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Arun Agarwal, Aakanksha Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare, underdiagnosed, fatal and devastating hyperinflammatory syndrome that has gained increasing recognition over the past decade. Patients with HLH present with clinical and laboratory evidence of uncontrolled inflammation. Delay in diagnosis and management inevitably leads to a rapidly progressive and fatal course. In this case series, we present 7 cases of secondary HLH (sHLH) in adults with their presentation, course, and outcomes...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Shashanka Ubaru, Abd-Krim Seghouane, Yousef Saad
This letter considers the problem of dictionary learning for sparse signal representation whose atoms have low mutual coherence. To learn such dictionaries, at each step, we first updated the dictionary using the method of optimal directions (MOD) and then applied a dictionary rank shrinkage step to decrease its mutual coherence. In the rank shrinkage step, we first compute a rank 1 decomposition of the column-normalized least squares estimate of the dictionary obtained from the MOD step. We then shrink the rank of this learned dictionary by transforming the problem of reducing the rank to a nonnegative garrotte estimation problem and solving it using a path-wise coordinate descent approach...
October 20, 2016: Neural Computation
Ka-Yee Au, Wei-Wei Shi, Shuai Qian, Zhong Zuo, Pang-Chui Shaw
To improve the pharmacological properties of maize ribosome-inactivating protein (maize RIP) for targeting HIV-infected cells, the previously engineered TAT-fused active form of maize RIP (MOD) was further engineered for cysteine-directed PEGylation. In this work, two potential antigenic sites, namely Lys-78 and Lys-264, were identified. They were mutated to cysteine residue and conjugated with PEG5k or PEG20k. The resultant PEG derivatives of MOD variants were examined for ribosome-inactivating activity, circulating half-life and immunogenicity...
October 17, 2016: Toxins
Stephen R Sanchez, Sergei M Bachilo, Yara Kadria-Vili, Ching-Wei Lin, R Bruce Weisman
A new method based on variance spectroscopy has enabled the determination of absolute absorption cross sections for the first electronic transition of twelve (n,m) structural species of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Spectrally resolved measurements of fluorescence variance in dilute bulk samples provided particle number concentrations of specific SWCNT species. These values were converted to carbon concentrations and correlated with resonant components in the absorbance spectrum to deduce (n,m)-specific absorption cross sections (absorptivities) for nanotubes ranging in diameter from 0...
October 19, 2016: Nano Letters
Surendra Kumar
BACKROUND: The outbreak of H1N1 virus had previously reported in India during 2009 flu pandemic. In 2015, the outbreak became widespread throughout India. The states of Gujarat and Rajasthan are severely elected. We studied an outbreak of H1N1 Virus in north-west zone of Rajasthan 2015. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the current epidemiological scenario of swine flu (H1N1) in north-west zone of Rajasthan with different demographic factors. METHODS: We screened total 6390 patients...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Wei-Wei Shi, Yun-Sang Tang, See-Yuen Sze, Zhen-Ning Zhu, Kam-Bo Wong, Pang-Chui Shaw
Ricin is a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), containing a catalytic A chain and a lectin-like B chain. It inhibits protein synthesis by depurinating the N-glycosidic bond at α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) of the 28S rRNA, which thereby prevents the binding of elongation factors to the GTPase activation center of the ribosome. Here, we present the 1.6 Å crystal structure of Ricin A chain (RTA) complexed to the C-terminal peptide of the ribosomal stalk protein P2, which plays a crucial role in specific recognition of elongation factors and recruitment of eukaryote-specific RIPs to the ribosomes...
October 13, 2016: Toxins
Yanling Wei, Jun Yang, Jun Wang, Yang Yang, Juan Huang, Hao Gong, Hongli Cui, Dongfeng Chen
BACKGROUND: The dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of gut-derived infections, making it a potential therapeutic target against multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) after sepsis. However, the effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in treating this disease has been rarely investigated. METHODS: Two male patients, a 65-year-old and an 84-year-old, were initially diagnosed with cerebellar hemorrhage and cerebral infarction, respectively, after admission...
October 18, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Amanda K Debes, Robert H Gilman, Carolyne Onyango-Makumbi, Andrea Ruff, Richard Oberhelman, David W Dowdy
BACKGROUND: The objective of this analysis was to assess the cost-effectiveness of TB diagnosis using Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS), Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert), and empiric treatment for all patients, in addition to current clinical diagnostic practices in children less than 5 years of age in a national tuberculosis (TB) referral hospital in Uganda. METHODS: A decision analysis was conducted from the healthcare perspective, with a primary outcome of incremental cost effectiveness expressed as cost per year of life gained (YLG)...
October 3, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Xiao-Yan Cai, Xiao-Chun Ni, Yong Yi, Hong-Wei He, Jia-Xing Wang, Yi-Peng Fu, Jian Sun, Jian Zhou, Yun-Feng Cheng, Jian-Jun Jin, Jia Fan, Shuang-Jian Qiu
Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (ENTPD1/CD39) is the rate-limiting enzyme in a cascade leading to the generation of immunosuppressive adenosine and plays an important role in tumor progression. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of CD39 and CD39Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Tregs) and to determine their prognostic role in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after radical resection.Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and double IHC were used to analyze CD39 expression or the expression of CD39 and Foxp3 in a cohort of 324 HCC patients who underwent curative resection...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Alice B Gottlieb, Andrew Blauvelt, Jörg C Prinz, Philemon Papanastasiou, Rashidkhan Pathan, Judit Nyirady, Todd Fox, Charis Papavassilis
BACKGROUND: Secukinumab, a human monoclonal antibody that selectively targets interleukin-17A, is highly efficacious in the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis, starting at early time points, with a sustained effect and a favorable safety profile. METHODS: Patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis were randomized to secukinumab 300 mg, secukinumab 150 mg, or placebo self-administered by prefilled syringe at baseline, weeks 1, 2, and 3, and then every four weeks from week 4 to 48...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Xiaoqi Zhao, Tianxiang Gu, Zongyi Xiu, Enyi Shi, Lei Yu
Objective: To summarize the effect of mild hypothermia on function of the organs in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Methods: The patients were randomly divided into two groups, northermia group (n=71) and hypothermia group (n=89). We immediately began cooling the hypothermia group when test results showed multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, meanwhile all patients of two groups were drawn blood to test blood gas, liver and kidney function, blood coagulation function, and evaluated the cardiac function using echocardiography from 12 to 36 hours...
May 2016: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Martin J Bobak, Matthew W Weber, Melissa A Doellman, Douglas R Schuweiler, Jeana M Athens, Steven A Juliano, Paul A Garris
Modafinil (MOD) exhibits therapeutic efficacy for treating sleep and psychiatric disorders, but its mechanism is incompletely understood. Compared to other psychostimulants inhibiting dopamine (DA) uptake, MOD weakly interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and modestly elevates striatal dialysate DA, suggesting additional targets besides DAT. However, the ability of MOD to induce wakefulness is abolished with DAT knockout, conversely suggesting that DAT is necessary for MOD action. Another psychostimulant target, but one not established for MOD, is activation of phasic DA signaling...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Rebecca Feldman Hamm, Eileen Y Wang, Jamie A Bastek, Sindhu K Srinivas
Background Obstetrical hemorrhage is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, yet is inconsistently defined. In 2014, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) reVITALize program redefined postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) as greater than 1,000 mL blood loss regardless of the mode of delivery (MOD). Objective We sought to assess the reVITALize definition's validity by understanding whether the definition of PPH should, as proposed by ACOG, be one value regardless of MOD. Study Design This is a retrospective study of all women who delivered at the hospital of the University of Pennsylvania from October 15, 2013 through December 15, 2013...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Fabiano Luiz Heggendorn, Gabriela Cristina de Carvalho Silva, Elisama Azevedo Cardoso, Helena Carla Castro, Lúcio Souza Gonçalves, Eliane Pedra Dias, Viviane de Oliveira Freitas Lione, Márcia Teresa Soares Lutterbach
This study assessed the cell viability of the inoculation vehicle of BACCOR (a combination of sulfate-reducing bacteria plus a culture media for bacteria), a biopharmaceutical product under development for dental use as aid in fractured endodontic file removal from the root canal. Different culture media for bacteria were evaluated: modified Postgate E (MCP-E mod), Modified Postgate E without Agar-agar (MCP-E w/Ag), Postgate C with Agar-agar (MCP-C Ag) and Postgate C without Agar-agar (MCP-C w/Ag). Cytotoxicity was quantified by the MTT test, exposing L929 and Vero cell lines to the vehicles over 24 h...
2016: Dental Materials Journal
Simon Walusimbi, Brendan Kwesiga, Rashmi Rodrigues, Melles Haile, Ayesha de Costa, Lennart Bogg, Achilles Katamba
BACKGROUND: Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) and Xpert MTB/Rif (Xpert) are highly sensitive tests for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). This study evaluated the cost effectiveness of utilizing MODS versus Xpert for diagnosis of active pulmonary TB in HIV infected patients in Uganda. METHODS: A decision analysis model comparing MODS versus Xpert for TB diagnosis was used. Costs were estimated by measuring and valuing relevant resources required to perform the MODS and Xpert tests...
October 10, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Sunuraj Sivarajan, Siddharudha Shivalli, Debomallya Bhuyan, Michael Mawlong, Rittwick Barman
BACKGROUND: India is an integral component of "tsutsugamushi triangle" which depicts a part of the globe endemic to scrub typhus. Owing to frequent outbreaks witnessed in different parts of the country in the recent past, scrub typhus is described as a re-emerging infectious disease in India. The present study aimed to study the clinical and paraclinical profile, complications and predictors of outcome among 90 cases of scrub typhus diagnosed in a hospital of north-eastern India from Sept 2011 to Aug 2012...
October 5, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Maoqin Li, Zhidong Wang, Yining Wang, Changhong Du, Songhai Li, Zaixiang Shi, Bo Lu
The present study is a retrospective analysis of 11 cases with severe acute liver failure combined with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) performed during the period June, 2012 to December, 2014. After part of plasmapheresis with plasma filtration adsorption combined with continuous hemodiafiltration treatment, good curative effects were obtained and the main clinical symptoms and biochemical index were significantly improved. Following treatment, 8 of the 11 patients survived at a survival rate of 72...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Dongying Zhao, Yongjun Zhang, Zhaoqing Yin, Jing Zhao, Defeng Yang, Qun Zhou
Scrub typhus can produce multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Early recognition of the patients at risk of MODS would be helpful in providing timely management and reducing the mortality. In all, 449 children with scrub typhus were enrolled at three hospitals in Yunnan, China from January 2010 to January 2015. The patients' clinical status of organ system dysfunction was evaluated on the day of discharge from hospital by using standard criteria. The patients were classified into MODS present (64 cases, 14...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Kalie Kebed, Eric Kruse, Karima Addetia, Boguslawa Ciszek, Minnie Thykattil, Brittney Guile, Roberto M Lang, Victor Mor-Avi
Current guidelines recommend that the atria be measured in 2D echocardiographic (2DE) apical views using the method-of-disks (MOD) or area-length (AL) technique as an alternative, although no definitive data exists that these are interchangeable. However, standard apical views maximize the long-axis of the left ventricle, rather than the dimensions of the atria, resulting in atrial foreshortening. We hypothesized that the increase in normal values of atrial volumes in the recent guidelines update was driven by data obtained using either the AL technique or dedicated atrial-focused views, which maximize the longitudinal dimension of the atria and thus provide larger volumes than the MOD measurements in standard apical views...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Sheetal Gupta, Ghanshyam Singh Sengar, Praveen K Meti, Anil Lahoti, Mukesh Beniwal, Murlidhar Kumawat
OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence, risk factors, and outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective, observational study conducted in PICU of Department of Paediatrics, S.P. Medical College, Bikaner, from October 2013 to May 2014. In this study, 536 patients of aged 29 days to 16 years were screened for AKI according to the Pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage Renal Disease (pRIFLE) criteria...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
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