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Global health

Shenglan Dai, Xiaohua Chen, Yongsheng Yu, Guoqing Zang, Zhenghao Tang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem. T helper (Th)1‑associated cytokines are involved in HBV clearance during acute and persistent infection. In our previous study, it was demonstrated that lentiviral vectors encoding ubiquitinated hepatitis B core antigen (LV‑Ub‑HBcAg) effectively transduced dendritic cells (DCs) to induce maturation, which promoted T cell polarization to Th1 and generated HBcAg‑specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) ex vivo. In the present study, HBV transgenic mice were immunized with LV‑Ub‑HBcAg‑transduced DCs and HBcAg‑specific immune responses were evaluated...
September 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Jiajing Zhao, Yingjue Wang, Xi Wu, Ping Tong, Yaohan Yue, Shurong Gao, Dongping Huang, Jianwei Huang
Non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which affects approximately one‑third of the general population, has become a global health problem. Thus, more effective treatments for NAFLD are urgently required. In the present study, high levels of C‑C motif ligand 19 (CCL19), signaling pathways such as Toll‑like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB), and proinflammatory factors including interleukin‑6 (IL‑6) and tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) were detected in NAFLD patients, thereby indicating that there may be an association between CCL19 and these factors in NAFLD progression...
September 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Darren Langdridge, Mark Davis, Lucyna Gozdzielewska, Joanna McParland, Lynn Williams, Mairi Young, Fraser Smith, Jennifer MacDonald, Lesley Price, Paul Flowers
OBJECTIVES: In an innovative approach to improve the contribution of health psychology to public health we have analysed the presence and nature of affect within the visual materials deployed in antimicrobial stewardship interventions targeting the public identified through systematic review. DESIGN: A qualitative analysis focused on the affective content of visual materials garnered from a systematic review of antibiotic stewardship (k = 20). METHODS: A novel method was devised drawing on concepts from semiotics to analyse the affective elements within intervention materials...
September 16, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
Markus Islinger, Alfred Voelkl, H Dariush Fahimi, Michael Schrader
Peroxisomes are key metabolic organelles, which contribute to cellular lipid metabolism, e.g. the β-oxidation of fatty acids and the synthesis of myelin sheath lipids, as well as cellular redox balance. Peroxisomal dysfunction has been linked to severe metabolic disorders in man, but peroxisomes are now also recognized as protective organelles with a wider significance in human health and potential impact on a large number of globally important human diseases such as neurodegeneration, obesity, cancer, and age-related disorders...
September 15, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Jonathan Wörn, Hannie Comijs, Marja Aartsen
Objectives: The study investigates whether the disadvantaged position of men in the adverse consequences of widowhood for health and mortality also exists for changes in cognitive health. Methods: We used data of up to 1,269 men and women aged 65 years and older who participated in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam in three-yearly assessments between 1992 and 2012 (5,123 person-observations). All were married and without cognitive impairment (MMSE ≥ 24) at baseline and up to 419 lost their spouse...
September 14, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Previous efforts to report estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in India and its different parts include the National Cancer Registry Programme Reports, Sample Registration System cause of death findings, Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Series, and GLOBOCAN. We present a comprehensive picture of the patterns and time trends of the burden of total cancer and specific cancer types in each state of India estimated as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 because such a systematic compilation is not readily available...
September 11, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Negin Parsamanesh, Maryam Moossavi, Afsane Bahrami, Alexandra E Butler, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Diabetes mellitus is an extremely prevalent endocrine disease and a major global public health concern. Diabetic complications, such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy and cardiovascular disease, are common and majorly impact a patient's quality of life. Curcumin, the major active component of turmeric, possesses extensive known pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor effects. Increasing evidence suggests that curcumin may offer protection against diabetic complications...
September 13, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Sarah Curtis, Jamie Pearce, Mark Cherrie, Christopher Dibben, Niall Cunningham, Clare Bambra
This paper reports research exploring how trends in local labour market conditions during the period 2007-2011 (early stages of the 'great recession') relate to reported mental illness for individuals. It contributes to research on spatio-temporal variation in the wider determinants of health, exploring how the lifecourse of places relates to socio-geographical inequalities in health outcomes for individuals. This study also contributes to the renewed research focus on the links between labour market trends and population health, prompted by the recent global economic recession...
August 13, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Pam Towery, J Stephen Guffey, Cody Doerflein, Kyle Stroup, Sara Saucedo, Jennifer Taylor
BACKGROUND: Chronic musculoskeletal pain, often debilitating, affects all genders, ethnicities, and age groups. Research suggests consumption of a plant-based diet may improve the status of persons with chronic pain. A diet rich in fruits, vegetables and whole grains has been shown to reduce chronic pain and disability associated with musculoskeletal conditions. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the value of a plant-based diet in the management of chronic musculoskeletal pain and functional limitations...
October 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Ayako Miyazaki, Sukumar Kandasamy, Husheem Michael, Stephanie N Langel, Francine C Paim, Juliet Chepngeno, Moyasar A Alhamo, David D Fischer, Huang-Chi Huang, Vishal Srivastava, Dipak Kathayat, Loic Deblais, Gireesh Rajashekara, Linda J Saif, Anastasia N Vlasova
BACKGROUND: Low efficacy of rotavirus (RV) vaccines in developing African and Asian countries, where malnutrition is prevalent, remains a major concern and a challenge for global health. METHODS: To understand the effects of protein malnutrition on RV vaccine efficacy, we elucidated the innate, T cell and cytokine immune responses to attenuated human RV (AttHRV) vaccine and virulent human RV (VirHRV) challenge in germ-free (GF) pigs or human infant fecal microbiota (HIFM) transplanted gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs fed protein-deficient or -sufficient bovine milk diets...
September 12, 2018: Vaccine
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: A systematic understanding of suicide mortality trends over time at the subnational level for India's 1·3 billion people, 18% of the global population, is not readily available. Thus, we aimed to report time trends of suicide deaths, and the heterogeneity in its distribution between the states of India from 1990 to 2016. METHODS: As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016, we estimated suicide death rates (SDRs) for both sexes in each state of India from 1990 to 2016...
September 11, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The burden of cardiovascular diseases is increasing in India, but a systematic understanding of its distribution and time trends across all the states is not readily available. In this report, we present a detailed analysis of how the patterns of cardiovascular diseases and major risk factors have changed across the states of India between 1990 and 2016. METHODS: We analysed the prevalence and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to cardiovascular diseases and the major component causes in the states of India from 1990 to 2016, using all accessible data sources as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016...
September 11, 2018: Lancet Global Health
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: India has 18% of the global population and an increasing burden of chronic respiratory diseases. However, a systematic understanding of the distribution of chronic respiratory diseases and their trends over time is not readily available for all of the states of India. Our aim was to report the trends in the burden of chronic respiratory diseases and the heterogeneity in their distribution in all states of India between 1990 and 2016. METHODS: Using all accessible data from multiple sources, we estimated the prevalence of major chronic respiratory diseases and the deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) caused by them for every state of India from 1990 to 2016 as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016...
September 11, 2018: Lancet Global Health
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The burden of diabetes is increasing rapidly in India but a systematic understanding of its distribution and time trends is not available for every state of India. We present a comprehensive analysis of the time trends and heterogeneity in the distribution of diabetes burden across all states of India between 1990 and 2016. METHODS: We analysed the prevalence and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of diabetes in the states of India from 1990 to 2016 using all available data sources that could be accessed as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, and assessed heterogeneity across the states...
September 11, 2018: Lancet Global Health
Ashleigh Bope, Mark H Weir, Amy Pruden, Michael Morowitz, Jade Mitchell, Karen C Dannemiller
Here, we summarize a symposium entitled "Microbiology of the Built Environment: Implications for Health and Design" that was presented at the National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) 17th National Conference and Global Forum in January 2017. We covered topics including indoor microbial exposures and childhood asthma, the influence of hospital design on neonatal development, the role of the microbiome in our premise (i.e., building) plumbing systems, antibiotic resistance, and quantitative microbial risk assessment...
September 15, 2018: Microbiome
Titus H Divala, Katherine L Fielding, Marriott Nliwasa, Derek J Sloan, Ankur Gupta-Wright, Elizabeth L Corbett
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal diagnostics for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) drives use of 'trial-of-antibiotics (non-tuberculosis)' in an attempt to distinguish PTB patients from those with bacterial lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The underlying assumption-that patients with LRTI will report 'response' to broad-spectrum antibiotics, while those with PTB will not-has minimal evidence base for such a widely used intervention. Numerous potential causes of misclassification include bacterial super-infection of active PTB, placebo effect, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR)...
September 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Akram M Salam, Cassandra L Quave
The continued spread of antimicrobial resistance represents one of the most serious infectious disease threats to global health. There is consensus that a key component of addressing this threat is to replenish the waning pipeline of antimicrobials, with attention being paid to novel mechanisms of action. This includes the development of new classes of classic bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotics as well as antivirulence drugs, and it is especially in these areas where plant natural products demonstrate great potential...
September 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Ji-Ae Kim, Rak-Kyun Seong, Sang Wook Son, Ok Sarah Shin
Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a global pathogen causing significant public health concern. ZIKV infections in humans principally occur via mosquito bites. Thus, host skin cells are permissive to ZIKV infection and are the first line of defense against the virus. Here, we examined the role and mechanisms of antiviral skin immunity against ZIKV infection. ZIKV infection (African lineage MR766) in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKn), and HaCaT keratinocytes resulted in distinct expression changes in retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLR), such as RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Engin Şenel
Bibliometrics and scientometrics are popular and novel disciplines providing information in publication trends in a certain academic field. Although there has been an increasing popularity in bibliometric studies, a limited number of reports have been published in religion and health literature. In this study, to the best of our knowledge we aimed to perform a first bibliometric analysis in the health literature related to Dharmic religions, Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism. We found a total of 655 health articles related to Dharmic religions as we searched Web of Science databases...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Samuel S Jellison, Michael Bibens, Jake Checketts, Matt Vassar
To evaluate global public interest in osteoarthritis by assessing changes in Internet search popularity of the disease over a 10-year period. Google Trends was used to obtain search popularity scores for the word "osteoarthritis" (OA) between January 2004 and June 2018. We also analyzed changes in search volume relative to changes in search patterns for all health topics. Search interest in OA was high relative to all other health searches over the given timeframe. Overall, searches for OA steadily decreased between May 2004 and December 2012 and then steadily rose from January 2013 to April 2018...
September 15, 2018: Rheumatology International
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