Read by QxMD icon Read


Helena Hudeckova, Markus Neureiter, Stanislav Obruca, Sabine Frühauf, Ivana Marova
This work investigates the potential conversion of spent coffee grounds (SCG) into lactic acid (LA). SCG were hydrolysed by a combination of dilute acid treatment and subsequent application of cellulase. The SCG hydrolysate contained a considerable amount of reducing sugars (9.02 ± 0.03 g l-1 , glucose; 26.49 ± 0.10 g l-1 galactose and 2.81 ± 0.07 g l-1 arabinose) and it was used as a substrate for cultivation of several lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and also lactic acid producing Bacillus coagulans. Among the screened microorganisms, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, CCM 1825 was identified as the most promising producer of LA on SCG hydrolysate...
January 13, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Yafei Shen, Ruimei Cheng, Wenfa Xiao, Shao Yang, Yan Guo, Na Wang, Lixiong Zeng, Lei Lei, Xiaorong Wang
The effects of forest management on carbon (C) sequestration are poorly understood, particularly in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. We aimed to identify the effects of forest management on C sequestration in Pinus massoniana plantations. An intact control forest (CK), a site undergoing regular shrub cutting with the simultaneous removal of residues (SC), a site under low-intensity thinning (LIT), and a site under high-intensity thinning (HIT) were compared for soil labile organic carbon (LOC), related enzyme activities, and soil characteristics...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Arnau Vidal, Sonia Marín, Vicente Sanchis, Sarah De Saeger, Marthe De Boevre
Aflatoxins are the most potent genotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins. To date, research has only focused on the presence of free aflatoxins in agricultural commodities. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of possible modified aflatoxins in maize. Different hydrolysis methods were applied to convert modified mycotoxins into their free aflatoxins. Eighteen aflatoxin-contaminated maize samples were incubated with potassium hydroxide, trifluoromethanesulfonic acid and several enzymes to induce hydrolysis...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Svetlana Kišidayová, Peter Pristaš, Michaela Zimovčáková, Monika Blanár Wencelová, Lucia Homol'ová, Katarína Mihaliková, Klaudia Čobanová, Ľubomíra Grešáková, Zora Váradyová
Little is known about the effects of the high dose and types of manganese supplements on rumen environment at manganese intake level close above the limit of 150 mg/kg of dry feed matter. The effects of high dose of two manganese supplements (organic and inorganic) on rumen microbial ecosystem after four months of treatment of 18 lambs divided into three treatment groups were studied. We examined the enzyme activities (α-amylase, xylanase, and carboxymethyl cellulase), total and differential microscopic counts of rumen ciliates, total microscopic counts of bacteria, and fingerprinting pattern of the eubacterial and ciliates population analyzed by PCR-DGGE...
2018: PloS One
Seyed Hassan Hosseini, Seyedeh Ameneh Hosseini, Nasrin Zohreh, Mahshid Yaghoubi, Ali Pourjavadi
A magnetic nanocomposite was prepared by entrapment of Fe3O4 nanoparticles into the cross-linked ionic liquid/epoxy type polymer. The resulting support was used for covalent immobilization cellulase through the reaction with epoxy groups. The ionic surface of the support improved the adsorption of enzyme and a large amount of enzyme (106.1 mg/g) was loaded onto the support surface. The effect of the presence of ionic monomer and covalent binding of enzyme was also investigated. The structures of supports were characterized by various instruments such as FT-IR, TGA, VSM, XRD, TEM, SEM and DLS...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Tucker Burgin, Jerry Ståhlberg, Heather B Mayes
The inverting glycoside hydrolase Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) Cel6A is a promising candidate for protein engineering for more economical production of biofuels. Until recently, its catalytic mechanism had been uncertain: the best candidate residue to serve as a catalytic base, D175, is further from the glycosidic cleavage site than in other glycoside hydrolase enzymes. Recent unbiased transition path sampling simulations revealed the hydrolytic mechanism for this more distant base, employing a water wire; however, it is not clear why the enzyme employs a more distant catalytic base, a highly-conserved feature among homologs across different kingdoms...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ariane Zanchetta, Antonio Carlos Freitas Dos Santos, Eduardo Ximenes, Christiane da Costa Carreira Nunes, Maurício Boscolo, Eleni Gomes, Michael R Ladisch
Extents of adsorption of cellulolytic enzymes on lignin, derived from sugarcane bagasse, were an inverse function of incubation temperature and varied with type of lignin extraction. At 45 °C, lignin derived from acid hydrolyzed liquid hot water pretreated bagasse completely adsorbed cellulolytic enzymes from Trichoderma reesei within 90 min. Lignin derived from enzyme hydrolyzed liquid hot water pretreated bagasse adsorbed only 60% of T. reesei endoglucanase, exoglucanase and β-glucosidase activities...
December 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
N Vinod Kumar, Mary Esther Rani, R Gunaseeli, N D Kannan
Ligno-cellulosic enzymes like cellulase and xylanase have potential for modification of paper pulp characteristics. A low molecular weight cellulase - xylanase complex (14KDa) was co-produced using Escherichia coli SD5. Co-existence of these enzymes was found to be advantageous in paper pulp modification and in deinking applications. The cellulase and xylanase exhibited specific activities of 51.95 and 24.64U/mg protein of respectively. Defibrillations, crack formation and changes in functional groups was evident from the SEM and FT-IR analysis of paper pulp following the enzyme treatment...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Razi Ahmad, Sunil Kumar Khare
In present study, Aspergillus niger cellulase was immobilized onto functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) via carbodiimide coupling. MWCNTs offer unique advantages including enhanced electronics properties, a large edge to basal plane ratio, rapid electrode kinetics and it's possess higher tensile strength properties due to their structural arrangements. The immobilization was confirmed by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and SEM (scanning electron microscope). The bionanoconjugates prepared under optimized condition retained 85% activity with improved pH and thermal stability...
December 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Monika Grzegorczyk, Anna Kancelista, Wojciech Łaba, Michał Piegza, Danuta Witkowska
The study evaluates the survivability and storage stability of seven Trichoderma strains belonging to the species: T. harzianum (1), T. atroviride (4), and T. virens (2) after the lyophilization of their solid state cultures on wheat straw. Biomass of Trichoderma strains was freeze-dried with and without the addition of maltodextrin. Furthermore, in order to determine the ability of tested Trichoderma strains to preserve selected technological features, the biosynthesis of extracellular hydrolases (cellulases, xylanases, and polygalacturonases) after a 3-month storage of lyophilizates was investigated...
January 5, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
O Olgun, Y Altay, Alp O Yildiz
1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of enzyme supplementation of maize/wheat-based diets on the performance, egg quality, and serum and bone parameters of laying hens. 2. During the 12-week experimental period, a total of 72 laying hens aged 52 weeks were randomly distributed among 6 experimental groups. Each experimental group contained 4 replicates, each with three birds. The experiment was a randomised design consisting of a 3×2 factorial arrangement, with three levels of wheat substitution and two levels of enzyme (xylanase: 1500...
January 5, 2018: British Poultry Science
Amanda da Silva Ribeiro, Julio Cesar Polonio, Alessandra Tenório Costa, Caroline Menicoze Dos Santos, Sandro Augusto Rhoden, João Lúcio Azevedo, João Alencar Pamphile
Endophytes are fungi and bacteria that inhabit plant tissues without causing disease. Endophytes have characteristics that are important for the health of the plant and have been isolated from several plants of economic and medicinal interest but rarely from ornamental plants. The current study isolates and identifies endophytic fungi from the leaves of Pachystachys lutea and evaluates the antagonistic activity of these endophytes as well as cellulase production by the endophytes. Fungi were isolated by fragmentation from surface-disinfected leaves and were identified by the sequencing of the ITS gene and the genes coding for EF 1-α and β-tubulin followed by multilocus sequence analysis...
January 3, 2018: Current Microbiology
Arusha P Nandimath, Dilip D Karad, Shantikumar G Gupta, Arun S Kharat
Background and Objectives: Alkaline pH of the soil facilitates the conversion of phosphate present in phosphate fertilizer applied in the field to insoluble phosphate which is not available to plants. Problem of soluble phosphate deficiency arises, primarily due to needless use of phosphate fertilizer. We sought to biofertilizer with the thermo-tolerant phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes consortium that could convert insoluble phosphate to soluble phosphate at wider temperature range...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Qiuzhuo Zhang, Yan Wei, Hui Han, Chen Weng
This study investigated the possibility of enhancing bioethanol production by combined pretreatment methods for water hyacinth. Three different kinds of pretreatment methods, including microbial pretreatment, microbial combined dilute acid pretreatment, and microbial combined dilute alkaline pretreatment, were investigated for water hyacinth degradation. The results showed that microbial combined dilute acid pretreatment is the most effective method, resulting in the highest cellulose content (39.4 ± 2...
December 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Eric Husson, Thomas Auxenfans, Mickael Herbaut, Manon Baralle, Virginie Lambertyn, Harivoni Rakotoarivonina, Caroline Rémond, Catherine Sarazin
Sequential and simultaneous strategies for fractioning wheat straw were developed in combining 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate [C2mim][OAc], endo-xylanases from Thermobacillus xylanilyticus and commercial cellulases. After [C2mim][OAc]-pretreatment, hydrolysis catalyzed by endo-xylanases of wheat straw led to efficient xylose production with very competitive yield (97.6 ± 1.3%). Subsequent enzymatic saccharification allowed achieving a total degradation of cellulosic fraction (>99%). These high performances revealed an interesting complementarity of [C2mim][OAc]- and xylanase-pretreatments for increasing enzymatic digestibility of cellulosic fraction in agreement with the structural and morphological changes of wheat straw induced by each of these pretreatment steps...
December 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Jasneet Grewal, S K Khare
The lignocellulosic agro-wastes are an attractive renewable resource in biorefinery for production of value-added platform chemicals and biofuels. The study describes use of different agro-wastes as substrate for production of lactic acid, a C3-platform chemical and high demand industrial product by Lactobacillus brevis in a one-pot bioprocess. The simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) process was achieved by L. brevis governed fermentation of sugars, derived from saccharification of ionic liquid pretreated feedstocks by nanoimmobilized cellulase, which was further recovered and used for consecutive cycle...
December 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Laura Bononi, Rodrigo Gouvêa Taketani, Danilo Tosta Souza, Marta Alves Moitinho, Vanessa Nessner Kavamura, Itamar Soares Melo
Microbial communities regulate nutrient cycling in soil, thus the impact of climate change on the structure and function of these communities can cause an imbalance of nutrients in the environment. Structural and functional changes of soil bacterial communities in two contrasting biomes in Brazil, the Atlantic Forest and the Tropical Dry Forest (Caatinga), were studied by simulating, in microcosms, rainfall and drought events. Soil samples were collected in three Brazilian states: Bahia, Pernambuco and São Paulo, in a total of four sampling sites...
December 29, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Qi Bei, Gong Chen, Fangju Lu, Sheng Wu, Zhenqiang Wu
This work aims to investigate the effects of carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes on the release of phenolics in oat fermentation with Monascus anka. There were good correlations between phenolic content and α-amylase, xylanase and FPase activities. A high level of α-amylase activity (141.07 U/g) was observed, while xylanase (2.40 U/g), total cellulase (0.52 U/g) and β-glucosidase activities (0.028 U/g) were relatively low in the fermentation system. The phenolic content of oat powder treated with crude enzyme from fermented oats significantly increased, especially that of the ferulic acid in the insoluble fraction and the vanillic acid in the soluble fraction...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Saori Amaike Campen, Jed Lynn, Stephanie J Sibert, Sneha Srikrishnan, Pallavi Phatale, Taya Feldman, Joel M Guenther, Jennifer Hiras, Yvette Thuy An Tran, Steven W Singer, Paul D Adams, Kenneth L Sale, Blake A Simmons, Scott E Baker, Jon K Magnuson, John M Gladden
Efficient deconstruction of plant biomass is a major barrier to the development of viable lignocellulosic biofuels. Pretreatment with ionic liquids reduces lignocellulose recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis, increasing yields of sugars for conversion into biofuels. However, commercial cellulases are not compatible with many ionic liquids, necessitating extensive water washing of pretreated biomass prior to hydrolysis. To circumvent this issue, previous research has demonstrated that several thermophilic bacterial cellulases can efficiently deconstruct lignocellulose in the presence of the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimadizolium acetate...
2017: PloS One
Ling Liu, Shuqi Wang, Xiaoping Guo, Tingning Zhao, Bolin Zhang
A comprehensive characterization of the bacterial diversity associated to thermophilic stages of green waste composting was achieved. In this study, eight different treatments (T1-T8) and three replicated lab-scale green waste composting were carried out to compare the effect of the cellulase (i.e. 0, 2%), microbial inoculum (i.e. 0, 2 and 4%) and particle size (i.e. 2 and 5 mm) on bacterial community structure. Physicochemical properties and bacterial communities of T1-T8 composts were observed, and the bacterial structure and diversity were examined by high-throughput sequencing via a MiSeq platform...
December 23, 2017: Waste Management
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"