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Cefotaxim

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642756/high-prevalence-of-macrolide-resistance-and-molecular-characterization-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-isolates-circulating-in-china-from-2009-to-2016
#1
Binghuai Lu, Yujie Fang, Yanyan Fan, Xingchun Chen, Junrui Wang, Ji Zeng, Yi Li, Zhijun Zhang, Lei Huang, Hongxia Li, Dong Li, Fengxia Zhu, Yanchao Cui, Duochun Wang
Streptococcus pyogenes, or group A Streptococcus, is a pathogen responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, from mild skin and soft tissue infections and pharyngitis to severe diseases. Its epidemiological characteristics should be comprehensively under surveillance for regulating the national prevention and treatment practice. Herein, a total of 140 S. pyogenes, including 38 invasive and 102 noninvasive isolates, were collected from infected patients in 10 tertiary general hospitals from 7 cities/provinces in China during the years 2009-2016...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638992/a-qm-mm-study-on-the-enzymatic-inactivation-of-cefotaxime
#2
Ignacio Lizana, Eduardo J Delgado
The reaction between the antibiotic cefotaxime and the CTX-M-14 class A serine hydrolase is addressed from a theoretical point of view, by means of hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations, adopting a new approach that postulates that the residue Ser70 itself should play the role of the acid-base species required for the cefotaxime acylation. The proposed mechanism differs from earlier proposals existing in literature for other class A β-lactamases. The results confirm the hypothesis, and show that the reaction should occur via a concerted mechanism in which the acylation of the lactam carbonyl carbon, protonation of the N7 lactam atom, and opening of the β-lactam ring occurs simultaneously...
July 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637222/risk-factors-for-the-development-of-delayed-tsh-elevation-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-nicu-newborns
#3
Amnon Zung, Rachel Bier Palmon, Agneta Golan, Mara Troitzky, Smadar Eventov-Friedman, Ronella Marom, Rimona Keidar, Neri Kats, Shlomo Almashanu, Orna Flidel-Rimon
Context: Delayed TSH elevation (dTSH) is defined as elevated TSH in the second neonatal screen (following normal TSH in the initial screen) in premature, low-birth-weight and sick newborns, mostly in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting. The pathogenesis of dTSH is elusive. Objective: To identify risk factors for dTSH development among newborns in the NICU. Design: setting and patients: A retrospective chart review of neonates with dTSH was conducted in eight university-affiliated NICUs...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629795/epidemiological-features-and-antibiotic-resistance-patterns-of-haemophilus-influenzae-originating-from-respiratory-tract-and-vaginal-specimens-in-pediatric-patients
#4
Jian-Ping Li, Chun-Zhen Hua, Li-Ying Sun, Hong-Jiao Wang, Zhi-Min Chen, Shi-Qiang Shang
BACKGROUND: Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) is a common pathogen of respiratory tract infections in children, however, as a possible cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, its epidemiological features,antibiotic-resistance patterns, and treatment are seldom noted. METHODS: Specimens obtained from patients were inoculated on Haemophilus selective medium; and drug-sensitivities tests were determined with disc diffusion method. Cefinase disc was used to detect β-lactamase...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620609/antibiotic-resistances-in-livestock-a-comparative-approach-to-identify-an-appropriate-regression-model-for-count-data
#5
Anke Hüls, Cornelia Frömke, Katja Ickstadt, Katja Hille, Johanna Hering, Christiane von Münchhausen, Maria Hartmann, Lothar Kreienbrock
Antimicrobial resistance in livestock is a matter of general concern. To develop hygiene measures and methods for resistance prevention and control, epidemiological studies on a population level are needed to detect factors associated with antimicrobial resistance in livestock holdings. In general, regression models are used to describe these relationships between environmental factors and resistance outcome. Besides the study design, the correlation structures of the different outcomes of antibiotic resistance and structural zero measurements on the resistance outcome as well as on the exposure side are challenges for the epidemiological model building process...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620153/premature-labor-and-neonatal-septicemia-caused-by-capnocytophaga-ochracea
#6
Abdullah A Alhifany, Thamer A Almangour, Deanne E Tabb, David H Levine
BACKGROUND Capnocytophaga ochracea is a gram-negative anaerobic organism commonly found in human oral flora. It is characteristically sensitive to beta-lactams and resistant to aminoglycosides. CASE REPORT A 23-year-old woman presented with lower abdominal pain and was admitted for premature labor at 24-weeks of gestation. At presentation, the cervix was closed and the membrane was intact; however, contractions continued, the membrane subsequently ruptured before receiving any steroids or magnesium, and the mother gave birth to a 540-gram female baby...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618388/simultaneous-determination-of-nine-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics-in-human-plasma-by-an-ultrafast-hydrophilic-interaction-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#7
Alan Abdulla, Soma Bahmany, Rixt A Wijma, Bart C H van der Nagel, Birgit C P Koch
Contemporary β-lactam antibiotic dosing is debatable in severely ill patients, since the occurrence of pathophysiological changes in critical illness can result in great inter-individual variability. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a commonly used dosing strategy to optimize exposure and thereby minimize toxicity and maximize the efficacy. Currently, TDM of β-lactam antibiotics is rarely performed, due to poor availability in clinical practice. We describe an ultrafast Hydrophilic-Interaction Chromatography (HILIC) based UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of amoxicillin, benzylpenicillin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, flucloxacillin, imipenem, meropenem and piperacillin in human plasma...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613873/the-drug-resistant-variant-p167s-expands-the-substrate-profile-of-ctx-m-%C3%AE-lactamases-for-oxyimino-cephalosporin-antibiotics-by-enlarging-the-active-site-upon-acylation
#8
Meha P Patel, Liya Hu, Vlatko Stojanoski, Banumathi Sankaran, B V Venkataram Prasad, Timothy Palzkill
β-Lactamases are enzymes produced by bacterial cells that provide resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. The CTX-M class of β-lactamases provides resistance against the antibiotic, cefotaxime, but not a related oxyimino-cephalosporin antibiotic, ceftazidime. β-lactamases that carry the P167S substitution, however, have been reported to provide ceftazidime resistance. The mechanism by which the P167S substitution expands the substrate profile of CTX-M enzymes is not known. In this study, CTX-M-14 was used as the model enzyme to study the structural changes caused by the P167S mutation that may accelerate ceftazidime turnover...
June 14, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613139/evaluation-of-the-relationship-between-the-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-of-ceftiofur-and-third-generation-cephalosporins-in-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-food-producing-animals
#9
Mototaka Hiki, Yasuhito Shimizu, Michiko Kawanishi, Manao Ozawa, Hitoshi Abo, Akemi Kojima, Ryoji Koike, Satowa Suzuki, Tetsuo Asai, Shuichi Hamamoto
To enable future comparison of the antimicrobial susceptibility data between bacteria obtained from animals and humans, it is necessary to compare the relationships between minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of veterinary and human medicine. We evaluated the relationship between the MIC of ceftiofur (CTF) and the MICs of other third-generation cephalosporins (TGCs): cefotaxime (CTX), cefpodoxime (CPDX), and ceftazidime (CAZ), determined by the broth microdilution method using 118 cefazolin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from food-producing animals...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608661/campylobacter-jejuni-bacteremia-in-a-liver-cirrhosis-patient-and-review-of-literature-a-case-study
#10
Jin Gu Yoon, Saem Na Lee, Hak Jun Hyun, Min Joo Choi, Ji Ho Jeon, Eunju Jung, Seonghui Kang, Jeeyong Kim, Ji Yun Noh, Won Suk Choi, Joon Young Song, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim
Campylobacter infection causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain or diarrhea. Occasionally, Campylobacter bacteremia affects immunocompromised patients; however, serious outcomes are known to be rare. Here, we present a case of a patient with Campylobacter bacteremia who had underlying liver cirrhosis. The patient had fever and diarrhea. These symptoms subsided after treatment with cefotaxime. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated in the blood culture after 10 days. In addition, previously reported cases of Campylobacter bacteremia in Asian countries were reviewed with respect to antimicrobial sensitivities...
May 26, 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606364/cefotaxime-resistant-e-coli-in-dairy-and-beef-cattle-farms-joint-analyses-of-two-cross-sectional-investigations-in-germany
#11
Katja Hille, Inga Ruddat, Annette Schmid, Johanna Hering, Maria Hartmann, Christiane von Münchhausen, Bettina Schneider, Ute Messelhäusser, Anika Friese, Rolf Mansfeld, Annemarie Käsbohrer, Stefan Hörmansdorfer, Uwe Roesler, Lothar Kreienbrock
Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and other beta-lactam antibiotics is of major concern for animal and human health. Knowledge of the prevalence of resistant bacteria in primary production is an important element to estimate transmission along the stages in the food production chain and the exposure of the human population. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant commensal E. coli in dairy and beef cattle production units throughout Germany. Secondarily, the association between management factors and the presence of cefotaxime resistance was investigated...
July 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602519/diversity-of-plasmids-harboring-blacmy-2-in-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-poultry-in-brazil
#12
Joseane Cristina Ferreira, Rafael Antonio Casarin Penha Filho, Leonardo Neves Andrade, Angelo Berchieri Junior, Ana Lúcia Costa Darini
Multidrug-resistance (MDR) has been increasingly reported in Gram-negative bacteria from the intestinal microbiota, environment and food-producing animals. Resistance plasmids able to harbor different transposable elements are capable to mobilize antimicrobial resistance genes and transfer to other bacterial hosts. Plasmids carrying blaCMY are frequently associated with MDR. The present study assessed the presence of plasmid-encoded ampC genes (blacmy, blamox, blafox, blalat, blaact, blamir, bladha, blamor) in commensal E...
May 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600447/the-epidemiology-management-and-outcomes-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-infants
#13
Lynda Ouchenir, Christian Renaud, Sarah Khan, Ari Bitnun, Andree-Anne Boisvert, Jane McDonald, Jennifer Bowes, Jason Brophy, Michelle Barton, Joseph Ting, Ashley Roberts, Michael Hawkes, Joan L Robinson
OBJECTIVES: The pathogens that cause bacterial meningitis in infants and their antimicrobial susceptibilities may have changed in this era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, use of conjugated vaccines, and maternal antibiotic prophylaxis for group B Streptococcus (GBS). The objective was to determine the optimal empirical antibiotics for bacterial meningitis in early infancy. METHODS: This was a cohort study of infants <90 days of age with bacterial meningitis at 7 pediatric tertiary care hospitals across Canada in 2013 and 2014...
June 9, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598307/exposure-to-sub-inhibitory-concentrations-of-gentamicin-ciprofloxacin-and-cefotaxime-induces-multidrug-resistance-and-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-in-meticillin-sensitive-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
Gargi Bhattacharya, Diganta Dey, Satadal Das, Abhijit Banerjee
PURPOSE: The role of antibiotics below their MIC in the development of bacterial drug resistance is becoming increasingly important. We investigated the effect of sub-MICs of bactericidal antibiotics on the susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus and evaluated the role of free radicals. METHODOLOGY: A total of 12 S. aureus strains were recovered from pus samples and their antibiograms determined. The test isolates were treated with sub-MIC levels of tetracycline, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591808/relationship-between-%C3%AE-lactamase-production-and-resistance-phenotype-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains
#15
Jeongjin Kim, Tian Ding, Juhee Ahn
This study was designed to evaluate the resistance phenotypes of β-lactamases-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. The antibiotic susceptibility and β-lactamase activity of K. pneumoniae strains, including antibiotic-sensitive K. pneumoniae (KPWT), ciprofloxacin-induced resistant K. pneumoniae (KPCIP), and clinically isolated K. pneumoniae strains (KPCI237, KPCI263, and KPCI272), were determined in the absence and presence of β-lactamase inhibitors (BLI 489, sulbactam, clavulanate, and tazobactam). All strains were highly resistant to ampicillin in the absence of β-lactamase inhibitors (MIC≥ 512 μg mL-1)...
June 7, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591134/global-gene-expression-profiling-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-after-repeated-exposure-to-the-carbon-monoxide-releasing-molecule-2-corm-2-in-multidrug-resistant-esbl-producing-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#16
Charlotte Sahlberg Bang, Isak Demirel, Robert Kruse, Katarina Persson
Treatment of urinary tract infections is today a challenge due to the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). There is an urgent need for new treatment strategies for multidrug-resistant UPEC and preferably with targets that have low potential for development of resistance. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) are novel and potent antibacterial agents. The present study examines the transcriptomic targets of CORM-2 in a multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing UPEC isolate in response to a single exposure to CORM-2 and after repeated exposure to CORM-2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587869/genetic-and-biochemical-characterisation-of-ctx-m-37-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-from-an-enterobacter-cloacae-clinical-isolate-from-mongolia
#17
Kyungwon Lee, Dongeun Yong, Seok Hoon Jeong, Khosbayar Tulgaa, Jean-Denis Docquier, Gian Maria Rossolini, Yunsop Chong
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine the resistance level of a blaCTX-M-37-carrying Enterobacter cloacae isolate from Mongolia, to analyse kinetic parameters of the purified enzyme and to compare the genetic environment of the gene. METHODS: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) agar dilution method. Purified CTX-M-37 enzyme was used to determined kinetic parameters. The genetic environment of the blaCTX-M-37 gene in E...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582518/substitutions-in-pbp3-confer-resistance-to-both-ampicillin-and-extended-spectrum-cephalosporins-in-haemophilus-parainfluenzae-as-revealed-by-site-directed-mutagenesis-and-gene-recombinants
#18
Nanna H Wienholtz, Aynur Barut, Niels Nørskov-Lauritsen
Objectives: To determine the association of amino acid substitutions in PBP3 with β-lactam susceptibility in Haemophilus parainfluenzae . Methods: Single and multiple amino acid mutations at positions 385, 511 and 526 were introduced into PBP3 of a β-lactam-susceptible H. parainfluenzae strain using site-directed mutagenesis. Recombinants were also generated using PCR-amplified ftsI from clinical strains encoding multiple amino acid substitutions. MICs of ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone were determined using Etest ® ...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576315/electrochemical-determination-of-cephalosporins-using-a-bare-boron-doped-diamond-electrode
#19
Bogdan Feier, Ana Gui, Cecilia Cristea, Robert Săndulescu
The electrochemical oxidation of seven cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefadroxil, cefuroxime, cefaclor, cefalexin) was evaluated at high potential, using a bare boron-doped diamond electrode and the influence on the analytical response of the side chains was investigated. Based on the anodic oxidation of the cephalosporin nucleus, a simple and sensitive method was developed for the electrochemical detection of cefalexin by differential pulse voltammetry. After the optimization of the experimental conditions, a linear correlation was obtained between the peak height and the molar concentration of cefalexin in the range of 0...
July 11, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574025/patterns-in-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-salmonellae-isolated-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-northern-india
#20
Preeti Behl, Varsha Gupta, Atul Sachdev, Vishal Guglani, Jagdish Chander
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Multidrug-resistant Salmonellae have emerged worldwide as also in India. The aim of this study was to study the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated at a tertiary care hospital in northern India. METHODS: A total of 106 S. enterica serovars isolated from various clinical samples from January 2011 to June 2012 were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone was determined both by agar dilution method and E-test for all the isolates...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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