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Shan Xing, Gregory S Calip, Alex D Leow, Shiyun Kim, Glen T Schumock, Daniel R Touchette, Todd A Lee
AIMS: To compare adherence and persistence to oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) between patients who are new users of second generation antipsychotics (SGA) versus new users of other depression therapies in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Adults 18-64 years with previously-treated T2DM and MDD (past OAD and SSRI/SNRI use) who are new users of SGA or non-SGA therapies (bupropion, lithium, mirtazapine, thyroid hormone, tricyclic antidepressant) were identified in the 2009-2015 MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters database...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Emanuele F Osimo, Rudolf N Cardinal, Peter B Jones, Golam M Khandaker
Low-grade inflammation is a risk factor for depression, psychosis and other major psychiatric disorders. It is associated with poor response to antidepressant and antipsychotics, and could potentially be a treatment target. However, there is limited data on the prevalence of low-grade inflammation in major psychiatric disorders, and on the characteristics of patients who show evidence of inflammation. We examined the prevalence of low-grade inflammation and associated socio-demographic and clinical factors in acute psychiatric inpatients...
March 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Stefania Schiavone, Luigia Trabace
Recent evidence highlighted a pathogenetic link between redox dysregulation and the early stages of psychosis. Indeed, an increasing number of studies have pointed toward an association between oxidative stress, both at central and peripheral levels, and first psychotic episode. Moreover, basal low antioxidant capacity has been shown to directly correlate with cognitive impairment in the early onset of psychosis. In this context, the possibility to use antioxidant compounds in first psychotic episode, especially as supplementation to antipsychotic therapy, has become the focus of numerous investigations on rodents with the aim to translate data on the possible effects of antioxidant therapies to large populations of patients, with a diagnosis of the first psychotic episode...
March 14, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Samuel Carbunaru, Robert S Eisinger, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Dana Bassan, Amin Cervantes-Arriaga, Mayela Rodriguez-Violante, Daniel Martinez-Ramirez
Objectives: Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are common among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Risk factors identified for developing ICDs include young age, family history, and impulsive personality traits. However, the association of these potentially disabling disorders with nondopaminergic drugs and sleep disorders has been understudied. Our objective was to examine the association between ICDs and nondopaminergic medications and sleep disorders. Methods: We conducted an observational study of 53 patients with PD from the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Amy Chia-Ching Kao, Sonia Spitzer, Daniel C Anthony, Belinda Lennox, Philip W J Burnet
Olanzapine is an effective antipsychotic drug but since it causes significant weight gain, it is not well tolerated by psychosis patients. The prebiotic, B-GOS® , attenuates metabolic dysfunction in obese subjects, and in rodents, alters central NMDA receptors and may affect serotonin receptors that are relevant in psychosis. We have determined whether B-GOS® influenced olanzapine-associated weight gain and central NMDA and serotonin receptors. Circulating acetate, IL-1β, IL-8 and TNFα, liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), white adipose tissue (WAT) acetate receptor GPR43, and specific faecal bacteria genera were also measured to provide mechanistic information...
March 15, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Redhouane Abdellaoui, Pierre Foulquié, Nathalie Texier, Carole Faviez, Anita Burgun, Stéphane Schück
BACKGROUND: Medication nonadherence is a major impediment to the management of many health conditions. A better understanding of the factors underlying noncompliance to treatment may help health professionals to address it. Patients use peer-to-peer virtual communities and social media to share their experiences regarding their treatments and diseases. Using topic models makes it possible to model themes present in a collection of posts, thus to identify cases of noncompliance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to detect messages describing patients' noncompliant behaviors associated with a drug of interest...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Gin S Malhi, Tim Outhred, Grace Morris, Philip M Boyce, Richard Bryant, Paul B Fitzgerald, Malcolm J Hopwood, Bill Lyndon, Roger Mulder, Greg Murray, Richard J Porter, Ajeet B Singh, Kristina Fritz
In December 2015, the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists published a comprehensive set of mood disorder clinical practice guidelines for psychiatrists, psychologists and mental health professionals. This guideline summary, directed broadly at primary care physicians, is an abridged version that focuses on bipolar disorder. It is intended as an aid to the management of this complex disorder for primary care physicians working in collaboration with psychiatrists to implement successful long term management...
March 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Benjamin Wu, Eric J Bruns, Ming-Hui Tai, Bethany R Lee, Ramesh Raghavan, Susan dosReis
OBJECTIVE: The study examined differences in psychotropic polypharmacy among youths with serious emotional and behavioral disorders who received coordinated care services (CCS) that used a wraparound model and a matched sample of youths who received traditional services. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design compared psychotropic polypharmacy one year before and one year after discharge from CCS. The cohort was youths with serious emotional and behavioral disorders who were enrolled in CCS from December 2009 through May 2014...
March 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Sharon Ashong, Irene A Kretchy, Barima Afrane, Ama de-Graft Aikins
Background: Patients with schizophrenia are managed with antipsychotics and other psychotropic medications. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the commonly prescribed psychotropic medications for patients with schizophrenia, explore the types of therapeutic monitoring that were performed, and find out whether the side effects experienced by the patients played any role in their adherence behaviour. Methods: This hospital-based cross-sectional study enrolled 259 patients with schizophrenia from Accra Psychiatric Hospital and Pantang Psychiatric Hospital...
2018: Psychiatry Journal
Tamara Tompsett, Kate Masters, Parastou Donyai
Background: A number of naturalistic studies have investigated paliperidone palmitate (PP) using proxy measures of effectiveness. An unexplored option is to examine the utility of the mental health clustering tool (MHCT), which is used in UK clinical practice to measure patient well-being and is linked to allocation of resources. This study evaluated the effectiveness of PP using the MHCT, the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS), and, for comparison, more conventional outcome measures...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Yuanhan Bai, Xi Yang, Zhiqiang Zeng, Haichen Yang
BACKGROUND: Ritualistic behaviors are common in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), while catatonic stupor occasionally occurs in psychotic or mood disorders. Schizoaffective disorder is a specific mental disorder involving both psychotic and affective symptoms. The syndrome usually represents a specific diagnosis, as in the case of the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) or the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)...
March 13, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Vibeke Bliksted, Chris Frith, Poul Videbech, Birgitte Fagerlund, Charlotte Emborg, Arndis Simonsen, Andreas Roepstorff, Daniel Campbell-Meiklejohn
Background: Historically, research investigating neural correlates of mentalizing deficits in schizophrenia has focused on patients who have been ill for several years with lengthy exposure to medication. Little is known about the neural and behavioral presentations of theory-of-mind deficits in schizophrenia, shortly after the first episode of psychosis. Methods: We investigated social cognition in 17 recently diagnosed first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients with little or no exposure to antipsychotic medication and 1:1 matched healthy controls...
March 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Konstantin S Rodygin, Alexander S Bogachenkov, Valentine P Ananikov
We developed a simple and efficient strategy to access N -vinyl secondary amines of various naturally occurring materials using readily available solid acetylene reagents (calcium carbide, KF, and KOH). Pyrrole, pyrazole, indoles, carbazoles, and diarylamines were successfully vinylated in good yields. Cross-linked and linear polymers were synthesized from N -vinyl carbazoles through free radical and cationic polymerization. Post-modification of olanzapine (an antipsychotic drug substance) was successfully performed...
March 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Juliann M Mellin, Sankaraleengam Alagapan, Caroline Lustenberger, Courtney E Lugo, Morgan L Alexander, John H Gilmore, L Fredrik Jarskog, Flavio Fröhlich
BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of patients with schizophrenia experience auditory hallucinations that are refractory to antipsychotic medications. Here, we evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) that we hypothesized would improve auditory hallucination symptoms by enhancing synchronization between the frontal and temporo-parietal areas of the left hemisphere. METHOD: 22 participants were randomized to one of three arms and received twice daily, 20 min sessions of sham, 10 Hz 2 mA peak-to-peak tACS, or 2 mA tDCS over the course of 5 consecutive days...
March 10, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Yen-Feng Lee
OBJECTIVES: Pisa syndrome is characterized by lateral trunk flexion. It is an uncommon adverse drug reaction in patients on antipsychotic medication. Although Pisa syndrome has been reported in patients on antipsychotic treatment, previous studies have not discussed the prognosis of patients with Pisa syndrome. We studied psychiatric patients with Pisa syndrome following antipsychotic treatment for a 2-year period. METHODS: From January 2012 to December 2014, 13 inpatients with Pisa syndrome following antipsychotic treatment were identified at our institution, from a prospectively collected database...
March 2018: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Eugenia Tomasella, Lucila Bechelli, Mora Belén Ogando, Camilo Mininni, Mariano N Di Guilmi, Fernanda De Fino, Silvano Zanutto, Ana Belén Elgoyhen, Antonia Marin-Burgin, Diego M Gelman
Excessive dopamine neurotransmission underlies psychotic episodes as observed in patients with some types of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The dopaminergic hypothesis was postulated after the finding that antipsychotics were effective to halt increased dopamine tone. However, there is little evidence for dysfunction within the dopaminergic system itself. Alternatively, it has been proposed that excessive afferent activity onto ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons, particularly from the ventral hippocampus, increase dopamine neurotransmission, leading to psychosis...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Allison Gates, Cydney Johnson, Lisa Hartling
BACKGROUND: Machine learning tools can expedite systematic review (SR) processes by semi-automating citation screening. Abstrackr semi-automates citation screening by predicting relevant records. We evaluated its performance for four screening projects. METHODS: We used a convenience sample of screening projects completed at the Alberta Research Centre for Health Evidence, Edmonton, Canada: three SRs and one descriptive analysis for which we had used SR screening methods...
March 12, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Chun-Yuan Lin, Te-Jen Lai, Yu-Hsin Wu, Ping-Kun Chen, Yuan-Fu Lin, I-Chia Chien
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Shiva Shanker Reddy Mukku, P T Sivakumar, Mathew Varghese
Clozapine is the first second generation antipsychotic with different receptor profile of action. Clozapine is the most efficacious drug for the treatment of psychotic disorder and is the drug of choice in treatment resistant schizophrenia. Clozapine is used in elderly patients infrequently owing to its adverse effects profile and tolerability. There is paucity of literature with respect to clozapine use in late life. In this narrative review, we discuss clozapine use in elderly and challenges associated with its use...
March 3, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Noriko Kudo, Hidenaga Yamamori, Tamaki Ishima, Kiyotaka Nemoto, Yuka Yasuda, Michiko Fujimoto, Hirotsugu Azechi, Tomihisa Niitsu, Shusuke Numata, Manabu Ikeda, Masaomi Iyo, Tetsuro Ohmori, Masaki Fukunaga, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Kenji Hashimoto, Ryota Hashimoto
Background: An imbalance in the inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF) system, including soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2), may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Methods: We measured the plasma levels of sTNFR2 in 256 healthy controls and 250 patients with schizophrenia including antipsychotic drug-free patients and treatment-resistant patients. We also explored the possible association between plasma sTNFR2 levels and cognitive performance in healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-Ⅲ), the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT)...
February 24, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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