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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781336/advances-in-the-treatment-of-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#1
Wenjun Wang, Ying Xu, Chang Jiang, Yanhang Gao
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) is a costly and worldwide public health issue with high morbidity and mortality. Specific effective treatments for SAH have yet to be established. The aim of the present article is to review the current knowledge of the pathogenesis, assessment, and treatment options in patients with SAH. To date, alcohol abstinence and enteral nutrition are the recommended first-line treatments. Although corticosteroids remain the preferred therapy for certain patients with a modified Maddrey discriminant function level greater than 54, they only improve short-term survival rates...
May 21, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765429/the-potentials-and-caveats-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-based-therapies-in-the-preterm-infant
#2
REVIEW
Judith Gronbach, Tayyab Shahzad, Sarah Radajewski, Cho-Ming Chao, Saverio Bellusci, Rory E Morty, Tobias Reicherzer, Harald Ehrhardt
Preponderance of proinflammatory signals is a characteristic feature of all acute and resulting long-term morbidities of the preterm infant. The proinflammatory actions are best characterized for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) which is the chronic lung disease of the preterm infant with lifelong restrictions of pulmonary function and severe consequences for psychomotor development and quality of life. Besides BPD, the immature brain, eye, and gut are also exposed to inflammatory injuries provoked by infection, mechanical ventilation, and oxygen toxicity...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750821/generation-of-hepatocyte-and-endocrine-pancreatic-like-cells-from-human-induced-endodermal-progenitor-cells
#3
Rangarajan Sambathkumar, Renate Akkerman, Sumitava Dastidar, Philip Roelandt, Manoj Kumar, Manmohan Bajaj, Ana Rita Mestre Rosa, Nicky Helsen, Veerle Vanslembrouck, Eric Kalo, Satish Khurana, Jos Laureys, Conny Gysemans, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos, Catherine M Verfaillie
Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells (MAPCs) are one potential stem cell source to generate functional hepatocytes or β-cells. However, human MAPCs have less plasticity than pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), as their ability to generate endodermal cells is not robust. Here we studied the role of 14 transcription factors (TFs) in reprogramming MAPCs to induced endodermal progenitor cells (iENDO cells), defined as cells that can be long-term expanded and differentiated to both hepatocyte- and endocrine pancreatic-like cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743312/survival-of-mice-with-gastrointestinal-acute-radiation-syndrome-through-control-of-bacterial-translocation
#4
Fujio Suzuki, Bradford D Loucas, Ichiaki Ito, Akira Asai, Sumihiro Suzuki, Makiko Kobayashi
Macrophages (Mϕ) with the M2b phenotype (Pheno2b-Mϕ) in bacterial translocation sites have been described as cells responsible for the increased susceptibility of mice with gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome to sepsis caused by gut bacteria. In this study, we tried to reduce the mortality of mice exposed to 7-10 Gy of gamma rays by controlling Pheno2b-Mϕ polarization in bacterial translocation sites. MicroRNA-222 was induced in association with gamma irradiation. Pheno2b-Mϕ polarization was promoted and maintained in gamma-irradiated mice through the reduction of a long noncoding RNA growth arrest-specific transcript 5 (a CCL1 gene silencer) influenced by this microRNA...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742452/anti-senescence-compounds-a-potential-nutraceutical-approach-to-healthy-aging
#5
REVIEW
Felicia Gurău, Simone Baldoni, Francesco Prattichizzo, Emma Espinosa, Francesco Amenta, Antonio Domenico Procopio, Maria Cristina Albertini, Massimiliano Bonafè, Fabiola Olivieri
The desire of eternal youth seems to be as old as mankind. However, the increasing life expectancy experienced by populations in developed countries also involves a significantly increased incidence of the most common age-related diseases (ARDs). Senescent cells (SCs) have been identified as culprits of organismal aging. Their number rises with age and their senescence-associated secretory phenotype fuels the chronic, pro-inflammatory systemic state (inflammaging) that characterizes aging, impairing the regenerative ability of stem cells and increasing the risk of developing ARDs...
May 6, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719584/-drosophila-pebp1-inhibits-intestinal-stem-cell-aging-via-suppression-of-erk-pathway
#6
Jung-Hoon Pyo, Ho-Jun Jeon, Joung-Sun Park, Jae-Sun Lee, Hae-Young Chung, Mi-Ae Yoo
The intestine is a high cellular turnover tissue largely dependent on the regenerative function of stem cell throughout life, and a signaling center for the health and viability of organisms. Therefore, better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the regulation of intestinal stem cell (ISC) regenerative potential is essential for the possible intervention of aging process and age-related diseases. Drosophila midgut is a well-established model system for studying the mechanisms underlying ISC regenerative potential during aging...
April 6, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707856/enteric-neural-stem-cell-therapies-for-enteric-neuropathies
#7
REVIEW
C J McCann, N Thapar
BACKGROUND: Enteric neuropathies exist as a wide range of human disorders which impact on gastrointestinal motility. Current standard therapies for enteric neuropathies are limited to surgical resection or manipulation (eg, myotomy) of affected gut segments or medical management including both therapy (eg, prokinetic pharmacotherapy) and support such as parenteral nutrition. However, such treatments often result in poor prognosis and significant morbidity. The current limitations in treatment options for enteric neuropathies underline the need for alternative approaches to treat these devastating diseases...
April 29, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707039/emerging-concepts-in-non-invasive-monitoring-of-crohn-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Wojciech Marlicz, Karolina Skonieczna-Żydecka, Konstantinos John Dabos, Igor Łoniewski, Anastasios Koulaouzidis
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an umbrella term for Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). In light of evolving epidemiology of CD, its clinical management is still complex and remains a challenge for contemporary physicians. With the advent of new diagnostic and treatment paradigms, there is a growing need for new biomarkers to guide decision-making, differential diagnosis, disease activity monitoring, as well as prognosis. However, both clinical and endoscopic scoring systems, widely utilized for disease monitoring and prognosis, have drawbacks and limitations...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706647/the-microbiome-and-autoimmunity-a-paradigm-from-the-gut-liver-axis
#9
REVIEW
Bo Li, Carlo Selmi, Ruqi Tang, M E Gershwin, Xiong Ma
Microbial cells significantly outnumber human cells in the body, and the microbial flora at mucosal sites are shaped by environmental factors and, less intuitively, act on host immune responses, as demonstrated by experimental data in germ-free and gnotobiotic studies. Our understanding of this link stems from the established connection between infectious bacteria and immune tolerance breakdown, as observed in rheumatic fever triggered by Streptococci via molecular mimicry, epitope spread and bystander effects...
April 30, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706577/spred1-safeguards-hematopoietic-homeostasis-against-diet-induced-systemic-stress
#10
Yuko Tadokoro, Takayuki Hoshii, Satoshi Yamazaki, Koji Eto, Hideo Ema, Masahiko Kobayashi, Masaya Ueno, Kumiko Ohta, Yuriko Arai, Eiji Hara, Kenichi Harada, Masanobu Oshima, Hiroko Oshima, Fumio Arai, Akihiko Yoshimura, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Atsushi Hirao
Stem cell self-renewal is critical for tissue homeostasis, and its dysregulation can lead to organ failure or tumorigenesis. While obesity can induce varied abnormalities in bone marrow components, it is unclear how diet might affect hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal. Here, we show that Spred1, a negative regulator of RAS-MAPK signaling, safeguards HSC homeostasis in animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Under steady-state conditions, Spred1 negatively regulates HSC self-renewal and fitness, in part through Rho kinase activity...
April 18, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685890/the-redox-sensing-gene-nrf2-affects-intestinal-homeostasis-insecticide-resistance-and-zika-virus-susceptibility-in-the-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#11
Vanessa Bottino-Rojas, Octavio A C Talyuli, Luana Carrara, Ademir J Martins, Anthony A James, Pedro L Oliveira, Gabriela O Paiva-Silva
Production and degradation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are extensively regulated to ensure proper cellular responses to various environmental stimuli and stresses. Moreover, physiologically generated ROS function as secondary messengers that can influence tissue homeostasis. The cap'n'collar transcription factor known as nuclear factor erythroid-derived factor 2 (Nrf2) coordinates an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional activation pathway that mediates antioxidant and detoxification responses in many animal species, including insects and mammals...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681543/the-pou-oct-transcription-factor-nubbin-controls-the-balance-of-intestinal-stem-cell-maintenance-and-differentiation-by-isoform-specific-regulation
#12
Xiongzhuo Tang, Yunpo Zhao, Nicolas Buchon, Ylva Engström
Drosophila POU/Oct transcription factors are required for many developmental processes, but their putative regulation of adult stem cell activity has not been investigated. Here, we show that Nubbin (Nub)/Pdm1, homologous to mammalian OCT1/POU2F1 and related to OCT4/POU5F1, is expressed in gut epithelium progenitor cells. We demonstrate that the nub-encoded protein isoforms, Nub-PB and Nub-PD, play opposite roles in the regulation of intestinal stem cell (ISC) maintenance and differentiation. Depletion of Nub-PB in progenitor cells increased ISC proliferation by derepression of escargot expression...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674686/evolutionary-plasticity-of-the-nhl-domain-underlies-distinct-solutions-to-rna-recognition
#13
Pooja Kumari, Florian Aeschimann, Dimos Gaidatzis, Jeremy J Keusch, Pritha Ghosh, Anca Neagu, Katarzyna Pachulska-Wieczorek, Janusz M Bujnicki, Heinz Gut, Helge Großhans, Rafal Ciosk
RNA-binding proteins regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism. Their association with RNA is mediated by RNA-binding domains, of which many remain uncharacterized. A recently reported example is the NHL domain, found in prominent regulators of cellular plasticity like the C. elegans LIN-41. Here we employ an integrative approach to dissect the RNA specificity of LIN-41. Using computational analysis, structural biology, and in vivo studies in worms and human cells, we find that a positively charged pocket, specific to the NHL domain of LIN-41 and its homologs (collectively LIN41), recognizes a stem-loop RNA element, whose shape determines the binding specificity...
April 19, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674425/impact-of-gut-colonization-with-butyrate-producing-microbiota-on-respiratory-viral-infection-following-allo-hct
#14
Bastiaan W Haak, Eric R Littmann, Jean-Luc Chaubard, Amanda J Pickard, Emily Fontana, Fatima Adhi, Yangtsho Gyaltshen, Lilan Ling, Sejal M Morjaria, Jonathan U Peled, Marcel R van den Brink, Alexander I Geyer, Justin R Cross, Eric G Pamer, Ying Taur
Respiratory viral infections are frequent in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT), and can potentially progress to lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The intestinal microbiota contributes to resistance against viral and bacterial pathogens in the lung. However, whether intestinal microbiota composition and associated changes in microbe-derived metabolites contribute to the risk of LRTI following upper respiratory tract viral infection remains unexplored in the setting of allo-HCT...
April 19, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615557/wingless-wnt-signaling-in-intestinal-development-homeostasis-regeneration-and-tumorigenesis-a-drosophila-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Ai Tian, Hassina Benchabane, Yashi Ahmed
In mammals, the Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction pathway regulates intestinal stem cell maintenance and proliferation, whereas Wnt pathway hyperactivation, resulting primarily from the inactivation of the tumor suppressor Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), triggers the development of the vast majority of colorectal cancers. The Drosophila adult gut has recently emerged as a powerful model to elucidate the mechanisms by which Wingless/Wnt signaling regulates intestinal development, homeostasis, regeneration, and tumorigenesis...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605066/liver-regeneration-in-the-acute-liver-failure-patient
#16
REVIEW
Keith M Wirth, Scott Kizy, Clifford J Steer
Liver regeneration after simple resection represents a unique process in which the organ returns to its original size and histologic structure. Over the past 30 years, there has been significant progress in elucidating the mechanisms associated with regeneration after loss of hepatic mass. Liver regeneration after acute liver failure shares several of these classical pathways. It differs, however, in key processes, including the role of both differentiated and stemlike cells. This article outlines these differences in addition to new molecular mechanisms, including immunomodulation, microRNAs, and the gut-liver axis...
May 2018: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593873/post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder-of-the-bladder-in-a-lung-transplant-recipient
#17
Harpreet Singh Grewal, Charles Lane, Kristin B Highland, Olufemi Akindipe, Marie Budev, Atul C Mehta
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) occurs in ~5% of solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. We report a unique presentation of PTLD in the bladder of a lung transplant recipient. Our patient was a 62-year-old female who received a bilateral lung transplant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. She presented with fever, left-sided flank pain and foul-smelling urine consistent with urosepsis. An abdominal and pelvic computerized tomography revealed an irregular and nodular bladder wall thickening suspicious for urothelial neoplasm...
March 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593242/the-role-of-csf1r-dependent-macrophages-in-control-of-the-intestinal-stem-cell-niche
#18
Anuj Sehgal, David S Donaldson, Clare Pridans, Kristin A Sauter, David A Hume, Neil A Mabbott
Colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) controls the growth and differentiation of macrophages.CSF1R signaling has been implicated in the maintenance of the intestinal stem cell niche and differentiation of Paneth cells, but evidence of expression of CSF1R within the crypt is equivocal. Here we show that CSF1R-dependent macrophages influence intestinal epithelial differentiation and homeostasis. In the intestinal lamina propria CSF1R mRNA expression is restricted to macrophages which are intimately associated with the crypt epithelium, and is undetectable in Paneth cells...
March 28, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589539/paneth-cells-and-their-antimicrobials-in-intestinal-immunity
#19
Timon E Adolph, Lisa Mayr, Felix Grabherr, Herbert Tilg
Since the initial description of granular-rich small-intestinal crypt-based epithelial cells in 1872, today referred to as Paneth cells, a plethora of recent studies underlined their function in intestinal homeostasis. Paneth cells are evolutionary conserved highly secretory cells that produce antimicrobials to control gut microbial communities. Moreover, Paneth cells emerged as stem cell regulators that translate environmental cues into intestinal epithelial responses. Paneth cell disturbances may instigate intestinal inflammation and provide susceptibility to infection...
March 27, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579172/micrornas-in-the-mammalian-gut-endocrine-lineage
#20
Yu-Han Hung, Praveen Sethupathy
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that modulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Numerous reports have elucidated the importance of miRNAs in the regulation of a wide array of biological processes including metabolism and energy homeostasis. miRNAs in the endocrine pancreas have been intensively studied over the last 15 years and linked to pancreatic islet development and function. In comparison, knowledge of miRNAs in gut endocrine cells, or enteroendocrine cells (EECs), is severely lacking...
February 1, 2018: Endocrinology
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