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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902687/limb-bone-structural-proportions-and-locomotor-behavior-in-a-l-288-1-lucy
#1
Christopher B Ruff, M Loring Burgess, Richard A Ketcham, John Kappelman
While there is broad agreement that early hominins practiced some form of terrestrial bipedality, there is also evidence that arboreal behavior remained a part of the locomotor repertoire in some taxa, and that bipedal locomotion may not have been identical to that of modern humans. It has been difficult to evaluate such evidence, however, because of the possibility that early hominins retained primitive traits (such as relatively long upper limbs) of little contemporaneous adaptive significance. Here we examine bone structural properties of the femur and humerus in the Australopithecus afarensis A...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901359/buprenorphine-transdermal-system-utilization
#2
Laura Wallace, Aditi Kadakia
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate utilization patterns in patients initiating buprenorphine transdermal system (BTDS), CIII, and estimate the proportion decreasing their total opioid dose over time. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used data from the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters Database from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2015. Eligible individuals were adults aged 18-64 years newly dispensed BTDS (index prescription) who had at least six months of insurance coverage prior to (baseline period) and following (study period) the index prescription...
November 30, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894941/one-year-of-abaloparatide-a-selective-peptide-activator-of-the-pth1-receptor-increased-bone-mass-and-strength-in-ovariectomized-rats
#3
Aurore Varela, Luc Chouinard, Elisabeth Lesage, Robert Guldberg, Susan Y Smith, Paul J Kostenuik, Gary Hattersley
Abaloparatide is a novel 34 amino acid peptide selected to be a potent and selective activator of the parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (PTHR1) signaling pathway. The effects of 12months of abaloparatide treatment on bone mass, bone strength and bone quality was assessed in osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats. SD rats were subjected to OVX or sham surgery at 6months of age and left untreated for 3months to allow OVX-induced bone loss. Eighteen OVX rats were sacrificed after this bone depletion period, and the remaining OVX rats received daily s...
November 25, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891193/in-epithelial-cancers-aberrant-col17a1-promoter-methylation-predicts-its-misexpression-and-increased-invasion
#4
Pulari U Thangavelu, Tibor Krenács, Eloise Dray, Pascal H G Duijf
BACKGROUND: Metastasis is a leading cause of death among cancer patients. In the tumor microenvironment, altered levels of extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagens, can facilitate the first steps of cancer cell metastasis, including invasion into surrounding tissue and intravasation into the blood stream. However, the degree of misexpression of collagen genes in tumors remains understudied, even though this knowledge could greatly facilitate the development of cancer treatment options aimed at preventing metastasis...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890121/prevalence-and-risk-factors-associated-with-musculoskeletal-complaints-among-users-of-mobile-handheld-devices-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Yanfei Xie, Grace Szeto, Jie Dai
This systematic review aimed at evaluating the prevalence and risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints associated with mobile handheld device use. Pubmed, Medline, Web of Science, CINAHL and Embase were searched. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed. Strength of evidence for risk factors was determined based on study designs, methodological quality and consistency of results. Five high-quality, eight acceptable-quality and two low-quality peer-reviewed articles were included. This review demonstrates that the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints among mobile device users ranges from 1...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885410/is-osteoporosis-a-predictor-for-future-sarcopenia-or-vice-versa-four-year-observations-between-the-second-and-third-road-study-surveys
#6
N Yoshimura, S Muraki, H Oka, T Iidaka, R Kodama, H Kawaguchi, K Nakamura, S Tanaka, T Akune
: In a 4-year follow-up study that enrolled 1099 subjects aged ≥60 years, sarcopenia prevalence was estimated at 8.2%. Moreover, the presence of osteoporosis was significantly associated with short-term sarcopenia occurrence, but the reciprocal relationship was not observed, suggesting that osteoporosis would increase the risk of osteoporotic fracture and sarcopenia occurrence. INTRODUCTION: The present 4-year follow-up study was performed to clarify the prevalence, incidence, and relationships between sarcopenia (SP) and osteoporosis (OP) in older Japanese men and women...
November 24, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877123/mobility-and-upright-posture-are-associated-with-different-aspects-of-cognition-in-older-adults
#7
Rajal G Cohen, Anita N Vasavada, Michelle M Wiest, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe
Objectives: Aging is associated with cognitive decline, including visuomotor and memory concerns, and with motor system changes, including gait slowing and stooped posture. We investigated the associations of visuomotor performance and episodic memory with motor system characteristics in healthy older adults. Methods: Neurologically healthy older adults (N = 160, aged 50-89) completed a battery of cognitive and motor tasks. Cognitive variables were grouped by principal components analysis (PCA) into two components: visuomotor performance and verbal episodic memory...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875280/malnutrition-identified-by-the-academy-of-nutrition-and-dietetics-and-american-society-for-parenteral-and-enteral-nutrition-consensus-criteria-and-other-bedside-tools-is-highly-prevalent-in-a-sample-of-individuals-undergoing-treatment-for-head-and-neck-cancer
#8
Urvashi Mulasi, David M Vock, Adam J Kuchnia, Gautam Jha, Naomi Fujioka, Venkatesh Rudrapatna, Manish R Patel, Levi Teigen, Carrie P Earthman
BACKGROUND: Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (Academy/ASPEN) Consensus malnutrition definition, we estimated malnutrition prevalence in a sample of individuals with head and neck cancer (HNC) and compared it with the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). We also investigated the utility of the 50-kHz phase angle (PA) and 200-kHz/5-kHz impedance ratio (IR) to identify malnutrition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen individuals (18 males, 1 female) scheduled to undergo chemoradiotherapy were seen at 5 time points during and up to 3 months after treatment completion...
October 7, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865001/romosozumab-improves-bone-mass-and-strength-while-maintaining-bone-quality-in-ovariectomized-cynomolgus-monkeys
#9
Michael S Ominsky, Steven K Boyd, Aurore Varela, Jacquelin Jolette, Melanie Felx, Nancy Doyle, Nacera Mellal, Susan Y Smith, Kathrin Locher, Sabina Buntich, Ian Pyrah, Rogely W Boyce
Romosozumab (Romo), a humanized sclerostin antibody, is a bone-forming agent under development for treatment of osteoporosis. To examine the effects of Romo on bone quality, mature cynomolgus monkeys (cynos) were treated 4 months post-ovariectomy (OVX) with vehicle, 3, or 30 mg/kg Romo for 12 months, or with 30 mg/kg Romo for 6 months followed by vehicle for 6 months (30/0). Serum bone formation markers were increased by Romo during the first 6 months, corresponding to increased cancellous, endocortical, and periosteal bone formation in rib and iliac biopsies at months 3 and 6...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864963/chronic-alcohol-abuse-leads-to-low-bone-mass-with-no-general-loss-of-bone-structure-or-bone-mechanical-strength
#10
Maiken Parm Ulhøi, Karoline Meldgaard, Torben Steiniche, Anders Odgaard, Annie Vesterby
: Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), compression testing, ashing, and bone histomorphometry were performed. Individuals with CAA had significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the femoral neck and significantly lower bone volume demonstrated by thinner trabeculae, decreased extent of osteoid surfaces, and lower mean wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863379/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-identifies-two-novel-mutations-in-sepn1-in-rigid-spine-muscular-dystrophy-1
#11
Yi Dai, Shengran Liang, Yan Huang, Lin Chen, Santasree Banerjee
Rigid spine muscular dystrophy 1 (RSMD1) is a neuromuscular disorder, manifested with poor axial muscle strength, scoliosis and neck weakness, and a variable degree of spinal rigidity with an early ventilatory insufficiency which can lead to death by respiratory failure. Mutations of SEPN1 gene are associated with autosomal recessive RSMD1. Here, we present a clinical molecular study of a Chinese proband with RSMD1. The proband is a 17 years old male, showing difficulty in feeding, delayed motor response, problem in running with frequent fall down, early onset respiratory insufficiency, general muscle weakness and rigid cervical spine...
November 14, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862223/effects-of-hip-implant-modular-neck-material-and-assembly-method-on-fatigue-life-and-distraction-force
#12
Fahad Aljenaei, Isabelle Catelas, Hakim Louati, Paul E Beaulé, Michel Nganbe
There is an urgent clinical need to develop accurate in vitro test procedures to better understand, predict and prevent in vivo implant failures. This study aimed to simulate in vivo fatigue fracture and distraction of modular necks in an in vitro setting, and to assess the effects of neck material (Ti6Al4V vs. CoCrMo) and assembly method (hand vs. impact) on implant failure. Fatigue tests were performed on the PROFEMUR® Modular Neck System under two different loads and number of cycles: 2.3 kN for 5 million cycles, and 7...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860368/in-vitro-and-biomechanical-screening-of-polyethylene-glycol-and-poly-trimethylene-carbonate-block-copolymers-for-annulus-fibrosus-repair
#13
Rose G Long, Stijn G Rotman, Warren W Hom, Dylan J Assael, Dirk W Grijpma, James C Iatridis
Herniated intervertebral discs are a common cause of back and neck pain. There is an unmet clinical need to seal annulus fibrosus (AF) defects, since discectomy surgeries address acute pain but are complicated by reherniation and recurrent pain. Copolymers of polyethylene glycol with trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and hexamathylene diisocyanate end-groups were formulated as AF sealants since the hexamathylene diisocyanate form covalent bonds with native AF tissue. TMC adhesives were evaluated and optimized using the design criteria: stable size, strong adherence to AF tissue, high cytocompatibility, restoration of intervertebral disc biomechanics to intact levels following in situ repair, and low extrusion risk...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836071/the-treatment-of-neck-pain-associated-disorders-and-whiplash-associated-disorders-a-clinical-practice-guideline
#14
André E Bussières, Gregory Stewart, Fadi Al-Zoubi, Philip Decina, Martin Descarreaux, Jill Hayden, Brenda Hendrickson, Cesar Hincapié, Isabelle Pagé, Steven Passmore, John Srbely, Maja Stupar, Joel Weisberg, Joseph Ornelas
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to develop a clinical practice guideline on the management of neck pain-associated disorders (NADs) and whiplash-associated disorders (WADs). This guideline replaces 2 prior chiropractic guidelines on NADs and WADs. METHODS: Pertinent systematic reviews on 6 topic areas (education, multimodal care, exercise, work disability, manual therapy, passive modalities) were assessed using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) and data extracted from admissible randomized controlled trials...
October 2016: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834549/differential-strength-and-endurance-parameters-of-the-craniocervical-and-cervicothoracic-extensors-and-flexors-in-healthy-individuals
#15
Shaun O Leary, Charlotte Loraas Fagermoen, Hiroyuki Hasegawa, Ann-Sofi Slettevold Thorsen, Luke Van Wyk
This study examined isometric strength (maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)) and endurance of cervical flexor and extensor muscles in healthy individuals at the craniocervical (CC) and cervicothoracic (CT) axes. MVC and endurance measures (time to task failure in seconds (s)) at 50% MVC were recorded in 4 directions (CC flexion, CC extension, CT flexion and CT extension) in 20 males and 20 females and six strength and endurance ratios were calculated. The findings showed that the cervical extensor muscles are not only much stronger than the flexors (1...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814848/respiratory-dysfunction-in-patients-with-chronic-neck-pain-what-is-the-current-evidence
#16
Zacharias Dimitriadis, Eleni Kapreli, Nikolaos Strimpakos, Jacqueline Oldham
Respiratory function of patients with neck pain has not been given much consideration in usual clinical practice. The problem has however been highlighted occasionally by renown clinical scientists and recently there is a growing interest in the investigation of respiratory function in this clinical population. The aim of this review is to critically present the emerging evidence and discuss the similarities and differences observed. Although the evidence for some respiratory parameters is conflicting, it seems to be generally agreed that others such as maximal voluntary ventilation, strength of respiratory muscles, chest mechanics and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide are affected in patients with chronic neck pain...
October 2016: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813206/castration-alters-the-number-and-structure-of-dendritic-spines-in-the-male-posterodorsal-medial-amygdala
#17
Mariana Zancan, Aline Dall'Oglio, Edson Quagliotto, Alberto A Rasia-Filho
The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is responsive to androgens and participates in the integration of olfactory/vomeronasal stimuli for the display of sexual behavior in rats. Adult gonadectomy (GDX) affects the MePD structural integrity at the same time that impairs male mating behavior. At the cellular level, dendritic spines modulate excitatory synaptic transmission, strength, and plasticity. Here, we describe the effect of GDX on the number and shape of dendritic spines in the right and left MePD using confocal microscopy and 3D image reconstruction...
November 4, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805281/moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity-but-not-sedentary-time-is-associated-with-musculoskeletal-health-outcomes-in-a-cohort-of-australian-middle-aged-women
#18
Feitong Wu, Karen Wills, Laura L Laslett, Brian Oldenburg, Graeme Jones, Tania Winzenberg
Associations between physical activity and time spent sedentary and musculoskeletal outcomes remain unclear in middle-aged adults. This study aimed to describe associations between objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary time and musculoskeletal health outcomes in middle-aged women. This cross-sectional study from a population-based sample of 309 women (aged 36-57 years) examined associations of total physical activity (accelerometer counts/minute of wear time), and time spent sedentary, in light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (MVPA) (by Actigraph GT1M accelerometer) with lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) bone mineral density (BMD) (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), lower limb muscle strength (LMS) and functional mobility and balance tests (timed up and go test (TUG), functional reach test (FRT), lateral reach test (LRT) and step test (ST)) using linear regression...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802093/prepubertal-impact-of-protein-intake-and-physical-activity-on-weight-bearing-peak-bone-mass-and-strength-in-males
#19
Thierry Chevalley, Jean-Philippe Bonjour, Marie-Claude Audet, Fanny Merminod, Bert van Rietbergen, Rene Rizzoli, Serge Ferrari
CONTEXT: Peak bone mass (PBM) and strength are important determinants of fragility fracture risk in later life. During growth bone is responsive to changes in nutrition and physical activity (PA), particularly when occuring before pubertal maturation. OBJECTIVE: In prepubertal healthy boys, protein intake (Prot-Int) enhances the impact of PA on weight-bearing bone. We hypothesized that the synergism between Prot-Int and PA on proximal femur as recorded at mean age of 7...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800460/metacarpal-neck-fractures-a-review-of-surgical-indications-and-techniques
#20
REVIEW
Eric M Padegimas, William J Warrender, Christopher M Jones, Asif M Ilyas
CONTEXT: Hand injuries are a common emergency department presentation. Metacarpal fractures account for 40% of all hand fractures and can be seen in the setting of low or high energy trauma. The most common injury pattern is a metacarpal neck fracture. In this study, the authors aim to review the surgical indications for metacarpal neck fractures, the fixation options available along with the risk and benefits of each. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Literature review of the different treatment modalities for metacarpal neck fractures...
September 2016: Archives of Trauma Research
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