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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926118/chop-induced-loss-of-intestinal-epithelial-stemness-contributes-to-bile-duct-ligation-induced-cholestatic-liver-injury
#1
Runping Liu, Xiaojiaoyang Li, Zhiming Huang, Derrick Zhao, Bhagyalaxmi Sukka Ganesh, Guanhua Lai, William M Pandak, Phillip B Hylemon, Jasmohan S Bajaj, Arun J Sanyal, Huiping Zhou
Impaired intestinal barrier function promotes the progression of various liver diseases including cholestatic liver disease. The close association of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) with inflammatory bowel disease highlights the importance of the gut-liver axis. It has been reported that bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced liver fibrosis is significantly reduced in C/EBP homologous protein knock out (CHOP(-/-) ) mice. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we demonstrate that BDL induces striking and acute hepatic ER stress responses after 1 day, which return to normal after 3 days...
September 19, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916802/local-juvenile-hormone-activity-regulates-gut-homeostasis-and-tumor-growth-in-adult-drosophila
#2
M M Rahman, X Franch-Marro, J L Maestro, D Martin, A Casali
Hormones play essential roles during development and maintaining homeostasis in adult organisms, regulating a plethora of biological processes. Generally, hormones are secreted by glands and perform a systemic action. Here we show that Juvenile Hormones (JHs), insect sesquiterpenoids synthesized by the corpora allata, are also synthesized by the adult Drosophila gut. This local, gut specific JH activity, is synthesized by and acts on the intestinal stem cell and enteroblast populations, regulating their survival and cellular growth through the JH receptors Gce/Met and the coactivator Tai...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904533/gut-microbial-influences-on-the-mammalian-intestinal-stem-cell-niche
#3
REVIEW
Bailey C E Peck, Michael T Shanahan, Ajeet P Singh, Praveen Sethupathy
The mammalian intestinal epithelial stem cell (IESC) niche is comprised of diverse epithelial, immune, and stromal cells, which together respond to environmental changes within the lumen and exert coordinated regulation of IESC behavior. There is growing appreciation for the role of the gut microbiota in modulating intestinal proliferation and differentiation, as well as other aspects of intestinal physiology. In this review, we evaluate the diverse roles of known niche cells in responding to gut microbiota and supporting IESCs...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904137/seasonal-variation-in-nutrient-utilization-shapes-gut-microbiome-structure-and-function-in-wild-giant-pandas
#4
Qi Wu, Xiao Wang, Yun Ding, Yibo Hu, Yonggang Nie, Wei Wei, Shuai Ma, Li Yan, Lifeng Zhu, Fuwen Wei
Wild giant pandas use different parts of bamboo (shoots, leaves and stems) and different bamboo species at different times of the year. Their usage of bamboo can be classified temporally into a distinct leaf stage, shoot stage and transition stage. An association between this usage pattern and variation in the giant panda gut microbiome remains unknown. Here, we found associations using a gut metagenomic approach and nutritional analyses whereby diversity of the gut microbial community in the leaf and shoot stages was significantly different...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889220/rapamycin-treatment-attenuates-age-associated-periodontitis-in-mice
#5
Jonathan Y An, Ellen K Quarles, Surapat Mekvanich, Alex Kang, Anthony Liu, Danielle Santos, Richard A Miller, Peter S Rabinovitch, Timothy C Cox, Matt Kaeberlein
Interventions that target biological mechanisms of aging have great potential to enhance quality of life by delaying morbidity and mortality. The FDA-approved drug rapamycin is a compelling candidate for such an intervention. In a previous study, it was reported that 3 months of rapamycin treatment is sufficient to increase life expectancy and remodel the gut microbiome in aged mice. Transient treatment with rapamycin or a rapamycin derivative has also been shown to delay immune stem cell senescence and rejuvenate immune function in aged mice and elderly people...
September 9, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884943/xenotransplantation-of-human-intestine-into-mouse-abdomen-or-subcutaneous-tissue-novel-platforms-for-the-study-of-the-human-enteric-nervous-system
#6
N Nagy, N Marsiano, R S Bruckner, M Scharl, M J Gutnick, S Yagel, E Arciero, A M Goldstein, N Y Shpigel
BACKGROUND: Current efforts to develop stem cell therapy as a novel treatment for neurointestinal diseases are limited by the unavailability of a model system to study cell transplantation in the human intestine. We propose that xenograft models support enteric nervous system (ENS) development in the fetal human intestine when transplanted into mice subcutaneously or intra-abdominally. METHODS: Fetal human small and large intestine were grafted onto the small intestinal mesentery and into the subcutaneous tissue of immunodeficient mice for up to 4 months...
September 8, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873382/development-and-anatomy-of-the-enteroendocrine-system-in-humans
#7
Carsten Posovszky
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract exhibits an enormous surface area that consists mostly of absorptive enterocytes. Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) are found scattered along the GI tract between absorptive enterocytes and other secretory cells, and comprise around 1% of the epithelial cell population. Interestingly, they develop from the same crypt stem cell as the other absorptive or secretory cells of the gut. EECs differentiate along the crypt villus axis and are renewed every 4-6 days, and hence possess a high plasticity...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864137/adjuvant-peptide-pulsed-dendritic-cell-vaccination-in-addition-to-t-cell-adoptive-immunotherapy-for-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-hsct-recipients
#8
Chun K K Ma, Leighton Clancy, Renee Simms, Jane Burgess, Shivashni Deo, Emily Blyth, Kenneth P Micklethwaite, David J Gottlieb
Adoptive cellular immunotherapy has been shown to be effective in the management of CMV reactivation and disease. It is unknown whether adjuvant dendritic cell vaccination will provide additional benefit in prophylaxis or treatment of CMV in HSCT patients. In this study, we administered prophylactic CMV-peptide specific T cell infusions, followed by 2 doses of intradermal CMV peptide-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccine to 4 HSCT patients. There were no immediate adverse events associated with T cell infusion or DC vaccinations...
August 29, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834743/constitutive-immune-activity-promotes-tumorigenesis-in-drosophila-intestinal-progenitor%C3%A2-cells
#9
Kristina Petkau, Meghan Ferguson, Silvia Guntermann, Edan Foley
Gut innate immune defenses control bacterial populations and protect the host interior from invasion. Although excess intestinal immune activity frequently promotes inflammatory illnesses, we know little about the consequences of chronic innate immune activity exclusively in endodermal gut cells of an otherwise normal animal. To address this question, we examined the consequences of persistent inflammatory signals in adult fly intestinal progenitor cells. We found that constitutive immune activity disrupts expression of homeostatic regulators such as Notch pathway components and induces hyperplasia throughout the gut...
August 22, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802143/extrinsic-control-of-wnt-signaling-in-the-intestine
#10
REVIEW
Stefan Koch
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is a central regulator of development and tissue homeostasis. In the intestine, Wnt signaling is primarily known as the principal organizer of epithelial stem cell identity and proliferation. Within the last decade, numerous scientific breakthroughs have shed light on epithelial self-organization in the gut, and organoids are now routinely used to study stem cell biology and intestinal pathophysiology. The contribution of non-epithelial cells to Wnt signaling in the gut has received less attention...
August 5, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797807/impact-of-oral-gut-decontamination-on-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-in-patients-undergoing-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#11
C Matthias Wilk, Isabel Weber, Kati Seidl, Carole Rachmühl, Anne Holzmann-Bürgel, Antonia M S Müller, Stefan P Kuster, Urs Schanz, Annelies S Zinkernagel
Recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are severely immunocompromised and at increased risk for infections. In this prospective, observational, single-center study including 110 HSCT-recipients, the S. aureus colonization rate was reduced from 12% to 0% (p<0.001) following peri-transplant oral gut decontamination. No invasive S. aureus infections were observed.
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794470/endocrine-disruptors-induce-perturbations-in-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-mitochondria-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derivatives
#12
Uthra Rajamani, Andrew R Gross, Camille Ocampo, Allen M Andres, Roberta A Gottlieb, Dhruv Sareen
Persistent exposure to man-made endocrine disrupting chemicals during fetal endocrine development may lead to disruption of metabolic homeostasis contributing to childhood obesity. Limited cellular platforms exist to test endocrine disrupting chemical-induced developmental abnormalities in human endocrine tissues. Here we use an human-induced pluripotent stem cell-based platform to demonstrate adverse impacts of obesogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals in the developing endocrine system. We delineate the effects upon physiological low-dose exposure to ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals including, perfluoro-octanoic acid, tributyltin, and butylhydroxytoluene, in endocrine-active human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived foregut epithelial cells and hypothalamic neurons...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792626/advanced-three-dimensional-culture-of-equine-intestinal-epithelial-stem-cells
#13
A Stieler Stewart, J M Freund, L M Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Intestinal epithelial stem cells are critical to epithelial repair following gastrointestinal injury. The culture of intestinal stem cells has quickly become a cornerstone of a vast number of new research endeavours that range from determining tissue viability to testing drug efficacy for humans. This study aims to describe the methods of equine stem cell culture and highlights the future benefits of these techniques for the advancement of equine medicine. OBJECTIVES: To describe the isolation and culture of small intestinal stem cells into three-dimensional (3D) enteroids in horses without clinical gastrointestinal abnormalities...
August 9, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789943/reciprocal-inflammatory-signaling-between-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-adipocytes-in-the-absence-of-immune-cells
#14
Yu Takahashi, Shintaro Sato, Yosuke Kurashima, Chen-Yi Lai, Makoto Otsu, Mikio Hayashi, Takayuki Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Kiyono
Visceral fat accumulation as observed in Crohn's disease and obesity is linked to chronic gut inflammation, suggesting that accumulation of gut adipocytes can trigger local inflammatory signaling. However, direct interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and adipocytes have not been investigated, in part because IEC physiology is difficult to replicate in culture. In this study, we originally prepared intact, polarized, and cytokine responsive IEC monolayers from primary or induced pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal organoids by simple and repeatable methods...
August 2, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782137/interkinetic-nuclear-migration-in-the-tracheal-and-esophageal-epithelia-of-the-mouse-embryo-possible-implications-for-tracheo-esophageal-anomalies
#15
Ryo Kaneda, Yuko Saeki, Dereje Getachew, Akihiro Matsumoto, Motohide Furuya, Noriko Ogawa, Tomoyuki Motoya, Ashiq Mahmood Rafiq, Esrat Jahan, Jun Udagawa, Ryuju Hashimoto, Hiroki Otani
Interkinetic nuclear migration (INM) is a cell polarity-based phenomenon in which progenitor cell nuclei migrate along the apico-basal axis of the pseudostratified epithelium in synchrony with the cell cycle. INM is suggested to be at least partially cytoskeleton-dependent and to regulate not only the proliferation/differentiation of stem/progenitor cells but also the localized/overall size and shape of organs/tissues. INM occurs in all three of the germ-layer derived epithelia, including the endoderm-derived gut...
August 6, 2017: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759053/the-eukaryotic-gut-virome-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-new-clues-in-enteric-graft-versus-host-disease
#16
Jérôme Legoff, Matthieu Resche-Rigon, Jerome Bouquet, Marie Robin, Samia N Naccache, Séverine Mercier-Delarue, Scot Federman, Erik Samayoa, Clotilde Rousseau, Prescillia Piron, Nathalie Kapel, François Simon, Gérard Socié, Charles Y Chiu
Much attention has been focused on the role of the bacterial microbiome in human health, but the virome is understudied. Although previously investigated in individuals with inflammatory bowel diseases or solid-organ transplants, virome dynamics in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and enteric graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remain unexplored. Here we characterize the longitudinal gut virome in 44 recipients of HSCT using metagenomics. A viral 'bloom' was identified, and significant increases were demonstrated in the overall proportion of vertebrate viral sequences following transplantation (P = 0...
September 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751238/bhlh-proneural-genes-as-cell-fate-determinants-of-entero-endocrine-cells-an-evolutionarily-conserved-lineage-sharing-a-common-root-with-sensory-neurons
#17
Volker Hartenstein, Shigeo Takashima, Parvana Hartenstein, Samuel Asanad, Kian Asanad
Entero-endocrine cells involved in the regulation of digestive function form a large and diverse cell population within the intestinal epithelium of all animals. Together with absorptive enterocytes and secretory gland cells, entero-endocrine cells are generated by the embryonic endoderm and, in the mature animal, from a pool of endoderm derived, self-renewing stem cells. Entero-endocrine cells share many structural/functional and developmental properties with sensory neurons, which hints at the possibility of an ancient evolutionary relationship between these two cell types...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733895/clinical-impact-of-pre-transplant-gut-microbial-diversity-on-outcomes-of-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#18
Noriko Doki, Masahiro Suyama, Satoshi Sasajima, Junko Ota, Aiko Igarashi, Iyo Mimura, Hidetoshi Morita, Yuki Fujioka, Daisuke Sugiyama, Hiroyoshi Nishikawa, Yutaka Shimazu, Wataru Suda, Kozue Takeshita, Koji Atarashi, Masahira Hattori, Eiichi Sato, Kyoko Watakabe-Inamoto, Kosuke Yoshioka, Yuho Najima, Takeshi Kobayashi, Kazuhiko Kakihana, Naoto Takahashi, Hisashi Sakamaki, Kenya Honda, Kazuteru Ohashi
Post-transplant microbial diversity in the gastrointestinal tract is closely associated with clinical outcomes following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, little is known about the impact of the fecal microbiota before allo-HSCT. We analyzed fecal samples approximately 2 weeks before conditioning among 107 allo-HSCT recipients between 2013 and 2015. Microbial analysis was performed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Operational taxonomic unit-based microbial diversity was estimated by calculating the Shannon index...
September 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721651/in-vitro-anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-activities-of-3-5-4-trihydroxy-6-7-methylenedioxyflavone-o-glycosides-and-their-aglycone-from-leaves-of-polygonum-tinctorium-lour
#19
Shota Tokuyama-Nakai, Hideto Kimura, Tomoe Ishihara, Mitsuo Jisaka, Kazushige Yokota
Polygonum tinctorium Lour (indigo plant) has been regarded as a useful medicinal plant for traditional herbal medicine. The polyphenolic fraction of indigo leaves exhibited anti-inflammatory activities as determined by the suppressed synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) in cultured RAW264 macrophage cells. The acid hydrolysate of the fraction showed much more potent effect than the unhydrolyzed one. In sharp contrast, those fractions of indigo stems had almost no effect. 3,5,4'-Trihydroxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone (TMF)-O-glycosides and tryptanthrin were detected exclusively in the extracts of the leaves...
July 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720679/potential-for-monitoring-gut-microbiota-for-diagnosing-infections-and-graft-versus-host-disease-in-cancer-and-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#20
Andrew Y Koh
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota, the collective community of microorganisms inhabiting the intestine, have been shown to provide many beneficial functions for the host. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and advanced molecular biology approaches have allowed researchers to identify gut microbiota signatures associated with disease processes and, in some cases, establish causality and elucidate underlying mechanisms. CONTENT: This report reviews 3 commonly used methods for studying the gut microbiota and microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microorganisms): 16S rRNA gene sequencing, bacterial group or species-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS)...
July 18, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
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