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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934551/polymer-conjugation-to-enhance-cellulase-activity-and-preserve-thermal-and-functional-stability
#1
Thaiesha A Wright, Melissa Lucius Dougherty, Benjamin Schmitz, Kevin M Burridge, Katherine Makaroff, Jamie M Stewart, Henry D Fischesser, Jerry T Shepherd, Jason A Berberich, Dominik Konkolewicz, Richard C Page
A thermophilic cellulase, FnCel5a, from Fervidobacterium nodosum was conjugated with various functional polymers including cationic, anionic, and strongly and weakly hydrogen bonding polymers. The activity of FnCel5a toward a high molecular weight carboxymethyl cellulose substrate was enhanced by polymer conjugation. Activity enhancements of 50% or greater observed for acrylamide and mixed N,N-dimethyl acrylamide/2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate polymers suggesting that the greatest enhancements were caused by polymers capable of non-covalent interactions with the substrate...
September 21, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932199/bacillus-a-biological-tool-for-crop-improvement-through-bio-molecular-changes-in-adverse-environments
#2
REVIEW
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed F Abd Allah
Crop productivity is affected by environmental and genetic factors. Microbes that are beneficial to plants are used to enhance the crop yield and are alternatives to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Pseudomonas and Bacillus species are the predominant plant growth-promoting bacteria. The spore-forming ability of Bacillus is distinguished from that of Pseudomonas. Members of this genus also survive for a long time under unfavorable environmental conditions. Bacillus spp. secrete several metabolites that trigger plant growth and prevent pathogen infection...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931207/study-on-the-effects-of-several-operational-variables-on-the-enzymatic-batch-saccharification-of-orange-solid-waste
#3
Isabel de la Torre, Marianela Ravelo, Silvia Segarra, Marta Tortajada, Victoria E Santos, Miguel Ladero
In this work, batch enzyme-aided extraction and enzymatic saccharification of blade-milled orange waste was studied. The operation variables for this process were thoroughly analysed. It was determined that batch runs with initial pH values of 5.0 and 5.2 controlled during the first hour, 50°C and 300-500r.p.m. agitation resulted in the best yields, with a limited total and partial first-order enzyme deactivation (for cellulases and polygalacturonidase, respectively). Orange peel waste (OPW) at 6.7% w/w dry solid, 0...
August 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926914/temperature-and-ph-influence-adsorption-of-cellobiohydrolase-onto-lignin-by-changing-the-protein-properties
#4
Xianqin Lu, Can Wang, Xuezhi Li, Jian Zhao
Non-productive adsorption of cellulase onto lignin restricted the movement of cellulase and also hindered the cellulase recycling in bioconversion of lignocellulose. In this study, effect of temperature and pH on adsorption and desorption of cellobiohydrolase (CBH) on lignin and its possible mechanism were discussed. It found that pH value and temperature influenced the adsorption and desorption behaviors of CBH on lignin. Different thermodynamic models suggested that the action between lignin and CBH was physical action...
August 24, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926703/effect-of-non-ionic-surfactants-on-dispersion-and-polar-interactions-in-the-adsorption-of-cellulases-onto-lignin
#5
Feng Jiang, Chen Qian, Alan R Esker, Maren Roman
Residual lignin in pretreated biomass impedes enzymatic hydrolysis. Non-ionic surfactants are known to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass but their mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. This study investigates the effect of a non-ionic surfactant, Tween 80, on the adsorption of cellulases onto model lignin substrates. Lignin substrates were prepared by spin coating of flat substrates with three different types of lignin: organosolv lignin, kraft lignin, and milled wood lignin...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919928/the-yeast-geotrichum-candidum-encodes-functional-lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenases
#6
Simon Ladevèze, Mireille Haon, Ana Villares, Bernard Cathala, Sacha Grisel, Isabelle Herpoël-Gimbert, Bernard Henrissat, Jean-Guy Berrin
BACKGROUND: Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are a class of powerful oxidative enzymes that have revolutionized our understanding of lignocellulose degradation. Fungal LPMOs of the AA9 family target cellulose and hemicelluloses. AA9 LPMO-coding genes have been identified across a wide range of fungal saprotrophs (Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina, etc.), but so far they have not been found in more basal lineages. Recent genome analysis of the yeast Geotrichum candidum (Saccharomycotina) revealed the presence of several LPMO genes, which belong to the AA9 family...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919333/status-of-the-effectiveness-of-contact-lens-disinfectants-in-malaysia-against-keratitis-causing-pathogens
#7
Farhat Abjani, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Suk Yul Jung, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui
The aim of this study was (i) to assess the antimicrobial effects of contact lens disinfecting solutions marketed in Malaysia against common bacterial eye pathogens and as well as eye parasite, Acanthamoeba castellanii, and (ii) to determine whether targeting cyst wall would improve the efficacy of contact lens disinfectants. Using ISO 14729 Stand-Alone Test for disinfecting solutions, bactericidal and amoebicidal assays of six different contact lens solutions including Oxysept(®), AO SEPT PLUS, OPTI-FREE(®) pure moist(®), Renu(®) fresh™, FreshKon(®) CLEAR and COMPLETE RevitaLens™ were performed using Manufacturers Minimum recommended disinfection time (MRDT)...
September 14, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919250/purification-and-characterization-of-a-cellulase-free-thermostable-endo-xylanase-from-streptomyces-griseorubens-lh-3-and-its-use-in-biobleaching-on-eucalyptus-kraft-pulp
#8
Hao Wu, Xianbo Cheng, Yongfeng Zhu, Wei Zeng, Guiguang Chen, Zhiqun Liang
Xylanase is an important enzyme involved in degrading xylan. In this study, an extracellular cellulase-free, thermostable endo-xylanase which was produced by Streptomyces griseorubens LH-3 with bagasse semi-cellulose as a carbon source was purified and characterized. The xylanase was purified 4-fold with a recovery yield of 21.6% by precipitation with 25-55% (NH4)2SO4, Mono Q ion exchange chromatography and sephacryl S-200 HR gel filtration chromatography. It appeared as a monomeric protein on SDS-PAGE gel and had an apparent molecular weight of 45...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917109/a-%C3%AE-xylosidase-hyper-production-penicillium-oxalicum-mutant-enhanced-ethanol-production-from-alkali-pretreated-corn-stover
#9
Yanxin Ye, Xuezhi Li, Yuan Cao, Jian Du, Shicheng Chen, Jian Zhao
β-Xylosidase activity is deficient in most cellulase enzymes secreted by filamentous fungi, which limits effective enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicellulose in lignocellulose materials and resulted in accumulation of xylo-oligosaccharides that inhibit the cellulase and xylanase activitives. An endogenous β-xylosidase gene, xyl3A, was overexpressed using two types of promoters in cellulolytic P. oxalicum RE-10. The mutants RXyl, RGXyl-1 and RGXyl-2 displayed higher β-xylosidase production than native strain RE-10 besides higher cellulase and xylanase activities, especially RGXyl-1, showing the highest β-xylosidase activity of 15...
August 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916825/de-novo-transcriptome-of-the-cosmopolitan-dinoflagellate-amphidinium-carterae-to-identify-enzymes-with-biotechnological-potential
#10
Chiara Lauritano, Daniele De Luca, Alberto Ferrarini, Carla Avanzato, Andrea Minio, Francesco Esposito, Adrianna Ianora
Dinoflagellates are phytoplanktonic organisms found in both freshwater and marine habitats. They are often studied because related to harmful algal blooms but they are also known to produce bioactive compounds for the treatment of human pathologies. The aim of this study was to sequence the full transcriptome of the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae in both nitrogen-starved and -replete culturing conditions (1) to evaluate the response to nitrogen starvation at the transcriptional level, (2) to look for possible polyketide synthases (PKSs) in the studied clone (genes that may be involved in the synthesis of bioactive compounds), (3) if present, to evaluate if nutrient starvation can influence PKS expression, (4) to look for other possible enzymes of biotechnological interest and (5) to test strain cytotoxicity on human cell lines...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912831/genome-sequencing-and-transcriptome-analysis-of-trichoderma-reesei-qm9978-strain-reveals-a-distal-chromosome-translocation-to-be-responsible-for-loss-of-vib1-expression-and-loss-of-cellulase-induction
#11
Christa Ivanova, Jonas Ramoni, Thiziri Aouam, Alexa Frischmann, Bernhard Seiboth, Scott E Baker, Stéphane Le Crom, Sophie Lemoine, Antoine Margeot, Frédérique Bidard
BACKGROUND: The hydrolysis of biomass to simple sugars used for the production of biofuels in biorefineries requires the action of cellulolytic enzyme mixtures. During the last 50 years, the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei, the main source of industrial cellulase and hemicellulase cocktails, has been subjected to several rounds of classical mutagenesis with the aim to obtain higher production levels. During these random genetic events, strains unable to produce cellulases were generated...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912309/first-whole-genome-shotgun-sequence-of-a-promising-cellulase-secretor-trichoderma-koningiopsis-strain-pos7
#12
María Lorena Castrillo, Gustavo Ángel Bich, Carlos Modenutti, Adrián Turjanski, Pedro Darío Zapata, Laura Lidia Villalba
Trichoderma koningiopsis strain POS7 produces significantly large amounts of cellulase enzymes in solid-state fermentation. The Illumina-based sequence analysis reveals an approximate genome size of 36.6 Mbp, with a G+C content of 48.82% for T. koningiopsis POS7. Based on ab initio prediction, 12,661 coding genes were annotated.
September 14, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905696/paralkalibacillus-indicireducens-gen-nov-sp-nov-an-indigo-reducing-obligate-alkaliphile-isolated-from-indigo-fermentation-liquor-used-for-dyeing
#13
Kikue Hirota, Masatoshi Nishita, Hidetoshi Matsuyama, Isao Yumoto
Obligately alkaliphilic, indigo-reducing strains, designated Bps-1T, Bps-2 and Bps-3, were isolated from an indigo fermentation liquor used for dyeing, which was produced from sukumo (composted Polygonum indigo leaves) obtained from a craft centre in Data City, Hokkaido, Japan, by using medium containing cellulase-treated sukumo. The 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny suggested that Bps-1T has a distinctive position among the alkaliphilic species of the genus Bacillus, with its closest neighbours being Bacillus pseudofirmus DSM 8715T, Bacillus lindianensis DSM 26864T and Bacillus alcalophilus DSM 485T (96...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904563/bacillus-coagulans-ma-13-a-promising-thermophilic-and-cellulolytic-strain-for-the-production-of-lactic-acid-from-lignocellulosic-hydrolysate
#14
Martina Aulitto, Salvatore Fusco, Simonetta Bartolucci, Carl Johan Franzén, Patrizia Contursi
BACKGROUND: The transition from a petroleum-based economy towards more sustainable bioprocesses for the production of fuels and chemicals (circular economy) is necessary to alleviate the impact of anthropic activities on the global ecosystem. Lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars are suitable alternative feedstocks that can be fermented or biochemically converted to value-added products. An example is lactic acid, which is an essential chemical for the production of polylactic acid, a biodegradable bioplastic...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901714/modular-organization-of-the-thermobifida-fusca-exoglucanase-cel6b-impacts-cellulose-hydrolysis-and-designer-cellulosome-efficiency
#15
Eva Setter-Lamed, Sarah Moraïs, Johanna Stern, Raphael Lamed, Edward A Bayer
Cellulose deconstruction can be achieved by three distinct enzymatic paradigms: free enzymes, multifunctional enzymes and self-assembled, multi-enzyme complexes (cellulosomes). To study their comparative efficiency, the simple and efficient cellulolytic system of the aerobic bacterium, Thermobifida fusca, was developed as an enzymatic model. In previous studies, most of its cellulases were successfully converted to the cellulosomal mode and exhibited high cellulolytic activities, except for Cel6B, a key exoglucanase of the T...
September 13, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900905/biodegradation-of-ramie-stalk-by-flammulina-velutipes-mushroom-production-and-substrate-utilization
#16
Chunliang Xie, Wenbing Gong, Li Yan, Zuohua Zhu, Zhenxiu Hu, Yuande Peng
In the textile industry, ramie stalk is byproducts with a low economic value. The potential use of this leftover as a substrate ingredient for Flammulina velutipes (F. velutipe) cultivation was evaluated. The degradation and utilization of ramie stalk by F. velutipes was evaluated through mushroom production, lignocelluloses degradation and lignocellulolytic enzymes activity. The best substrate mixture for F. velutipes cultivation comprised 50% ramie stalk, 20% cottonseed hulls, 25% wheat bran, 4% cornstarch and 2% CaCO3...
September 12, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900033/high-resolution-structure-of-a-lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenase-from-hypocrea-jecorina-reveals-a-predicted-linker-as-an-integral-part-of-the-catalytic-domain
#17
Henrik Hansson, Saeid Karkehabadi, Nils Mikkelsen, Nicholai R Douglas, Steve Kim, Anna Lam, Thijs Kaper, Brad Kelemen, Katlyn K Meier, Stephen M Jones, Edward I Solomon, Mats Sandgren
For decades, the enzymes of the fungus Hypocrea jecorina have served as a model system for the breakdown of cellulose. Three-dimensional structures for almost all H. jecorina cellulose-degrading enzymes are available, except for HjLPMO9A, belonging to the AA9 family of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs). These enzymes enhance the hydrolytic activity of cellulases and are essential for cost-efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass. Here, using structural and spectroscopic analyses, we found that native HjLPMO9A contains a catalytic domain and a family-1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM1) connected via a linker sequence...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898851/cellulose-conversion-of-corn-pericarp-without-pretreatment
#18
Daehwan Kim, David Orrego, Eduardo A Ximenes, Michael R Ladisch
We report enzyme hydrolysis of cellulose in unpretreated pericarp at a cellulase loading of 0.25FPU/g pericarp solids using a phenol tolerant Aspergillus niger pectinase preparation. The overall protein added was 5mg/g and gave 98% cellulose conversion in 72h. However, for double the amount of enzyme from Trichoderma reesei, which is significantly less tolerant to phenols, conversion was only 16%. The key to achieving high conversion without pretreatment is combining phenol inhibition-resistant enzymes (such as from A...
August 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894250/identification-of-endoxylanase-xyne-from-clostridium-thermocellum-as-the-first-xylanase-of-glycoside-hydrolase-family-gh141
#19
Simon Heinze, Matthias Mechelke, Petra Kornberger, Wolfgang Liebl, Wolfgang H Schwarz, Vladimir V Zverlov
Enzymes that cleave polysaccharides in lignocellulose, i. e., cellulases, xylanases, and accessory enzymes, play crucial roles in the natural decomposition of plant-derived biomass and its efficient and sustainable processing into biofuels or other bulk chemicals. The analysis of open reading frame cthe_2195 from the thermophilic, cellulolytic anaerobe Clostridium thermocellum (also known as 'Ruminiclostridium thermocellum') suggested that it encoded a cellulosomal protein comprising a dockerin-I module, a carbohydrate-binding module, and a module of previously unknown function...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886679/microbial-expansins
#20
Daniel J Cosgrove
Expansins are small proteins that loosen plant cell walls and cellulosic materials without lytic activity. First discovered in plants, expansin genes are found in the genomes of numerous bacteria and fungi that interact with plants in pathogenic and mutualistic patterns, as well as in microbes that feed on plant debris. Horizontal gene transfer from plants to microbes and between microbes accounts for expansins' irregular taxonomic distribution. Expansins facilitate plant colonization by Bacillus, Clavibacter, and Trichoderma species, a list likely to grow as knowledge of microbial expansin function deepens...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
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