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Silvia Hüttner, Thanh Thuy Nguyen, Zoraide Granchi, Thomas Chin-A-Woeng, Dag Ahrén, Johan Larsbrink, Vu Nguyen Thanh, Lisbeth Olsson
Background: Genome and transcriptome sequencing has greatly facilitated the understanding of biomass-degrading mechanisms in a number of fungal species. The information obtained enables the investigation and discovery of genes encoding proteins involved in plant cell wall degradation, which are crucial for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass in second-generation biorefinery applications. The thermophilic fungus Malbranchea cinnamomea is an efficient producer of many industrially relevant enzymes and a detailed analysis of its genomic content will considerably enhance our understanding of its lignocellulolytic system and promote the discovery of novel proteins...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Lebin Thomas, Hari Ram, Ved Pal Singh
Bacteria are important sources of cellulases with various industrial and biotechnological applications. In view of this, a non-hemolytic bacterial strain, tolerant to various environmental pollutants (heavy metals and organic solvents), showing high cellulolytic index (7.89) was isolated from cattle shed soil and identified as Bacillus sp. SV1 (99.27% pairwise similarity with Bacillus korlensis). Extracellular cellulases showed the presence of endoglucanase, total cellulase and β-glucosidase activities. Cellulase production was induced in presence of cellulose (3...
November 6, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Bareket Dassa, Ilya Borovok, Vincent Lombard, Bernard Henrissat, Raphael Lamed, Edward A Bayer, Sarah Moraïs
The bacterial cellulosome is an extracellular, multi-enzyme machinery, which efficiently depolymerizes plant biomass by degrading plant cell wall polysaccharides. Several cellulolytic bacteria have evolved various elaborate modular architectures of active cellulosomes. We present here a genome-wide analysis of a dozen mesophilic clostridia species, including both well-studied and yet-undescribed cellulosome-producing bacteria. We first report here, the presence of cellulosomal elements, thus expanding our knowledge regarding the prevalence of the cellulosomal paradigm in nature...
November 18, 2017: Microorganisms
Anthony K N Chan, Alan K L Ng, Kate K Y Ng, W K R Wong
Enzymatic degradation of cellulosic waste to generate renewable biofuels has offered an attractive solution to the energy problem. Synergistic hydrolysis of cellulose residues requires the participation of three different types of cellulases - endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and β-glucosidases (Bgl). Our group has been interested in using Bgl of Cellulomonas biazotea in studies designed to investigate cooperative action among different cellulases. We previously have cloned bgl genes encoding Cba and Cba3, which are C...
November 16, 2017: Gene
Tianyou Cheng, Xiaoying Xu, Wei Zhang, Lin Chen, Tianzhong Liu
AIMS: To establish a proper protoplast-preparation route from enriched motile flagellates and non-motile resting cells of Haematococcus pluvialis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Through cultivations in two mixotrophic media, enriched Haematococcus flagellates and resting cells were respectively produced and applied in enzymatic protoplast preparations. Great differences of enzymatic sensitivity and osmotic-lability were identified between them. Flagellates showed the same osmotic-lability as protoplasts and the ECM (extracellular matrix)-removing rate was applied for an evaluation of protoplast-releasing...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Jie Lin, Xiamei Zhang, Bingran Song, Wei Xue, Xiaoyun Su, Xiuzhen Chen, Zhiyang Dong
Trichoderma reesei is well known as an industrial workhorse fungus in cellulase production. The low dissolved oxygen supply in the highly viscous medium of T. reesei remains a major bottleneck that hampers growth and cellulase production in submerged fermentation. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) has been demonstrated to improve metabolism and protein production in different heterologous hosts under hypoxic conditions, but the use of VHb in T. reesei remains uninvestigated. This study examines the effect of VHb in improving T...
November 15, 2017: AMB Express
Muhammad Tahir Ashraf, Jens Ejbye Schmidt
Biorefinery based on multi-feedstock lignocellulose can be viable where a sustainable supply of a single substrate is limited, for example in arid regions. Processing of mixed feedstocks has been studied in lab scale, however, its economics are less studied. In this study, an economic comparison was made between separate and combined (mixed) processing approaches for multi-feedstock lignocellulose for the production of monomeric sugars. This modular approach of focusing on sugar platform makes the results applicable for many applications using the sugars as feedstock...
October 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Miao Ye, Linghong Sun, Ru Yang, Zaigui Wang, KeZong Qi
The proper culture conditions for producing cellulase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S1, isolated from the cecum of goose was optimized by single-factor experiment combined with orthogonal test. The properties of the cellulase were investigated by DNS method. The appropriate doses of B. amyloliquefaciens S1 were obtained by adding them to goose feed. It indicated that the suitable culture conditions of producing cellulase were the culture temperature of 37°C, the initial pH of 7.0, the incubation time of 72 h and the loaded liquid volume of 75 ml per 250 ml...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Michael Gray, Stuart M Linton, Benjamin J Allardyce
This study aimed to sequence and identify a glycosyl hydrolase family 9 (GHF9) endo-β-1,4-glucanase expressed in the midgut gland of the herbivorous gecarcinid land crab, Gecarcoidea natalis. Hence this would explain the gene responsible for the production of previously purified and characterised endo-β-1,4-glucanases. Three different transcripts, two complete and one partial were sequenced from cDNA and an open reading frame of 1383bp was produced. Translated, this would produce a putative protein of 460 amino acid residues, including a 16 amino acid residue signal peptide...
November 10, 2017: Gene
Trevor Starr, A Pedro Gonçalves, Neeka Meshgin, N Louise Glass
Filamentous fungi are native secretors of lignocellulolytic enzymes and are used as protein-producing factories in the industrial biotechnology sector. Despite the importance of these organisms in industry, relatively little is known about the filamentous fungal secretory pathway or how it might be manipulated for improved protein production. Here we use Neurospora crassa as a model filamentous fungus to interrogate the requirements for trafficking of cellulase enzymes from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
Huanan Du, Xu Zhang, Ruchun Zhang, Lu Zhang, Dianyu Yu, Lianzhou Jiang
Rosa acicularis seed oil was extracted from Rosa acicularis seeds by the ultrasonic-assisted aqueous enzymatic method using cellulase and protease. Based on a single experiment, Plackett-Burman design was applied to ultrasonic-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of wild rose seed oil. The effects of enzyme amount, hydrolysis temperature and initial pH on total extraction rate of wild rose seed oil was studied by using Box-Behnken optimize methodology. Chemical characteristics of a sample of Rosa acicularis seeds and Rosa acicularis seed oil were characterized in this work...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
Xiaoxiao Qi, Shi Hu, Hongsheng Zhou, Xing Liu, Lifen Wang, Biying Zhao, Xiaosan Huang, Shaoling Zhang
MADS-box proteins have been implicated in many biological processes. However, plant MADS-box proteins functioning in floral organ abscission and the underlying physiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of PsJOINTLESS isolated from 'Kuerlexiangli'. PsJOINTLESS had a complete open reading frame of 672bp, encoding a 224 amino acid peptide, and shared high sequence identities with MADS-box from other plants. PsJOINTLESS was subcellularly targeted to the nucleus, supporting its role as a transcription factor...
November 8, 2017: Gene
Yuxing Wu, Liangsheng Xu, Zhiyuan Yin, Qingqing Dai, Xiaoning Gao, Hao Feng, Ralf T Voegele, Lili Huang
Velvet protein family members are important fungal-specific regulators that are involved in conidial development, secondary metabolism, and virulence. To gain broader insight into the physiological functions into the velvet protein family of Valsa mali, which causes a highly destructive canker disease on apple, we conducted a functional analysis of two Velvet protein family members (VmVeA and VmVelB) via gene replacement strategy. Deletion mutants of VmVeA and VmVelB showed increased melanin production, conidiation, and sensitivity to abiotic stresses, but exhibited reduced virulence on detached apple leaves and twigs...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Samantha R Summers, K G Sprenger, Jim Pfaendtner, Jan Marchant, Michael F Summers, Joel L Kaar
The ability of ionic liquids (ILs) to solubilize cellulose has sparked interest in their use for enzymatic biomass processing. However, this potential is yet to be realized, primarily because ILs inactivate requisite cellulases by mechanisms that are yet to be identified. We used a combination of enzymology, circular dichroism (CD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and molecular dynamics (MD) methods to investigate the molecular basis for the inactivation of the endocellulase 1 (E1) from Acidothermus cellulolyticus by the imidazolium IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl])...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Lara Hassan, Manfred J Reppke, Nils Thieme, Steffen A Schweizer, Carsten W Mueller, J Philipp Benz
Background: The industrial applications of cellulases are mostly limited by the costs associated with their production. Optimized production pathways are therefore desirable. Based on their enzyme inducing capacity, celluloses are commonly used in fermentation media. However, the influence of their physiochemical characteristics on the production process is not well understood. In this study, we examined how physical, structural and chemical properties of celluloses influence cellulase and hemicellulase production in an industrially-optimized and a non-engineered filamentous fungus: Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 and Neurospora crassa...
2017: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Jinjing Zhang, Hui Chen, Mingjie Chen, Hong Wang, Qian Wang, Xiaoxia Song, Haibo Hao, Zhiyong Feng
Mechanical damage can induce fruiting body production in fungi. In this study, the antioxidant kojic acid (KA) was found to enhance injured mycelial regeneration and increase fruiting body production in Hypsizygus marmoreus. KA reduced the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are harmful to mycelia when excessively generated by mechanical damage. Moreover, KA increased catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and glutathione and ascorbic acid contents by up-regulating antioxidant gene expression...
2017: PloS One
Hao Wu, Bin Liu, Xiaoyun Ou, Shangli Pan, Yuanyuan Shao, Fuchang Huang
During an investigation exploring potential sources of novel thermophilic species and natural products, a novel thermophilic and alkaliphilic actinomycete with alkaline cellulase producing ability, designated strain 4-2-13(T), was isolated from soil of a tropical rainforest in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan province, China. The morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain 4-2-13(T) are consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. The strain forms extensively branched aerial mycelia and substrate mycelia...
November 7, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Zhen Chen, Tong Meng, Zhipeng Li, Peize Liu, Yuanpeng Wang, Ning He, Dafeng Liang
Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC 2876, an aerobic spore-forming bacterium, produces a polysaccharide bioflocculant that is biodegradable and harmless. The present study determined that β-glucosidase played a negative role in bioflocculant synthesis. The gene encoding β-glucosidase was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. This gene consists of 1437 bp and encodes 478 amino acid residues. The recombinant β-glucosidase (Bgl.bli1) was purified and showed a molecular mass of 53.4 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The expression and reaction conditions of Bgl...
November 6, 2017: AMB Express
Sebastian Kolinko, Yu-Wei Wu, Firehiwot Tachea, Evelyn Denzel, Jennifer Hiras, Raphael Gabriel, Nora Bäcker, Leanne Jade G Chan, Stephanie A Eichorst, Dario Frey, Qiushi Chen, Parastoo Azadi, Paul D Adams, Todd R Pray, Deepti Tanjore, Christopher J Petzold, John M Gladden, Blake A Simmons, Steven W Singer
Cultivation of microbial consortia provides low-complexity communities that can serve as tractable models to understand community dynamics. Time-resolved metagenomics demonstrated that an aerobic cellulolytic consortium cultivated from compost exhibited community dynamics consistent with the definition of an endogenous heterotrophic succession. The genome of the proposed pioneer population, 'Candidatus Reconcilibacillus cellulovorans', possessed a gene cluster containing multidomain glycoside hydrolases (GHs)...
November 6, 2017: Nature Microbiology
Amin Ullah, Amina Zuberi, Muhammad Ahmad, Aqsa Bashir Shah, Naima Younus, Sami Ullah, Muhammad Nasir Khan Khattak
The use of probiotics is considered effective for survival, growth and enhanced immune response in aquaculture. In the current study, effects of commercially available probiotic (Magic Plus) was investigated on survival, growth and immune response of Mori (Cirrhinus mrigala) in a polyculture system. The experiment was conducted for 90 days on 1200 fingerlings in two groups i.e. control and probiotic supplemented groups each having 600 fingerlings. Control group was fed with 35% protein basal diet without any supplements and the other group was supplemented with commercially available probiotic at the rate of (10(12) CFU kg(-1) diet)...
November 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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