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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927253/comparative-aspects-of-microrna-expression-in-canine-and-human-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Kabiru Sahabi, Gayathri Thevi Selvarajah, Rasedee Abdullah, Cheah Yoke Kqueen, Tan Geok Chin
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important players in all biological pathways in multicellular organisms. Over 1,400 human miRNAs have been identified, and many are conserved among vertebrates and invertebrates. MicroRNA regulation is the most abundant mode of post-transcriptional gene regulation. MicroRNAs that are involved in the initiation and progression of cancers are termed oncomiRs, several of which have been identified in canine and human cancer. Similarly, several miRNAs have been reported to be down-regulated in cancers of the two species...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927233/fibroblast-growth-factor-2-mediated-fgfr-erk-signaling-supports-maintenance-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#2
Osamu Maehara, Goki Suda, Mitsuteru Natsuizaka, Shunsuke Ohnishi, Yoshito Komatsu, Fumiyuki Sato, Masato Nakai, Takuya Sho, Kenichi Morikawa, Koji Ogawa, Tomoe Shimazaki, Megumi Kimura, Ayaka Asano, Yoshiyuki Fujimoto, Shinya Ohashi, Shingo Kagawa, Hideaki Kinugasa, Seiji Naganuma, Kelly A Whelan, Hiroshi Nakagawa, Koji Nakagawa, Hiroshi Takeda, Naoya Sakamoto
In esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), a subset of cells defined by high expression of CD44 and low expression of CD24 has been reported to possess characteristics of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). Novel therapies directly targeting CSCs have the potential to improve prognosis of ESCC patients. Although fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression correlates with recurrence and poor survival in ESCC patients, the role of FGF-2 in regulation of ESCC CSCs has yet to be elucidated. We report that FGF-2 is significantly upregulated in CSCs and significantly increases CSC content in ESCC cell lines by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
September 13, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927202/role-of-molecular-biomarkers-in-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-diseases-in-children
#3
Anna R Huppler, Brian T Fisher, Thomas Lehrnbecher, Thomas J Walsh, William J Steinbach
Invasive fungal diseases are important clinical problems that are often complicated by severe illness and therefore the inability to use invasive measures to definitively diagnose the disease. Tests for a range of fungal biomarkers that do not require an invasive sample-collection procedure have been incorporated into adult clinical practice, but pediatric data and pediatric-specific recommendations for some of these diagnostic tools are lacking. In this review, we summarize the published literature and contemporary strategies for using the biomarkers galactomannan, (1→3)-β-d-glucan, Candida mannan antigen and anti-mannan antibody, and fungal polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing invasive fungal disease in children...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927200/epidemiology-of-invasive-fungal-disease-in-children
#4
Zoi Dorothea Pana, Emmanuel Roilides, Adilia Warris, Andreas H Groll, Theoklis Zaoutis
Considerable progress has been made in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of pediatric patients with invasive fungal disease (IFD). The reported decreasing trend in the incidence of invasive candidiasis (IC) over the past 15 years in both neonates and children has been encouraging. Nevertheless, due to the growing number of immunocompromised children at risk for IFD, this disease continues to be associated with significant morbidity and death and with increased financial burden to the health care system...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927150/upfront-high-dose-chemotherapy-combined-with-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-potential-survival-benefit-for-patients-with-high-risk-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#5
Aya Nakaya, Shinya Fujita, Atsushi Satake, Takahisa Nakanishi, Yoshiko Azuma, Yukie Tsubokura, Masaaki Hotta, Hideaki Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi Ishii, Tomoki Ito, Shosaku Nomura
In patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) classified as high-intermediate risk or high risk using the International Prognosis Index, the efficacy of high-dose chemotherapy combined with upfront autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT/ASCT) remains controversial in the rituximab era. In the present study, 27 patients who had been treated with HDT/ASCT in an upfront setting were retrospectively analyzed, and compared with 77 patients with similar characteristics who had received conventional chemotherapy without HDT/ASCT (the non-upfront setting)...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927137/atypical-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-with-isochromosome-x-p10-a-case-report
#6
Masahide Yamamoto, Sayaka Suzuki, Jun-Ichi Mukae, Keisuke Tanaka, Ken Watanabe, Gaku Oshikawa, Tetsuya Fukuda, Naomi Murakami, Osamu Miura
Atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML) is a rare subtype of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN). Although recurrent chromosomal and genetic abnormalities are frequently observed in aCML, none are specific to this type of leukemia. The present study reported a case of aCML associated with i(X)(p10), a rare recurrent chromosomal abnormality of hematological malignancy. A 40-year-old female was referred to the Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital (Tokyo, Japan) due to slight leukocytosis and anemia...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927110/characteristics-of-primary-side-population-cervical-cancer-cells
#7
Zhen-Tong Wei, Xiao-Wei Yu, Jia-Xue He, Yan Liu, Song-Ling Zhang
The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize side population (SP) cells in primary cervical cancer. A primary culture was successfully established, and the SP cells were isolated via fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Subsequently, in vitro analysis of clonogenic capacity by soft agar assay and in vivo analysis of tumorigenicity were performed. The isolated SP cells accounted for ~4.73% of the total primary culture cells. The SP cells had a decreased proliferation rate and an increased distribution in G0/G1 compared with non-SP (NSP) cells...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927099/interleukin-6-identified-as-an-important-factor-in-hypoxia-and-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-based-gefitinib-adaptive-resistance-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#8
Shi-Min An, Hui-Min Lei, Xu-Ping Ding, Fan Sun, Chun Zhang, Ya-Bin Tang, Hong-Zhuan Chen, Ying Shen, Liang Zhu
Gefitinib resistance and relapse of the disease were the greatest challenges facing clinical therapy of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Of note, regarding the hypoxia condition in solid tumor tissues in vivo, roles of hypoxia in gefitinib adaptive resistance and its association with lung cancer stem cells (LCSCs) have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the role of hypoxia in gefitinib adaptive resistance and its association with aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-based LCSC gefitinib resistance were comparatively studied using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technology...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927075/tumor-initiating-cells-contribute-to-radiation-resistance-in-primary-human-renal-clear-cell-carcinomas-by-activating-the-dna-damage-checkpoint-response
#9
Bo Li, Yong-Ju Gao, Xin-Yu Wu, Jing Cui, Ye Long, Jun-Ling Xu, De-Gang Ding
The use of radiotherapy in patients with clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC) is predominantly limited to palliation of metastases or control of local growth, because ccRCC cells readily develop radioresistance. The mechanisms underlying ccRCC resistance remain elusive. The present study demonstrated that ccRCC cells that survive fractionated radiation treatment display tumor-initiating cell (TIC) characteristics, such as high self-renewal and tumorigenic capacities, and overexpress stemness genes. ccRCC cells that survived fractionated radiation exhibited increased activation of the DNA damage checkpoint response and G2/M phase arrest compared with sham-irradiated cells...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927044/isolation-and-characterization-of-adult-mammary-stem-cells-from-breast-cancer-adjacent-tissues
#10
Ai-Ping Shi, Zhi-Min Fan, Ke-Wei Ma, Yan-Fang Jiang, Lei Wang, Ke-Wei Zhang, Shi-Bo Fu, Ning Xu, Zhi-Ru Zhang
Normal adult mammary stem cells (AMSCs) are promising sources for breast reconstruction, particularly following the resection of breast tumors. However, carcinogenic events can potentially convert normal AMSCs to cancer stem cells, posing a safety concern for the use of AMSCs for clinical tissue regeneration. In the present study, AMSCs and autologous primary breast cancer cells were isolated and compared for their ability to differentiate, their gene expression profile, and their potential to form tumors in vivo...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926956/carbonic-anhydrase-inhibition-and-the-management-of-hypoxic-tumors
#11
REVIEW
Claudiu T Supuran
Hypoxia and acidosis are salient features of many tumors, leading to a completely different metabolism compared to normal cells. Two of the simplest metabolic products, protons and bicarbonate, are generated by the catalytic activity of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1), with at least two of its isoforms, CA IX and XII, mainly present in hypoxic tumors. Inhibition of tumor-associated CAs leads to an impaired growth of the primary tumors, metastases and reduces the population of cancer stem cells, leading thus to a complex and beneficial anticancer action for this class of enzyme inhibitors...
September 16, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926866/expression-of-imprinted-genes-kcnq1-and-cdkn1c-during-the-course-of-differentiation-from-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-into-islet-like-cells-in-vitro
#12
Feng Liu, Peng Yu-Huan, Li Qiang, Liu Chanchan
To study the effects of inducement on the expression of mouse embryonic stem cells SF1-G imprinted genes, Kcnq1 and Cdkn1c during the course of differentiation into islet-like cells in vitro. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were isolated from pregnant mice embryos and fibroblast feeder cells were prepared by treating 3-5th generations MEFs with Mitomycin C. Moreover, mouse embryonic stem cells were induced to differentiate into islet-like cells directly. RT-PCR and Immunofluorescence staining were used to test the expression of islet cell-specific markers...
September 19, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926760/laminin-%C3%AE-5-substrates-promote-survival-network-formation-and-functional-development-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neurons-in-vitro
#13
Anu Hyysalo, Mervi Ristola, Meeri E-L Mäkinen, Sergei Häyrynen, Matti Nykter, Susanna Narkilahti
Laminins are one of the major protein groups in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and specific laminin isoforms are crucial for neuronal functions in the central nervous system in vivo. In the present study, we compared recombinant human laminin isoforms (LN211, LN332, LN411, LN511, and LN521) and laminin isoform fragment (LN511-E8) in in vitro cultures of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neurons. We showed that laminin substrates containing the α5-chain are important for neuronal attachment, viability and network formation, as detected by phase contrast imaging, viability staining, and immunocytochemistry...
September 12, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926719/exosomes-derived-from-embryonic-stem-cells-inhibit-doxorubicin-and-inflammation-induced-pyroptosis-in-muscle-cells
#14
Zahra Tavakoli Dargani, Reetu Singla, Taylor Johnson, Rakesh C Kukreja, Dinender Kumar Singla
Doxorubicin (Dox) is an effective anticancer drug. Unfortunately, it causes cardio and muscle toxicity due to increased oxidative stress and inflammation; however, it remains unknown whether Dox induces "pyroptosis"- an inflammation mediated cell death. We investigated whether Dox induces pyroptosis in mouse soleus muscle (Sol 8) cells in vitro and to show the protective effect of embryonic stem cells-exosomes (ES-exos) on pyroptosis. Doxorubicin and inflammation induced in vitro model was generated. Pyroptosis was confirmed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting of putative markers caspase-1, IL1β and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18...
September 19, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926533/erratum-lineage-specification-of-human-dendritic-cells-is-marked-by-irf8-expression-in-hematopoietic-stem-cells-and-multipotent-progenitors
#15
Jaeyop Lee, Yu Jerry Zhou, Wenji Ma, Wanwei Zhang, Arafat Aljoufi, Thomas Luh, Kimberly Lucero, Deguang Liang, Matthew Thomsen, Govind Bhagat, Yufeng Shen, Kang Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926502/limbal-cysts-a-subset-exhibiting-cornea-specific-cytokeratins
#16
Norman C Charles, Frederick A Jakobiec, Fouad R Zakka, Ilyse D Haberman, Kishore Reddy Katikireddy, Ula V Jurkunas
Two cases of limbal cysts lined by nonkeratinizing epithelium were studied with a panel of cytokeratins. One was a long-standing lesion in a 30-year-old man, whereas the other was excised from a 40-year-old man following pterygium surgery. Each cyst was immunostained with a panel of cytokeratins that were specific exclusively and separately for corneal and conjunctival epithelia. The epithelial lining of each cyst was CK12 positive for corneal epithelium and CK13 negative for conjunctival epithelium. It is hypothesized that a subset of corneoscleral cysts contain corneal epithelium, probably derived from a type of limbal stem cell differentiation...
September 13, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926288/effect-of-inpatient-palliative-care-during-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-on-psychological-distress-6-months-after-transplant-results-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#17
Areej El-Jawahri, Lara Traeger, Joseph A Greer, Harry VanDusen, Sarah R Fishman, Thomas W LeBlanc, William F Pirl, Vicki A Jackson, Jason Telles, Alison Rhodes, Zhigang Li, Thomas R Spitzer, Steven McAfee, Yi-Bin A Chen, Jennifer S Temel
Purpose Inpatient palliative care integrated with transplant care improves patients' quality of life (QOL) and symptom burden during hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HCT). We assessed patients' mood, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and QOL 6 months post-transplant. Methods We randomly assigned 160 patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent autologous or allogeneic HCT to inpatient palliative care integrated with transplant care (n = 81) or transplant care alone (n = 79). At baseline and 6 months post-transplant, we assessed mood, PTSD symptoms, and QOL with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire, PTSD checklist, and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926145/a-crispr-reimagining-new-twists-and-turns-of-crispr-beyond-the-genome-engineering-revolution
#18
Robert J Plummer, Yi Guo, Ying Peng
Despite its explosive applications in genome engineering, CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspersed Short Palindromic Repeats) has been developed into a versatile tool beyond its well-known nuclease function. In this prospect article, we summarize a few exciting "off-label" applications of CRISPR including manipulating DNA sequences, visualizing chromosomal loci in living cells, and modulating transcription and chromatin structures. These novel applications will likely elevate CRISPR tools into yet another level of sophistication and diversity, leading to many more exciting cell biological discoveries...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926122/stem-cells-and-differentiated-cells-differ-in-their-sensitivity-to-urine-in-vitro
#19
Marta Pokrywczyńska, Tomasz Kloskowski, Daria Balcerczyk, Monika Buhl, Arkadiusz Jundziłł, Maciej Nowacki, Kaja Męcińska-Jundziłł, Tomasz Drewa
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract regeneration using tissue engineering is one of the most challenging issues in the field of reconstructive urology. Cells seeded on scaffold are exposed to urine immediately after the implantation. The outcome of urinary bladder regeneration is depended on the ability of these cells to survive, proliferate and regenerate. The aim of this study was to compare a sensitivity of three different cell lines to urine in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three different cell lines were isolated from porcine bladder (urothelial cells, UCs and smooth muscle cells, SMCs) and adipose tissue (adipose-derived stem cells, ADSCs)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926118/chop-induced-loss-of-intestinal-epithelial-stemness-contributes-to-bile-duct-ligation-induced-cholestatic-liver-injury
#20
Runping Liu, Xiaojiaoyang Li, Zhiming Huang, Derrick Zhao, Bhagyalaxmi Sukka Ganesh, Guanhua Lai, William M Pandak, Phillip B Hylemon, Jasmohan S Bajaj, Arun J Sanyal, Huiping Zhou
Impaired intestinal barrier function promotes the progression of various liver diseases including cholestatic liver disease. The close association of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) with inflammatory bowel disease highlights the importance of the gut-liver axis. It has been reported that bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced liver fibrosis is significantly reduced in C/EBP homologous protein knock out (CHOP(-/-) ) mice. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we demonstrate that BDL induces striking and acute hepatic ER stress responses after 1 day, which return to normal after 3 days...
September 19, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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