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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924198/bacteriological-diagnosis-of-childhood-tb-a-prospective-observational-study
#1
Andrew J Brent, Daisy Mugo, Robert Musyimi, Agnes Mutiso, Susan Morpeth, Michael Levin, J Anthony G Scott
Childhood TB diagnosis is challenging. Studies in adults suggest Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) culture or the Xpert MTB/RIF assay might be used to expand bacteriological diagnosis. However data from children are more limited. We prospectively compared MODS and Xpert MTB/RIF with standard microscopy and culture using the BD MGIT 960 system among 1442 Kenyan children with suspected TB. 97 specimens from 54 children were TB culture-positive: 91 (94%) by MGIT and 74 (76%) by MODS (p = 0...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916647/the-effect-of-common-inversion-polymorphisms-in-2l-t-and-in-3r-mo-on-patterns-of-transcriptional-variation-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Erik Lavington, Andrew D Kern
Chromosomal inversions are an ubiquitous feature of genetic variation. Theoretical models describe several mechanisms by which inversions can drive adaptation and be maintained as polymorphisms. While inversions have been shown previously to be under selection, or contain genetic variation under selection, the specific phenotypic consequences of inversions leading to their maintenance remain unclear. Here we use genomic sequence and expression data from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel to explore the effects of two cosmopolitan inversions, In(2L)t and In(3R)Mo, on patterns of transcriptional variation...
September 15, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915647/necroptosis-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome
#3
Yao-Li Cui, Li-Hua Qiu, Shi-Yong Zhou, Lan-Fang Li, Zheng-Zi Qian, Xian-Ming Liu, Hui-Lai Zhang, Xiu-Bao Ren, Yong-Qiang Wang
PURPOSE: To investigate how necroptosisis, i.e. programmed necrosis, is involved in MODS, and to examine whether Nec-1, a specific necroptosis inhibitor, ameliorates multiorgan injury in MODS. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A model of MODS was established in six-week old SD rats using fracture trauma followed by hemorrhage. Control animals received sham surgery. Cell death form and necrosome formation were measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and western blotting...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912565/real-time-image-processing-for-microscopy-based-label-free-imaging-flow-cytometry-in-a-microfluidic-chip
#4
Young Jin Heo, Donghyeon Lee, Junsu Kang, Keondo Lee, Wan Kyun Chung
Imaging flow cytometry (IFC) is an emerging technology that acquires single-cell images at high-throughput for analysis of a cell population. Rich information that comes from high sensitivity and spatial resolution of a single-cell microscopic image is beneficial for single-cell analysis in various biological applications. In this paper, we present a fast image-processing pipeline (R-MOD: Real-time Moving Object Detector) based on deep learning for high-throughput microscopy-based label-free IFC in a microfluidic chip...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904232/effects-of-high-versus-moderate-intensity-training-on-neuroplasticity-and-functional-recovery-after-focal-ischemia
#5
Caroline Pin-Barre, Annabelle Constans, Jeanick Brisswalter, Christophe Pellegrino, Jérôme Laurin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study was designed to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIT) and moderate-intensity aerobic training (MOD) on functional recovery and cerebral plasticity during the first 2 weeks after cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Rats were randomized as follows: control (n=15), SHAM (n=9), middle cerebral artery occlusion (n=13), middle cerebral artery occlusion at day 1 (n=7), MOD (n=13), and HIT (n=13). Incremental tests were performed at day 1 (D1) and 14 (D14) to identify the running speed associated with the lactate threshold (SLT) and the maximal speed (Smax)...
September 13, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883030/an-exertional-heat-illness-triage-tool-for-a-jungle-training-environment
#6
Mike Smith, R Withnall, M Boulter
This article introduces a practical triage tool designed to assist commanders, jungle training instructors (JTIs) and medical personnel to identify Defence Personnel (DP) with suspected exertional heat illness (EHI). The challenges of managing suspected EHI in a jungle training environment and the potential advantages to stratifying the urgency of evacuation are discussed. This tool has been designed to be an adjunct to the existing MOD mandated heat illness recognition and first aid training.
September 6, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880219/influence-of-skeletal-muscle-carnosine-content-on-fatigue-during-repeated-resistance-exercise-in-recreationally-active-women
#7
Alyssa N Varanoske, Jay R Hoffman, David D Church, Ran Wang, Kayla M Baker, Sarah J Dodd, Nicholas A Coker, Leonardo P Oliveira, Virgil L Dawson, David H Fukuda, Jeffrey R Stout
Carnosine is a naturally occurring intramuscular dipeptide that is thought to attenuate fatigue during high-intensity exercise. Carnosine content is influenced by various factors, including gender and diet. Despite research reporting that carnosine content is lower in women compared to men and lower in vegetarians compared to omnivores, no investigations have examined carnosine content in women based on dietary protein intake and its effect on muscle fatigue. Twenty recreationally active women were assigned to either a high (HI; n = 5), moderate (MOD; n = 10), or low (LO; n = 5) group based upon intramuscular carnosine content of the vastus lateralis...
September 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879676/understanding-mcp-mod-dose-finding-as-a-method-based-on-linear-regression
#8
Neal Thomas
MCP-MOD is a testing and model selection approach for clinical dose finding studies. During testing, contrasts of dose group means are derived from candidate dose response models. A multiple-comparison procedure is applied that controls the alpha level for the family of null hypotheses associated with the contrasts. Provided at least one contrast is significant, a corresponding set of "good" candidate models is identified. The model generating the most significant contrast is typically selected. There have been numerous publications on the method...
September 6, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876463/antigenicity-reduction-contributes-mostly-to-poor-detectability-of-hbsag-by-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-s-gene-mutants-isolated-from-individuals-with-occult-hbv-infection
#9
Kai Zhang, Yan Liu, Rongjuan Chen, Qi Li, Zhihui Xu, Lanlan Si, Yongqian Cheng, Yue Yang, Jianhong Chen, Dongping Xu, Shumei Lin
Mutations in hepatitis B virus (HBV) S gene are one of factors contributing to occult HBV infection (OBI). The study aimed to uncover the impact of OBI-related S-gene mutations on the detectability of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Nine representative mutations within the major hydrophilic region of the S region were investigated. These included six (M1 - M6) from an OBI patient with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma, and three (M7 - M9) from 3 OBI blood donors. Recombinant plasmids on the basis of pTriEx-mod-1...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870776/consensus-report-by-palisi-and-pbmtc-joint-working-committees-supportive-care-guidelines-for-management-of-vod-in-children-and-adolescents-part-3-focus-on-cardio-respiratory-dysfunction-infections-liver-dysfunction-and-delirium
#10
Nadia Ovchinsky, Warren Frazier, Jeffery J Auletta, Christopher C Dvorak, Monica Ardura, Enkyung Song, Jennifer McArthur, Asumthia Jeyapalan, Robert Tamburro, Kris M Mahadeo, Chani Traube, Christine N Duncan, Rajinder P S Bajwa
Some patients with veno-occlusive disease (VOD) have multi-organ dysfunction (MOD) and multiple teams are involved in their daily care in the pediatric intensive care units (PICU). Cardio-respiratory dysfunction is critical in these patients as it needs immediate action. Whether to use non-invasive or invasive ventilation strategy may be a difficult decision in the setting of mucositis or other comorbidities in patients with VOD. Similarly monitoring of their organ functions could be very challenging; they may have fulminant hepatic failure with or without hepatic encephalopathy complicated by delirium and/or infections...
September 1, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867513/clinical-and-prognostic-implications-of-methods-and-partition-values-used-to-assess-left-atrial-volume-by-two-dimensional-echocardiography
#11
Elena Surkova, Luigi P Badano, Davide Genovese, Giacomo Cavalli, Corrado Lanera, Jurate Bidviene, Patrizia Aruta, Chiara Palermo, Sabino Iliceto, Denisa Muraru
BACKGROUND: The 2015 American Society of Echocardiography/European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging recommendations for chamber quantification suggest new abnormality threshold and severity partition values for left atrial (LA) volume that are equally valid for the biplane method of disk (MOD) summation and the area-length method (ALM). However, they have never been clinically validated. Thus, we compared the clinical and prognostic impact of LA volume assessed by MOD and ALM by using both the 2015 and 2005 abnormality thresholds...
August 31, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865818/single-vs-2-implants-on-peri-implant-marginal-bone-level-and-implant-failures-in-mandibular-implant-overdentures-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Dina Mohamed Ahmed Elawady, Amal Fathy Kaddah, Mohamed Talaat Khalifa
BACKGROUND: As a consensus, the 2-implant supported overdentures (ODs) are considered as the first choice of treatment for the edentulous mandible. In the same context, there is increased evidence supporting the use of single-implant OD. The aim of any design is to preserve the remaining structures and allow the longevity of the treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of single implant vs 2 implants on the peri-implant marginal bone loss (MBL) and number of implant failures in mandibular implant overdentures...
September 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864276/physiopathology-of-multiple-organ-dysfunction-in-severely-monocrotophos-poisoned-rabbits
#13
Yun-Xiu Hou, Shi-Wen Liu, Lian-Wen Wang, Shu-Hua Wu
OBJECTIVE: Acute organophosphorus pesticides poisoning has a serious threat on people's health. This study aimed to investigate the pathogenesis and molecular mechanism of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in severely monocrotophos-poisoned rabbits. METHODS: Chinchilla rabbits were used to build the monocrotophos-poisoned animal model via subcutaneous abdominal injection. Acetylcholinesterase activity was determined using the dithiobisnitrobenzoic acid enzyme kinetics method, and the free organophosphorus (FOP) toxic substances content was analyzed using the enzyme inhibition method...
August 29, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859312/phase-variation-of-dna-methyltransferases-and-the-regulation-of-virulence-and-immune-evasion-in-the-pathogenic-neisseria
#14
Kate L Seib, Freda E-C Jen, Adeana L Scott, Aimee Tan, Michael P Jennings
The pathogenic Neisseria provide textbook examples of phase variation: the high frequency, random and reversible switching of gene expression. Typically, phase variable gene expression is observed in genes required for the expression of surface proteins and carbohydrate structures. All Neisseria gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis strains also express phase variable DNA methyltransferases that are components of DNA restriction-modification systems. Phase variation of these DNA methyltransferases (Mod) alters global DNA methylation patterns...
August 31, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843960/interfacial-degradation-of-adhesive-composite-restorations-mediated-by-oral-biofilms-and-mechanical-challenge-in-an-extracted-tooth-model-of-secondary-caries
#15
Carola A Carrera, Yuping Li, Ruoquiong Chen, Conrado Aparicio, Alex Fok, Joel Rudney
Objective To study the combined effect of simulated occlusal loading and plaque-derived biofilm on the interfacial integrity of dental composite restorations, and to explore whether the effects are modulated by the incorporation of sucrose. Methods MOD-class-II restorations were prepared in third molars. Half of the specimens (n = 27) were subjected to 200,000 cycles of mechanical loading using an artificial oral environment (ART). Then, both groups of specimens (fatigued and non-fatigued) were divided into three subgroups for testing in CDC-reactors under the following conditions: no biofilm (Control), biofilm with no sucrose (BNS) and biofilm pulsed with sucrose (BWS)...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839364/omega-3-fish-oil-reduces-mortality-due-to-severe-sepsis-with-acute-gastrointestinal-injury-grade-iii
#16
Huaisheng Chen, Wei Wang, Chengying Hong, Ming Zhang, Yingcai Hong, Su Wang, Huadong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sepsis plays an important role in acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI). Our research was designed to determine the effects of omega-3 fish oil (FO) in patients suffering from severe sepsis combined with AGI III, and the ability of FO to modulate immune function. METHODS: Seventy-eight patients diagnosed with severe sepsis with AGI III and a need for mechanical ventilation were randomized to two groups. In the FO group, 50 g of long chain fatty acid soybean oil (n = 6) and 10 g of FO (n = 3) were administered as total parenteral nutrition (TPN)...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818433/dose-ranging-design-and-analysis-methods-to-identify-the-minimum-effective-dose-med
#17
Yijie Zhou, Su Chen, Danielle Sullivan, Yihan Li, Ying Zhang, Wangang Xie, Hongtao Zhang, Yuanyuan Tang, Li Wang, Alan Hartford, Bo Yang
In dose ranging clinical trials, it is critical to investigate the dose-response profile and to identify a minimum effective dose (MED) to guide the dose selection for phase 3 confirmatory trials. Traditional dose ranging trials focus on pairwise comparisons between placebo and each investigational dose, while in recent years MCP-Mod (Multiple Comparison Procedures & Modeling) arose and gained popularity in the design and analysis of dose ranging trials. Comprehensive comparison between MCP-Mod and other methods have been made on continuous variables assuming a normal distribution...
August 14, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813486/differentiating-between-subtypes-of-primary-progressive-aphasia-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-on-a-modified-version-of-the-frontal-behavioral-inventory
#18
Donna C Tippett, Carol B Thompson, Cornelia Demsky, Rajani Sebastian, Amy Wright, Argye E Hillis
Behavioral assessment has been investigated in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Alzheimer's disease, but has not been explored extensively in subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). We explored the ability of a modified version of the Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI-mod) to discriminate between patients with distinct subtypes of PPA and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We hypothesized that individuals with nonfluent agrammatic PPA (nfaPPA) would have higher negative behavior scores than other groups and that individuals with semantic variant PPA (svPPA) would have higher disinhibition scores than other groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809373/scoring-systems-for-oral-lichen-planus-used-by-differently-experienced-raters
#19
M Gobbo, K Rupel, V Zoi, G Perinetti, G Ottaviani, R Di Lenarda, L Bevilacqua, S-B Woo, M Biasotto
BACKGROUND: Scoring systems have been widely used to evaluate the severity and activity of oral lichen planus (OLP). The aim of the present study was to compare two existing (one modified) scoring systems in the evaluation of OLP severity and correlation with pain. Three differently experienced raters were involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with OLP were assessed for pain using the Visual Analogue Scale and examined at 10 intraoral sites before starting (T0) and three weeks after (T1) steroid therapy (Clobetasol)...
August 15, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806275/effects-of-creatine-and-carbohydrate-loading-on-cycling-time-trial-performance
#20
Kristyen A Tomcik, Donny M Camera, Julia L Bone, Megan L Ross, Nikki A Jeacocke, Bill Tachtsis, Joan Senden, Luc J C van Loon, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke
INTRODUCTION: Creatine- and carbohydrate-loading are dietary strategies used to enhance exercise capacity. This study examined the metabolic and performance effects of a combined creatine and CHO-loading regiment on time-trial (TT) cycling bouts. METHODS: Eighteen well-trained (~65mL[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min VO2peak) males completed three performance trials (PT) comprised of a 120-km cycling TT interspersed with alternating 1- and 4-km sprints (6 sprints each) performed every 10-km followed by an inclined ride to fatigue (~90% VO2peak)...
August 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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