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VP shunt

Kelsey Bourm, Cory Pfeifer, Adam Zarchan
Small bowel perforation is a rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement. When seen, it most commonly affects the stomach or colon. We describe a case and image findings of an 8-year-old female who presented with sepsis and erosion of the VP shunt into the small bowel. The imaging findings were confirmed surgically. We also provide an overview of the current literature discussing previously reported cases, clinical features, and treatment.
June 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Yad R Yadav, Vijay S Parihar, Mina Todorov, Yatin Kher, Ishwar D Chaurasia, Sonjjay Pande, Hemant Namdev
Hydrocephalus is one of the commonest complications of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). It can be purely obstructive, purely communicating, or due to combinations of obstruction in addition to defective absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) as an alternative to shunt procedures is an established treatment for obstructive hydrocephalus in TBM. ETV in TBM hydrocephalus can be technically very difficult, especially in acute stage of disease due to inflamed, thick, and opaque third ventricle floor...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Claudia L Craven, Ahmed K Toma, Tarek Mostafa, Neekhil Patel, Laurence D Watkins
OBJECTIVE: Selecting probable idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) patients for shunt insertion presents a challenge because of coexisting comorbidities and other conditions that could mimic NPH. The characteristic appearance of DESH (Disproportionately Enlarged Subarachnoid Space Hydrocephalus) on brain imaging has been shown to have a high positive predictive value in identifying shunt responsive INPH patients (SINPHONI trial). However, the negative predictive value of this radiological sign was not clearly demonstrated...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Naveen Kumar, Wisam Al-Faiadh, Jignesh Tailor, Conor Mallucci, Chris Chandler, Sanj Bassi, Benedetta Pettorini, Bassel Zebian
OBJECTIVES: The management of neonatal post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus (nPHH) varies considerably between centres and even between neurosurgeons in the same centre. We performed a nationwide survey to evaluate current practice in the UK and reviewed the evidence for each intervention. METHODS: An online semi-structured questionnaire was emailed to all units registered on the British Paediatric Neurosurgery Group Mailing List. The survey consisted of 18 questions designed to establish the status quo in the management of nPHH, including preferred temporising procedure, factors guiding the timing of intervention and willingness to participate in a prospective study...
September 30, 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
M Crealey, T Mandiwanza, D Crimmins, A Foran, J F A Murphy
There is no available Irish data on the rate of Ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt insertion in infants with group B streptococcus (GBS) meningitis. We performed a retrospective case series of 40 infants with GBS meningitis over 6 years. Four (10%) infants required insertion of VP shunt for hydrocephalus. Those infants who required a VP shunt initially presented with seizures, lethargy and a low serum white cell count.
2016: Irish Medical Journal
Alan H Weintraub, Donald J Gerber, Robert G Kowalski
OBJECTIVE: To describe incidence, clinical characteristics, complications, and outcomes in post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) for patients treated in an inpatient rehabilitation program. DESIGN: Cohort study with retrospective comparative analysis SETTING: Inpatient rehabilitation hospital PARTICIPANTS: All patients admitted for TBI from 2009 to 2013 diagnosed with PTH, defined as ventriculomegaly, delayed clinical recovery discordant with injury severity, hydrocephalus symptoms, or positive lumbar puncture results...
September 23, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Anqi Xiao, Jiahe Xiao, Xiaoke Zhang, Chao You
AIM: To investigate the indications and clinical value of the surgical therapy of neurocysticercosis (NCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all 10 patients with NCC treated surgically from January 2009 to January 2014 in our institute. The NCC types included parenchymal cysticerci in 6 cases, subarachnoid cysticerci in 3 and ventricular cysticerci in 1. RESULTS: All 10 patients underwent resection of cysticerci through craniotomy...
2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
Mingliang He, Leping Ouyang, Shengwen Wang, Meiguang Zheng, Anmin Liu
OBJECTIVE Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt treatment is the main treatment method for hydrocephalus. The traditional operative approach for peritoneal catheter insertion is mini-laparotomy. In recent years, laparoscopy-assisted insertion has become increasingly popular. It seems likely that use of an endoscope could lower the incidence of shunt malfunction. However, there is no consensus about the benefits of laparoscopy-assisted peritoneal catheter insertion. METHODS A systematic search was performed using the PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Library databases...
September 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
Maria Kamenova, Davide Croci, Raphael Guzman, Luigi Mariani, Jehuda Soleman
OBJECTIVE Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement is a common procedure for the treatment of hydrocephalus following diverse neurosurgical conditions. Most of the patients present with other comorbidities and receive antiplatelet therapy, usually acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Despite its clinical relevance, the perioperative management of these patients has not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the peri- and postoperative bleeding complication rates associated with ASA intake in patients undergoing VP shunt placement...
September 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
Albert M Isaacs, Yarema B Bezchlibnyk, Heather Yong, Dilip Koshy, Geberth Urbaneja, Walter J Hader, Mark G Hamilton
OBJECTIVE The efficacy of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) for the treatment of pediatric hydrocephalus has been extensively reported in the literature. However, ETV-related long-term outcome data are lacking for the adult hydrocephalus population. The objective of the present study was to assess the role of ETV as a primary or secondary treatment for hydrocephalus in adults. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective chart review of all adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) with symptomatic hydrocephalus treated with ETV in Calgary, Canada, over a span of 20 years (1994-2014)...
September 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
Sharif Vakili, Dane Moran, Alice Hung, Benjamin D Elder, Lee Jeon, Hugo Fialho, Eric W Sankey, Ignacio Jusué-Torres, C Rory Goodwin, Jennifer Lu, Jamie Robison, Daniele Rigamonti
OBJECTIVE A growing body of evidence suggests that longer durations of preoperative symptoms may correlate with worse postoperative outcomes following cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion for treatment of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). The aim of this study is to determine whether the duration of preoperative symptoms alters postoperative outcomes in patients treated for iNPH. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective review of 393 cases of iNPH involving patients treated with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting...
September 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
Lubaba Shahrin, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Sayeeda Huq, Md Munirul Islam, Shafiqul Alam Sarker, Mahmuda Begum, Shukla Saha, Tahmeed Ahmed
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumonia is the most common and intimidating cause of childhood meningitis. Its delayed diagnosis may be associated with hyponatremia and hypernatremia with fatal outcome. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy nine-month-old Bangladeshi female infant was diagnosed with diarrhea, pneumonia, and convulsion due to hypernatremia. Pneumonia was confirmed by respiratory distress and radiological findings. Routine cerebrospinal fluid study detected pneumococcal meningitis...
2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Brian Nee Hou Chee, Muhammad Fahmi Abdul Jalil, Kristian John Bulluss
Pneumocephalus in patients receiving positive airway pressure ventilation commonly occurs in the setting of trauma or surgery. We report a case of atraumatic pneumocephalus in a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnoea. The patient presented with a 1-week history of "gurgling" sensation in his head and ataxia, with CT scan findings of a significant pneumocephalus. As extensive work up did not reveal any cause for his pneumocephalus, the nasal CPAP was thought to be the source...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Saif Afat, Rastislav Pjontek, Hussam A Hamou, Klaus Herz, Omid Nikoubashman, Fabian Bamberg, Marc A Brockmann, Konstantin Nikolaou, Hans Clusmann, Martin Wiesmann, Ahmed E Othman
OBJECTIVE: To determine diagnostic value and radiation exposure of low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) compared to radiographic shunt series (SS) for the detection of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt complications. METHODS: Fourteen VP shunts were implanted in 7 swine cadavers. Mechanical complications were induced in 50% of VP shunts. Low-dose CT (80 kVp, 10 mAs, Pitch = 1.5) and SS were acquired. Dose area product (DAP) and effective doses for SS and LD-CT were collected...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Jung-Ying Chiang, Sung-Tai Wei, Der-Yang Cho
The placement of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is a common procedure of treatment for hydrocephalus. So, postoperative complications are various and the incidence is not rare. But acute onset pneumocranium is very rare. And this is the first case about barotrauma-related pneumomediastinum ascending to cranial cavity leading to the tension pneumocranium. Herein, the authors reported an extremely rare case of shunt-related complication with early onset tension pneumocranium following pneumomediastinum. The authors also discussed the possible mechanism and management method to deal with it...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Nihat Demir, Erdal Peker, İsmail Gülşen, Selami Kocaman, Oğuz Tuncer, Ercan Kırımi
BACKGROUND: The correct timing and technique of neural tube defect (NTD) repairs significantly decreases the morbidity and mortality of NTD cases. However, infections related to the surgery are still common. We investigated the effects of topical rifampicin (RIF) combined with routine prophylaxis in newborns with open NTD. METHODS: Eighty-six patients who had undergone NTD surgery were included in the retrospective study. Thirty patients who started on topical RIF before surgery made up the study group, and 56 cases that were not administered topical RIF made up the control group...
August 6, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Dani O Gonzalez, Justin B Mahida, Lindsey Asti, Erica J Ambeba, Brian Kenney, Lance Governale, Katherine J Deans, Peter C Minneci
BACKGROUND: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement, the mainstay of treatment for hydrocephalus, can place a substantial burden on patients and health care systems because of high complication and revision rates. We aimed to identify factors associated with 30-day VP shunt failure in children undergoing either initial placement or revision. METHODS: VP shunt placements performed on patients in the 2012-2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) Pediatric were identified...
August 5, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Hira Jamal, Gary Abrams
OBJECTIVE: To report a rare cause of cerebrospinal fluid ascites. METHODS: A 37-year-old female with history of intracranial hypertension and a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was referred to liver clinic for evaluation of newly developed ascites. RESULTS: Initially, the cause of ascites was thought to be secondary to a liver etiology. However, this was excluded after a comprehensive evaluation including portal pressure measurements. We determined the ascites to be infected cerebrospinal fluid secondary to a rare commensal organism, Corynebacterium non-Jeikeium, which resolved after removing ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, appropriate antibiotics and conversion to a ventriculo-atrial shunt...
2016: SAGE Open Med Case Rep
Zhe Wang, Hong-Mei Yan, Xiu-Rong Zhou, Jin-Kai Liu, Jian-Yong Chang, Yu-Ting Wang
Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a rare, low-grade glioma that is recognised as a variant of pilocytic astrocytoma. There have been few reports on this pathologic entity presenting with spontaneous haemorrhage. In this study, we report a rare case of PMA in the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region presenting with intratumoural and intraventricular haemorrhage. An external ventricular drain was urgently inserted. A ventriculo-peritoneal shunt (VP) was undergone 4weeks thereafter. The patient received fractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery in another hospital 3weeks after the VP shunt...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Sumera Shaikh Solaiman, Daniel Scott Rifkin, Harish Rao
This case involves a 13-month-old male with Hurler syndrome. Due to oxygen desaturations during sleep, this patient was referred for polysomnography, which revealed severe mixed sleep apnea (apnea hypopnea index [AHI] 72 events/h). Because sleep apnea in patients with Hurler syndrome is frequently attributed to upper airway obstruction, he was referred to otolaryngology. Prior to his evaluation by otolaryngology, he underwent ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement, which had been scheduled due to hydrocephalus on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
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