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Gut stem cell

Aliana Meneses Ferreira, Frederico Moreira, Thais Guimaraes, Fernanda Spadão, Jessica Fernandes Ramos, Marjorie Vieira Batista, Jayr Schmidt Filho, Silvia Figueiredo Costa, Vanderson Rocha
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSI) are a major complication in the early phase of a hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). AIM: To describe the incidence and risk factors for BSI occurring in the pre-engraftment phase of HSCT and its impact on mortality. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed clinical variables of 232 HSCT patients between 2014 and 2015. Univariate Cox regression analyses were performed to test the association between each covariate and the outcome...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Bo G Lindberg, Xiongzhuo Tang, Widad Dantoft, Priya Gohel, Shiva Seyedoleslami Esfahani, Jessica M Lindvall, Ylva Engström
Gut immunity is regulated by intricate and dynamic mechanisms to ensure homeostasis despite a constantly changing microbial environment. Several regulatory factors have been described to participate in feedback responses to prevent aberrant immune activity. Little is, however, known about how transcriptional programs are directly tuned to efficiently adapt host gut tissues to the current microbiome. Here we show that the POU/Oct gene nubbin (nub) encodes two transcription factor isoforms, Nub-PB and Nub-PD, which antagonistically regulate immune gene expression in Drosophila...
March 2, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Hans Clevers, Fiona M Watt
Central to the classical hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) paradigm is the concept that the maintenance of blood cell numbers is exclusively executed by a discrete physical entity: the transplantable HSC. The HSC paradigm has served as a stereotypic template in stem cell biology, yet the search for rare, hardwired professional stem cells has remained futile in most other tissues. In a more open approach, the focus on the search for stem cells as a physical entity may need to be replaced by the search for stem cell function, operationally defined as the ability of an organ to replace lost cells...
March 1, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Carly Leung, Si Hui Tan, Nick Barker
The discovery of leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) as both a marker of adult stem cells and a critical modulator of their activity via its role as an effector of Wnt/R-spondin (Rspo) signaling has driven major advances in our understanding of stem cell biology during homeostasis, regeneration, and disease. Exciting new mouse and organoid culture models developed to study the endogenous behavior of Lgr5-expressing cells in health and disease settings have revealed the existence of facultative stem cell populations responsible for tissue regeneration, cancer stem cells (CSCs) driving metastasis in the gut, and Lgr5+ niche cells in the lung...
February 21, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Yusuke Shono, Marcel R M van den Brink
Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is considered to be the strongest curative immunotherapy for various malignancies (primarily, but not limited to, haematologic malignancies). However, application of allo-HSCT is limited owing to its life-threatening major complications, such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), relapse and infections. Recent advances in large-scale DNA sequencing technology have facilitated rapid identification of the microorganisms that make up the microbiota and evaluation of their interactions with host immunity in various diseases, including cancer...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Jun Aruga
Lophotrochozoa is a sister taxon of Ecdysozoa in the Protostomia that includes mollusks, annelids, brachiopods, and platyhelminths. Recent studies have clarified the structure, expression, and roles of lophotrochozoan Zic family genes. Zic genes in oligochaete annelid Tubifex tubifex (freshwater sludge worm) and polychaete annelid Capitella teleta (bristle worm) are commonly expressed in a subset of developing brain and mesoderm derivatives. The latter includes the naïve mesoderm and the associated chaetal sacs in each body segment, although the segmentation processes differ between the two species...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ran-Ran Zhang, Masaru Koido, Tomomi Tadokoro, Rie Ouchi, Tatsuya Matsuno, Yasuharu Ueno, Keisuke Sekine, Takanori Takebe, Hideki Taniguchi
Early endoderm progenitors naturally possess robust propagating potential to develop a majority of meter-long gastrointestinal tracts and are therefore considered as a promising source for therapy. Here, we demonstrated the reproducible generation of human CDX2 + posterior gut endoderm cells (PGECs) from five induced pluripotent stem cell clones by manipulating FGF, TGF, and WNT signaling. Transcriptome analysis suggested that putative PGECs harbored an intermediate signature profile between definitive endoderm and organ-specific endoderm...
February 1, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Junjie Lu, Anna Baccei, Edroaldo Lummertz da Rocha, Christelle Guillermier, Sean McManus, Lydia A Finney, Cheng Zhang, Matthew L Steinhauser, Hu Li, Paul H Lerou
Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells towards definitive endoderm (DE) is the critical first step for generating cells comprising organs such as the gut, liver, pancreas and lung. This in-vitro differentiation process generates a heterogeneous population with a proportion of cells failing to differentiate properly and maintaining expression of pluripotency factors such as Oct4. RNA sequencing of single cells collected at four time points during a 4-day DE differentiation identified high expression of metallothionein genes in the residual Oct4-positive cells that failed to differentiate to DE...
January 31, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Fang Wang, Vladimir Zachar, Cristian Pablo Pennisi, Trine Fink, Yasuko Maeda, Jeppe Emmersen
Smooth muscle differentiated adipose tissue-derived stem cells are a valuable resource for regeneration of gastrointestinal tissues, such as the gut and sphincters. Hypoxia has been shown to promote adipose tissue-derived stem cells proliferation and maintenance of pluripotency, but the influence of hypoxia on their smooth myogenic differentiation remains unexplored. This study investigated the phenotype and contractility of adipose-derived stem cells differentiated toward the smooth myogenic lineage under hypoxic conditions...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Koji Takeda, Takashi Okumura, Mayu Terahata, Mio Yamaguchi, Kiichiro Taniguchi, Takashi Adachi-Yamada
Enteroendocrine cells (EEs) are evolutionarily conserved gastrointestinal secretory cells that show scattered distribution in the intestinal epithelium. These cells classified into several subtypes based on the hormones they produce in both mammals and insects. In the fruit fly Drosophila, it has been suggested that nearly equal numbers of two subtypes of EEs (Allatostatin A: AstA and Diuretic hormone 31 : Dh31) are alternately produced from the intestinal stem cells in the posterior midgut. However, we found that these two subtypes are not always present in this manner, but are rather distributed in a complementary frequency gradient along the posterior midgut...
February 2018: Zoological Science
Li He, Guangwei Si, Jiuhong Huang, Aravinthan D T Samuel, Norbert Perrimon
Somatic stem cells constantly adjust their self-renewal and lineage commitment by integrating various environmental cues to maintain tissue homeostasis. Although numerous chemical and biological signals have been identified that regulate stem-cell behaviour, whether stem cells can directly sense mechanical signals in vivo remains unclear. Here we show that mechanical stress regulates stem-cell differentiation in the adult Drosophila midgut through the stretch-activated ion channel Piezo. We find that Piezo is specifically expressed in previously unidentified enteroendocrine precursor cells, which have reduced proliferation ability and are destined to become enteroendocrine cells...
February 7, 2018: Nature
Lucy E Horton, Nina M Haste, Randy A Taplitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The use of prophylactic antibiotics during the neutropenic period in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been the standard of care at most institutions for the past 20 years. We sought to review the benefits and risks of this practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging data has highlighted the potential costs of antibacterial prophylaxis, from selecting for antibiotic resistance to perturbing the microbiome and contributing to increase risk for Clostridium difficile and perhaps graft-versus-host-disease, conditions which may lead to poorer outcomes...
January 26, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Malgorzata Panek, Maja Grabacka, Malgorzata Pierzchalska
Recently organoids have become widely used in vitro models of many tissue and organs. These type of structures, originated from embryonic or adult mammalian intestines, are called "mini guts". They organize spontaneously when intestinal crypts or stem cells are embedded in the extracellular matrix proteins preparation scaffold (Matrigel). This approach has some disadvantages, as Matrigel is undefined (the concentrations of growth factors and other biologically active components in it may vary from batch to batch), difficult to handle and expensive...
January 25, 2018: Cytotechnology
Liming Dong, Yanyan Yang, Yan Lu, Cong Lu, Jingwei Lv, Ning Jiang, Qiuxia Xu, Yue Gao, Qi Chang, Xinmin Liu
Radiotherapy frequently induces failure of hematopoietic system and leads to myelosuppression. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effect of dammarane sapogenins (DS), the hydrolysed product of the constituent ginsenosides of Panax ginseng, which are produced by gut metabolism, on radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. Mice were exposed to 3.5 Gy 60 Co γ-rays of total body radiation at a dose rate of 1.60 Gy per minute and treated with DS or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor immediately after radiation...
January 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Stefanie Haase, Aiden Haghikia, Ralf Gold, Ralf A Linker
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome as well as dietary habits have recently been established as environmental contributors to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). OBJECTIVE: To summarize recent findings on the Janus-faced effects of dietary short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) on T-cell immunity with a special focus on the gut and the microbiome as an interface linking diet and T-cell responses during MS...
January 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Nick Barker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Anjie Zhen, Christopher W Peterson, Mayra A Carrillo, Sowmya Somashekar Reddy, Cindy S Youn, Brianna B Lam, Nelson Y Chang, Heather A Martin, Jonathan W Rick, Jennifer Kim, Nick C Neel, Valerie K Rezek, Masakazu Kamata, Irvin S Y Chen, Jerome A Zack, Hans-Peter Kiem, Scott G Kitchen
Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cells have emerged as a powerful immunotherapy for various forms of cancer and show promise in treating HIV-1 infection. However, significant limitations are persistence and whether peripheral T cell-based products can respond to malignant or infected cells that may reappear months or years after treatment remains unclear. Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells (HSPCs) are capable of long-term engraftment and have the potential to overcome these limitations. Here, we report the use of a protective CD4 chimeric antigen receptor (C46CD4CAR) to redirect HSPC-derived T-cells against simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection in pigtail macaques...
December 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Tomasz Walski, Kristof De Schutter, Kaat Cappelle, Els J M Van Damme, Guy Smagghe
Glycans are involved in many biological phenomena, including signal transduction, cell adhesion, immune response or differentiation. Although a few papers have reported on the role of glycans in the development and proper functioning of the insect midgut, no data are available regarding the localization of the glycan structures on the surface of the cells in the gut of insects. In this paper, we analyzed the spatial distribution of glycans present on the surface of the midgut cells in larvae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, an important agricultural pest insect worldwide...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Jonathan P Mochel, Albert E Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G Martín, Karin Allenspach
Recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal stem cell niche and the role of key signaling pathways on cell growth and maintenance have allowed the development of fully differentiated epithelial cells in 3D organoids. Stem cell-derived organoids carry significant levels of proteins that are natively expressed in the gut and have important roles in drug transport and metabolism. They are, therefore, particularly relevant to study the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of oral medications. In addition, organoids have the potential to serve as a robust preclinical model for demonstrating the effectiveness of new drugs more rapidly, with more certainty, and at lower costs compared with live animal studies...
December 12, 2017: AAPS Journal
Yu Takahashi, Shintaro Sato, Yosuke Kurashima, Tomohisa Yamamoto, Shiho Kurokawa, Yoshikazu Yuki, Naoki Takemura, Satoshi Uematsu, Chen-Yi Lai, Makoto Otsu, Hiroshi Matsuno, Hideki Osawa, Tsunekazu Mizushima, Junichi Nishimura, Mikio Hayashi, Takayuki Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Kiyono
Gut epithelial organoids are routinely used to investigate intestinal biology; however, current culture methods are not amenable to genetic manipulation, and it is difficult to generate sufficient numbers for high-throughput studies. Here, we present an improved culture system of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived intestinal organoids involving four methodological advances. (1) We adopted a lentiviral vector to readily establish and optimize conditioned medium for human intestinal organoid culture...
December 1, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
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