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Yong Dai, Hai-Sheng Zhang, Bin Huan, Yucai He
In this study, sequential biological pretreatment (BP) with Galactomyces sp. CCZU11-1 at 30 °C for 3 days and deep eutectic solvent (DES) choline chloride: oxalic acid (ChCl:OA, 1 mol/2 mol) extraction at 120 °C for 1.5 h was used for pretreating BSS. It was found that combination pretreatment could effectively remove xylan and lignin for enhancing enzymatic saccharification. The reducing sugars and glucose from the hydrolysis of 100 g/L pretreated BSS with complexed cellulases of Galactomyces sp. CCZU11-1 were obtained in the yields of 81...
June 22, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Gammadde Hewa Ishan Maduka Wickramasinghe, Pilimathalawe Panditharathna Attanayake Mudiyanselage Samith Indika Rathnayake, Naduviladath Vishvanath Chandrasekharan, Mahindagoda Siril Samantha Weerasinghe, Ravindra Lakshman Chundananda Wijesundera, Wijepurage Sandhya Sulochana Wijesundera
BACKGROUND: Cellulose, a linear polymer of β 1-4, linked glucose, is the most abundant renewable fraction of plant biomass (lignocellulose). It is synergistically converted to glucose by endoglucanase (EG) cellobiohydrolase (CBH) and β-glucosidase (BGL) of the cellulase complex. BGL plays a major role in the conversion of randomly cleaved cellooligosaccharides into glucose. As it is well known, Saccharomyces cerevisiae can efficiently convert glucose into ethanol under anaerobic conditions...
June 21, 2017: BMC Microbiology
Zuoqing Yuan, Jianyong Zhang, Lili Zhao, Jing Li, Hongbin Liu
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are the two best-known perfluorinated chemicals and have received much attention due to their ubiquity in the environment. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of PFOS and PFOA on acute toxicity, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and cellulase activities in Eisenia fetida. The results of acute toxicity testing using a filter paper contact test and a natural field soil test showed that PFOA and PFOS exhibited acute toxicity in earthworms, and the toxic effect of PFOS was greater than that of PFOA...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Thiago Rodrigues Dutra, Valéria Monteze Guimarães, Ednilson Mascarenhas Varela, Lílian da Silva Fialho, Adriane Maria Ferreira Milagres, Daniel Luciano Falkoski, José Cola Zanuncio, Sebastião Tavares de Rezende
Low cost and high efficiency cellulolytic cocktails can consolidate lignocellulosic ethanol technologies. Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) is a low cost agro-industrial residue, and its use as a carbon source can reduce the costs of fungi cultivation for enzyme production. Chrysoporthe cubensis grown under solid state fermentation (SSF) with wheat bran has potential to produce efficient enzymatic extracts for SCB saccharification. This fungus was grown under submersed fermentation (SmF) and SSF with in natura SCB, pretreated with acid or alkali and with others carbon sources...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Juan Wang, Ming Gao, Jianguo Liu, Qunhui Wang, Cong Wang, Zihe Yin, Chuanfu Wu
The feasibility of lactic acid production from Sophora flavescens residues (SFRs) pretreated with sodium hydroxide with the reutilization of the pretreated liquor during fermentation was investigated. After sodium hydroxide pretreatment, 67.5% of the lignin was removed, and hydrolysis efficiency increased from 37.3% to 79.2%. The reutilization of pretreated liquor at 50% loading during open fermentation of unwashed SFR increased lactic acid production by 34.1%. The pretreated liquor acted as pH buffer and resulted in stable pH and high cellulase activity during fermentation...
June 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Neeraj Kumar Aggarwal, Varsha Goyal, Anita Saini, Anita Yadav, Ranjan Gupta
Alkali-assisted acid pretreated rice straw was saccharified using cellulase from Aspergillus niger BK01. The cellulase production by the fungus was enhanced by parametric optimization using solid-state fermentation conditions. Maximum cellulase production (12.0 U/gds of carboxymethyl cellulase, CMCase) was achieved in 96 h, using 6.0% substrate concentration, 7.5% inoculum concentration, 1:2 solid to liquid ratio, at pH 5.5, and temperature 28 °C, by supplementation of the fermentation medium with 0.1% carboxymethylcellulose and 0...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
Hiroshi Teramura, Kengo Sasaki, Hideo Kawaguchi, Fumio Matsuda, Jun Kikuchi, Tomokazu Shirai, Takashi Sazuka, Masanori Yamasaki, Shigeo Takumi, Chiaki Ogino, Akihiko Kondo
Bio-refinery processes require use of the most suitable lignocellulosic biomass for enzymatic saccharification and microbial fermentation. Glucose yield from biomass solid fractions obtained after dilute sulfuric acid (1%) pretreatment (at 180 °C) was investigated using 14, 8, and 16 varieties of rice, wheat, and sorghum, respectively. Biomass solid fractions of each crop showed similar cellulose content. However, glucose yield after enzymatic hydrolysis (cellulase loading at 6.6 filter paper unit/g-biomass) was different among the varieties of each crop, indicating genotypic differences for rice, wheat, and sorghum...
June 16, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Merve Akpinar, Raziye Urek
Pleurotus eryngii was incubated on both peach and cherry agroindustrial wastes by solid state fermentation for 30 days without/with pretreatment conditions. The lignocellulosic substrates were pretreated with dilute acid and alkaline solutions, hot water before incubation. The maximum carboxymethyl cellulase and xylanase activities peaked on 3rd and 5th days under control conditions of both wastes, respectively. The highest laccase and manganese peroxidase activities reached to their maximum on 17th day as 2193...
June 2017: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Baran Arslan, Kirstin Ashley Egerton, Xiao Zhang, Nehal I Abu-Lail
The effects of the morphology and conformations of the surface biopolymers present on lignocellulosic biomass as well as their steric hindrance on enzymatic adsorption to biomass surfaces remain elusive. In a step to better understand these effects, nanoscale steric forces between a model surface that represents the hydrophobic residues of a cellulase enzyme and a set of reference lignocellulosic substrates were measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid media. The reference substrates investigated were prepared by kraft, sulfite and organosolv pulping pretreatment methods and varied in their surface lignin, xylan and acetone extractives' contents...
June 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Bucheng Wang, Lu Jiang, Hechao Bai, Qiang Yong, Shiyuan Yu
OBJECTIVE: To protect the enzymes during fed-batch cellulase production by means of partial enzyme recovery at regular intervals. RESULTS: Extracellular enzymes were partially recovered at the intervals of 1, 2, or 3 days. Mycelia were also removed to avoid contamination. Increases in the total harvested cellulase (24-62%) and β-glucosidase (22-76%) were achieved. In fermentor cultivation when the enzymes were recovered every day with 15% culture broth. The total harvested cellulase and β-glucosidase activity increased by 43 and 58%, respectively, with fungal cell concentration maintained at 3...
June 13, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
Yi-Rui Yin, Zhao-Hui Meng, Qing-Wen Hu, Zhao Jiang, Wen-Dong Xian, Lin-Hua Li, Wei Hu, Feng Zhang, En-Min Zhou, Xiao-Yang Zhi, Wen-Jun Li
Thermoactinospora rubra YIM 77501(T) is an aerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming and cellulose degrading thermophilic actinomycete isolated from a sandy soil sample of a volcano. Its growth temperature range is 28-60°C. The genomic sequence of this strain revealed that there are 27 cellulase genes belonging to six glycoside hydrolase families. To understand the strategy that this strain uses to utilize carbon sources such as cellulose at different temperatures, comparative transcriptomics analysis of T. rubra YIM 77501(T) was performed by growing it with cellulose (CMC) and without cellulose (replaced with glucose) at 30, 40, and 50°C, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Helder Andrey Rocha Gomes, Adelson Joel da Silva, Diana Paola Gómez-Mendoza, Agenor Castro Moreira Dos Santos Júnior, Nicholas de Mojana di Cologna, Rosane Mansan Almeida, Robert Neil Gerard Miller, Wagner Fontes, Marcelo Valle de Sousa, Carlos André Ornelas Ricart, Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira Filho
Multienzymatic complexes with plant lignocellulose-degrading activities have recently been identified in filamentous fungi secretomes. Such complexes have potential biotechnological applications in the degradation of agro-industrial residues. Fungal species from the Clonostachys genus have been intensively investigated as biocontrol agents; however so far their use as producers of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes has not been extensively explored. Secretomes of Clonostachys byssicola following growth on different carbon sources (passion fruit peel, soybean hulls, cotton gin trash, banana stalk, sugarcane bagasse, orange peel, and a composition of soybean hulls: cotton gin trash:orange peel) were subjected to enzymatic assays...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
Jerome Amoah, Naoya Ishizue, Miki Ishizaki, Misa Yasuda, Kenji Takahashi, Kazuaki Ninomiya, Ryosuke Yamada, Akihiko Kondo, Chiaki Ogino
This work aimed to study the use of consolidated bioprocess (CBP) yeast expressing five cellulase genes (BGL, XYNII, EGII, CBHI and CBHII) for ethanol production from ionic liquid-pretreated bagasse and Laubholz unbleached Kraft pulp (LUKP). A proposed screening method shows that the optimal cellulase ratio varies for each biomass substrate, and thus it is essential to breed CBP yeast having optimal cellulase-displaying ratio for the target biomass. CBP yeast specialized towards bagasse produced 0.93g/l ethanol whiles that for LUKP produced 0...
May 31, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Eka Metreveli, Eva Kachlishvili, Steven W Singer, Vladimir Elisashvili
Mono and dual cultures of four white-rot basidiomycete species were evaluated for cellulase and xylanase activity under submerged fermentation conditions. Co-cultivation of Pycnoporus coccineus or Trametes hirsuta with Schizophyllum commune displayed antagonistic interactions resulting in the decrease of endoglucanase and total cellulase activities. In contrast, increases in cellulase and xylanase activity were revealed through the compatible interactions of Irpex lacteus with S. commune. Co-cultivation conditions were optimized for maximum enzyme production by I...
May 26, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Rameshwar Tiwari, Lata Nain, Nikolaos E Labrou, Pratyoosh Shukla
Second generation biofuel production has been appeared as a sustainable and alternative energy option. The ultimate aim is the development of an industrially feasible and economic conversion process of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuel molecules. Since, cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer and also represented as the photosynthetically fixed form of carbon, the efficient hydrolysis of cellulose is the most important step towards the development of a sustainable biofuel production process. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by suites of hydrolytic enzymes underlines the importance of cellulase enzyme system in whole hydrolysis process...
June 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Meimei Wang, Jian Du, Daolei Zhang, Xuezhi Li, Jian Zhao
Cellulase (mainly endoglucanase, EG) has been used in pulp modification for improving paper quality through environmentally friendly process. But low activity in alkaline pH and high filter paper activity (FPA) were still obstacles for extending the cellulase application in papermaking industry. In the study, an alkali-tolerant EG gene of Bacillus subtilis Y106 was homologous over-expressed for obtaining suitable enzyme used in pulp modification. The engineering strain could produce the crude enzyme with more alkali-tolerant EG and little PFA...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiulin Qin, Ruijie Li, Xiang Luo, Yanmei Lin, Jia-Xun Feng
To improve the gene targeting frequency (GTF) in the lignocellulolytic filamentous fungus Penicillium oxalicum HP7-1, the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) gene ligD was deleted. The obtained PoligD deletion mutant ΔPoligD showed no apparent defect in cellulase production, growth rate, and sensitivity towards osmotic stress and mutagen ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), while increased sensitivity to high concentrations of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Deletion of PoligD gene resulted in significantly increased GTFs at three different loci in P...
June 2017: Fungal Biology
Daniel Wibberg, Franziska Genzel, Bart Verwaaijen, Jochen Blom, Oliver Rupp, Alexander Goesmann, Rita Zrenner, Rita Grosch, Alfred Pühler, Andreas Schlüter
The basidiomycetes fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG3 is responsible for black scurf disease on potato and occurs in each potato growing area world-wide. In this study, the draft genome sequence of the black scurf pathogen R. solani AG3-PT isolate Ben3 is presented. The genome sequence of R. solani AG3-PT isolate Ben3 consists of 1385 scaffolds. These scaffolds amount to a size of approx. 51 Mb. Considering coverage analyses of contigs, the size of the diploid genome was estimated to correspond to 116 Mb. Gene prediction by applying AUGUSTUS (3...
June 8, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Reeta Rani Singhania, Anil Kumar Patel, Ashok Pandey, Edgard Ganansounou
Beta-glucosidase (BGL) is a rate-limiting enzyme for cellulose hydrolysis as it acts in the final step of lignocellulosic biomass conversion to convert cellobiose into glucose, the final end product. Most of the fungal strains used for cellulase production are deficient in BGL hence BGL is supplemented into cellulases to have an efficient biomass conversion. Genetic engineering has enabled strain modification to produce BGL optimally with desired properties to be employed for biofuel applications. It has been cloned either directly into the host strains lacking BGL or into another expression system, to be overexpressed so as to be blended into BGL deficient cellulases...
May 21, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Xiangqun Xu, Zhiqi Xu, Song Shi, Mengmeng Lin
This study examined the white rot fungus I. obliquus on the degradation of three types of straw biomass and the production of extracellular lignocellulolytic enzymes under submerged fermentation. The fungus process resulted in a highest lignin loss of 72%, 39%, and 47% in wheat straw, rice straw, and corn stover within 12days, respectively. In merely two days, the fungus selectively degraded wheat straw lignin by 37%, with only limited cellulose degradation (13%). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the fungus most effectively degraded the wheat straw lignin and rice straw crystalline cellulose...
May 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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