S. pneumoniae strain with decreased susceptibility to penicillin in the 1960s, antibiotic resistance among S. pneumoniae has increased disturbingly and the mechanisms of resistance have begun to unfold...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649564/primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-an-update-on-clinical-aspects-genetics-diagnosis-and-future-treatment-strategies
#10
REVIEW
Virginia Mirra, Claudius Werner, Francesca Santamaria
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an orphan disease (MIM 244400), autosomal recessive inherited, characterized by motile ciliary dysfunction. The estimated prevalence of PCD is 1:10,000 to 1:20,000 live-born children, but true prevalence could be even higher. PCD is characterized by chronic upper and lower respiratory tract disease, infertility/ectopic pregnancy, and situs anomalies, that occur in ≈50% of PCD patients (Kartagener syndrome), and these may be associated with congenital heart abnormalities...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649306/decreasing-prevalence-of-transmitted-drug-resistance-among-art-naive-hiv-1-infected-patients-in-iceland-1996-2012
#11
Malik Sallam, Gülşen Özkaya Şahin, Hlynur Indriðason, Joakim Esbjörnsson, Arthur Löve, Anders Widell, Magnus Gottfreðsson, Patrik Medstrand
Introduction: Resistance to antiretroviral drugs can complicate the management of HIV-1 infection and impair control of its spread. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence and transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance among 106 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients diagnosed in Iceland (1996-2012). Methods: HIV-1 polymerase sequences were analysed using the Calibrated Population Resistance tool. Domestic spread of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) was investigated through maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648963/the-association-between-diabetes-level-of-glycaemic-control-and-eye-infection-cohort-database-study
#12
Abdus Samad Ansari, Simon de Lusignan, William Hinton, Neil Munro, Andrew McGovern
AIM: To examine whether diabetes and the degree of glycaemic control is associated with an increased risk of acute eye infection, and prescribing of ocular antimicrobial agents. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective cohort study was carried out using the Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre database (RCGP RSC), a large primary care database in the United Kingdom. We compared ocular infection rates in people aged ≥15 years without diabetes to those with diabetes, both type 1 and type 2...
June 22, 2017: Primary Care Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648861/preparing-clinicians-for-re-emerging-arbovirus-infectious-diseases-in-europe
#13
REVIEW
Louise Sigfrid, Chantal Reusken, Isabella Eckerle, Veronique Nussenblatt, Sam Lipworth, Janey Messina, Moritz Kraemer, Onder Ergonul, Anna Papa, Marion Koopmans, Peter Horby
BACKGROUND: Arthropod-borne virus (Arbovirus) infections are considered an emerging threat for Europe, with an increase in cases in recent decades. The increase in global travel and trade has contributed to the introduction of vectors and viruses into new geographical areas. Tropical arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya have re-emerged causing local, sporadic outbreaks ignited by travel-imported cases. The recent Zika virus outbreak in the Americas highlighted a need to strengthen preparedness to (re-)emerging arbovirus infections globally...
June 22, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647984/-screening-on-key-techniques-used-for-surveillance-and-disposal-of-public-health-emergencies
#14
Q R Zhu, L Yang, H Y Ma, W Q Xie, L M Cong, L W Xu
Objective: To explore the key techniques used for surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases, food poisoning and hospital infection to improve the ability of surveillance and disposal on public health emergency. Methods: Framework on surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases, food poisoning and hospital infection was set up, based on literature review and expert group discussion. Delphi method and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution comprehensive evaluation method were used for ordering preference by similarity, to screen key techniques set for surveillance and disposal of the above said events...
June 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647907/a-constant-companion-immune-recognition-and-response-to-cytomegalovirus-with-aging-and-implications-for-immune-fitness
#15
REVIEW
Aisha Souquette, Justin Frere, Megan Smithey, Delphine Sauce, Paul G Thomas
Approximately 50% of individuals aged 6-49 years in the United States are infected with cytomegalovirus (CMV), with seroprevalence increasing with age, reaching 85-90% by 75-80 years according to Bate et al. (Clin Infect Dis 50 (11): 1439-1447, 2010) and Pawelec et al. (Curr Opin Immunol 24:507-511, 2012). Following primary infection, CMV establishes lifelong latency with periodic reactivation. Immunocompetent hosts experience largely asymptomatic infection, but CMV can cause serious illness in immunocompromised populations, such as transplant patients and the elderly...
June 24, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647765/epidemiology-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-target-population-for-surveillance-and-diagnosis
#16
REVIEW
An Tang, Oussama Hallouch, Victoria Chernyak, Aya Kamaya, Claude B Sirlin
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Incidence rates of liver cancer vary widely between geographic regions and are highest in Eastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In the United States, the incidence of HCC has increased since the 1980s. HCC detection at an early stage through surveillance and curative therapy has considerably improved the 5-year survival. Therefore, medical societies advocate systematic screening and surveillance of target populations at particularly high risk for developing HCC to facilitate early-stage detection...
June 24, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647172/infection-related-microcephaly-after-the-2015-and-2016-zika-virus-outbreaks-in-brazil-a-surveillance-based-analysis
#17
Wanderson Kleber de Oliveira, Giovanny Vinícius Araújo de França, Eduardo Hage Carmo, Bruce Bartholow Duncan, Ricardo de Souza Kuchenbecker, Maria Inês Schmidt
BACKGROUND: On Nov 11, 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health declared a Public Health Emergency of National Concern in response to an increased number of microcephaly cases, possibly related to previous Zika virus outbreaks. We describe the course of the dual epidemics of the Zika virus infection during pregnancy and microcephaly in Brazil up to Nov 12, 2016, the first anniversary of this declaration. METHODS: We used secondary data for Zika virus and microcephaly cases obtained through the Brazilian Ministry of Health's surveillance systems from Jan 1, 2015, to Nov 12, 2016...
June 21, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646219/efficient-and-unbiased-metagenomic-recovery-of-rna-virus-genomes-from-human-plasma-samples
#18
Carmen F Manso, David F Bibby, Jean L Mbisa
RNA viruses cause significant human pathology and are responsible for the majority of emerging zoonoses. Mainstream diagnostic assays are challenged by their intrinsic diversity, leading to false negatives and incomplete characterisation. New sequencing techniques are expanding our ability to agnostically interrogate nucleic acids within diverse sample types, but in the clinical setting are limited by overwhelming host material and ultra-low target frequency. Through selective host RNA depletion and compensatory protocol adjustments for ultra-low RNA inputs, we are able to detect three major blood-borne RNA viruses - HIV, HCV and HEV...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645883/the-first-nationwide-surveillance-of-antibacterial-susceptibility-patterns-of-pathogens-isolated-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-dermatology-departments-in-japan
#19
Shinichi Watanabe, Takamitsu Ohnishi, Akira Yuasa, Hiroshi Kiyota, Satoshi Iwata, Mitsuo Kaku, Akira Watanabe, Junko Sato, Hideaki Hanaki, Motomu Manabe, Tamio Suzuki, Fujio Otsuka, Michiko Aihara, Ken Iozumi, Takeshi Tamaki, Yuichi Funada, Mikio Shinozaki, Motoko Kobayashi, Masaru Okuda, Go Kikyo, Kumi Kikuchi, Yoshitane Okada, Masanori Takeshima, Osamu Kaneko, Natsuki Ogawa, Rie Ito, Ryuhei Okuyama, Shinji Shimada, Tadamichi Shimizu, Naohito Hatta, Maeda Manabu, Kiyohiro Tsutsui, Toshihiro Tanaka, Yoshiki Miyachi, Hideo Asada, Fukumi Furukawa, Ichiro Kurokawa, Keiji Iwatsuki, Michihiro Hide, Masahiko Muto, Osamu Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Niihara, Kenji Takagaki, Yasuo Kubota, Koji Sayama, Shigetoshi Sano, Masutaka Furue, Takuro Kanekura
To investigate the trends of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens isolated from skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTI) at dermatology departments in Japan, a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide survey in 2013. Three main organisms were collected from SSTI at 30 dermatology departments in medical centers and 10 dermatology clinics. A total of 860 strains - 579 of Staphylococcus aureus, 240 of coagulase-negative Staphylococci, and 41 of Streptococcus pyogenes - were collected and shipped to a central laboratory for antimicrobial susceptibility testing...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645839/antibiotic-prophylaxis-adequacy-in-knee-arthroplasty-and-surgical-wound-infection-prospective-cohort-study
#20
J A Del-Moral-Luque, A Checa-García, Á López-Hualda, M C Villar-Del-Campo, J Martínez-Martín, F J Moreno-Coronas, J Montejo-Sancho, G Rodríguez-Caravaca
OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic prophylaxis is the most suitable tool for preventing surgical wound infection. This study evaluated adequacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery for knee arthroplasty and its effect on surgical site infection. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Prospective cohort study. We assessed the degree of adequacy of antibiotic prophylaxis, the causes of non-adequacy, and the effect of non-adequacy on surgical site infection. Incidence of surgical site infection was studied after a maximum incubation period of a year...
June 20, 2017: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
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