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Global health

Warawan Wongboot, Kazuhisa Okada, Siriporn Chantaroj, Watcharaporn Kamjumphol, Shigeyuki Hamada
Acute diarrheal diseases are causes of global public health concern, especially in developing countries. A variety of diarrhea-associated microbial species, including bacteria, viruses, and protozoa, have been recognized. Simplified methods for detecting a wide range of diarrheagenic enteric microbes can clarify the etiology and aid in the diagnosis of diarrheal diseases. Here, we report a quantitative real-time (q)PCR-based method for simultaneous detection of 24 targets from 19 microbes suspected of causing diarrhea in stool specimens...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Chrysovalantis Stafylis, George Rachiotis, Antonis Katsioulis, Varvara A Mouchtouri, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
INTRODUCTION: Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for heart and lung disease and is responsible for many forms of cancer. The resulting morbidity and mortality weigh heavily upon countries with high prevalence, such as Greece. According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) Greece, 38.2% of Greeks aged ≥15 years, namely 51.2% of men and 25.7% of women, are smokers. Smoking is also common among the young and people of high education. Despite laws prohibiting smoking at indoor places, exposure to environmental tobacco is very high both in private and public places...
June 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Shailesh M Gondivkar, Rahul R Bhowate, Amol R Gadbail, Rima S Gondivkar, Sachin C Sarode, Gargi S Sarode, Shankargouda Patil
OBJECTIVE: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) could have a significant impact on daily life activities of affected individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of OSF on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 206 clinically diagnosed OSF patients were recruited and subjected to the condition-specific OHRQoL-OSF instrument and global self-ratings of oral health and overall well-being. RESULTS: 'Discomfort and functional impairment' dimension was highly prevalent among patients with all stages(P<0...
June 21, 2018: Oral Diseases
Melissa A Stockton, Kayla Giger, Laura Nyblade
BACKGROUND: People living with HIV are increasingly burdened by noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) as a result of the NCD susceptibility that accompanies increased life expectancy and the rising global prevalence of NCDs. Health systems are being strengthened and programs are being developed to address this burden, often building on HIV care strategies and infrastructure or through integrated care models. HIV remains a stigmatized condition and the role of HIV stigma in the provision of NCD care is not well understood...
2018: PloS One
Bradley J Main, Jay Nicholson, Olivia C Winokur, Cody Steiner, Kasen K Riemersma, Jackson Stuart, Ryan Takeshita, Michelle Krasnec, Christopher M Barker, Lark L Coffey
Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged since 2013 as a significant global human health threat following outbreaks in the Pacific Islands and rapid spread throughout South and Central America. Severe congenital and neurological sequelae have been linked to ZIKV infections. Assessing the ability of common mosquito species to transmit ZIKV and characterizing variation in mosquito transmission of different ZIKV strains is important for estimating regional outbreak potential and for prioritizing local mosquito control strategies for Aedes and Culex species...
June 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Galileu Barbosa Costa, Amy Gilbert, Benjamin Monroe, Jesse Blanton, Sali Ngam Ngam, Sergio Recuenco, Ryan Wallace
BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by lyssaviruses, with most human cases worldwide resulting from rabid dog bites. Although effective animal and human vaccines have been available for over 100 years, control efforts have not been adequately implemented on the global scale and rabies remains one of the greatest global zoonotic threats to human health. We conducted a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey in Northern Cameroon to describe dog ownership characteristics, rates of dog bites, and post-bite healthcare seeking behaviors...
2018: PloS One
Chukwuma Mbaeyi, Zubair Mufti Wadood, Thomas Moran, Fazal Ather, Tasha Stehling-Ariza, Joanna Nikulin, Mohammad Al Safadi, Jane Iber, Laurel Zomahoun, Nidal Abourshaid, Hong Pang, Nikki Collins, Humayun Asghar, Obaid Ul Islam Butt, Cara C Burns, Derek Ehrhardt, Magdi Sharaf
Since the 1988 inception of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has occurred mostly through extensive use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in mass vaccination campaigns and through routine immunization services (1,2). However, because OPV contains live, attenuated virus, it carries the rare risk for reversion to neurovirulence. In areas with very low OPV coverage, prolonged transmission of vaccine-associated viruses can lead to the emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), which can cause outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis...
June 22, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Zainab Ahmadi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic breathlessness is a common and distressing symptom globally. It is associated with major adverse health outcomes. This review provides an overview of new evidence about the prevalence of chronic breathlessness in the population. RECENT FINDINGS: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE database including studies on prevalence of chronic breathlessness and its impact on the community published between 2016 and 2018. Identified studies were divided into four themes: breathlessness in relation to sex, BMI, quality of life and age (the elderly)...
June 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Roger Diegel, Brad Black, Jean C Pfau, Tracy McNew, Curtis Noonan, Raja Flores
An increased risk for Systemic Autoimmune Diseases (SAID) has been reported in Libby, Montana, where extensive exposures to fibrous amphiboles occurred due to mining and use of asbestos-laden vermiculite. In addition, positive antinuclear autoantibody tests are associated with exposure to Libby Asbestiform Amphiboles (LAA) in both humans and mice. Among 6603 subjects who underwent health screening at the Center for Asbestos Related Diseases (CARD, Libby MT), 13.8% were diagnosed with an autoimmune disease, with prevalence values for the most common SAID being significantly higher than expected in the United States...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Will D Schupmann
Schools have long been critical partners for public health authorities in achieving widespread vaccination. In the mid-20th century, however, public schools also served as sites of large-scale experiments on novel vaccines. Through examining the experimental diphtheria, polio, and measles vaccine trials, I explored the implications of using schools in this manner, as well as the continuities and discontinuities among the three cases. Common to all of them was that the use of schools brought decision-making into the public sphere, subjecting parents to social pressures and the influences of school officials and community members...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Thiago F Martins, Ilka M Vasconcelos, Rodolpho G G Silva, Fredy D A Silva, Pedro F N Souza, Anna L N Varela, Louise M Albuquerque, Jose T A Oliveira
Staphylococcus aureus is a multidrug-resistant bacterium responsible for several cases of hospital-acquired infections, which constitute a global public health problem. The introduction of new healthcare strategies and/or the discovery of molecules capable of inhibiting the growth or killing S. aureus would have a huge impact on the treatment of S. aureus-mediated diseases. Herein, a Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor ( LzaBBI), with strong in vitro antibacterial activity against S. aureus, was purified to homogeneity from Luetzelburgia auriculata seeds...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Stine Lund
Globally the last decade has experienced an unprecedented mobile phone revolution in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). Sub-Saharan Africa is the fastest growing mobile phone market with expected 535 million unique subscribers in 2020 equivalent to a 50% penetration rate extending much farther than any other technology (GSMA, 2017, The Mobile Economy. Sub Saharan Africa). The rapid growth of, and access to, mobile technology has created an opportunity to transform the way to tackle global health challenges, a potential realized by technological developers, researchers and policy makers with great enthusiasm...
June 21, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
M Augustin, E Conde Montero, K Hagenström, K Herberger, C Blome
BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphoedema (CLE) is a burdensome disease of multiple causes leading to significant reductions in health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A specific method to assess HRQoL is the Freiburg Life Quality Assessment for lymphedema (FLQA-L), which consists of 92 items. OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a short form of the FLQA-L with improved psychometric properties and feasibility. METHODS: The FLQA-L validation data were re-analysed by patients and experts...
June 21, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Yue Gu, Li-Ping Xie, Guo-Liang Meng, Yong Ji
Diabetes and its complications continue to be an increasing global health problem. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)has emerged as the third gasotransmitter following the nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in the body, and plays an important role in both physiology and pathophysiology. Recent work has suggested important roles for H2S in the regulation of pancreatic β-cell function, as well as development of insulin resistance and diabetic complications. Targeting H2S represents a novel therapeutic approach in diabetes and its associated complications...
June 21, 2018: Sheng Li Ke Xue Jin Zhan [Progress in Physiology]
Holly P Kennedy, Melissa Cheyney, Hannah G Dahlen, Soo Downe, Maralyn J Foureur, Caroline S E Homer, Elaine Jefford, Alison McFadden, Michaela Michel-Schuldt, Jane Sandall, Hora Soltani, Anna M Speciale, Jennifer Stevens, Saraswathi Vedam, Mary J Renfrew
Despite decades of considerable economic investment in improving the health of families and newborns world-wide, aspirations for maternal and newborn health have yet to be attained in many regions. The global turn toward recognizing the importance of positive experiences of pregnancy, intrapartum and postnatal care, and care in the first weeks of life, while continuing to work to minimize adverse outcomes, signals a critical change in the maternal and newborn health care conversation and research prioritization...
June 21, 2018: Birth
Leonardo Trombelli, Roberto Farina, Cléverson O Silva, Dimitris N Tatakis
OBJECTIVE: Clinical gingival inflammation is a well-defined site-specific condition for which several measurement systems have been proposed and validated, and epidemiological studies consistently indicate its high prevalence globally. However, it is clear that defining and grading a gingival inflammatory condition at a site level (i.e. a "gingivitis site") is completely different from defining and grading a "gingivitis case" (GC) (i.e. a patient affected by gingivitis), and that a "gingivitis site" does not necessarily mean a "GC"...
June 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Charles Shannon Layne, Beom-Chan Lee, David Ryan Young, Daniel Gordon Glaze, Aloysia Schwabe, Bernhard Suter
Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder leading to intellectual impairment and global developmental delays, including difficulty or inability to walk. Assessing differences in temporal parameters and associated variability between overground and treadmill walking is important if gait training is to be incorporated into intervention protocols. Fourteen female patients with Rett syndrome (mean age 10.4 years ± SD 5.1) were evaluated during overground and treadmill walking. Stride, stance, swing, and double support times, and the variance of these measures, were obtained...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
Marc Miravitlles, Seungjae Baek, Vatsal Vithlani, Rahul Lad
Bronchodilators provide improvements in lung function and reductions in symptoms and exacerbations, and are the mainstay of pharmacological management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease strategy recommends the use of a combination of long-acting β₂-agonist/long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LABA/LAMA) as the first-line treatment option in the majority of symptomatic patients with COPD. This review provides an indirect comparison of available LABA/LAMA fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) through discussion of important efficacy and safety data from the key literature, with the objective of providing physicians with a framework for informed decision-making...
June 19, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Yong Bum Park, Chin Kook Rhee, Hyoung Kyu Yoon, Yeon Mok Oh, Seong Yong Lim, Jin Hwa Lee, Kwang Ha Yoo, Joong Hyun Ahn
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in high morbidity and mortality among patients nationally and globally. The Korean clinical practice guideline for COPD was revised in 2018. The guideline was drafted by the members of the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases as well as the participating members of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, Korean Physicians' Association, and Korea Respiration Trouble Association. The revised guideline encompasses a wide range of topics, including the epidemiology, diagnosis, assessment, monitoring, management, exacerbation, and comorbidities of COPD in Korea...
June 19, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Leonardo Trombelli, Roberto Farina, Cléverson O Silva, Dimitris N Tatakis
OBJECTIVE: Clinical gingival inflammation is a well-defined site-specific condition for which several measurement systems have been proposed and validated, and epidemiological studies consistently indicate its high prevalence globally. However, it is clear that defining and grading a gingival inflammatory condition at a site level (i.e. a "gingivitis site") is completely different from defining and grading a "gingivitis case" (GC) (i.e. a patient affected by gingivitis), and that a "gingivitis site" does not necessarily mean a "GC"...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
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