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Hongyan Li, Heng Weng, Changqing Lan, Hongying Zhang, Xinhang Wang, Jianguang Pan, Lulu Chen, Jinbao Huang
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical features of patients with avian influenza A (H7N9) and influenza A (H1N1) complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).The clinical data of 18 cases of H7N9 and 26 cases of H1N1 with ARDS were collected and compared in the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) of Fuzhou Pulmonary Hospital of Fujian from March 2014 to December 2016.Patients with H7N9 had a higher acute physiology and chronic health evaluation-II score (P < .05) and lung injury score (P < ...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
John M Atack, Yuedong Yang, Kate L Seib, Yaoqi Zhou, Michael P Jennings
Many bacteria utilize simple DNA sequence repeats as a mechanism to randomly switch genes on and off. This process is called phase variation. Several phase-variable N6-adenine DNA-methyltransferases from Type III restriction-modification systems have been reported in bacterial pathogens. Random switching of DNA methyltransferases changes the global DNA methylation pattern, leading to changes in gene expression. These epigenetic regulatory systems are called phasevarions - phase-variable regulons. The extent of these phase-variable genes in the bacterial kingdom is unknown...
March 15, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Xinyu Wu, Huan Sun, Xiaoqin Zhou, Ji Wang, Jing Li
BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of systematic reviews (SRs) on total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) have been published in recent years, but their quality has been unclear. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the methodological quality of SRs on TKA and THA. METHODS: We searched Ovid-Medline, Ovid-Embase, Cochrane Databases (including HTA, DARE, and CDSR), CBM, CNKI, Wang Fang, and VIP, from January 2014 to December 2015 for THA and TKA...
March 16, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Stefanie Amend, Roland Frankenberger, Susanne Lücker, Eugen Domann, Norbert Krämer
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to establish Lactobacillus casei in a completely automated Streptococcus mutans-based artificial mouth model and to investigate secondary caries inhibiting properties of glass ionomer cements / resin composite groups in vitro. METHODS: Sixty extracted, caries-free human third molars were used for preparation of standardized class-V-cavities. Specimens were restored with a resin-modified (Photac Fil; PF) as well as a conventional glass ionomer cement (Ketac Molar; KM) and one resin composite bonded with and without conduction of etch-and-rinse technique (Prime&Bond NT, Ceram X mono; C+ERT, C)...
March 12, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
P Rodriguez-Fernandez, A E White, N T Howard, B A Grierson, G M Staebler, J E Rice, X Yuan, N M Cao, A J Creely, M J Greenwald, A E Hubbard, J W Hughes, J H Irby, F Sciortino
A long-standing enigma in plasma transport has been resolved by modeling of cold-pulse experiments conducted on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. Controlled edge cooling of fusion plasmas triggers core electron heating on time scales faster than an energy confinement time, which has long been interpreted as strong evidence of nonlocal transport. This Letter shows that the steady-state profiles, the cold-pulse rise time, and disappearance at higher density as measured in these experiments are successfully captured by a recent local quasilinear turbulent transport model, demonstrating that the existence of nonlocal transport phenomena is not necessary for explaining the behavior and time scales of cold-pulse experiments in tokamak plasmas...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
A Bar-Ilan, T Livnat, M Hoffmann, L Binder, M Zakar, R Guy, Y Felikman, L Moschcovich, B Shenkman, D Monroe, O Hershkovitz, G Kenet, G Hart
INTRODUCTION: Recombinant FVIIa (rFVIIa) is an effective treatment for haemophilia through frequent administration. However, the short half-life of rFVIIa decreases its prophylactic ability to reduce bleeding. Carboxy-terminal peptide (CTP)-modified FVIIa (MOD-5014) is a long-acting rFVIIa developed for on-demand treatment of haemophilia using either an intravenous or subcutaneous injection with the aim of less frequent administrations, as well as for prophylactic use. AIM: The comprehensive evaluation of the activity MOD-5014 vs commercially available rhFVIIa, as well as their interaction with cofactors and inhibitors...
March 14, 2018: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
Yi-Yi Wang, Bing-di Xie
Central nervous system (CNS) disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is highly devastating. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most common form of CNS tuberculosis (TB). Rapid, sensitive, and affordable diagnostic tests are not available. Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain has a very low sensitivity in cases of TBM, the sensitivity rates is of about 10-20%.The detection rate can be improved by taking large volume CSF samples (>6 ml) and prolonged slide examination (30 min). Culture of MTB from the CSF is slow and insufficiently sensitive...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hyung-In Yoon, Paul J Sohn, Sharon Jin, Elani Hawazin, Sang J Lee
PURPOSE: To examine the fracture resistance of premolars restored with CAD/CAM lithium disilicate mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) inlays and onlays of different cavity designs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two widths of occlusal isthmus (75%, 100% of intercuspal distance) and three designs of cuspal coverage (none, palatal, complete) were used for the preparation of MOD inlays and onlays in the extracted maxillary premolars. Sixty lithium disilicate restorations were milled and bonded into the cavities...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Prabahs Prasun Giri, Joydeb Roy, Agnisekhar Saha
Aim of the Study: Scrub typhus has been globally recognized as an emerging infectious disease contributing significantly to pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) and a potential cause of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS). We studied the incidence of scrub typhus as a cause of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission and MODS in our hospital and its clinical and laboratory characteristics to measure the incidence of MODS caused by scrub typhus. Materials and Methods: This study was done in a pediatric teaching hospital in Kolkata, India...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Imran Siddiqui, Lena Jafri, Qalab Abbas, Ahmed Raheem, Anwar Ul Haque
Objective: To evaluate the clinical and prognostic utility of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lactic acid in children admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of a university teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Medical records of children (1 month-16 years) tested for serum PCT at the time of admission in the PICU of our hospital from July 1, 2013, to January 15, 2015, were reviewed. Within 24 h of admission, the Pediatric Risk of Mortality Score, blood cultures, white blood cell count, neutrophil counts, serum CRP, plasma lactic acid, and PCT were noted...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Greta Hsu, Jessica Y Sun, Shu-Hong Zhu
BACKGROUND: The electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) industry has grown in size and organizational complexity in recent years, most notably with the entry of major tobacco companies in 2012 and the proliferation of vape shops. Many brands maintain retail websites that present e-cigarette marketing claims and sell directly to consumers. Understanding of the evolving composition of different types of e-cigarette brand websites is currently underdeveloped. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents how e-cigarette brand websites surveyed in 2013-2014 evolved by 2016-2017, and how the websites run by different types of e-cigarette producers currently differ...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Ma'mon M Hatmal, Mutasem O Taha
We previously combined molecular dynamics (classical or simulated annealing) with ligand-receptor contacts analysis as means to extract valid pharmacophore model(s) from single ligand-receptor complexes. However, molecular dynamics methods are computa-tionally expensive and time consuming. Here we describe a novel method for extracting valid pharmacophore model(s) from a single crystallographic structure within reasonable time scale. The new method is based on ligand-receptor contacts analysis following en-ergy relaxation of predetermined set of randomly deformed complexes generated from the targeted crystallographic structure...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Peter Mahoney, Debra Carr, Karl Harrison, Ruth McGuire, Alan Hepper, Daniel Flynn, Russ J Delaney, Iain Gibb
Six synthetic head models wearing ballistic protective helmets were used to recreate two military combat-related shooting incidents (three per incident, designated 'Incident 1' and 'Incident 2'). Data on the events including engagement distances, weapon and ammunition types was collated by the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory. The models were shot with 7.62 × 39 mm ammunition downloaded to mean impact velocities of 581 m/s (SD 3.5 m/s) and 418 m/s (SD 8 m/s), respectively, to simulate the engagement distances...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Jie-Qiong Liu, Guang-Yan Cai, Shuang Liang, Wen-Ling Wang, Si-Yang Wang, Fang-Lei Zhu, Sa-Sa Nie, Zhe Feng, Xiang-Mei Chen
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) with a poor prognosis in the elderly has been increasing each year. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of and risk factors for death from AKI in the elderly and help improve prognosis. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a retrospective cohort study based on data from adult patients (≥18 years old) admitted to 15 hospitals in China between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2011. The characteristics of AKI in the elderly were compared with those in younger patients...
March 7, 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Phan Vuong Khac Thai, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Nguyen Thi Hanh, Jeremy Day, Sarah Dunstan, Nguyen Thi Quynh Nhu, Vo Sy Kiet, Nguyen Huu Lan, Nguyen Huy Dung, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan, Nguyen Thuong Thuong, Nguyen Ngoc Lan, Phạm Thị Thúy Liễu, Nguyễn Thị Hồng, Đào Công Điệp, Nguyễn Thị Kim Thanh, Nguyễn Văn Hội, Nguyễn Văn Nghĩa, Trương Ngọc Đại, Hoàng Quang Minh, Nguyễn Văn Thơm, Jeremy Farrar, Maxine Caws
BACKGROUND: Drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) is increasing in prevalence worldwide. Treatment failure and relapse is known to be high for patients with isoniazid resistant TB treated with standard first line regimens. However, risk factors for unfavourable outcomes and the optimal treatment regimen for isoniazid resistant TB are unknown. This cohort study was conducted when Vietnam used the eight month first line treatment regimen and examined risk factors for failure/relapse among patients with isoniazid resistant TB...
March 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
András Forster, Gábor Braunitzer, Máté Tóth, Balázs P Szabó, Márk Fráter
PURPOSE: Molar MOD (mesial-occlusal-distal) cavity preparation weakens relative cuspal stiffness by up to 63%, often resulting in cuspal fracture. This investigation inspects fracture resistance of MOD cavities restored using direct composite restoration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 120 extracted, intact mandibular molars were selected. MOD cavities with different depth/wall thickness were prepared in 9 groups (n = 12): A: 3 mm/3.5 mm, B: 3 mm/2.5 mm, C: 3 mm/1.5 mm, D: 5 mm/3...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Alimujiang Abulimiti, Aierhati Husaiyin, Yalikun Sailai
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) prevention is key to severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) treatment and the assessment of high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF) for treating SAP accompanying multiple organ dysfunction syndromes.In this prospective controlled study, 40 SAP patients were divided into 2 groups: control (n = 22, treated with fasting, decompression, and intravenous somatostatin) and HVHF (n = 18, HVHF administration in addition to the treatment in the control group) groups; and were assessed for serum and urine amylase, WBC, C-reactive protein (CRP), and hepatic and renal functions...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Erik J Groessl, Theodore G Ganiats, Naomi Hillery, Andre Trollip, Roberta L Jackson, Donald G Catanzaro, Timothy C Rodwell, Richard S Garfein, Camilla Rodrigues, Valeriu Crudu, Thomas C Victor, Antonino Catanzaro
BACKGROUND: Growth-based drug susceptibility testing (DST) is the reference standard for diagnosing drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), but standard time to result (TTR) is typically ≥ 3 weeks. Rapid tests can reduce that TTR to days or hours, but accuracy may be lowered. In addition to the TTR and test accuracy, the cost of a diagnostic test may affect whether it is adopted in clinical settings. We examine the cost-effectiveness of rapid diagnostics for extremely drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) in three different high-prevalence settings...
March 2, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Larisa Melnikova, Margarita Kostyuchenko, Alexander Parshikov, Pavel Georgiev, Anton Golovnin
Su(Hw) belongs to the class of proteins that organize chromosome architecture and boundaries/insulators between regulatory domains. This protein contains a cluster of 12 zinc finger domains most of which are responsible for binding to three different modules in the consensus site. Su(Hw) forms a complex with CP190 and Mod(mdg4)-67.2 proteins that binds to well-known Drosophila insulators. To understand how Su(Hw) performs its activities and binds to specific sites in chromatin, we have examined the previously described su(Hw)f mutation that disrupts the 10th zinc finger (ZF10) responsible for Su(Hw) binding to the upstream module...
2018: PloS One
Jennifer A Muszynski, Ryan Nofziger, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Kristin Greathouse, Larissa Anglim, Lisa Steele, Josey Hensley, Lisa Hanson-Huber, Jyotsna Nateri, Octavio Ramilo, Mark W Hall
RATIONALE: Late immune suppression is associated with nosocomial infection and mortality in septic adults and children. Relationships between early immune suppression and outcomes in septic children remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: Prospective observational study to test the hypothesis that early innate and adaptive immune suppression are associated with longer duration of organ dysfunction in children with severe sepsis/septic shock. Methods, Measurements and Main Results: Children aged < 18 years meeting consensus criteria for severe sepsis or septic shock were sampled within 48 hours of sepsis onset...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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