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Infection surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782933/whole-genome-sequencing-and-analyses-identify-high-genetic-heterogeneity-and-diversity-of-rotavirus-genotype-p-6-strains-circulating-in-africa
#1
Martin M Nyaga, Yi Tan, Mapaseka L Seheri, Rebecca A Halpin, Asmik Akopov, Karla M Stucker, Nadia B Fedorova, Susmita Shrivastava, A Duncan Steele, Jason M Mwenda, Brett E Pickett, Suman R Das, M Jeffery Mphahlele
Rotavirus A (RVA) exhibits a wide genotype diversity globally. Little is known about the genetic composition of genotype P[6] from Africa. This study investigated possible evolutionary mechanisms leading to genetic diversity of genotype P[6] VP4 sequences. Phylogenetic analyses on 167 P[6] VP4 full-length sequences were conducted, which included six porcine-origin sequences. Of the 167 sequences, 57 were newly acquired through whole genome sequencing as part of this study. The other 110 sequences were all publicly-available global P[6] VP4 full-length sequences downloaded from GenBank...
May 18, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782012/a-microfluidic-platform-for-longitudinal-imaging-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#2
Kyung Suk Lee, Erel Levine
In the last decade, microfluidic techniques have been applied to study small animals, including the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and have proved useful as a convenient live imaging platform providing capabilities for precise control of experimental conditions in real time. In this article, we demonstrate live imaging of individual worms employing WormSpa, a previously-published custom microfluidic device. In the device, multiple worms are individually confined to separate chambers, allowing multiplexed longitudinal surveillance of various biological processes...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781424/review-analysis-and-impact-of-co-circulating-h5n1-and-h9n2-avian-influenza-viruses-in-bangladesh
#3
Rokshana Parvin, Jahan Ara Begum, Mohammed Nooruzzaman, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam, Thomas W Vahlenkamp
Almost the full range of 16 haemagglutinin (HA) and nine neuraminidase subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been detected either in waterfowl, land-based poultry or in the environment in Bangladesh. AIV infections in Bangladesh affected a wide range of host species of terrestrial poultry. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) H5N1 and low pathogenic AI H9N2 were found to co-circulate and be well entrenched in the poultry population, which has caused serious damage to the poultry industry since 2007...
May 21, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780850/canada-wide-epidemic-of-emm74-group-a-streptococcus-invasive-disease
#4
Sarah Teatero, Allison McGeer, Gregory J Tyrrell, Linda Hoang, Hanan Smadi, Marc-Christian Domingo, Paul N Levett, Michael Finkelstein, Ken Dewar, Agron Plevneshi, Taryn B T Athey, Jonathan B Gubbay, Michael R Mulvey, Irene Martin, Walter Demczuk, Nahuel Fittipaldi
Background: The number of invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) infections due to hitherto extremely rare type emm74 strains has increased in several Canadian provinces since late 2015. We hypothesized that the cases recorded in the different provinces are linked and caused by strains of an emm74 clone that recently emerged and expanded explosively. Methods: We analyzed both active and passive surveillance data for iGAS infections and used whole-genome sequencing to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of the emm74 strains responsible for these invasive infections country-wide...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780032/severe-outcomes-associated-with-respiratory-viruses-in-newborns-and-infants-a-prospective-viral-surveillance-study-in-jordan
#5
Najwa Khuri-Bulos, Lindsey Lawrence, Bhinnata Piya, Li Wang, Christopher Fonnesbeck, Samir Faouri, Asem Shehabi, Sten H Vermund, John V Williams, Natasha B Halasa
OBJECTIVE: To assess virus-specific hospitalisation rates, risk factors for illness severity and seasonal trends in children hospitalised with acute respiratory infections (ARI). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A government hospital serving low-income and middle-income population in Amman, Jordan. PARTICIPANTS: Children under 2 years of age hospitalised with fever and/or respiratory symptoms (n=3168) from 16 March 2010 to 31 March 2013...
May 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779917/antimicrobial-resistance-among-migrants-in-europe-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Laura B Nellums, Hayley Thompson, Alison Holmes, Enrique Castro-Sánchez, Jonathan A Otter, Marie Norredam, Jon S Friedland, Sally Hargreaves
BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings...
May 17, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778403/the-cf-sputum-induction-trial-cf-spit-to-assess-lower-airway-bacterial-sampling-in-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-prospective-internally-controlled-interventional-trial
#7
Katherine Ronchetti, Jo-Dee Tame, Christopher Paisey, Lena P Thia, Iolo Doull, Robin Howe, Eshwar Mahenthiralingam, Julian T Forton
BACKGROUND: Pathogen surveillance is challenging but crucial in children with cystic fibrosis-who are often non-productive of sputum even if actively coughing-because infection and lung disease begin early in life. The role of sputum induction as a diagnostic tool for infection has not previously been systematically addressed in young children with cystic fibrosis. We aimed to assess the pathogen yield from sputum induction compared with that from cough swab and single-lobe, two-lobe, and six-lobe bronchoalveolar lavage...
May 16, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778348/preoperative-antibiotics-in-wrist-arthroscopy
#8
Ryan J Hoel, Marcus J Mittelsteadt, S Andrew Samborski, Deborah C Bohn
PURPOSE: This study seeks to evaluate the need for preoperative antibiotics for wrist arthroscopy. METHODS: A retrospective review of 576 consecutive wrist arthroscopies was performed over a 10-year period at a single ambulatory surgery center. The chart of each included patient was reviewed for postoperative infections following the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance criteria for diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 576 wrist arthroscopies reviewed, 324 met the inclusion criteria...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778211/serological-survey-for-antibodies-against-pestiviruses-in-wyoming-domestic-sheep
#9
S Silveira, S M Falkenberg, M J Elderbrook, K S Sondgeroth, R P Dassanayake, J D Neill, J F Ridpath, C W Canal
Pestiviruses including Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2 and Border disease virus (BDV) have been reported in both sheep and cattle populations, together with the HoBi-like, an emerging group of pestiviruses. Pestivirus control programs in the United States have focused on the control of BVDV-1 and 2. The incidence of pestivirus infection in sheep in the United States and the risk of transmission between cattle and sheep populations are unknown. The aim of this study was to perform serological surveillance for pestivirus exposure in sheep from an important sheep producing state in the Unites States, Wyoming...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778197/genetic-analysis-and-biological-characteristics-of-different-internal-gene-origin-h5n6-reassortment-avian-influenza-virus-in-china-in-2016
#10
Wenqiang Sun, Jiaxin Li, Jiao Hu, Daxiu Jiang, Chaonan Xing, Tiansong Zhan, Xiufan Liu
Clade 2.3.4.4 of H5N6 subtype Avian Influenza Viruses (AIVs) has become dominant clade in South-East Asia. So far, a total of 16 cases of human infection, including 6 deaths, have been confirmed since 2014. In this study, we systematically investigated the genetic evolution and biological characteristics of these viruses. We first carried out phylogenetic and statistical analysis of all H5N6 viruses that were downloaded from Influenza Research Database, GISAID and isolates from our lab. We found that H5N6 AIVs continued to reassort with other AIVs subtypes since 2014...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778188/national-surveillance-plan-for-infectious-bovine-rhinotracheitis-ibr-in-autochthonous-italian-cattle-breeds-results-of-first-year-of-activity
#11
Carmen Maresca, Eleonora Scoccia, Annalisa Dettori, Andrea Felici, Roberta Guarcini, Stefano Petrini, Andrea Quaglia, Giovanni Filippini
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IPV) caused by Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is a significant disease in domestic and wild cattle. In June 2015, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry in Italy approved a national surveillance plan to control and eradicate IBR in beef cattle breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of the first year of the IBR voluntary surveillance plan in Italy. The aim of the plan is to eradicate IBR in all bovines recorded in the National Herd Book for Italian beef cattle breeds over six years...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778013/using-google-trends-and-ambient-temperature-to-predict-seasonal-influenza-outbreaks
#12
Yuzhou Zhang, Hilary Bambrick, Kerrie Mengersen, Shilu Tong, Wenbiao Hu
BACKGROUND: The discovery of the dynamics of seasonal and non-seasonal influenza outbreaks remains a great challenge. Previous internet-based surveillance studies built purely on internet or climate data do have potential error. METHODS: We collected influenza notifications, temperature and Google Trends (GT) data between January 1st, 2011 and December 31st, 2016. We performed time-series cross correlation analysis and temporal risk analysis to discover the characteristics of influenza epidemics in the period...
May 16, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777985/liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-the-quantification-of-moxifloxacin-ciprofloxacin-daptomycin-caspofungin-and-isavuconazole-in-human-plasma
#13
Julian Hösl, André Gessner, Nahed El-Najjar
A simple and precise ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of five anti-infective agents used to treat severe infections [three antibiotics (daptomycin, moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin) and two antifungals (isavuconazole, caspofungin)] in human plasma. Sample preparation was based on protein precipitation with ice cold methanol. All five agents were analyzed with the corresponding isotopically labeled internal standards. All analytes were detected in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) using API 4000 triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer with electrospray (ESI) source operating in positive mode...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777926/epidemiology-of-acute-febrile-illness-in-latin-america
#14
REVIEW
José Moreira, Clarisse S Bressan, Patricia Brasil, Andre M Siqueira
BACKGROUND: The causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) in Latin America (LA) are diverse and its complexity increase as the proportion of fever due to malaria decreases as control and new pathogens emerge in the region. In this context, it is important to shed light over the gaps on the epidemiological characteristics and the geographic range for many AFI aetiologies. AIMS: To review studies on community-acquired fever etiology other than malaria in LA, and to highlight knowledge gaps and challenges needing further investigation...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777092/seroprevalence-of-brucellosis-in-butchers-veterinarians-and-slaughterhouse-workers-in-hamadan-western-iran
#15
Mojgan Mamani, Mohammad Mehdi Majzoobi, Fariba Keramat, Nesa Varmaghani, Abbas Moghimbeigi
BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella species via infected domestic animals. In endemic areas, certain occupations such as veterinarians, butchers, and slaughterhouse workers are considered high risk regarding brucellosis. We evaluated the seroprevalence of brucellosis in high-risk occupations in Hamadan, West of Iran. STUDY DESIGN: a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Overall, 218 participants from 2014 to 2015 were enrolled...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776921/determining-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-coverage-required-for-indirect-protection-against-vaccine-type-pneumococcal-carriage-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-study
#16
Jocelyn Chan, Cattram D Nguyen, Jana Y R Lai, Eileen M Dunne, Ross Andrews, Christopher C Blyth, Siddhartha Datta, Kim Fox, Rebecca Ford, Jason Hinds, Sophie La Vincente, Deborah Lehmann, Ruth Lim, Tuya Mungun, Paul N Newton, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Willam S Pomat, Anonh Xeuatvongsa, Claire von Mollendorf, David A B Dance, Catherine Satzke, Kim Muholland, Fiona M Russell
INTRODUCTION: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) prevent disease through both direct protection of vaccinated individuals and indirect protection of unvaccinated individuals by reducing nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage and transmission of vaccine-type (VT) pneumococci. While the indirect effects of PCV vaccination are well described, the PCV coverage required to achieve the indirect effects is unknown. We will investigate the relationship between PCV coverage and VT carriage among undervaccinated children using hospital-based NP pneumococcal carriage surveillance at three sites in Asia and the Pacific...
May 18, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776848/comparison-of-current-methods-used-to-detect-cryptosporidium-oocysts-in-stools
#17
REVIEW
Shahira A Ahmed, Panagiotis Karanis
In this review all of the methods that are currently in use for the investigation of Cryptosporidium in stool material are highlighted and critically discussed. It appears that more qualifications and background knowledge in this field regarding the diagnosis of the Cryptosporidium parasite is required. Furthermore, there is no standardization for the protocols that are commonly used to either detect oocysts in faeces or to diagnose the Cryptosporidium infection. It is therefore necessary to initiate further education and research that will assist in improving the accuracy of the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the faecal micro-cosmos...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776807/public-health-surveillance-of-multidrug-resistant-clones-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-in-europe-a-genomic-survey
#18
Simon R Harris, Michelle J Cole, Gianfranco Spiteri, Leonor Sánchez-Busó, Daniel Golparian, Susanne Jacobsson, Richard Goater, Khalil Abudahab, Corin A Yeats, Beatrice Bercot, Maria José Borrego, Brendan Crowley, Paola Stefanelli, Francesco Tripodo, Raquel Abad, David M Aanensen, Magnus Unemo
BACKGROUND: Traditional methods for molecular epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae are suboptimal. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) offers ideal resolution to describe population dynamics and to predict and infer transmission of antimicrobial resistance, and can enhance infection control through linkage with epidemiological data. We used WGS, in conjunction with linked epidemiological and phenotypic data, to describe the gonococcal population in 20 European countries. We aimed to detail changes in phenotypic antimicrobial resistance levels (and the reasons for these changes) and strain distribution (with a focus on antimicrobial resistance strains in risk groups), and to predict antimicrobial resistance from WGS data...
May 15, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776798/changes-in-chlamydia-prevalence-and-duration-of-infection-estimated-from-testing-and-diagnosis-rates-in-england-a-model-based-analysis-using-surveillance-data-2000-15
#19
Joanna Lewis, Peter J White
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia screening programmes have been implemented in several countries, but the effects of screening on incidence, prevalence, and reproductive sequelae remain unclear. In England, despite increases in testing with the rollout of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP; 2003-08), prevalence estimated in 10-yearly population-based surveys was similar before (1999-2001) and after (2010-12) the programme. However, the precision of these previous estimates was limited by the low numbers of infections...
May 15, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776594/gearing-up-t-cell-immunotherapy-in-cervical-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Shilpa Raghuvanshi Chauhan, Mausumi Bharadwaj
The World Health Organization estimates more than 270,000 deaths annually by cervical cancer. Present vaccines are prophylactic in nature which cannot treat huge bulk of cervical cancer patients worldwide. Available therapies like radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgery are not effective in high-grade lesion, and hence, there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy. T cells play a significant role in cervical cancer pathogenesis as human papilloma virus uses multiple mechanisms that dodge host T-cell immune-surveillance aiding in persistence of infection and establishment of cancer...
April 22, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
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