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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933559/-contribution-of-nested-pcr-in-the-diagnosis-of-imported-malaria-in-southern-algeria
#1
L Bouiba, B Gassen, M Gasmi, D Hammadi, Z Harrat
The nested PCR was used to estimate its inputs in malaria diagnosis and in the performance of the microscope operators involved in the surveillance of malaria in remote areas of South Algeria. For the period 2010 to 2015, 112 patients (93 febrile and 19 asymptomatic) coming from sub-Saharan Africa were tested for malaria in the hospital of Tamanrasset. One part of the blood taken from fingertip was used for blood smears and the second part was absorbed in filter paper for molecular diagnosis. Overall, the infection was detected by nested PCR in 63 samples versus 53 by direct examination...
December 8, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932454/inducible-colonic-m-cells-are-dependent-on-tnfr2-but-not-lt%C3%AE-r-identifying-distinct-signaling-requirements-for-constitutive-versus-inducible-m-cells
#2
Erinn A Parnell, Erin M Walch, David D Lo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: M cells associated with organized lymphoid tissues such as intestinal Peyer's patches provide surveillance of the intestinal lumen. Inflammation or infection in the colon can induce an M cell population associated with lymphoid infiltrates; paradoxically, induction is dependent on the inflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α. Anti-TNFα blockade is an important therapeutic in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, so understanding the effects of TNFα signaling is important in refining therapeutics...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931935/behaviour-of-european-badgers-and-non-target-species-towards-candidate-baits-for-oral-delivery-of-a-tuberculosis-vaccine
#3
Andrew Robertson, Richard J Delahay, Robbie A McDonald, Paul Aylett, Ray Henderson, Sonya Gowtage, Mark A Chambers, Stephen P Carter
In the UK and the Republic of Ireland, the European badger (Meles meles) is a maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis, and may transmit the infection to cattle causing bovine tuberculosis (TB). Vaccination of badgers using an injectable Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is undertaken in some areas of the UK with the intention of interrupting this transmission, and vaccination research is underway in Ireland. An oral badger TB vaccine is also under development. We investigated the behaviour of badgers and non-target wildlife species towards three candidate baits being considered for delivering BCG to badgers orally...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931923/assessing-the-sensitivity-of-european-surveillance-for-detecting-bse-in-cattle-according-to-international-standards
#4
Amie Adkin, Robin Simons, Mark Arnold
European surveillance for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), initiated in 2001, has shown a steady exponential decline in the number of infected cattle, demonstrating that control measures have been effective. In 2016 23 European countries out of 28 demonstrated negligible risk status for the disease. The international standard setting body, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), prescribes that for countries where there is a non-negligible BSE risk, surveillance should allow the detection of one case per 100,000 in the adult cattle population with 95% confidence (Type A surveillance)...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931921/risk-factors-for-taenia-saginata-cysticercus-infection-in-cattle-in-the-united-kingdom-a-farm-level-case-control-study-and-assessment-of-the-role-of-movement-history-age-and-sex
#5
L R Marshall, B Chengat Prakashbabu, J Pinto Ferreira, S N Buzdugan, K D C Stärk, J Guitian
Bovine cysticercosis is caused by Taenia saginata cysticercus, the larval stage of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. Recent European initiatives have highlighted the poor sensitivity of current surveillance for this parasite in cattle at slaughter; calling for more targeted, risk based and cost effective methods of T. saginata cysticercus detection. The aim of this study was to provide evidence that could inform such improved meat inspection activities in the United Kingdom (UK). The study included three components: (i) a farm-level case control study; (ii) the characterization of the network of movements of T...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931680/reactivation-or-reinfection-in-adult-tuberculosis-is-that-the-question
#6
Pere-Joan Cardona
Looking at the chapter on "natural history" in any tuberculosis (TB) reference book, there is a kind of certainty regarding TB in adults. That is the concept of "post-primary" TB described as the reactivation of dormant bacilli hidden in an old lesion developed during infancy due to a type of local immunosuppression. Intriguingly, this concept involves at least two major uncertainties: how can dormant bacilli remain for such a long period, almost a lifetime, in an old lesion, taking into account granuloma dynamism; and what sort of local immunosuppression is the one that facilitates reactivation? The controversy between reactivation and exogenous reinfection as the cause of active TB started very soon in TB research...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931241/surveillance-of-nosocomial-infections-in-the-yaounde-university-teaching-hospital-cameroon
#7
Julienne Stéphanie Nouetchognou, Jérôme Ateudjieu, Bonaventure Jemea, Edmond Nzene Mesumbe, Dora Mbanya
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections (NI) represent a real public health problem in developing countries. Their surveillance is recommended to provide needed information for better control. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and distribution of NI in the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital (YUTH). METHODS: It was a longitudinal and descriptive study targeting hospitalized patients in the intensive care, gynaecological, surgical and neonatal units...
December 8, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931229/a-national-health-facility-survey-of-malaria-infection-among-febrile-patients-in-kenya-2014
#8
Sophie Githinji, Abdisalan M Noor, Josephine Malinga, Peter M Macharia, Rebecca Kiptui, Ahmeddin Omar, Kiambo Njagi, Ejersa Waqo, Robert W Snow
BACKGROUND: The use of malaria infection prevalence among febrile patients at clinics has a potential to be a valuable epidemiological surveillance tool. However, routine data are incomplete and not all fevers are tested. This study was designed to screen all fevers for malaria infection in Kenya to explore the epidemiology of fever test positivity rates. METHODS: Random sampling was used within five malaria epidemiological zones of Kenya (i.e., high lake endemic, moderate coast endemic, highland epidemic, seasonal low transmission and low risk zones)...
December 8, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929758/determinants-of-influenza-vaccination-among-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-attending-sicilian-reference-centre
#9
Vincenzo Restivo, Giovanni Vizzini, Alessandra Mularoni, Cinzia Di Benedetto, Santi Mauro Gioè, Francesco Vitale
In solid organ transplant recipients, influenza infection is commonly associated with higher morbidity and mortality than immunocompetent hosts. Therefore, in these subjects influenza vaccination is of paramount importance. The main objective of the study was to assess compliance to vaccination and analyze factors associated with influenza vaccination of solid organ transplant recipients admitted to the Sicilian solid organ transplant Reference Center IRCCS-ISMETT in Palermo during 2014-2015 influenza season...
December 8, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929744/surveillance-of-poliomyelitis-in-northern-italy-results-of-acute-flaccid-paralysis-surveillance-and-environmental-surveillance-2012-2015
#10
Laura Pellegrinelli, Laura Bubba, Valeria Primache, Elena Pariani, Andrea Battistone, Roberto Delogu, Fiore Stefano, Sandro Binda
Although in the last years poliovirus (PV) transmission has been reported at the lowest levels ever recorded, the spread of virus from endemic countries endures; the high levels of immigration flows across the Mediterranean Sea jeopardize Italy for PV reintroduction. The World Health Organization (WHO) strategic plan for global poliomyelitis (polio) eradication indicates the nationwide surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) as the gold standard for detecting cases of polio. In addition, the Environmental Surveillance (ES), seeking the presence of PV and Non-Polio Enterovirus (NPEV) in sewage, is recognized as a powerful tool to confirm PV circulation in absence of AFP cases, especially in polio-free countries...
December 8, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929354/differences-in-mrsa-prevalence-and-resistance-patterns-in-a-tertiary-center-before-and-after-joining-an-international-program-for-surveillance-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#11
Olivera Djuric, Snezana Jovanovic, Branka Stosovic, Tanja Tosic, Milica Jovanovic, Naomi Nartey, Jovana Todorovic, Ljiljana Markovic-Denic
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) emerged as one of the most important causes of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (BSIs), especially the multidrug resistant clones. The aim of the present study was to compare prevalence and resistance patterns of MRSA bacteremia in the major tertiary-care academic and referral center in Serbia before and after implementing an active antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. Laboratory-based before-after study was conducted during a two-year period (January 2012 to December 2013) in Clinical Centre of Serbia...
December 8, 2016: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928533/mosquito-surveillance-and-the-first-record-of-the-invasive-mosquito-species-aedes-stegomyia-albopictus-skuse-diptera-culicidae-in-southern-iran
#12
Sara Doosti, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Francis Schaffner, Seyed Hassan Moosa-Kazemi, Kamran Akbarzadeh, Mohammad Mehdi Gooya, Hassan Vatandoost, Mohammad Reza Shirzadi, Ehsan Mosta-Favi
BACKGROUND: Epidemics of mosquito-borne viral infections such as dengue, chikungunya, West Nile and Rift Valley fevers in neighbouring countries and risk of introduction of exotic vectors into Iran have placed this country at a significant risk for these mosquito-borne diseases. METHODS: After the first dengue case reported in Iran in 2008, active entomological surveillance of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus) were conducted in May/Jun, Sep, and Oct/Nov, 2008-2014...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928448/antimicrobial-resistance-temporal-trend-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-blood
#13
Gavriliu Lc, Benea Oe, Benea S
Background. According to the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network, Romania reports an increasing number of resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from invasive infections every year. Material and Method. We analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from blood in 2010 and 2015 in "Matei Bals" National Institute of Infectious Diseases, in order to identify any significant changes in the last five years. Results. We identified 18 strains in 2010 and 37 strains in 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927871/severity-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-with-viral-coinfection-in-hiv-uninfected-children
#14
Natalie I Mazur, Louis Bont, Adam L Cohen, Cheryl Cohen, Anne von Gottberg, Michelle J Groome, Orienka Hellferscee, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Omphile Tschegofatso Mekgoe, Fathima Naby, Jocelyn Moyes, Stefano Tempia, Florette K Treurnicht, Marietje Venter, Sibongile Walaza, Nicole Wolter, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: Molecular diagnostics enable sensitive detection of respiratory viruses but their clinical significance remains unclear in pediatric lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). We aimed to determine whether viral coinfections increased life-threatening disease in a large cohort. METHODS: Molecular testing was performed for respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from children aged <5 years within 24 hours of hospital admission during sentinel surveillance for Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) hospitalisation conducted in South Africa during February 2009-December 2013...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927856/the-long-term-mortality-of-tuberculosis-meningitis-patients-in-new-york-city-a-cohort-study
#15
Christopher Vinnard, Liza King, Sonal Munsiff, Aldo Crossa, Kentaro Iwata, Jotam Pasipanodya, Douglas Proops, Shama Ahuja
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) is the most devastating clinical presentation of infection with M. tuberculosis; delayed initiation of effective anti-tuberculosis (TB) therapy is associated with poor treatment outcomes. Our objective was to determine the relationship between drug resistance and 10-year mortality among TBM patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 324 patients with culture-confirmed TBM, susceptibility results reported for isoniazid and rifampin, and initiation of at least two anti-TB drugs, reported to the TB registry in New York City, NY (US) between January 1, 1992 and December 31, 2001...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927274/characterization-of-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-prevalence-in-humans-and-poultry-in-huai-an-china-molecular-epidemiology-phylogenetic-and-dynamics-analyses
#16
Peng Fei Yang, Qing Li Yan, Chun Cheng Liu, Ya Dong Xing, Min Hui Zhang, Qiang Gao, Hao Yu, Hai Bo Yao, Nan Jiang He
OBJECTIVE: To trace the source of human H7N9 cases in Huai'an and elucidate the genetic characterization of Huai'an strains associated with both humans and birds in live poultry market. METHODS: An enhanced surveillance was implemented when the first human H7N9 case was confirmed in Huai'an. Clinical specimens, cloacal swabs, and fecal samples were collected and screened by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for H7N9 virus. The positive samples were subjected to further RT-PCR and genome sequencing...
October 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927190/cd4-cell-counts-and-presence-of-aids-in-hiv-positive-patients-entering-specialized-care-a-comparison-of-migrant-groups-in-the-german-clinsurv-hiv-cohort-study-1999-2013
#17
Nadine Zeitlmann, Barbara Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Claudia Santos-Hövener, Christian Kollan, Matthias An der Heiden
BACKGROUND: Although early presentation to HIV-care is essential to ensure timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy, recent studies have shown that especially migrants present to HIV-care at a later stage of HIV-infection. Currently, thirty percent of all newly diagnosed HIV cases in Germany originate from abroad. So far it is unknown, which specific migrant groups in Germany are particularly at risk for late presentation to HIV-care. METHODS: We used data from the Clinical Surveillance of HIV Disease (ClinSurv) cohort, a multi-centre observational cohort (01/01/1999 and 31/07/2013) and included treatment-naïve patients with valid information on country of origin and date of enrolment...
December 7, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927087/multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-new-zealand-a-current-perspective
#18
L J Toombs-Ruane, J Benschop, S Burgess, P Priest, D R Murdoch, N P French
In this article we review mechanisms and potential transmission pathways of multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, with an emphasis on extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-production. This provides background to better understand challenges presented by this important group of antimicrobial resistant bacteria, and inform measures aimed at prevention and control of antimicrobial resistance in general. Humans and animals interact at various levels; household pets cohabit with humans, and other animals interact with people through direct contact, as well as through the food chain and the environment...
December 7, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926925/dengue-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa-a-systematic-review
#19
John M Humphrey, Natalie B Cleton, Chantal B E M Reusken, Marshall J Glesby, Marion P G Koopmans, Laith J Abu-Raddad
BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV) infection is widespread and its disease burden has increased in past decades. However, little is known about the epidemiology of dengue in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). METHODOLOGY / PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and reporting our findings following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed available records across MENA describing dengue occurrence in humans (prevalence studies, incidence studies, and outbreak reports), occurrence of suitable vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), and DENV vector infection rates...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926816/identification-of-polymerase-gene-mutations-that-affect-viral-replication-in-h5n1-influenza-viruses-isolated-from-pigeons
#20
Emad Mohamed Elgendy, Yasuha Arai, Norihito Kawashita, Tomo Daidoji, Tatsuya Takagi, Madiha Salah Ibrahim, Takaaki Nakaya, Yohei Watanabe
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 infects a wide range of host species, with a few cases of sporadic pigeon infections reported in the Middle East and Asia. However, the role of pigeons in the ecology and evolution of H5N1 viruses remains unclear. We previously reported two H5N1 virus strains, isolated from naturally infected pigeons in Egypt, that have several unique mutations in their viral polymerase genes. Here, we investigated the effect of these mutations on H5N1 polymerase activity and viral growth and identified three mutations that affected viral polymerase activity...
December 7, 2016: Journal of General Virology
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