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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919810/immobilization-of-indigenous-holocellulase-on-iron-oxide-fe2o3-nanoparticles-enhanced-hydrolysis-of-alkali-pretreated-paddy-straw
#1
Ajay Kumar, Surender Singh, Rameshwar Tiwari, Renu Goel, Lata Nain
The holocellulase from Aspergillus niger SH3 was characterized and found to contain 125 proteins including cellulases (26), hemicellulases (21), chitinases (10), esterases (6), amylases (4) and hypothetical protein (32). The crude enzyme was immobilized on five different nanoparticles (NPs) via physical adsorption and covalent coupling methods. The enzyme-nanoparticle complexes (ENC) were screened for protein binding, enzymatic activities and immobilization efficiency. Magnetic enzyme-nanoparticle complexes (MENC) formulation showed higher immobilization efficiency (60- 80%) for most of the enzymes...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918204/removal-of-listeria-monocytogenes-dual-species-biofilms-using-combined-enzyme-benzalkonium-chloride-treatments
#2
Pedro Rodríguez-López, Alba Carballo-Justo, Lorraine A Draper, Marta L Cabo
The effects of pronase (PRN), cellulase (CEL) or DNaseI alone or combined with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) against Listeria monocytogenes-carrying biofilms were assayed. The best removal activity against L. monocytogenes-Escherichia coli biofilms was obtained using DNaseI followed by PRN and CEL. Subsequently, a modified logistic model was used to quantify the combined effects of PRN or DNaseI with BAC. A better BAC performance after PRN compared to DNaseI eradicating L. monocytogenes was observed. In E. coli the effects were the opposite...
December 5, 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917834/the-crystal-structure-of-the-endoglucanase-cel10-a-family-8-glycosyl-hydrolase-from-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#3
Ayman Attigani, Lifang Sun, Qing Wang, Yadan Liu, Dingping Bai, Shengping Li, Xiaohong Huang
Cellulases are produced by microorganisms that grow on cellulose biomass. Here, a cellulase, Cel10, was identified in a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Chinese bamboo rat gut. Analysis of substrate specificity showed that Cel10 is able to hydrolyze amorphous carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and crystalline forms of cellulose (Avicel and xylan) but is unable to hydrolyze p-nitrophenol β-D-glucopyranoside (p-NPG), proving that Cel10 is an endoglucanase. A phylogenetic tree analysis indicates that Cel10 belongs to the glycoside hydrolase 8 (GH8) subfamily...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916329/detection-of-manganese-peroxidase-and-other-exoenzymes-in-four-isolates-of-geastrum-geastrales-in-pure-culture
#4
Francisco Kuhar, Valeria C Castiglia, Juan C Zamora
Knowledge regarding the enzymatic machinery of fungi is decisive to understand their ecological role. The species of the genus Geastrum are known to grow extremely slowly in pure culture, which makes it difficult to evaluate physiological parameters such as enzyme activity. Qualitative assays were performed on isolates of four species of this genus, showing evidence of laccase, cellulase, pectinase, amylase and lipase activity and suggesting that a wide range of carbon sources can be exploited by these species...
December 1, 2016: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914020/characterization-of-xylanase-and-cellulase-produced-by-a-newly-isolated-aspergillus-fumigatus-n2-and-its-efficient-saccharification-of-barley-straw
#5
Chaoyang Lin, Zhicheng Shen, Wensheng Qin
Aspergillus fumigatus N2 was isolated from decaying wood. This strain produces extracellular xylanases and cellulases. The highest xylanase (91.9 U/mL) and CMCase (5.61 U/mL) activity was produced when 1% barley straw was used as the carbon source. The optimum pH and temperature for xylanase activity were 6.0 and 65 °C, respectively. CMCase revealed maximum activity at pH 4.0 and in the range of 65 °C. The FPase was optimally active at pH 5.0 and 60 °C. The zymograms produced by the SDS-PAGE resolution of the crude enzymes indicated that multiple enzymes were secreted into the fermentation supernatant...
December 2, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907079/identification-of-pectin-degrading-enzymes-secreted-by-xanthomonas-oryzae-pv-oryzae-and-determination-of-their-role-in-virulence-on-rice
#6
Lavanya Tayi, Roshan V Maku, Hitendra Kumar Patel, Ramesh V Sonti
Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae (Xoo) causes the serious bacterial blight disease of rice. Xoo secretes a repertoire of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) like cellulases, xylanases, esterases etc., which act on various components of the rice cell wall. The major cellulases and xylanases secreted by Xoo have been identified and their role in virulence has been determined. In this study, we have identified some of the pectin degrading enzymes of Xoo and assessed their role in virulence. Bioinformatics analysis indicated the presence of four pectin homogalacturonan (HG) degrading genes in the genome of Xoo...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905924/current-knowledge-and-perspectives-of-paenibacillus-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Elliot Nicholas Grady, Jacqueline MacDonald, Linda Liu, Alex Richman, Ze-Chun Yuan
Isolated from a wide range of sources, the genus Paenibacillus comprises bacterial species relevant to humans, animals, plants, and the environment. Many Paenibacillus species can promote crop growth directly via biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, production of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and release of siderophores that enable iron acquisition. They can also offer protection against insect herbivores and phytopathogens, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and viruses...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900719/changes-of-soil-bacterial-activities-and-functions-after-different-n-additions-in-a-temperate-forest
#8
Peng Guo, Tiwen Han, Li Zhang, Shushan Li, Dongzhu Ma, Yuhan Du
It has been shown that different nitrogen (N) addition led to various influences on soil microbial activities in forest ecosystems; however, the changes of bacteria were still unclear. In this work, inorganic N (NH4NO3) and organic N (urea and glycine) were fertilized with different ratios (5:0, 1:4, 3:2, 2:3, and 1:4) on temperate forest soils, while fungicide (cycloheximide) was simultaneously added on half of each treatment to inhibit fungal activities (leaving only bacteria). After a 3-year field experiment, soil samples were harvested, then microbial enzymatic activities involved in carbon (C), and N and phosphorus (P) cycles were determined...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900691/screening-for-cellulase-encoding-clones-in-metagenomic-libraries
#9
Nele Ilmberger, Wolfgang R Streit
For modern biotechnology there is a steady need to identify novel enzymes. In biotechnological applications, however, enzymes often must function under extreme and nonnatural conditions (i.e., in the presence of solvents, high temperature and/or at extreme pH values). Cellulases have many industrial applications from the generation of bioethanol, a realistic long-term energy source, to the finishing of textiles. These industrial processes require cellulolytic activity under a wide range of pH, temperature, and ionic conditions, and they are usually carried out by mixtures of cellulases...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900666/improved-production-of-thermostable-cellulase-from-thermoascus-aurantiacus-rckk-by-fermentation-bioprocessing-and-its-application-in-the-hydrolysis-of-office-waste-paper-algal-pulp-and-biologically-treated-wheat-straw
#10
Kavish Kumar Jain, Sandeep Kumar, Deepa Deswal, Ramesh Chander Kuhad
Thermostable cellulases have wide variety of applications and distinctive advantages, but their low titer becomes the hurdle in their commercialization. In the present work, an assessment of optimum levels of significant factors (temperature, moisture ratio, inoculum size, and ammonium sulfate) and the effect of their interactions on production of thermostable CMCase, FPase, and β-glucosidase by Thermoascus aurantiacus RCKK under solid-state fermentation (SSF) was carried out using central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM)...
November 30, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894041/valorization-of-exhausted-sugar-beet-cossettes-by-successive-hydrolysis-and-two-fermentations-for-the-production-of-bio-products
#11
A B Díaz, C Marzo, I Caro, I de Ory, A Blandino
Exhausted sugar beet cossettes (ESBC) show an enormous potential as a source of sugars for the production of bio-products. Enzyme hydrolysis with the combined effect of mainly cellulases, xylanases and pectinases, turned out to be very efficient, obtaining almost double the concentration of sugars measured with the sole action of Celluclast® and β-glucosidase, and increasing 5 times the hydrolysis rate. As the sole pretreatment, ESBC soaked in the hydrolysis buffer were autoclaved, avoiding the application of severe conventional biomass pretreatments...
November 19, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886533/toxicological-effects-of-dimethomorph-on-soil-enzymatic-activity-and-soil-earthworm-eisenia-fetida
#12
Caixia Wang, Qingming Zhang, Feifei Wang, Wenxing Liang
The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of the fungicide dimethomorph to soil microbial activity and the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Multiple biomarkers, namely, four soil enzymes (urease, dehydrogenase, invertase, and acid phosphatase), four earthworm biochemical indices (dismutase, catalase, cellulase, and malondialdehyde), and the transcriptional levels of both target genes (dismutase and catalase) were measured at 1, 10, and 100 mg kg(-1) after 1, 7, 21, and 28 days. The degradation rate of dimethomorph in soil was also determined, and the results indicated that most parameters did not differ from the controls at 1 and 10 mg kg(-1) dimethomorph by the last exposure time (28 d)...
November 22, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880962/production-of-cellulases-by-rhizopus-stolonifer-from-glucose-containing-media-based-on-the-regulation-of-transcriptional-regulator-cre
#13
Yingyiing Zhang, Bin Tang, Guocheng Du
Carbon catabolite repression is a crucial regulation in microorganism, while its characteristic in Rhizopus is unclear now. We extracted a carbon regulation gene cre that encoded a carbon catabolite repressor protein (CRE) from Rhizopus stolonifer TP-02, and studied the regulation of CRE by real-time qPCR. CRE responded to the glucose in a certain range, wherein it could significantly regulate part of cellulases genes (eg, bg and cbh2) without cbh1. Compared with the responding of cre and four cellulases genes to the carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC) and the simple carbon source (lactose), the effect of CRE was only related to the concentration of reducing sugars...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873329/one-step-zymogram-method-for-the-simultaneous-detection-of-cellulase-xylanase-activity-and-molecular-weight-estimation-of-the-enzyme
#14
Claudia Cano-Ramírez, Alejandro Santiago-Hernández, Flor Nohemí Rivera-Orduña, Rosa María Pineda-Mendoza, Gerardo Zúñiga, María Eugenia Hidalgo-Lara
Here, we describe a zymographic method for the simultaneous detection of enzymatic activity and molecular weight (MW) estimation, following a single electrophoresis step. This involved separating cellulase and xylanase activities from bacteria and fungi, obtained from different sources, such as commercial extracts, crude extract and purified proteins, under denaturing conditions, by 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, using polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with 1% (w/v) carboxymethylcellulose or beechwood xylan as substrates...
November 22, 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872074/glycoside-hydrolases-degrade-polymicrobial-bacterial-biofilms-in-wounds
#15
Derek Fleming, Laura Chahin, Kendra Rumbaugh
The persistent nature of chronic wounds leaves them highly susceptible to invasion by a variety of pathogens that have the ability to construct an Extracellular Polymeric Substance (EPS). This EPS makes the bacterial population, or biofilm, up to one-thousand-fold more antibiotic tolerant than planktonic cells, and makes wound healing extremely difficult. Thus, compounds which have the ability to degrade biofilms, but not host tissue components, are highly sought-after for clinical applications. In this study, we examined the efficacy of two glycoside hydrolases, alpha-amylase and cellulase, which break down complex polysaccharides, to effectively disrupt Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa mono-culture and co-culture biofilms...
November 21, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871321/biochemical-characterization-and-synergism-of-cellulolytic-enzyme-system-from-chaetomium-globosum-on-rice-straw-saccharification
#16
Wanwitoo Wanmolee, Warasirin Sornlake, Nakul Rattanaphan, Surisa Suwannarangsee, Navadol Laosiripojana, Verawat Champreda
BACKGROUND: Efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials to sugars for conversion to biofuels and chemicals is a key step in biorefinery. Designing an active saccharifying enzyme system with synergy among their components is considered a promising approach. RESULTS: In this study, a lignocellulose-degrading enzyme system of Chaetomium globosum BCC5776 (CG-Cel) was characterized for its activity and proteomic profiles, and synergism with accessory enzymes. The highest cellulase productivity of 0...
November 21, 2016: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871279/biodegradation-of-lignin-and-nicotine-with-white-rot-fungi-for-the-delignification-and-detoxification-of-tobacco-stalk
#17
Yulong Su, He Xian, Sujuan Shi, Chengsheng Zhang, S M Nuruzzaman Manik, Jingjing Mao, Ge Zhang, Weihong Liao, Qian Wang, Haobao Liu
BACKGROUND: Tobacco stalk is one kind of abundant crop residues in China. The high lignification of tobacco stalk increases its reusing cost and the existing of nicotine will cause serious pollution. The biodegradation of lignocellulosic biomass has been demonstrated to be an environmental and economical approach for the utilization of plant stalk. Meanwhile, many nicotine-degrading microorganisms were found in nature. However, microorganisms which could degraded both nicotine and lignin haven't been reported...
November 21, 2016: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866623/biophysical-characterization-and-activity-analysis-of-nano-magnesium-supplemented-cellulase-obtained-from-a-psychrobacterium-following-graphene-oxide-immobilization
#18
N Dutta, S Biswas, M K Saha
Cellulase enzyme was purified from a psychrophilic strain of Bacillus subtilis obtained from east Himalayan mountains. The native enzyme showed optimum activity at 15°C and pH 8.0.The Magnesium oxide nanoparticle (MgN) supplemented enzyme when immobilized on graphene oxide nanosupport (GO), via glutaraldehyde as cross linker, showed 2.98 folds increase in enzymatic activity at 8°C and more than 3.5 folds activity increment at 90°C. The MgN-cel on graphene (GO-MgN-cel) showed a decrease in Km by 6.7 folds at 8°C and 34 folds at 90°C...
December 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866354/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-glycosyl-hydrolase-family-74-gh74-cellulase-from-the-black-goat-rumen-metagenomic-library
#19
Yun-Hee Song, Kyung-Tai Lee, Jin-Young Baek, Min-Ju Kim, Mi-Ra Kwon, Young-Joo Kim, Mi-Rim Park, Haesu Ko, Jin-Sung Lee, Keun-Sung Kim
This study aimed to isolate and characterize a novel cellulolytic enzyme from black goat rumen by using a culture-independent approach. A metagenomic fosmid library was constructed from black goat rumen contents and screened for a novel cellulase. The KG37 gene encoding a protein of 858 amino acid residues (92.7 kDa) was isolated. The deduced protein contained a glycosyl hydrolase family 74 (GH74) domain and showed 77% sequence identity to two endo-1,4-β-glucanases from Fibrobacter succinogenes. The novel GH74 cellulase gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and its protein product was functionally characterized...
November 19, 2016: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856189/n-linked-glycans-are-an-important-component-of-the-processive-machinery-of-cellobiohydrolases
#20
Alexander V Gusakov, Anna S Dotsenko, Aleksandra M Rozhkova, Arkady P Sinitsyn
Cellobiohydrolases (CBHs), belonging to glycoside hydrolase families 6 and 7 (GH6 and GH7), are the major components of cellulase systems of filamentous fungi involved in biodegradation of cellulose in nature. Previous studies demonstrated that N-linked glycans in the catalytic domains of GH7 CBHs significantly affect the enzyme activity against cellulosic substrates. The influence of N-linked glycans on the activity and processivity of recombinant GH6 CBH II from Penicillium verruculosum (PvCel6A) was studied using site-directed mutagenesis of the respective Asn residues...
November 14, 2016: Biochimie
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