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Ayyappa Kumar Sista Kameshwar, Wensheng Qin
To understand the common gene expression patterns employed by P. placenta during lignocellulose degradation, we have retrieved genome wide transcriptome datasets from NCBI GEO database and analyzed using customized analysis pipeline. We have retrieved the top differentially expressed genes and compared the common significant genes among two different growth conditions. Genes encoding for cellulolytic (GH1, GH3, GH5, GH12, GH16, GH45) and hemicellulolytic (GH10, GH27, GH31, GH35, GH47, GH51, GH55, GH78, GH95) glycoside hydrolase classes were commonly up regulated among all the datasets...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Nathaniel E Kallmyer, Joseph Musielwicz, Joel Sutter, Nigel Forest Reuel
Hydrolytic enzymes are a topic of continual study and improvement due to their industrial impact and biological implications; however, the ability to measure the activity of these enzymes, especially in high-throughput assays, is limited to an established, few enzymes and often involves the measurement of secondary byproducts or the design of a complex degradation probe. Herein, a versatile single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based biosensor that is straightforward to produce and measure is described. The hydrolytic enzyme substrate is rendered as an amphiphilic polymer which is then used to solubilize the hydrophobic nanotubes...
March 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Guangshuai Zhang, Xiubo Yu, Jun Xu, Houlang Duan, Loretta Rafay, Quanjun Zhang, Ya Li, Yu Liu, Shaoxia Xia
Unique hydrological characteristics and complex topography can create wide-ranging dry season environmental heterogeneity in response to groundwater level across China's Jiangxi Province Poyang Lake wetland. Soil traits are one of several fluctuating environmental variables. To determine the effects of soil variables on stable isotope (δ13 C and δ15 N) abundances during decomposition, we performed a field experiment using Carex cinerascens along a groundwater level gradient (GT-L: -25 to -50cm, GT-LM: -15 to -25cm, GT-MH: -5 to -15cm, GT-H: 5 to -5cm) in a shallow lake...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jianbin Guo, Xian Cui, Hui Sun, Qian Zhao, Xiaoyu Wen, Changle Pang, Renjie Dong
In north China, large amounts of excessively wilted maize stover are produced annually. Maize stover wet storage strategies and subsequent biogas production was examined in this study. Firstly, wet storage performances of harvested maize stover, air-dried for different time durations, were evaluated. Results showed that optimal storage performance was obtained when the initial water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content after air-drying was higher than 8.0%. Therefore, cellulase and glucose were added to the excessively wilted maize stover to achieve the targeted pre-storage WSC levels...
March 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Łukasz Baranowski, Wojciech Kurek, Małgorzata Lichocka, Mirosław Sobczak
Plant-parasitic cyst forming nematodes induce in host roots a specific feeding site called a syncytium. Modifications induced by the pathogen in cells incorporated into syncytium include their hypertrophy and changes in apoplast caused by over-expression of plant proteins, e.g. cellulases. As a result cell wall openings between syncytial elements are formed. The major aim of our investigation was to immunolocalize cellulases involved in these cell-wall modifications. Experiments were conducted on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv...
February 12, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Xiaoqiang Gong, Linlin Cai, Suyan Li, Scott X Chang, Xiangyang Sun, Zhengfeng An
Vermicomposting is a promising method for reusing urban green waste. However, high lignin content in the green waste could hinder the development of earthworm and microorganisms and the vermicomposting process, resulting in a low-quality vermicompost product. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bamboo biochar addition (at 0%, 3%, and 6% on a dry w/w basis) on the activity of Eisenia fetida and the obtained vermicompost. Biochar addition increased (P < 0.05) earthworm biomass, juvenile and cocoon numbers of Eisenia fetida, as well as the activities of dehydrogenase, cellulase, urease and alkaline phosphatase...
March 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ling Kong, L M Chu
Urban grasslands not only provide a recreational venue for urban residents, but also sequester organic carbon in vegetation and soils through photosynthesis, and release carbon dioxide through respiration, which largely contribute to carbon storage and fluxes at regional and global scales. We investigated organic carbon and nitrogen pools in subtropical turfs and found that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) were regulated by several factors including microbial activity which is indicated by soil enzymatic activity...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Dafei Yin, Xiaonan Yin, Xingyu Wang, Zhao Lei, Maofei Wang, Yuming Guo, Samuel E Aggrey, Wei Nie, Jianmin Yuan
Background: The effect of amylases combined with exogenous carbohydrase and protease in a newly harvested corn diet on starch digestibility, intestine health and cecal microbiota was investigated in broiler chickens. Methods: Two hunderd and eighty-eight 5-day-old female chickens were randomly divided into six treatments: a newly harvested corn-soybean meal diet (control); control supplemented with 1,500 U/g α-amylase (Enzyme A); Enzyme A + 300 U/g amylopectase + 20,000 U/g glucoamylase (Enzyme B); Enzyme B + protease 10,000 U/g (Enzyme C); Enzyme C + xylanase 15,000 U/g (Enzyme D); and Enzyme D + cellulase 200 U/g + pectinase 1,000 U/g (Enzyme E)...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Pascale Satour, Chvan Youssef, Emilie Châtelain, Benoit Ly Vu, Béatrice Teulat, Claudette Job, Dominique Job, Françoise Montrichard
Seeds mainly acquire their physiological quality during maturation while oxidative conditions reign within cells triggering protein carbonylation. To better understand the role of this protein modification in legume seeds, we compared by proteomics patterns of carbonylated proteins in maturing seeds of Medicago truncatula naturally desiccated or prematurely dried, a treatment known to impair seed quality acquisition. In both cases, protein carbonylation increased in these seeds, accompanying water removal. We identified several proteins whose extent of carbonylation varied when comparing natural desiccation and premature drying and that could therefore be responsible for the impairment of seed quality acquisition or expression...
March 15, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
RaviChand Jonnadula, Md Imran, Preethi B Poduval, Sanjeev C Ghadi
Microbulbifer strain CMC-5 produces agarase, alginate lyase, xylanase, carboxymethyl cellulase and carrageenase. The extracellular production of the above carbohydrases was investigated by growing Microbulbifer strain CMC-5 in a sea water based medium containing homologous/heterologous polysaccharides as a single substrate or as a combination of mixed assorted substrate. Presence of singular homologous polysaccharides in the growth medium induces respective carbohydrase at high levels. Any two polysaccharides in various combinations produced high level of homologous carbohydrase and low level of other heterologous carbohydrase...
March 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Jia Wu, Adam Elliston, Gwenaelle Le Gall, Ian J Colquhoun, Samuel R A Collins, Ian P Wood, Jo Dicks, Ian N Roberts, Keith W Waldron
Background: Rice straw and husk are globally significant sources of cellulose-rich biomass and there is great interest in converting them to bioethanol. However, rice husk is reportedly much more recalcitrant than rice straw and produces larger quantities of fermentation inhibitors. The aim of this study was to explore the underlying differences between rice straw and rice husk with reference to the composition of the pre-treatment liquors and their impacts on saccharification and fermentation...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Xiaomei Su, Shuo Zhang, Rongwu Mei, Yu Zhang, Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi, Jingjing Liu, Hongjun Lin, Linxian Ding, Faqian Sun
Nowadays, much of what we know regarding the isolated cellulolytic bacteria comes from the conventional plate separation techniques. However, the culturability of many bacterial species is controlled by resuscitation-promoting factors (Rpfs) due to entering a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. Therefore, in this study, Rpf from Micrococcus luteus was added in the culture medium to evaluate its role in bacterial isolation and enhanced effects on cellulose-degrading capability of bacterial community in the compost...
March 14, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Chiara Cattaneo, Patrizia Cesaro, Stefano Spertino, Sara Icardi, Maria Cavaletto
Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is a low-cost and abundant source of fermentable sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the main ways to obtain sugars from biomass, but most of the polysaccharide-degrading enzymes are poorly efficient on LCB and cellulases with higher performances are required. In this study, we designed a chimeric protein by adding the carbohydrate binding module (CBM) of the cellulosomal enzyme CtLic26A-Cel5E (endoglucanase H or CelH) from Clostridium (Ruminiclostridium) thermocellum to the C-terminus of Dtur CelA, an interesting hyperthermostable endoglucanase from Dictyoglomus turgidum...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Adam Orłowski, Lior Artzi, Pierre-Andre Cazade, Melissabye Gunnoo, Edward A Bayer, Damien Thompson
Transformation of cellulose into monosaccharides can be achieved by hydrolysis of the cellulose chains, carried out by a special group of enzymes known as cellulases. The enzymatic mechanism of cellulases is well described, but the role of non-enzymatic components of the cellulose-degradation machinery is still poorly understood, and difficult to measure using experiments alone. In this study, we use a comprehensive set of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to probe the molecular details of binding of the family-3a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM3a) and the bacterial expansin protein (EXLX1) to a range of cellulose substrates...
March 12, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Munmun Nandi, Jacqueline MacDonald, Peng Liu, Brian Weselowski, Ze-Chun Yuan
Bacterial canker disease is considered one of the most destructive diseases of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and is caused by the seed-borne gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm). This vascular pathogen generally invades and proliferates in the xylem through natural openings or wounds, causing wilt and canker symptoms. The incidence of symptomless latent infections and the invasion of tomato seeds by Cmm are widespread. Pathogenicity is mediated by virulence factors and transcriptional regulators encoded by the chromosome and two natural plasmids...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Juan Wang, Yanfen Gong, Shengming Zhao, Gang Liu
Myceliophthora thermophila (ATCC 42464) is a thermophilic fungus that produces cellulolytic enzymes with high thermal stability. Unlike its mesophile counterparts, study on gene expression regulation of cellulolytic enzymes in M. thermophila is inadequate. This work identified the function of MHR1, a putative transcription regulator of cellulolytic enzymes in M. thermophila that was found through RNA-Seq based gene expression profile analysis. RNA interference was used to study the role of MHR1. A recombinant plasmid, pUC19-P pdc - mhr1 -T pdc , which contained the RNAi sequence for mhr1 was constructed and transformed into M...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Carmen Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Garikoitz Legarda, David Ruano-Rosa, Paloma Pizarro-Tobías, Antonio Valverde-Corredor, José L Niqui, Juan C Triviño, Amalia Roca, Jesús Mercado-Blanco
The use of biological control agents (BCA), alone or in combination with other management measures, has gained attention over the past decades, driven by the need to seek for sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives to confront plant pathogens. The rhizosphere of olive ( Olea europaea L.) plants is a source of bacteria with potential as biocontrol tools against Verticillium wilt of olive (VWO) caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. A collection of bacterial isolates from healthy nursery-produced olive (cultivar Picual, susceptible to VWO) plants was generated based on morphological, biochemical and metabolic characteristics, chemical sensitivities, and on their in vitro antagonistic activity against several olive pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Thi Huyen Do, Ngoc Giang Le, Trong Khoa Dao, Thi Mai Phuong Nguyen, Tung Lam Le, Han Ly Luu, Khanh Hoang Viet Nguyen, Van Lam Nguyen, Lan Anh Le, Thu Nguyet Phung, Nico M van Straalen, Dick Roelofs, Nam Hai Truong
The scarcity of enzymes having an optimal activity in lignocellulose deconstruction is an obstacle for industrial-scale conversion of cellulosic biomass into biofuels. With the aim of mining novel lignocellulolytic enzymes, a ~9 Gb metagenome of bacteria in Vietnamese native goats' rumen was sequenced by Illumina platform. From the data, 821 ORFs encoding carbohydrate esterases (CEs) and polysaccharide lyases (PLs) serving for lignocellulose pre-treatment, 816 ORFs encoding 11 glycoside hydrolase families (GHs) of cellulases, and 2252 ORFs encoding 22 GHs of hemicellulases, were mined...
March 12, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Rui Zhai, Jinguang Hu, Jack N Saddler
In this study, the influence of major hemicellulosic sugars (mannose and xylose) on cellulose hydrolysis and major enzyme activities were evaluated by using both commercial enzyme cocktail and purified cellulase monocomponents over a "library" of cellulosic substrates. Surprisingly, the results showed that unlike glucose, mannose/xylose did not inhibit individual cellulase activities but significantly decreased their hydrolytic performance on cellulose substrates. When various enzyme-substrate interactions (e...
December 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Houhou Huang, Fei Han, Shanshan Guan, Mengdan Qian, Yongfeng Wan, Yaming Shan, Hao Zhang, Song Wang
Glycoside hydrolase cellulase family 6 from Trichoderma reesei (TrCel6A) is an important cellobiohydrolase to hydrolyze cellooligosaccharide into cellobiose. The knowledge of enzymatic mechanisms is critical for improving the conversion efficiency of cellulose into ethanol or other chemicals. However, the process of product expulsion, a key component of enzymatic depolymerization, from TrCel6A has not yet been described in detail. Here, conventional molecular dynamics and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) were applied to study product expulsion from TrCel6A...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
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