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Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931212/pdgf-aa-mediates-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-chemotaxis-to-the-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-tumor-microenvironment
#1
Tammara L Watts, Ruwen Cui, Peter Szaniszlo, Vicente A Resto, Don W Powell, Irina V Pinchuk
BACKGROUND: The robust desmoplasia associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) suggests that the tumor microenvironment may be an important component in the pathophysiology of this cancer. Moreover, the high recurrence rate and poor clinical response to chemotherapy and radiation treatment further underscores that the non-cancerous cells of the microenvironment, such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), and pericytes, may be important in the pathophysiology of HNSCC...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918691/podoplanin-expression-in-canine-melanoma
#2
Satoshi Ogasawara, Ryusuke Honma, Mika K Kaneko, Yuki Fujii, Yumiko Kagawa, Satoru Konnai, Yukinari Kato
A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues...
December 5, 2016: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916281/intratumoral-heterogeneity-of-macrophages-and-fibroblasts-in-breast-cancer-is-associated-with-the-morphological-diversity-of-tumor-cells-and-contributes-to-lymph-node-metastasis
#3
Lubov A Tashireva, Evgeny V Denisov, Tatiana S Gerashchenko, Daria N Pautova, Mikhail A Buldakov, Marina V Zavyalova, Julia Kzhyshkowska, Nadezhda V Cherdyntseva, Vladimir M Perelmuter
Recent studies have highlighted the heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment (ME) and the importance of its analysis to the understanding of its impact on clinical outcomes. In this study, we aimed to analyze the intratumoral distribution of macrophages and fibroblasts in breast cancer (BC) based on the morphological diversity of tumor cells (tubular, alveolar, solid, trabecular and discrete structures) and the clinicopathological parameters of the disease. Thirty-six patients with invasive breast carcinoma of no special type were included in the study...
November 27, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913571/snord126-promotes-hcc-and-crc-cell-growth-by-activating-the-pi3k-akt-pathway-through-fgfr2
#4
Xianlong Fang, Dongmei Yang, Hongping Luo, Shuai Wu, Wenjie Dong, Jing Xiao, Sujing Yuan, Aimin Ni, Kang-Jian Zhang, Xin-Yuan Liu, Liang Chu
Small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) dysfunctions have been associated with cancer development. SNORD126 is an orphan C/D box snoRNA that is encoded within introns 5-6 of its host gene, cyclin B1-interacting protein 1 (CCNB1IP1) The cancer-associated molecular mechanisms triggered by SNORD126 are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that SNORD126 is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) patient samples. SNORD126 increased Huh-7 and SW480 cell growth and tumorigenicity in nude mice...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907906/senescent-fibroblast-derived-chemerin-promotes-squamous-cell-carcinoma-migration
#5
Vida Farsam, Abhijit Basu, Martina Gatzka, Nicolai Treiber, Lars A Schneider, Medhanie A Mulaw, Tanja Lucas, Stefan Kochanek, Reinhard Dummer, Mitchell P Levesque, Meinhard Wlaschek, Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek
Aging is associated with a rising incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), an aggressive skin cancer with the potential for local invasion and metastasis. Acquisition of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in dermal fibroblasts has been postulated to promote skin cancer progression in elderly individuals. The underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unexplored. We show that Chemerin, a previously unreported SASP factor released from senescent human dermal fibroblasts, promotes cSCC cell migration, a key feature driving tumor progression...
November 18, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901489/membrane-bound-icam-1-contributes-to-the-onset-of-proinvasive-tumor-stroma-by-controlling-acto-myosin-contractility-in-carcinoma-associated-fibroblasts
#6
Stephanie Bonan, Jean Albrengues, Eloise Grasset, Sanya-Eduarda Kuzet, Nicolas Nottet, Isabelle Bourget, Thomas Bertero, Bernard Mari, Guerrino Meneguzzi, Cedric Gaggioli
Acto-myosin contractility in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts leads to assembly of the tumor extracellular matrix. The pro-inflammatory cytokine LIF governs fibroblast activation in cancer by regulating the myosin light chain 2 activity. So far, however, how LIF mediates cytoskeleton contractility remains unknown. Using phenotypic screening assays based on knock-down of LIF-dependent genes in fibroblasts, we identified the glycoprotein ICAM-1 as a crucial regulator of stroma fibroblast proinvasive matrix remodeling...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901003/fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-1-gene-amplification-in-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Jian-Long Miao, Rui-Juan Liu, Jin-Hua Zhou, Shu-Hua Meng
OBJECTIVE: To review the prevalence and prognostic significance of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) amplification and to establish an association between FGFR1 amplification and the clinical characteristics of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed for English-language studies published between January 2010 and May 2016. STUDY SELECTION: We included all relevant articles, with no limitation of study design...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900035/differences-in-tumor-stroma-derived-from-irradiated-versus-non-irradiated-fibroblasts-in-a-co-culture-model-with-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#8
Thomas Gehrke, Agmal Scherzad, Stephan Hackenberg, Philipp Schendzielorz, Rudolf Hagen, Norbert Kleinsasser
Cancer cells have a variety of interactions with neighboring connective tissue, and this activity primarily involves fibroblasts. Co-culture of fibroblasts derived from human skin with cancer cells results in the conversion of fibroblasts into cancer-associated fibroblasts, which are known to support tumor growth and invasiveness. To evaluate the effect of radiation on tumor-fibroblast interactions, the present study co-cultivated fibroblasts from pre-irradiated and non-irradiated human skin with FaDu head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells for 3 days...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896643/a-novel-signaling-role-for-mir-451-in-esophageal-tumor-microenvironment-and-its-contribution-to-tumor-progression
#9
S Khazaei, N Nouraee, A Moradi, S J Mowla
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated miR-451 expression in serum and tissue samples of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Then, we examined a secretory role of miR-451 in esophageal tumor microenvironment. METHODS: miR-451 expression was evaluated in 39 serum samples from esophageal SCC patients compared to 39 normal individuals as well as 26 pairs of fresh-frozen tumor and adjacent normal tissues from patients with ESCC, using qRT-PCR. In a co-culture system of human normal fibroblasts (HFSF-PI3) and esophageal cancer cell line (KYSE-30), we evaluated exosomal miR-451 secretion into the conditioned medium (CM) of both cell lines...
November 28, 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887635/anisakis-pegreffii-nematoda-anisakidae-products-modulate-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-related-biomarkers-in-human-cell-lines
#10
Concetta Maria Messina, Federica Pizzo, Andrea Santulli, Ivana Bušelić, Mate Boban, Stjepan Orhanović, Ivona Mladineo
BACKGROUND: In countries with elevated prevalence of zoonotic anisakiasis and high awareness of this parasitosis, a considerable number of cases that associate Anisakis sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae) and different bowel carcinomas have been described. Although neoplasia and embedded larvae were observed sharing the common site affected by chronic inflammation, no association between the nematode and malignancy were directly proved. Similarly, no data are available about the effect of secretory and excretory products of infecting larvae at the host's cellular level, except in respect to allergenic interaction...
November 25, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884164/hyaluronan-synthase-2-expressed-by-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-promotes-oral-cancer-invasion
#11
Ziwen Zhang, Detao Tao, Ping Zhang, Xue Liu, Yuchao Zhang, Jie Cheng, Hua Yuan, Laikui Liu, Hongbing Jiang
BACKGROUND: Hyaluronan synthases (HAS) control the biosynthesis of hyaluronan (HA) and critically modulate the tumor microenviroment. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) affect the progression of a tumor by remolding the matrix. However, little is known about the role of HAS from CAFs in this process. This study aimed to determine the role of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) from CAFs in the progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) invasion. METHODS: HAS isoforms 1, 2, and 3 in paired sets of CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) were examined by real-time PCR, and the expression of HAS2 and α-SMA in OSCC tissue sections was further evaluated using immunohistochemical staining...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881732/metronomic-chemotherapy-prevents-therapy-induced-stromal-activation-and-induction-of-tumor-initiating-cells
#12
Tze-Sian Chan, Chung-Chi Hsu, Vincent C Pai, Wen-Ying Liao, Shenq-Shyang Huang, Kok-Tong Tan, Chia-Jui Yen, Shu-Ching Hsu, Wei-Yu Chen, Yan-Shen Shan, Chi-Rong Li, Michael T Lee, Kuan-Ying Jiang, Jui-Mei Chu, Gi-Shih Lien, Valerie M Weaver, Kelvin K Tsai
Although traditional chemotherapy kills a fraction of tumor cells, it also activates the stroma and can promote the growth and survival of residual cancer cells to foster tumor recurrence and metastasis. Accordingly, overcoming the host response induced by chemotherapy could substantially improve therapeutic outcome and patient survival. In this study, resistance to treatment and metastasis has been attributed to expansion of stem-like tumor-initiating cells (TICs). Molecular analysis of the tumor stroma in neoadjuvant chemotherapy-treated human desmoplastic cancers and orthotopic tumor xenografts revealed that traditional maximum-tolerated dose chemotherapy, regardless of the agents used, induces persistent STAT-1 and NF-κB activity in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875573/a-nucleoside-anticancer-drug-1-3-c-ethynyl-%C3%AE-d-ribo-pentofuranosyl-cytosine-induces-depth-dependent-enhancement-of-tumor-cell-death-in-spread-out-bragg-peak-sobp-of-proton-beam
#13
Kenichiro Maeda, Hironobu Yasui, Tohru Yamamori, Taeko Matsuura, Seishin Takao, Motofumi Suzuki, Akira Matsuda, Osamu Inanami, Hiroki Shirato
The effect of 1-(3-C-ethynyl-β-D-ribo-pentofuranosyl)cytosine (ECyd) on proton-induced cell death was evaluated in human lung carcinoma cell line A549 and Chinese hamster fibroblast cell line V79 to enhance relative biological effectiveness (RBE) within the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) of proton beams. Treatment with ECyd significantly enhanced the proton-induced loss of clonogenicity and increased senescence at the center, but not at the distal edge of SOBP. The p53-binding protein 1 foci formation assay showed that ECyd decelerated the rate of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair at the center, but not the distal region of SOBP, suggesting that the ECyd-induced enhancement of proton-induced cell death is partially associated with the inhibition of DSB repair...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864344/targeting-tumor-associated-fibroblasts-for-therapeutic-delivery-in-desmoplastic-tumors
#14
Lei Miao, Qi Liu, C Michael Lin, Cong Luo, Yuhua Wang, Lina Liu, Weiyan Yin, Shihao Hu, William Y Kim, Leaf Huang
The off-target distribution of anticancer nanoparticles (NP) to fibroblasts creates a barrier to the effective treatment of desmoplastic tumors. However, we hypothesized that this NP detriment might be exploited to target the expression of secreted cytotoxic proteins from cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) as an anticancer strategy. In addressing this hypothesis, plasmids encoding the secretable TNF-related factor sTRAIL were loaded into lipid-coated protamine DNA complexes (LPD) and administered by infusion in a murine xenograft model of human desmoplastic bladder carcinoma...
November 18, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863477/keratin-19-as-a-key-molecule-in-progression-of-human-hepatocellular-carcinomas-through-invasion-and-angiogenesis
#15
Masato Takano, Keiji Shimada, Tomomi Fujii, Kohei Morita, Maiko Takeda, Yoshiyuki Nakajima, Akitaka Nonomura, Noboru Konishi, Chiho Obayashi
BACKGROUND: Keratin (K) 19-positive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is well known to have a higher malignant potential than K19-negative HCC: However, the molecular mechanisms involved in K19-mediated progression of HCC remain unclear. We attempted to clarify whether K19 directly affects cell survival and invasiveness in association with cellular senescence or epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in K19-positive HCC. METHODS: K19 expression was analysed in 136 HCC surgical specimens...
November 18, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858181/intratumor-stromal-proportion-predicts-aggressive-phenotype-of-gastric-signet-ring-cell-carcinomas
#16
Dakeun Lee, In-Hye Ham, Sang Yong Son, Sang-Uk Han, Young-Bae Kim, Hoon Hur
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the intratumor stromal proportion in gastric signet ring cell (SRC) carcinomas. BACKGROUND: Cancer stroma, as exemplified by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), plays critical roles in cancer proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. METHODS: One hundred seventy-five SRC carcinoma cases were classified according to the intratumor desmoplastic stromal proportion to then analyze the clinicopathologic characteristics of stroma-rich cases...
November 17, 2016: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855230/a-case-of-thyroid-fibromatosis-a-rare-lesion-of-this-gland
#17
Joana Simões-Pereira, Rafael Adame Cabrera, Valeriano Leite
: Thyroid fibromatosis is a very rare lesion; to our knowledge, there are only four cases reported in the medical literature. Herein, we report the clinical case of a woman with thyroid fibromatosis with a long follow-up (11 years). A 63-year-old female patient, with an increasing multinodular goitre without compressive symptoms, was admitted to total thyroidectomy. The histology revealed a spindle-cell proliferation with fibroblastic characteristics with no atypia and thin capillary vessels...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849610/dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-limits-chromosomal-damage-and-promotes-cell-survival-following-aflatoxin-exposure
#18
Ying-Chih Lin, Nichole Owen, Irina G Minko, Sabine S Lange, Liang Li, Michael P Stone, Richard D Wood, Amanda K McCullough, R Stephen Lloyd
Routine dietary consumption of foods that contain aflatoxins is the second leading cause of environmental carcinogenesis worldwide. Aflatoxin-driven mutagenesis is initiated through metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to its epoxide form that reacts with N7 guanine in DNA. The resulting AFB1-N7-dG adduct undergoes either spontaneous depurination or imidazole-ring opening yielding formamidopyrimidine AFB1 (AFB1-Fapy-dG). Because this latter adduct is known to persist in human tissues and contributes to the high frequency G-to-T mutation signature associated with many hepatocellular carcinomas, we sought to establish the identity of the polymerase(s) involved in processing this lesion...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845142/re-mesenchymal-stem-cells-are-recruited-and-activated-into-carcinoma-associated-fibroblasts-by-prostate-cancer-microenvironment-derived-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#19
Anthony Atala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834810/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-can-regulate-the-immune-response-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#20
REVIEW
Alessandro Poggi, Massimo Giuliani
The tumor microenvironment is a good target for therapy in solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Indeed, solid tumor cells' growth and expansion can influence neighboring cells' behavior, leading to a modulation of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) activities and remodeling of extracellular matrix components. This leads to an altered microenvironment, where reparative mechanisms, in the presence of sub-acute inflammation, are not able to reconstitute healthy tissue. Carcinoma cells can undergo epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key step to generate metastasis; these mesenchymal-like cells display the functional behavior of MSC...
November 8, 2016: Vaccines
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