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Chao Xu, Shui Guan, Shuping Wang, Weitao Gong, Tianqing Liu, Xuehu Ma, Changkai Sun
Electroconductive hydrogels with excellent electromechanical properties have become crucial for biomedical applications. In this study, we developed a conductive composite hydrogel via in-situ chemical polymerization based on carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS), as a biodegradable base macromolecular network, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), as a conductive polymer layer. The physicochemical and electrochemical properties of conductive hydrogels (PEDOT/CMCS) with different contents of PEDOT polymer were analyzed...
March 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Chung Thong Lim, Márta Korbonits
Pituitary adenomas are the third most common central nervous system tumours and arise from the anterior pituitary within the pituitary fossa. The signs and symptoms of patients with pituitary adenomas vary from 'mass effects' caused by a large adenoma to features secondary to excess pituitary hormones produced by the functioning pituitary adenoma. Detailed histopathological assessment, based on novel classifications and the latest WHO guidelines, helps to categorise pituitary adenomas into different subtypes and identify features that, in some cases, help to predict their behaviour...
March 2, 2018: Endocrine Practice
James R Ballinger
Although use of the term "theranostic" is relatively recent, the concept goes back to the earliest days of nuclear medicine, with the use of radioiodine for diagnosis and therapy of benign and malignant thyroid disease being arguably the most successful molecular radiotherapy in history. A diagnostic scan with123 I-,124 I-, or a low activity of131 I-iodide is followed by therapy with high activity131 I-iodide. Similarly, adrenergic tumours such as phaeochromocytoma and neuroblastoma can be imaged with123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and treated with131 I-MIBG...
February 23, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Tomás P Griffin, Delia Bogdanet, Patrick Navin, Grace Callagy, Paula M O'Shea, Marcia Bell
A 51-year-old male presented 25 years ago with excessive sweating and haematuria. Blood pressure was labile. CT abdomen showed a large right-sided adrenal mass. Two 24-h urine collections showed elevated urinary catecholamines. Right adrenal resection was performed; a phaeochromocytoma (PC) was confirmed histologically. Two decades later, the patient represented with excessive sweating and measured variable blood pressure readings. Measurement of plasma metanephrines (PMets) showed elevated normetanephrine (NMN) [50,250 (R...
February 19, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
C Martín Varas, P A de la Torre García, M Heras Benito, G Urzola Rodríguez, J C Castro Ramos
We present the case of a woman with a previous history of hypertension and retroperitoneal tumour. The histology was reported as a paraganglioma. There was no clinical follow-up. Years later, there was a recurrence of the phaeochromocytoma after presenting with a difficult to control hypertension, along with elevation of urinary catecholamines. The case aims to highlight the importance of performing a clinical follow-up in these patients, due to the risk of recurrence.
January 21, 2018: Hipertensión y Riesgo Vascular
Katrina A Andrews, David B Ascher, Douglas Eduardo Valente Pires, Daniel R Barnes, Lindsey Vialard, Ruth T Casey, Nicola Bradshaw, Julian Adlard, Simon Aylwin, Paul Brennan, Carole Brewer, Trevor Cole, Jackie A Cook, Rosemarie Davidson, Alan Donaldson, Alan Fryer, Lynn Greenhalgh, Shirley V Hodgson, Richard Irving, Fiona Lalloo, Michelle McConachie, Vivienne P M McConnell, Patrick J Morrison, Victoria Murday, Soo-Mi Park, Helen L Simpson, Katie Snape, Susan Stewart, Susan E Tomkins, Yvonne Wallis, Louise Izatt, David Goudie, Robert S Lindsay, Colin G Perry, Emma R Woodward, Antonis C Antoniou, Eamonn R Maher
BACKGROUND: Germline pathogenic variants in SDHB/SDHC / SDHD are the most frequent causes of inherited phaeochromocytomas/paragangliomas. Insufficient information regarding penetrance and phenotypic variability hinders optimum management of mutation carriers. We estimate penetrance for symptomatic tumours and elucidate genotype-phenotype correlations in a large cohort of SDHB/SDHC / SDHD mutation carriers. METHODS: A retrospective survey of 1832 individuals referred for genetic testing due to a personal or family history of phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Holly Emms, George Farah, Brian Shine, Christopher Boot, Barry Toole, Martin McFadden, Leo Lam, Zong-Quan Ou, Gerald A Woollard, Hima Madhavaram, Campbell Kyle, Ashley Grossman
Plasma metanephrines have become the biochemical test of choice for suspected phaeochromocytoma and paragangliomas (PPGL) in many institutions. We encountered two separate cases of significantly elevated plasma metanephrines in patients taking midodrine, a sympathomimetic drug used in the treatment of severe postural hypotension, in the absence of a diagnosis of PPGL. Upon stopping midodrine treatment, plasma metanephrine levels returned to normal in both patients. To explore the hypothesis that midodrine or its metabolite desglymidodrine might interfere with the metanephrines assay, we tested the interaction of midodrine with metanephrine assays from two different centres...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
H M Rossitti, P Söderkvist, O Gimm
BACKGROUND: Germline mutations are present in 20-30 per cent of patients with phaeochromocytoma. For patients who develop bilateral disease, complete removal of both adrenal glands (total adrenalectomy) will result in lifelong adrenal insufficiency with an increased risk of death from adrenal crisis. Unilateral/bilateral adrenal-sparing surgery (subtotal adrenalectomy) offers preservation of cortical function and independence from steroids, but leaves the adrenal medulla in situ and thus at risk of developing new and possibly malignant disease...
January 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Graeme Eisenhofer, Barbara Klink, Susan Richter, Jacques Wm Lenders, Mercedes Robledo
The tremendous advances over the past two decades in both clinical genetics and biochemical testing of chromaffin cell tumours have led to new considerations about how these aspects of laboratory medicine can be integrated to improve diagnosis and management of affected patients. With germline mutations in 15 genes now identified to be responsible for over a third of all cases of phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas, these tumours are recognised to have one of the richest hereditary backgrounds among all neoplasms...
April 2017: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
Vikram Sonawane, Reyaz Singaporewalla, Nga Min En, C Rajasoorya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
John Turchini, Veronica K Y Cheung, Arthur S Tischler, Ronald R De Krijger, Anthony J Gill
Phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PHEO/PGL) are rare tumours with an estimated annual incidence of 3 per million. Advances in molecular understanding have led to the recognition that at least 30-40% arise in the setting of hereditary disease. Germline mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase genes SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD and SDHAF2 are the most prevalent of the more than 19 hereditary genetic abnormalities which have been reported. It is therefore recommended that, depending on local resources and availability, at least some degree of genetic testing should be offered to all PHEO/PGL patients, including those with clinically sporadic disease...
January 2018: Histopathology
Lori A Erickson
Adrenocortical carcinomas are rare tumours that can be diagnostically challenging. Numerous multiparametric scoring systems and diagnostic algorithms have been proposed to differentiate adrenocortical adenoma from adrenocortical carcinoma. Adrenocortical neoplasms must also be differentiated from other primary adrenal tumours, such as phaeochromocytoma and unusual primary adrenal tumours, as well as metastases to the adrenal gland. Myxoid, oncocytic and sarcomatoid variants of adrenocortical tumours must be recognized so that they are not confused with other tumours...
January 2018: Histopathology
Chao Xu, Shui Guan, Bo Wang, Shuping Wang, Yuxin Wang, Changkai Sun, Xuehu Ma, Tianqing Liu
Excessive free radicals can cause oxidative damage to human tissues, which results in a variety of diseases. Therefore, the development of antioxidant materials is one of the great projects in biomedical field. In this work, antioxidant protocatechuic acid (PCA) monomers were grafted onto chitosan (CS) backbones to develop a PCA grafted chitosan (PCA-g-CS) antioxidant copolymer via the method of free radical-induced grafting reaction. The formation of covalent bonds between PCA and CS were confirmed by FTIR,1 H NMR, XRD and UV-vis...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Linn Hallqvist, Fredrik Granath, Elin Huldt, Max Bell
BACKGROUND: Perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between intraoperative hypotension, defined as an individual decrease from baseline and the risk of perioperative AKI. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, from October 2012 to May 2013 and October 2015 and April 2016...
April 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Ridwaan Sohawon, Peter Truran, Jonathan Webster, Barney J Harrison, Sabapathy P Balasubramanian
The incidence rates of phaeochromocytoma and colorectal cancer (CRC) are approximately 1 and 65 per 100,000 per year, respectively. Simultaneous presentation of these conditions is rare and poses unique management challenges. We report on treatment strategies and clinical outcomes in a series of patients with colorectal neoplasia and phaeochromocytoma. Demographic and clinical details of four patients over a 4-year period were reviewed. The median (range) age at first presentation was 66 (52-70) years. Phaeochromocytoma (2...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
P T Kavinga Gunawardane, Ashley Grossman
Phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare catecholamine-producing tumours, recognised to have one of the richest hereditary backgrounds of all neoplasms, with germline mutations seen in approximately 30% of patients. They can be a part of genetic syndromes such as MEN 2 or Neurofibromatosis type 1, or can be found as apparently sporadic tumours. Germline mutations are almost always found in syndromic patients. Nonetheless, apparently sporadic phaeochromocytoma too show high germline mutation rates. Early detection of a genetic mutation can lead to early diagnosis of further tumours via surveillance, early treatment and better prognosis...
October 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
David J Pinato, James R Black, Sebastian Trousil, Roberto E Dina, Pritesh Trivedi, Francesco A Mauri, Rohini Sharma
The hypoxic response underlies the pathogenesis and malignant behavior of PCC/PGL. Regulation of PD-1 receptor-ligand signaling, a therapeutically actionable driver of the anti-tumor immune response, is a hypoxic-driven trait across malignancies. We evaluated the prognostic role of PD ligands in association with biomarkers of hypoxia and angiogenesis in patients with PCC/PGL. Tissue microarrays sections including consecutive cases diagnosed between 1983-2011 were stained for PD-L1 and 2, hypoxia inducible factor 1a (Hif-1a), Carbonic Anhydrase IX (CaIX), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
R T Casey, B G Challis, D Pitfield, R M Mahroof, N Jamieson, C J Bhagra, A Vuylsteke, S J Pettit, K C Chatterjee
A phaeochromocytoma (PC) is a rare, catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumour arising from the adrenal medulla. Presenting symptoms of this rare tumour are highly variable but life-threatening multiorgan dysfunction can occur secondary to catecholamine-induced hypertension or hypotension and subsequent cardiovascular collapse. High levels of circulating catecholamines can induce an acute stress cardiomyopathy, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Recent studies have focused on early diagnosis and estimation of the prevalence of acute stress cardiomyopathy in patients with PC, but very little is reported about management of these complex cases...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Yingshan Lee, Leon Yuan Rui Tan, Yong Howe Ho, Melvin Khee Shing Leow
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a multisystem genetic disorder associated with reduced lifespan attributed largely to malignancy and vascular causes. One of the tumours associated with NF1 is phaeochromocytoma. The phaeochromocytoma has earned the moniker, a 'great mimicker', due to its varied means of presentation. We present a patient with NF1 who was diagnosed with a giant 20 cm phaeochromocytoma after suffering from an ischaemic stroke. Current guidelines do not advocate surveillance of phaeochromocytoma in asymptomatic patients with NF1, unlike other genetic syndromes associated with phaeochromocytoma...
November 3, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
Z Goh, I Phillips, P J Hunt, S Soule, T J Cawood
BACKGROUND: Management of adrenal incidentalomas (AI) is becoming more conservative, based on international data showing a low incidence of functional or malignant lesions. The clinical characteristics of AI in New Zealand are unknown. Therefore, whether the AI guidelines apply to the New Zealand population is also unknown. AIMS: To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with AI presenting to a tertiary-care centre in New Zealand. METHOD: This study prospectively evaluated consecutive patients aged 18 or older with AI, 1 cm or larger, diagnosed in Canterbury, New Zealand...
October 25, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
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