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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637335/astrocyte-produced-mir-146a-as-a-mediator-of-motor-neuron-loss-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#1
Samantha L Sison, Teresa N Patitucci, Emily R Seminary, Eric Villalon, Christian L Lorson, Allison D Ebert
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the leading genetic cause of infant mortality, is caused by loss of the survival motor neuron-1 (SMN1) gene, which leads to motor neuron loss, muscle atrophy, respiratory distress, and death. Motor neurons exhibit the most profound loss, but the mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis are not fully understood. Recent evidence suggests that motor neuron extrinsic influences, such as those arising from astrocytes, contribute to motor neuron malfunction and loss. Here we investigated both loss-of-function and toxic gain-of-function astrocyte mechanisms that could play a role in SMA pathology...
June 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637240/tfeb-activation-restores-migration-ability-to-tsc1-deficient-adult-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#2
Alessandro Magini, Alice Polchi, Danila Di Meo, Giuseppina Mariucci, Krizia Sagini, Federico De Marco, Tommaso Cassano, Stefano Giovagnoli, Diego Dolcetta, Carla Emiliani
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by mutations in either of two genes, TSC1 or TSC2, resulting in the constitutive activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). mTOR inhibitors are now considered the treatment of choice for TSC disease. A major pathological feature of TSC is the development of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) in the brain. Nowadays, it is thought that SEGAs could be a consequence of aberrant aggregation and migration of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs)...
June 14, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637178/the-at04a-vaccine-against-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-reduces-total-cholesterol-vascular-inflammation-and-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-3leiden-cetp-mice
#3
Christine Landlinger, Marianne G Pouwer, Claudia Juno, José W A van der Hoorn, Elsbet J Pieterman, J Wouter Jukema, Guenther Staffler, Hans M G Princen, Gergana Galabova
Aims: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis. PCSK9 binds to the low density lipoprotein receptor and enhances its degradation, which leads to the reduced clearance of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) and a higher risk of atherosclerosis. In this study, the AT04A anti-PCSK9 vaccine was evaluated for its therapeutic potential in ameliorating or even preventing coronary heart disease in the atherogenic APOE*3Leiden...
June 19, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637014/a-combination-of-valproic-acid-sodium-salt-chir99021-e-616452-tranylcypromine-and-3-deazaneplanocin-a-causes-stem-cell-like-characteristics-in-cancer-cells
#4
Shuang Sha, Yuanfen Zhai, Chengzhao Lin, Heyong Wang, Qing Chang, Shuang Song, Mingqiang Ren, Gentao Liu
Many studies are based on the hypothesis that recurrence and drug resistance in lung carcinoma are due to a subpopulation of cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) in solid tumors. Therefore it is crucial to screen for and recognize lung CSLCs. In this study, we stimulated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells to display stem cell-like characteristics using a combination of five small molecule compounds. The putative A549 stem cells activated an important CSLC marker, CD133 protein, as well multiple CSLC-related genes including ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2), C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), NESTIN, and BMI1...
June 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636974/sema3a-partially-reverses-vegf-effects-through-binding-to-neuropilin-1
#5
Bruna Palodetto, Adriana da Silva Santos Duarte, Matheus Rodrigues Lopes, Flavia Adolfo Corrocher, Fernanda Marconi Roversi, Fernanda Soares Niemann, Karla Priscila Vieira Ferro, Ana Leda Figueiredo Longhini, Paula Melo Campos, Patricia Favaro, Sara Teresinha Olalla Saad
Cross-talk between hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is essential for HSCs regulation and leukemogenesis. Studying bone marrow of myelodysplasia patients, a pre-leukemic condition, we found mRNA overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in CD34(+) HSCs and semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) in BMSCs. To better understand the role of VEGFA and SEMA3A in leukemogenesis, we recruited 30 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients, 29 acute myeloid leukemia (6 secondary to MDS) patients and 12 controls...
June 3, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636968/t-regulating-hair-follicle-stem-cells
#6
Maria Maryanovich, Paul S Frenette
Regulatory T (Treg) cells are well known to modulate inflammatory responses. In a recent issue of Cell, Ali et al. (2017) reveal a function for Treg cells in stem cell maintenance by showing that skin-resident Foxp3(+) Treg cells preferentially localize to the hair follicle stem cell (HFSC) niche to control HFSC-mediated hair regeneration.
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636920/nanog-fluctuations-in-embryonic-stem-cells-highlight-the-problem-of-measurement-in-cell-biology
#7
Rosanna C G Smith, Patrick S Stumpf, Sonya J Ridden, Aaron Sim, Sarah Filippi, Heather A Harrington, Ben D MacArthur
A number of important pluripotency regulators, including the transcription factor Nanog, are observed to fluctuate stochastically in individual embryonic stem cells. By transiently priming cells for commitment to different lineages, these fluctuations are thought to be important to the maintenance of, and exit from, pluripotency. However, because temporal changes in intracellular protein abundances cannot be measured directly in live cells, fluctuations are typically assessed using genetically engineered reporter cell lines that produce a fluorescent signal as a proxy for protein expression...
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636901/the-effect-of-cd34-cell-telomere-length-and-htert-expression-on-the-outcome-of-autologous-cd34-cell-transplantation-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#8
Jasmina-Ziva Rozman, Maja Pohar Perme, Mojca Jez, Elvira Malicev, Metka Krasna, Srdjan Novakovic, Bojan Vrtovec, Primoz Rozman
Age-related telomere attrition in stem/progenitor cells may diminish their functional capacity and thereby impair the outcome of cell-based therapies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of CD34(+) cell telomere length and hTERT expression on the clinical outcome of autologous CD34(+) cell transplantation. We studied 43 patients with cardiomyopathy. Their peripheral blood CD34(+) cells were mobilized with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, enriched by immunoselection and delivered transendocardially...
June 18, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636891/comparison-of-cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone-to-bortezomib-cyclophosphamide-dexamethasone-as-induction-therapy-for-multiple-myeloma-patients-in-brazil
#9
Suelen Vigolo, Joice Zuckermann, Rosane Isabel Bittencourt, Lúcia Silla, Diogo André Pilger
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the standard treatment for multiple myeloma (MM). Thalidomide or bortezomib may be combined with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone, in what are known as the CTD and VCD protocols, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and response rates obtained with CTD and VCD, observing whether the inclusion of bortezomib to treat MM patients in Brazil increases therapeutic efficiency...
June 15, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636890/memory-t-cells-a-helpful-guard-for-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-without-causing-graft-versus-host-disease
#10
REVIEW
Wei Huang, Nelson J Chao
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) and the major cause of nonrelapse morbidity and mortality of AHSCT. In AHSCT, donor T cells facilitate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment, contribute to anti-infection immunity, and mediate graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) responses. However, activated alloreactive T cells also attack recipient cells in vital organs, leading to GVHD. Different T-cell subsets, including naïve T (TN) cells, memory T (TM) cells, and regulatory T (Treg) cells mediate different forms of GVHD and GVL; TN cells mediate severe GVHD, whereas TM cells do not cause GVHD, but preserve T-cell function including GVL...
June 13, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636889/complications-of-hematopoietic-stem-transplantation-fungal-infections
#11
REVIEW
Ali S Omrani, Reem S Almaghrabi
Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at increased risk of invasive fungal infections, especially during the early neutropenic phase and severe graft-versus-host disease. Mold-active prophylaxis should be limited to the highest risk groups. Empiric antifungal therapy for HSCT with persistent febrile neutropenia is associated with unacceptable response rates, unnecessary antifungal therapy, increased risk of toxicity, and inflated costs. Empiric therapy should not be a substitute for detailed work up to identify the cause of fever in such patients...
June 13, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636551/neuroblastoma-stem-cells-and-cfc1
#12
Shoma Tsubota, Kenji Kadomatsu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636549/p53-independent-p21-induction-by-melk-inhibition
#13
Tatsuo Matsuda, Taigo Kato, Kazuma Kiyotani, Yunus Emre Tarhan, Vassiliki Saloura, Suyoun Chung, Koji Ueda, Yusuke Nakamura, Jae-Hyun Park
MELK play critical roles in human carcinogenesis through activation of cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis and maintenance of stemness. Therefore, MELK is a promising therapeutic target for a wide range of cancers. Although p21 is a well-known p53-downstream gene, we found that treatment with a potent MELK inhibitor, OTS167, could induce p21 protein expression in cancer cell lines harboring loss-of-function TP53 mutations. We also confirmed that MELK knockdown by siRNA induced the p21 expression in p53-deficient cancer cell lines and caused the cell cycle arrest at G1 phase...
June 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636406/protective-effect-of-intravitreal-administration-of-exosomes-derived-from-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-retinal-ischemia
#14
Elad Moisseiev, Johnathon D Anderson, Sharon Oltjen, Mayank Goswami, Robert J Zawadzki, Jan A Nolta, Susanna S Park
PURPOSE: Exosomes derived from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured under hypoxic conditions contain proteins and growth factors that promote angiogenesis. This study investigated the effect of intravitreal administration of these exosomes on retinal ischemia using a murine model. METHODS: Oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) was induced by exposing one-week-old male C57BL/6J mice to 5 days of 75% hyperoxic conditioning, and returning to room air. After hyperoxic conditioning, the right eye of each mouse was injected intravitreally with 1 µl saline or exosomes derived from hMSCs and compared to control mice of the same age raised in room air without OIR injected intravitreally with saline...
June 21, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636315/fabrication-of-hierarchical-macroporous-biocompatible-scaffolds-by-combining-pickering-high-internal-phase-emulsion-templates-with-three-dimensional-printing
#15
Ting Yang, Yang Hu, Chaoyang Wang, Bernard P Binks
Biocompatible and biodegradable porous scaffolds with adjustable pore structure have aroused increasing interest in bone tissue engineering. Here, we report a facile method to fabricate hierarchical macroporous biocompatible (HmPB) scaffolds by combining Pickering high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templates with three-dimensional (3D) printing. HmPB scaffolds composed of a polymer matrix of poly(L-lactic acid), PLLA, and poly(ε-caprolactone), PCL, are readily fabricated by solvent evaporation of 3D printed Pickering HIPEs which are stabilized by hydrophobically modified silica nanoparticles (h-SiO2)...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636277/esrrb-plays-a-crucial-role-in-the-promotion-of-porcine-cell-reprogramming
#16
Fan Yang, Yahui Ren, Huan Li Huayan Wang
The estrogen-related receptor b (ESRRB) is an orphan nuclear receptor and targets many genes involved in self-renewal and pluripotency. In mouse ES cells, overexpression of ESRRB can maintain LIF-independent self-renewal in the absence of Nanog. However, the fundamental features of porcine ESRRB remain elusive. In this study, we revealed the expression profiles of ESRRB in both porcine pluripotent stem cells and early stage embryos and dissected the functional domains of ESRRB protein to prove that ESRRB is a key transcription factor that enhanced porcine pluripotent gene activation...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636235/stem-cell-based-tooth-and-periodontal-regeneration
#17
Lei Hu, Yi Liu, Songlin Wang
Currently regeneration of tooth and periodontal damage still remains great challenge. Stem cell-based tissue engineering raised novel therapeutic strategies for tooth and periodontal repair. Stem cells for tooth and periodontal regeneration include dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), stem cells from the dental apical papilla (SCAPs), and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs), dental epithelial stem cells (DESCs), bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
June 21, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636206/retinal-vascular-injuries-and-intravitreal-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-haemangioblasts
#18
Jin-Da Wang, Ying An, Jing-Shang Zhang, Xiu-Hua Wan, Wei Zhang, Robert Lanza, Shi-Jiang Lu, Jost B Jonas, Liang Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether intravitreally applied haemangioblasts (HB) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are helpful for the repair of vascular damage caused in animals by an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), by an induced diabetic retinopathy (DR) or by an induced retinal ischaemia with subsequent reperfusion. METHODS: Human embryonic stem cell-derived HBs were transplanted intravitreally into C57BL/6J mice (OIR model), into male Wistar rats with an induced DR and into male Wistar rats undergoing induced retinal ischaemia with subsequent reperfusion...
June 21, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636192/intestinal-barrier-integrity-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-stem-cell-based-approaches-to-regenerate-the-barrier
#19
REVIEW
Fredrik E O Holmberg, Jannie Pedersen, Peter Jørgensen, Christoffer Soendergaard, Kim B Jensen, Ole H Nielsen
Disruption of normal barrier function is a fundamental factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, which includes increased epithelial cell death, modified mucus configuration, altered expression and distribution of tight junction-proteins, along with a decreased expression of antimicrobial peptides. Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with life-long morbidity for affected patients, and both the incidence and prevalence is increasing globally, resulting in substantial economic strain for society...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636114/set-i2pp2a-overexpression-induces-phenotypic-molecular-and-metabolic-alterations-in-an-oral-keratinocyte-cell-line
#20
Lays M Sobral, Ricardo D Coletta, Luciane C Alberici, Carlos Curti, Andréia Machado Leopoldino
The multifunctional SET/I2PP2A protein is known to be overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, SET has been reported to have apparently conflicting roles in promoting cancer cell survival under oxidative stress conditions and preventing invasion and metastasis, complicating efforts to understand the contribution of SET to carcinogenesis. In the present study, we overexpressed SET in a spontaneously immortalized oral keratinocyte cell line (NOK-SI SET) and demonstrated that SET up-regulation alone was sufficient to transform cells...
June 21, 2017: FEBS Journal
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