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Infection surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161487/virological-surveillance-of-aedes-stegomyia-aegypti-and-aedes-stegomyia-albopictus-as-support-for-decision-making-for-dengue-control-in-medell%C3%A3-n
#1
Juliana Pérez-Pérez, William H Sanabria, Carolina Restrepo, Raúl Rojo, Enrique Henao, Omar Triana, Ana María Mejía, Sandra M Castaño, Guillermo L Rúa-Uribe
INTRODUCTION: Dengue represents an important public health problem in Colombia. No treatment is available and the vaccine has not been approved in all countries, hence, actions should be strengthened to mitigate its impact through the control of Aedes aegypti, the vector mosquito. In Colombia, surveillance is done using entomological indexes and case notification, which is usually informed late, leading to untimely interventions. Viral detection in urban mosquitoes using molecular techniques provides more accurate entomological information for decision-making...
March 29, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161485/aedes-albopictus-skuse-1894-infected-with-the-american-asian-genotype-of-dengue-type-2-virus-in-medell%C3%A3-n-suggests-its-possible-role-as-vector-of-dengue-fever-in-colombia
#2
Andrés Gómez-Palacio, Juan Suaza-Vasco, Sandra Castaño, Omar Triana, Sandra Uribe
INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are recognized vectors of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika arboviruses in several countries worldwide. In Colombia, Ae. albopictus geographical distribution has increased to include highly populated cities such as Cali and Medellín. Although this species has been frequently found in urban and semi-urban zones in the country, its role as vector of the dengue fever is poorly known. OBJECTIVE: To identify the presence of Ae...
March 29, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161275/hiv-prevalence-and-behavioral-risk-factors-in-the-sudan-people-s-liberation-army-data-from-south-sudan
#3
Lauren P Courtney, Norman Goco, John Woja, Tonya Farris, Chris Cummiskey, Emily Smith, Lia Makuach, Helen M Chun
OVERVIEW: After two decades of civil war, South Sudan has limited published data on HIV prevalence and behavioral determinants of HIV infection risk. A surge in HIV/AIDS prevalence is a real concern for this new country with limited access to medical or HIV preventive services, and low education and literacy levels. We present findings from the first bio-behavioral surveillance survey conducted within the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 1,149 randomly selected soldiers from thirteen SPLA bases was conducted in two phases: July to August 2010 and April to May 2012...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160513/detection-of-schistosomiasis-in-an-area-directly-affected-by-the-s%C3%A3-o-francisco-river-large-scale-water-transposition-project-in-the-northeast-of-brazil
#4
José Damião da Silva, Marta Cristhiany Cunha Pinheiro, Mariana Silva Sousa, Vivian da Silva Gomes, Issis Maria Nogueira de Castro, Alberto Novaes Ramos, Fernando Schemelzer de Moraes Bezerra
INTRODUCTION: The development of the São Francisco River Integration Project [Projeto de Integração do Rio São Francisco (PISF)] in the State of Ceará, Brazil, has resulted in environmental and socioeconomic changes with potential risks to public health. We aimed to determine the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infections in schoolchildren (aged 7-14 years) and workers from the construction site in an area under the direct influence of the PISF in the municipality of Brejo Santo-CE, to aid in the prevention and control of schistosomiasis...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159889/a-systematic-surveillance-programme-for-infectious-salmon-anaemia-virus-supports-its-absence-in-the-pacific-northwest-of-the-united-states
#5
L L Gustafson, L H Creekmore, K R Snekvik, J A Ferguson, J V Warg, M Blair, T R Meyers, B Stewart, K I Warheit, J Kerwin, A E Goodwin, L D Rhodes, J E Whaley, M K Purcell, C Bentz, D Shasa, J Bader, J R Winton
In response to reported findings of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in British Columbia (BC), Canada, in 2011, U.S. national, state and tribal fisheries managers and fish health specialists developed and implemented a collaborative ISAV surveillance plan for the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Accordingly, over a 3-1/2-year period, 4,962 salmonids were sampled and successfully tested by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. The sample set included multiple tissues from free-ranging Pacific salmonids from coastal regions of Alaska and Washington and farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158918/challenges-with-surveillance-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-intensive-care-units-in-south-africa
#6
Saajida Mahomed, Ozayr Mahomed, A Willem Sturm, Stephen Knight, Prashini Moodley
Background: The incidence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in the public health sector in South Africa is not known due to the lack of a surveillance system. We report on the challenges experienced in the implementation of a surveillance system for HAIs in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods: A passive, paper-based surveillance system was piloted in eight ICUs to measure the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and central line-associated bloodstream infection...
2017: Critical Care Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158429/b-cell-presentation-of-chlamydia-antigen-selects-out-protective-cd4%C3%AE-13-t-cells-implications-for-genital-tract-tissue-resident-memory-lymphocyte-clusters
#7
Raymond M Johnson, Hong Yu, Norma Olivares Strank, Karuna Karunakaran, Ying Zhu, Robert C Brunham
Surveillance and defense of the enormous mucosal interface with the nonsterile world is critical to protecting the host from a wide range of pathogens. Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that replicates almost exclusively in the epithelium of the reproductive tract. The fallopian tubes and vagina are poorly suited to surveillance and defense with limited immune infrastructure positioned near the epithelium. However, a dynamic process during clearing primary infections leaves behind new lymphoid clusters immediately beneath the epithelium...
November 20, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158139/expression-and-evaluation-of-recombinant-p32-protein-based-elisa-for-sero-diagnostic-potential-of-capripox-in-sheep-and-goats
#8
Gnanavel Venkatesan, Mahesh Kumar Teli, Muthu Sankar, Amit Kumar, M Dashprakash, Sargam Arya, Aparna Madhavan, Muthannan Andavar Ramakrisnan, Awadh Bihari Pandey
The study is aimed to develop and evaluate a recombinant P32 protein based ELISA for sero-monitoring and sero-surveillance using known and suspected serum samples for capripox from sheep and goats. Truncated P32 gene of goatpox virus (with an ORF of 750 bp) was expressed in E. coli BL-21 CodonPlus (DE3) cells using pET32a vector and characterized by SDS-PAGE analysis and confirmed by western blotting as 48 KDa Poly-His tagged fusion protein. The protein was purified under denaturing conditions using 8M urea and characterized by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting...
November 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158047/-fatal-case-of-enterovirus-a71%C3%A2-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-infection
#9
V Corvest, C Archimbaud, A-S L'Honneur, C Henquell, H Peigue-Lafeuille, M Decobert, A Mirand
Hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with enterovirus (EV) infections is a common pediatric pathology that is usually considered as benign. However, neurological complications of varying severity, sometimes fatal, are possible, particularly when EV-A71 is involved. Several Asian countries are regularly affected by large-scale epidemics of EV infections with substantial morbidity and mortality, where early screening and appropriate therapeutic management are a public health challenge. In 2016, Europe experienced an epidemic of unusual magnitude, associated with increasing cases of severe neurological complications in Spain and France, mainly affecting children...
November 17, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158015/acute-bee-paralysis-virus-occurs-in-the-asian-honey-bee-apis-cerana-and-parasitic-mite-tropilaelaps-mercedesae
#10
Pichaya Chanpanitkitchote, Yanping Chen, Jay D Evans, Wenfeng Li, Jianghong Li, Michele Hamilton, Panuwan Chantawannakul
Viruses, and especially RNA viruses, constantly change and adapt to new host species and vectors, posing a potential threat of new and reemerging infectious diseases. Honey bee Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and Deformed wing virus (DWV) are two of the most common honey bee viruses found in European honey bees Apis mellifera and have been implicated in worldwide Varroa-associated bee colony losses. Previous studies have shown that DWV has jumped hosts several times in history causing infection in multiple host species...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157378/monitoring-breeding-herd-production-data-to-detect-prrsv-outbreaks
#11
G S Silva, M Schwartz, R B Morrison, D C L Linhares
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) causes substantial economic impact due to significant losses in productivity. Thus, measuring changes in farm productivity before and after PRRS infection enables quantifying the production and economic impact of outbreaks. This study assessed the application of exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA), a statistical process control method, on selected production data (number of abortions, pre-weaning mortality rate and prenatal losses) to supplement PRRS surveillance programs by detecting significant deviations on productivity in a production system with 55,000 sows in 14 breed-to-wean herds in Minnesota, U...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157368/livestock-as-sentinels-for-an-infectious-disease-in-a-sympatric-or-adjacent-living-wildlife-reservoir-host
#12
D P Anderson, A M Gormley, M Bosson, P G Livingstone, G Nugent
A central question to address in managing wildlife diseases is how much effort and resources are required to reduce infection prevalence to below a requisite threshold? This requires surveillance for infection in at least one species involved in the infection cycle, a process that is often expensive and time-consuming but one which could be enhanced using additional sources of readily-obtainable surveillance data. We demonstrate how surveillance data from ruminant livestock monitored for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in New Zealand can be employed in spatially-explicit modelling to help predict the probability of freedom from Mycobacterium bovis infection in a sympatric wildlife reservoir species, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156047/immunopathogenesis-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#13
Tai-Chung Tseng, Li-Rung Huang
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health issue. There are >250 million people chronically infected with HBV, and these chronic carriers are at high risk of developing end-stage liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) usually acquire the virus perinatally, while most patients infected during adulthood develop acute hepatitis B (AHB), which usually results in viral clearance. HBV infection is noncytopathic, and liver injury is mostly contributed by host immune responses...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155877/immune-response-profiles-of-calves-following-vaccination-with-live-bcg-and-inactivated-mycobacterium-bovis-vaccine-candidates
#14
E M D L van der Heijden, J Chileshe, J C M Vernooij, C Gortazar, R A Juste, I Sevilla, J E Crafford, V P M G Rutten, A L Michel
Conventional control and eradication strategies for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) face tremendous difficulties in developing countries; countries with wildlife reservoirs, a complex wildlife-livestock-human interface or a lack of veterinary and veterinary public health surveillance. Vaccination of cattle and other species might in some cases provide the only suitable control strategy for BTB, while in others it may supplement existing test-and-slaughter schemes. However, the use of live BCG has several limitations and the global rise of HIV/AIDS infections has furthermore warranted the exploration of inactivated vaccine preparations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155819/determinants-of-site-of-tuberculosis-disease-an-analysis-of-european-surveillance-data-from-2003-to-2014
#15
Giovanni Sotgiu, Dennis Falzon, Vahur Hollo, Csaba Ködmön, Nicolas Lefebvre, Andrei Dadu, Marieke van der Werf
BACKGROUND: We explored host-related factors associated with the site of tuberculosis (TB) disease using variables routinely collected by the 31 EU/EEA countries for national surveillance. METHODS: Logistic regression models were fitted to case-based surveillance data reported to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control for TB cases notified from 2003 to 2014. Missing data on HIV infection and on susceptibility to isoniazid and rifampicin for many patients precluded the inclusion of these variables in the analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155082/association-of-gastric-intestinal-metaplasia-and-east-asian-ethnicity-with-the-risk-of-gastric-adenocarcinoma-in-a-u-s-population
#16
Alyssa Y Choi, Lisa L Strate, Matthew C Fix, Rodney A Schmidt, Alexander R Ende, Matthew M Yeh, John M Inadomi, Joo Ha Hwang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although the incidence of gastric cancer is higher than esophageal cancer in the United States, no screening or surveillance guidelines exist. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between gastric intestinal metaplasia and the risk of gastric cancer in a U.S. tertiary care system with a large immigrant population. METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control study with cases of biopsy-proven gastric cancer matched (by age and gender) to controls without gastric cancer who had undergone EGD...
November 16, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155018/emerging-infections-are-an-increasingly-important-topic
#17
REVIEW
Eskild Petersen, Nicola Petrosillo, Marion Koopmans
OBJECTIVES: This paper review trends in emerging infections and the need for increased clinical and laboratory surveillance. METHODS: Factors that contributed to the emergence of recent outbreaks have been reviewed. Known, major outbreaks over the past two decades were reviewed. RESULTS: We identified at least four major drivers of emergent infections: i. increasing density of the human population; ii. stress from farmland expansion on the environment; iii...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154984/five-supernumerary-renal-arteries-originating-from-the-aorta-associated-with-ureteropelvic-junction-upj-extrinsic-compression
#18
Alexander K Chow, Leslie A Deane
A 65-year-old female presented with recurrent urinary tract infections. A computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis shows a dilated and malrotated right renal pelvis consistent with a ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction as well as multiple renal arteries arising from the aorta. A computed tomography angiography (CTA) revealed five separate renal arteries originating from the aorta with a single renal artery crossing over and obstructing the right renal pelvis. On Lasix renogram, the affected kidney contributes 45% of total renal function...
November 15, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152890/influenza-associated-severe-acute-respiratory-infections-in-two-sentinel-sites-in-lebanon-september-2015-to-august-2016
#19
Majd Saleh, Lara Bazzi, Ebstissam Ismail, Lina Mroueh, Nisrine Jammal, Amgad Elkholy, Pamela Mrad, Ahmad Al Samadi, Ahmad Hijazi, Firass Abiad, Ghazi Nsouli, Alissar Rady, Wasiq Khan, Mamunur Malik, Pierre Zalloua, Walid Ammar, Nada Ghosn
BACKGROUND: Given the sparse information on burden of influenza in Lebanon, the Ministry of Public Health established a sentinel surveillance for Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARI) to identify the attribution of influenza to reported cases. We aim to highlight the proportion of influenza-associated SARI from September 1(st) 2015 to August 31(st) 2016 in two Lebanese hospitals. METHODS: The study was conducted in two sentinel sites located in Beirut suburbs and Southern province of Lebanon...
November 20, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152877/rapid-risk-assessment-during-the-early-weeks-of-the-2015-2016-influenza-season-in-ukraine
#20
Sophie Newitt, Alla Mironenko, Olha Holubka, Oleksandr Zaika, Olga Gubar, Katri Jalava, Caroline Brown, Iryna Demchyshyna, Tetiana Dykhanovska
BACKGROUND: Several eastern European countries reported a severe influenza season to the World Health Organization (WHO) during late 2015. A country-specific rapid risk assessment for Ukraine was conducted to assess the season's severity and inform public health action.. METHODS: The exposure and hazard were assessed using acute respiratory infection (ARI), severe acute respiratory infection (SARI), laboratory surveillance, virological and vaccine data from weeks 40/2015 to 7/2016 with comparison to four previous seasons to describe the influenza season start (five week consecutive increase in ARI or SARI),, predominant virus types, geographical spread and affected age groups ...
November 20, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
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