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Sanjib Kumar Karmee
Spent coffee grounds are composed of lipid, carbohydrates, carbonaceous, and nitrogen containing compounds among others. Using n-hexane and n-hexane/isopropanol mixture highest oil yield was achived during soxhlet extraction of oil from spent coffee grounds. Alternatively, supercritical carbon dioxide can be employed as a green solvent for the extraction of oil. Using advanced chemical and biotechnological methods, spent coffee grounds are converted to various biofuels such as, biodiesel, renewable diesel, bioethanol, bioethers, bio-oil, biochar, and biogas...
November 14, 2017: Waste Management
Jegannathan Kenthorai Raman, Catarina M Alves, Edgard Gnansounou
Plants and derivatives have been explored for unlimited purposes by mankind, from crop cultivation for providing food and animal feed, to the use for cosmetics, therapeutics and energy. Moringa tree and vetiver grass features, capabilities and applications were explored through a literature review. The suitability of these plants for the bioenergy industry products is evidenced, namely for bioethanol, biogas and biodiesel, given the lignocellulosic biomass content of these plants and characteristics of moringa seed oil...
October 31, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Rui Zhang, Junpei Zhou, Zhifeng Song, Zunxi Huang
β-N-Acetylglucosaminidases (GlcNAcases) hydrolyse N-acetylglucosamine-containing oligosaccharides and proteins. These enzymes produce N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and have a wide range of promising applications in the food, energy, and pharmaceutical industries, such as synergistic degradation of chitin with endo-chitinases and using GlcNAc to produce sialic acid, bioethanol, single-cell proteins, and pharmaceutical therapeutics. GlcNAcases also play an important role in the dynamic balance of cellular O-linked GlcNAc levels, catabolism of ganglioside storage in Tay-Sachs disease, and bacterial cell wall recycling and flagellar assembly...
November 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Anne Gaquere-Parker, Tamera Taylor, Raihannah Hutson, Ashley Rizzo, Aubrey Folds, Shastina Crittenden, Neelam Zahoor, Bilal Hussein, Aaron Arruda
Hydrolysis of starch is an important process in the food industry and in the production of bioethanol or smaller carbohydrate molecules that can be used as starting blocks for chemical synthesis. Such hydrolysis can be enhanced by lowering the pH, heating the reaction mixture or catalyzing the reaction with enzymes. This study reports the effect of sonication on the reaction rate of starch hydrolysis at different temperatures, in the presence or absence of alpha-amylase. Starch Azure, a commercially available potato starch covalently linked with Remazol Brilliant Blue, has been chosen since its hydrolysis releases a blue dye, which concentration can be monitored by UV Vis spectroscopy...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Gbekeloluwa B Oguntimein, Miguel Rodriguez, Alexandru Dumitrache, Todd Shollenberger, Stephen R Decker, Brian H Davison, Steven D Brown
OBJECTIVE: To develop and prototype a high-throughput microplate assay to assess anaerobic microorganisms and lignocellulosic biomasses in a rapid, cost-effective screen for consolidated bioprocessing potential. RESULTS: Clostridium thermocellum parent Δhpt strain deconstructed Avicel to cellobiose, glucose, and generated lactic acid, formic acid, acetic acid and ethanol as fermentation products in titers and ratios similar to larger scale fermentations confirming the suitability of a plate-based method for C...
November 9, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
Tesfay Berhe, Omprakash Sahu
Bioethanol is one of the most important alternative renewable energy sources that substitute the fossil fuels. Sugarcane bagasse has a content of cellulose and hemicelluloses, which make it suitable as fermentation substrate when hydrolyzed. The objective of work is ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) by the fermentation process. Eight laboratory experiments were conducted to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse. By using Design Expert, it was formulated the dilute acid hydrolysis step to investigate the effects of hydrolysis parameters on a yield of ethanol and optimum condition...
2017: MethodsX
Fang Liu, Weihua Wu, Mary B Tran-Gyamfi, James D Jaryenneh, Xun Zhuang, Ryan W Davis
BACKGROUND: First generation bioethanol production utilizes the starch fraction of maize, which accounts for approximately 60% of the ash-free dry weight of the grain. Scale-up of this technology for fuels applications has resulted in a massive supply of distillers' grains with solubles (DGS) coproduct, which is rich in cellulosic polysaccharides and protein. It was surmised that DGS would be rapidly adopted for animal feed applications, however, this has not been observed based on inconsistency of the product stream and other logistics-related risks, especially toxigenic contaminants...
November 9, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
David Legland, Fadi El-Hage, Valérie Méchin, Matthieu Reymond
Background: Crop species are of increasing interest both for cattle feeding and for bioethanol production. The degradability of the plant material largely depends on the lignification of the tissues, but it also depends on histological features such as the cellular morphology or the relative amount of each tissue fraction. There is therefore a need for high-throughput phenotyping systems that quantify the histology of plant sections. Results: We developed custom image processing and an analysis procedure for quantifying the histology of maize stem sections coloured with FASGA staining and digitalised with whole microscopy slide scanners...
2017: Plant Methods
Siti Hajar Mohd Azhar, Rahmath Abdulla, Siti Azmah Jambo, Hartinie Marbawi, Jualang Azlan Gansau, Ainol Azifa Mohd Faik, Kenneth Francis Rodrigues
Bioethanol has been identified as the mostly used biofuel worldwide since it significantly contributes to the reduction of crude oil consumption and environmental pollution. It can be produced from various types of feedstocks such as sucrose, starch, lignocellulosic and algal biomass through fermentation process by microorganisms. Compared to other types of microoganisms, yeasts especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the common microbes employed in ethanol production due to its high ethanol productivity, high ethanol tolerance and ability of fermenting wide range of sugars...
July 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Akaraphol Watcharawipas, Daisuke Watanabe, Hiroshi Takagi
Sodium and acetate inhibit cell growth and ethanol fermentation by different mechanisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified the substitution of a conserved Thr255 to Ala (T255A) in the essential Nedd4-family ubiquitin ligase Rsp5, which enhances cellular sodium acetate tolerance. The T255A mutation selectively increased the resistance of cells against sodium acetate, suggesting that S. cerevisiae cells possess an Rsp5-mediated mechanism to cope with the composite stress of sodium and acetate. The sodium acetate tolerance was dependent on the extrusion of intracellular sodium ions by the plasma membrane-localized sodium pumps Ena1, Ena2, and Ena5 (Ena1/2/5) and two known upstream regulators: the Rim101 pH signaling pathway and the Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)...
November 2, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Rameshwar Tiwari, Puneet Kumar Singh, Surender Singh, Pawan K S Nain, Lata Nain, Pratyoosh Shukla
Background: Saccharification is the most crucial and cost-intensive process in second generation biofuel production. The deficiency of β-glucosidase in commercial enzyme leads to incomplete biomass hydrolysis. The decomposition of biomass at high temperature environments leads us to isolate thermotolerant microbes with β-glucosidase production potential. Results: A total of 11 isolates were obtained from compost and cow dung samples that were able to grow at 50 °C...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Denise Castro Parente, Danielli Batista Bezerra Cajueiro, Irina Charlot Peña Moreno, Fernanda Cristina Bezerra Leite, Will de Barros Pita, Marcos Antonio de Morais
In the last years several reports have reported the capacity of the yeast Dekkera (Brettanomyces) bruxellensis to survive and adapt to the industrial process of alcoholic fermentation. Much of this feature seems to relate to the ability to assimilate limiting sources of nutrients, or somehow some that are inaccessible to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in particular the sources of nitrogen. Among them, amino acids (AA) are relevant in terms of beverage musts, and could also be important for bioethanol. In view of the limited knowledge on the control of AA, the present work combines physiological and genetic studies to understand how it operates in D...
October 24, 2017: Yeast
Yang You, Bo Wu, Yi-Wei Yang, Yan-Wei Wang, Song Liu, Qi-Li Zhu, Han Qin, Fu-Rong Tan, Zhi-Yong Ruan, Ke-Dong Ma, Li-Chun Dai, Min Zhang, Guo-Quan Hu, Ming-Xiong He
BACKGROUND: Environmental issues, such as the fossil energy crisis, have resulted in increased public attention to use bioethanol as an alternative renewable energy. For ethanol production, water and nutrient consumption has become increasingly important factors being considered by the bioethanol industry as reducing the consumption of these resources would decrease the overall cost of ethanol production. Biogas slurry contains not only large amounts of wastewater, but also the nutrients required for microbial growth, e...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Sarah K Hammer, José L Avalos
Isobutanol and other branched-chain higher alcohols (BCHAs) are promising advanced biofuels derived from the degradation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a particularly attractive host for the production of BCHAs due to its high tolerance to alcohols and prevalent use in the bioethanol industry. Degradation of BCAAs begins with transamination reactions, catalyzed by branched-chain amino acid transaminases (BCATs) located in the mitochondria (Bat1p) and cytosol (Bat2p)...
October 13, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
Claire M Hull, Andrew G S Warrilow, Nicola J Rolley, Claire L Price, Iain S Donnison, Diane E Kelly, Steven L Kelly
BACKGROUND: Bioethanol production from sustainable sources of biomass that limit effect on food production are needed and in a biorefinery approach co-products are desirable, obtained from both the plant material and from the microbial biomass. Fungal biotransformation of steroids was among the first industrial biotransformations allowing corticosteroid production. In this work, the potential of yeast to produce intermediates needed in corticosteroid production is demonstrated at laboratory scale following bioethanol production from perennial ryegrass juice...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
E Gramsch, V Papapostolou, F Reyes, Y Vásquez, M Castillo, P Oyola, G López, A Cádiz, S Ferguson, M Wolfson, J Lawrence, P Koutrakis
Bioethanol for use in vehicles is becoming a substantial part of global energy infrastructure because it is renewable and some emissions are reduced. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and total hydrocarbons (THC) are reduced but there is still controversy regarding emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), aldehydes and ethanol, this may be a concern because all these compounds are precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The amount of emissions depends on the ethanol content, but also may depend on the engine quality and ethanol origin...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
S Singh, I Chakravarty, S Kundu
Bioethanol is an excellent alternative for petrol and has long-term economic advantages over non-renewable liquid biofuels. Bioethanol can be produced from different biomass materials, and it is categorized into three generations by biomass. First generation bioethanol directly competes with food items while second generation bioethanol requires more land area and fertilizers. Bioethanol produced from algae comes under third generation bioethanol and has many advantages over first and second generation bioethanol...
July 31, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Silvana M Orozco-Restrepo, Bruno O Soares, Vânia M Xavier, Felipe L Silva, Márcio Henrique P Barbosa, Luiz A Peternelli, Eliseu José G Pereira
Understanding how host-crop genotypes affect the life history of insect pests is important for developing and using varietal resistance as a pest control measure. Here we determined how wild and cultivated sugarcane genotypes affect key life-history traits and the demographic performance of the root spittlebug, Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål; Hemiptera: Cercopidae), a major pest of sugarcane, which produces most of the world's sugar and bioethanol. In the greenhouse, plants of four sugarcane genotypes (two wild and two cultivated) were infested with newly-ecloded spittlebug nymphs...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Arun Beniwal, Priyanka Saini, Anusha Kokkiligadda, Shilpa Vij
The dairy yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus represents a promising industrial strain useful for the production of bioethanol from cheese whey. Physiology of the five K. marxianus strains on galactose was examined during batch cultivation under controlled aerobic conditions on minimal media and one of the strains designated K. marxianus strain 6C17 which presented the highest specific galactose consumption rate. A maximum specific growth rate of 0.34 and 0.37 h(-1), respectively, was achieved using batch cultivation in a minimal medium and a complex medium amended with galactose (50 g/L) at 37 °C...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Chandrasekhar Banoth, Bindu Sunkar, Pruthvi Raj Tondamanati, Bhima Bhukya
Lignocellulosic biomass such as agricultural and forest residues are considered as an alternative, inexpensive, renewable, and abundant source for fuel ethanol production. In the present study, three different pretreatment methods for rice straw were carried out to investigate the maximum lignin removal for subsequent bioethanol fermentation. The chemical pretreatments of rice straw were optimized under different pretreatment severity conditions in the range of 1.79-2.26. Steam explosion of rice straw at 170 °C for 10 min, sequentially treated with 2% (w/v) KOH (SEKOH) in autoclave at 121 °C for 30 min, resulted in 85 ± 2% delignification with minimum sugar loss...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
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