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Muhammad Ridwan Ansari, Rina Agustina, Helda Khusun, Erfi Prafiantini, Fitrianna Cahyaningrum, Inge Permadhi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A balance ratio of dietary omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids reduces childhood obesity. However, few studies have focused on validation of semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) for determining the n-3 and n-6 intakes in children. Therefore, a valid SFFQ for assessing n-3 and n-6 intakes among Indonesian children is required. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted by selecting 89 healthy children through multistage random sampling...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
José María Moreno-Navarrete, Mariona Jové, Teresa Padró, Jordi Boada, Francisco Ortega, Wifredo Ricart, Reinald Pamplona, Lina Badimón, Manuel Portero-Otín, José Manuel Fernández-Real
OBJECTIVE: Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) is part of a family of structurally and functionally related lipid transfer proteins. This study aimed to investigate the associations of LBP with the lipid composition of human adipose tissue. METHODS: Lipidomic analysis was performed in whole adipose tissue. To validate the associations found, LBP was knocked down (KD) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and lipidomic profile was evaluated by nontargeted lipidomics. RESULTS: LBP gene expression was negatively associated with phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin relative abundance in vivo...
December 21, 2016: Obesity
Shruti Jawale, Anubha Pulwale, Sadhana Joshi, Anvita Kale
OBJECTIVE: In India, there is a rise in non-communicable diseases due to diets deficient in vitamin B12, low in docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and increased consumption of westernized diet. The present study aims to examine the effect of maternal high fat diet in absence of vitamin B12 on pregnancy outcome and tissue fatty acid composition in dams. METHODS: Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to following diets: Control (C), High fat diet (HFD), High fat diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids (HFDO), 4) High fat diet deficient in vitamin B12 (HFBD), High fat deficient in vitamin B12 supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids (HFBDO)...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Michael H Davidson, Lane B Benes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article focuses on the potential role by which a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids (OM3-FAs) may beneficially modify cardiovascular risk by modifying the cholesterol composition of atherogenic lipoproteins. This hypothesis is being tested in the STRENGTH trial, which is enrolling 13 000 patients on statins at high cardiovascular risk with hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) treated with an OM3-carboxylic acid. RECENT FINDINGS: Complex mixtures of OM3-FAs containing predominately eicosapentanoic acid and docosahexanoic acid in combination with statins lowers non-HDL by reducing triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol (TRL-C) while shifting small LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) to large LDL-C...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Puneet Anand, Ankur Sachdeva
INTRODUCTION: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder of childhood. Studies have indicated nutritional deficiencies, particularly Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) deficiency in these children and have suggested supplementation with PUFA for clinical improvement. AIM: The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of PUFA administration in Indian children with ADHD. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study was conducted in the paediatrics and psychiatry departments of a tertiary care hospital...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Usha Ramakrishnan, Ines Gonzalez-Casanova, Lourdes Schnaas, Ann DiGirolamo, Amado D Quezada, Beth C Pallo, Wei Hao, Lynnette M Neufeld, Juan A Rivera, Aryeh D Stein, Reynaldo Martorell
BACKGROUND: Docosahexanoic acid (DHA) is an important constituent of the brain. Evidence from well-designed intervention trials of the long-term benefits of increasing DHA intake during pregnancy has been sparse. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated global cognition, behavior, and attention at age 5 y in the offspring of Mexican women who participated in a randomized controlled trial of prenatal DHA supplementation. DESIGN: A total of 1094 women were randomly assigned to receive 400 mg of either DHA or placebo/d from 18 to 22 wk of pregnancy until delivery...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Vivian Sarmento Vasconcelos, Cristiane R Macedo, Alexsandra de Souza Pedrosa, Edna Pereira Gomes Morais, Gustavo J M Porfírio, Maria R Torloni
BACKGROUND: An estimated 1% to 3% of all individuals will receive a diagnosis of epilepsy during their lives, which corresponds to approximately 50 million affected people worldwide. The real prevalence is possibly higher because epilepsy is underreported in developing countries. Although most will achieve adequate control of their disease though the use of medication, approximately 25% to 30% of all those with epilepsy are refractory to pharmacological treatment and will continue to have seizures despite the use of two or more agents in adequate dosages...
August 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Muhammad Luqman Nasaruddin, Christian Hölscher, Patrick Kehoe, Stewart Francis Graham, Brian Desmond Green
Disturbed lipid metabolism is a well-established feature of human Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMES) to profile all detectable fatty acid (FA) species present in post-mortem neocortical tissue (Brodmann 7 region). Quantitative targeted analysis was undertaken from 29 subjects (n=15 age-matched controls; n=14 late-stage AD). GC-MS analysis of FAMES detected a total of 24 FAs and of these, 20 were fully quantifiable...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Azizeh Farshbaf Khalili, Sakineh Mohamad-Alizadeh, Masoud Darabi, Shahla Hematzadeh, Amir Mehdizadeh, Maghsod Shaaker, Alireza Ostadrahimi
Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are essential unsaturated long-chain FAs necessary for proper health and growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on maternal serum FA profiles. Participants (n = 150 pregnant women aged 18-35 years in Tabriz, Iran) were randomly assigned to receive either 1000 mg fish oil supplements daily containing 120 mg docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or placebo from week 21 of pregnancy to delivery...
March 24, 2016: Women & Health
Meagen M McCusker, Khayyam Durrani, Michael J Payette, Jeanine Suchecki
Visual impairment is a global epidemic. In developing countries, nutritional deficiency and cataracts continue to be the leading cause of blindness, whereas age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts are the leading causes in developed nations. The World Health Organization has instituted VISION 2020: "The Right to Sight" as a global mission to put an end to worldwide blindness. In industrialized societies, patients, physicians, researchers, nutritionists, and biochemists have been looking toward vitamins and nutrients to prevent AMD, cataracts, and dry eye syndrome (DES)...
March 2016: Clinics in Dermatology
Fayçal Ounnas, Florence Privé, Patricia Salen, Nadia Gaci, William Tottey, Luca Calani, Letizia Bresciani, Noelia López-Gutiérrez, Florence Hazane-Puch, François Laporte, Jean-François Brugère, Daniele Del Rio, Christine Demeilliers, Michel de Lorgeril
BACKGROUND: Whole rye (WR) consumption seems to be associated with beneficial health effects. Although rye fiber and polyphenols are thought to be bioactive, the mechanisms behind the health effects of WR have yet to be fully identified. This study in rats was designed to investigate whether WR can influence the metabolism of n-3 and n-6 long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and gut microbiota composition. METHODS: For 12 weeks, rats were fed a diet containing either 50% WR or 50% refined rye (RR)...
2016: PloS One
Nayyar Ahmed, Colin J Barrow, Cenk Suphioglu
BACKGROUND: Allergic reactions can result in life-threatening situations resulting in high economic costs and morbidity. Therefore, more effective reagents are needed for allergy treatment. A causal relationship has been suggested to exist between the intake of omega-3/6 fatty acids, such as docosahexanoic acid (DHA), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), docosapentanoic acid (DPA) and arachidonic acid (AA), and atopic individuals suffering from allergies. In allergic cascades, the hallmark cytokine IL-4 bind to IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) and IL-13 binds to IL-13 receptor (IL-13R), this activates the STAT6 phosphorylation pathway leading to gene activation of allergen-specific IgE antibody production by B cells...
February 6, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Akshaya Meher, Karuna Randhir, Savita Mehendale, Girija Wagh, Sadhana Joshi
Maternal nutrition, especially LCPUFA, is an important factor in determining fetal growth and development. Our earlier cross sectional study reports lower docosahexanoic acid (DHA) levels at the time of delivery in mothers delivering low birth weight (LBW) babies. This study was undertaken to examine the role of the maternal omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid profile across the gestation in fetal growth. This is a hospital based study where women were recruited in early gestation. Maternal blood was collected at 3 time points, i...
2016: PloS One
Sumit Kar, Min Wong, Ewelina Rogozinska, Shakila Thangaratinam
OBJECTIVE: Preterm birth continues to be the one of the leading causes of infant deaths worldwide. There is a need for effective, easily available, safe and acceptable interventions to prevent preterm delivery, especially before 34 weeks of gestation. Omega-3 fatty acids such as EPA (eicosapentanoic acid) and DHA (docosahexanoic acid) are available as over the counter nutritional supplements, and are taken by women to improve pregnancy outcomes, without any clear recommendations. We undertook a systematic review to assess the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on early (<34 weeks) and any (<37 weeks) preterm delivery...
March 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Cai Song, Chu-Hsin Shieh, Yi-Shyuan Wu, Allan Kalueff, Siddharth Gaikwad, Kuan-Pin Su
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-PUFAs), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may improve or prevent some psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases in both experimental and clinical studies. As important membrane components, these PUFAs benefit brain health by modulating neuroimmune and apoptotic pathways, changing membrane function and/or competing with n-6 PUFAs, the precursors of inflammatory mediators. However, the exact role of each fatty acid in neuroimmune modulation and neurogenesis, the interaction between EPA and DHA, and the best EPA:DHA ratios for improving brain disorders, remain unclear...
April 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
Adam T St Gelais, Barry A Costa-Pierce
Mercury (Hg) contamination testing was conducted on winter-caught male spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) in southern New England and results compared to available data on Hg concentrations for this species. A limited risk-reward assessment for EPA (eicosapentanoic acid) and DHA (docosahexanoic acid) lipid concentrations of spiny dogfish was completed in comparison with other commonly consumed marine fish. Mean Hg concentrations were 0.19 ppm (±0.30) wet weight. In comparison, mean Hg concentrations in S. acanthias varied geographically ranging from 0...
January 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Khrystyna Semen, Olha Yelisyeyeva, Iwona Jarocka-Karpowicz, Danylo Kaminskyy, Lyubomyr Solovey, Elzbieta Skrzydlewska, Ostap Yavorskyi
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare multifactorial disease with an unfavorable prognosis. Sildenafil therapy can improve functional capacity and pulmonary hemodynamics in PAH patients. Nowadays, it is increasingly recognized that the effects of sildenafil are pleiotropic and may also involve changes of the pro-/antioxidant balance, lipid peroxidation and autonomic control. In present study we aimed to assess the effects of sildenafil on the fatty acids (FAs) status, level of hydroxynonenal (HNE) and heart rate variability (HRV) in PAH patients...
April 2016: Redox Biology
Celia Rodríguez-Pérez, Vanu Ramkumar Ramprasath, Shuaihua Pu, Ali Sabra, Rosa Quirantes-Piné, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Peter J H Jones
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a circulating protein that regulates cholesterol metabolism by promoting LDL receptor degradation in the liver and has recently been proposed as a therapeutic target in the management of hyperlipidaemia. We investigated the impact of dietary fat on the metabolism of sterols and on plasma PCSK9 concentrations to explore likely clinical usefulness. In a post hoc analysis of a double-blind randomised crossover controlled feeding trial, the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT), volunteers (n = 54) with at least one condition related to metabolic syndrome consumed diets with one of the following treatment oils in beverages: (1) conventional canola oil (Canola); (2) canola oil rich in docosahexanoic acid (DHA) (CanolaDHA); and (3) high-oleic acid canola oil (CanolaOleic)...
January 2016: Lipids
Jonathan Haqq, Lynne M Howells, Giuseppe Garcea, Ashley R Dennison
SCOPE: Pancreatic cancer remains a disease of poor prognosis, with alternate strategies being sought to improve therapeutic efficacy. Omega-3 fatty acids have shown clinical benefit, and mechanisms of action are under investigation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Proliferation assays, flow cytometry, invasion assays, ELISA and western blotting were used to investigate efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids alone and in combination with gemcitabine. The docosahexanoic acid (DHA)/eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) combination, Lipidem™, in combination with gemcitabine inhibited growth in pancreatic cancer and pancreatic stellate cell (PSC) lines, with PSCs exhibiting greatest sensitivity to this combination...
June 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Ritika Puri, Mohit Mahajan, Nikhil Shri Sahajpal, Harjeet Singh, Harmanpreet Singh, Subheet Kumar Jain
CONTEXT: Docosahexanoic acid (DHA) is an essential omega-3 fatty acid for normal brain development and its use has increased considerably in recent years. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to develop and evaluate self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of DHA for improved palatability, dispersibility and bioavailability. METHODS: The SNEDDS were prepared and evaluated for miscibility, employing different combinations of olive oil and soyabean oil as oil phase, Span 80, Span 20, soya phosphatidylcholine, Labrafil M 1944 CS as surfactants while Tween 80, PEG 400, Cremophor RH40 and propylene glycol as cosurfactants...
2016: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
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