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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802143/extrinsic-control-of-wnt-signaling-in-the-intestine
#1
REVIEW
Stefan Koch
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is a central regulator of development and tissue homeostasis. In the intestine, Wnt signaling is primarily known as the principal organizer of epithelial stem cell identity and proliferation. Within the last decade, numerous scientific breakthroughs have shed light on epithelial self-organization in the gut, and organoids are now routinely used to study stem cell biology and intestinal pathophysiology. The contribution of non-epithelial cells to Wnt signaling in the gut has received less attention...
August 5, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797807/impact-of-oral-gut-decontamination-on-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-in-patients-undergoing-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#2
C Matthias Wilk, Isabel Weber, Kati Seidl, Carole Rachmühl, Anne Holzmann-Bürgel, Antonia M S Müller, Stefan P Kuster, Urs Schanz, Annelies S Zinkernagel
Recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are severely immunocompromised and at increased risk for infections. In this prospective, observational, single-center study including 110 HSCT-recipients, the S. aureus colonization rate was reduced from 12% to 0% (p<0.001) following peri-transplant oral gut decontamination. No invasive S. aureus infections were observed.
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794470/endocrine-disruptors-induce-perturbations-in-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-mitochondria-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derivatives
#3
Uthra Rajamani, Andrew R Gross, Camille Ocampo, Allen M Andres, Roberta A Gottlieb, Dhruv Sareen
Persistent exposure to man-made endocrine disrupting chemicals during fetal endocrine development may lead to disruption of metabolic homeostasis contributing to childhood obesity. Limited cellular platforms exist to test endocrine disrupting chemical-induced developmental abnormalities in human endocrine tissues. Here we use an human-induced pluripotent stem cell-based platform to demonstrate adverse impacts of obesogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals in the developing endocrine system. We delineate the effects upon physiological low-dose exposure to ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals including, perfluoro-octanoic acid, tributyltin, and butylhydroxytoluene, in endocrine-active human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived foregut epithelial cells and hypothalamic neurons...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792626/advanced-three-dimensional-culture-of-equine-intestinal-epithelial-stem-cells
#4
A Stieler Stewart, J M Freund, L M Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Intestinal epithelial stem cells are critical to epithelial repair following gastrointestinal injury. The culture of intestinal stem cells has quickly become a cornerstone of a vast number of new research endeavours that range from determining tissue viability to testing drug efficacy for humans. This study aims to describe the methods of equine stem cell culture and highlights the future benefits of these techniques for the advancement of equine medicine. OBJECTIVES: To describe the isolation and culture of small intestinal stem cells into three-dimensional (3D) enteroids in horses without clinical gastrointestinal abnormalities...
August 9, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789943/reciprocal-inflammatory-signaling-between-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-adipocytes-in-the-absence-of-immune-cells
#5
Yu Takahashi, Shintaro Sato, Yosuke Kurashima, Chen-Yi Lai, Makoto Otsu, Mikio Hayashi, Takayuki Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Kiyono
Visceral fat accumulation as observed in Crohn's disease and obesity is linked to chronic gut inflammation, suggesting that accumulation of gut adipocytes can trigger local inflammatory signaling. However, direct interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and adipocytes have not been investigated, in part because IEC physiology is difficult to replicate in culture. In this study, we originally prepared intact, polarized, and cytokine responsive IEC monolayers from primary or induced pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal organoids by simple and repeatable methods...
August 2, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782137/interkinetic-nuclear-migration-in-the-tracheal-and-esophageal-epithelia-of-the-mouse-embryo-possible-implications-for-tracheo-esophageal-anomalies
#6
Ryo Kaneda, Yuko Saeki, Dereje Getachew, Akihiro Matsumoto, Motohide Furuya, Noriko Ogawa, Tomoyuki Motoya, Ashiq Mahmood Rafiq, Esrat Jahan, Jun Udagawa, Ryuju Hashimoto, Hiroki Otani
Interkinetic nuclear migration (INM) is a cell polarity-based phenomenon in which progenitor cell nuclei migrate along the apico-basal axis of the pseudostratified epithelium in synchrony with the cell cycle. INM is suggested to be at least partially cytoskeleton-dependent and to regulate not only the proliferation/differentiation of stem/progenitor cells but also the localized/overall size and shape of organs/tissues. INM occurs in all three of the germ-layer derived epithelia, including the endoderm-derived gut...
August 6, 2017: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759053/the-eukaryotic-gut-virome-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-new-clues-in-enteric-graft-versus-host-disease
#7
Jérôme Legoff, Matthieu Resche-Rigon, Jerome Bouquet, Marie Robin, Samia N Naccache, Séverine Mercier-Delarue, Scot Federman, Erik Samayoa, Clotilde Rousseau, Prescillia Piron, Nathalie Kapel, François Simon, Gérard Socié, Charles Y Chiu
Much attention has been focused on the role of the bacterial microbiome in human health, but the virome is understudied. Although previously investigated in individuals with inflammatory bowel diseases or solid-organ transplants, virome dynamics in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and enteric graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remain unexplored. Here we characterize the longitudinal gut virome in 44 recipients of HSCT using metagenomics. A viral 'bloom' was identified, and significant increases were demonstrated in the overall proportion of vertebrate viral sequences following transplantation (P = 0...
July 31, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751238/bhlh-proneural-genes-as-cell-fate-determinants-of-entero-endocrine-cells-an-evolutionarily-conserved-lineage-sharing-a-common-root-with-sensory-neurons
#8
Volker Hartenstein, Shigeo Takashima, Parvana Hartenstein, Samuel Asanad, Kian Asanad
Entero-endocrine cells involved in the regulation of digestive function form a large and diverse cell population within the intestinal epithelium of all animals. Together with absorptive enterocytes and secretory gland cells, entero-endocrine cells are generated by the embryonic endoderm and, in the mature animal, from a pool of endoderm derived, self-renewing stem cells. Entero-endocrine cells share many structural/functional and developmental properties with sensory neurons, which hints at the possibility of an ancient evolutionary relationship between these two cell types...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733895/clinical-impact-of-pre-transplant-gut-microbial-diversity-on-outcomes-of-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#9
Noriko Doki, Masahiro Suyama, Satoshi Sasajima, Junko Ota, Aiko Igarashi, Iyo Mimura, Hidetoshi Morita, Yuki Fujioka, Daisuke Sugiyama, Hiroyoshi Nishikawa, Yutaka Shimazu, Wataru Suda, Kozue Takeshita, Koji Atarashi, Masahira Hattori, Eiichi Sato, Kyoko Watakabe-Inamoto, Kosuke Yoshioka, Yuho Najima, Takeshi Kobayashi, Kazuhiko Kakihana, Naoto Takahashi, Hisashi Sakamaki, Kenya Honda, Kazuteru Ohashi
Post-transplant microbial diversity in the gastrointestinal tract is closely associated with clinical outcomes following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, little is known about the impact of the fecal microbiota before allo-HSCT. We analyzed fecal samples approximately 2 weeks before conditioning among 107 allo-HSCT recipients between 2013 and 2015. Microbial analysis was performed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Operational taxonomic unit-based microbial diversity was estimated by calculating the Shannon index...
July 21, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721651/in-vitro-anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-activities-of-3-5-4-trihydroxy-6-7-methylenedioxyflavone-o-glycosides-and-their-aglycone-from-leaves-of-polygonum-tinctorium-lour
#10
Shota Tokuyama-Nakai, Hideto Kimura, Tomoe Ishihara, Mitsuo Jisaka, Kazushige Yokota
Polygonum tinctorium Lour (indigo plant) has been regarded as a useful medicinal plant for traditional herbal medicine. The polyphenolic fraction of indigo leaves exhibited anti-inflammatory activities as determined by the suppressed synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) in cultured RAW264 macrophage cells. The acid hydrolysate of the fraction showed much more potent effect than the unhydrolyzed one. In sharp contrast, those fractions of indigo stems had almost no effect. 3,5,4'-Trihydroxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone (TMF)-O-glycosides and tryptanthrin were detected exclusively in the extracts of the leaves...
July 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720679/potential-for-monitoring-gut-microbiota-for-diagnosing-infections-and-graft-versus-host-disease-in-cancer-and-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#11
Andrew Y Koh
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota, the collective community of microorganisms inhabiting the intestine, have been shown to provide many beneficial functions for the host. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and advanced molecular biology approaches have allowed researchers to identify gut microbiota signatures associated with disease processes and, in some cases, establish causality and elucidate underlying mechanisms. CONTENT: This report reviews 3 commonly used methods for studying the gut microbiota and microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microorganisms): 16S rRNA gene sequencing, bacterial group or species-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS)...
July 18, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718412/stem-cells-cancer-and-musashi-in-blood-and-guts
#12
REVIEW
Michael G Kharas, Christopher J Lengner
The mammalian MSI family of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have important roles as oncoproteins in an array of tumor types, including leukemias, glioblastomas, and pancreatic, breast, lung, and colorectal cancers. The mammalian Msi genes, Msi1 and Msi2, have been most thoroughly investigated in two highly proliferative tissues prone to oncogenic transformation: the hematopoietic lineage and the intestinal epithelium. Despite their vast phenotypic differences, MSI proteins appear to have an analogous role in governing the stem cell compartment in both of these tissues, potentially providing a paradigm for a broader understanding of MSI function and oncogenic activities...
May 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716720/met-signaling-mediates-intestinal-crypt-villus-development-regeneration-and-adenoma-formation-and-is-promoted-by-stem-cell-cd44-isoforms
#13
Sander P J Joosten, Jurrit Zeilstra, Harmen van Andel, R Clinton Mijnals, Joost Zaunbrecher, Annet A M Duivenvoorden, Marc van de Wetering, Hans Clevers, Marcel Spaargaren, Steven T Pals
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Resistance of metastatic human colorectal cancer cells to drugs that block epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling could be caused by aberrant activity of other receptor tyrosine kinases, activating overlapping signaling pathways. One of these receptor tyrosine kinases could be MET, the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We investigated how MET signaling, and its interaction with CD44 (a putative MET co-receptor regulated by Wnt signaling and highly expressed by intestinal stem cells [ISCs] and adenomas) affects intestinal homeostasis, regeneration, and adenoma formation in mini-gut organoids and mice...
July 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700423/sox2-gene-amplification-and-overexpression-is-linked-to-hpv-positive-vulvar-carcinomas
#14
André Gut, Holger Moch, Matthias Choschzick
SOX2 (SRY-related HMG-box 2) belongs to the SOX gene family of high-mobility transcription factors indispensably involved in gene regulation in pluripotent stem cells and neural differentiation. SOX2 copy number increases have been frequently reported in various types of squamous cell cancer. To better understand the effect of SOX2 aberrations on vulvar cancer phenotype and patient prognosis, we analyzed SOX2 copy number changes using fluorescence in situ hybridization and SOX2 expression by immunohistochemistry in 55 squamous cell carcinomas of the vulva...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686611/yorkie-is-required-to-restrict-the-injury-responses-in-planarians
#15
Alexander Y T Lin, Bret J Pearson
Regeneration requires the precise integration of cues that initiate proliferation, direct differentiation, and ultimately re-pattern tissues to the proper size and scale. Yet how these processes are integrated with wounding responses remains relatively unknown. The freshwater planarian, Schmidtea mediterranea, is an ideal model to study the stereotyped proliferative and transcriptional responses to injury due to its high capacity for regeneration. Here, we characterize the effector of the Hippo signalling cascade, yorkie, during planarian regeneration and its role in restricting early injury responses...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671186/transplantation-of-enteric-nervous-system-stem-cells-rescues-nitric-oxide-synthase-deficient-mouse-colon
#16
Conor J McCann, Julie E Cooper, Dipa Natarajan, Benjamin Jevans, Laura E Burnett, Alan J Burns, Nikhil Thapar
Enteric nervous system neuropathy causes a wide range of severe gut motility disorders. Cell replacement of lost neurons using enteric neural stem cells (ENSC) is a possible therapy for these life-limiting disorders. Here we show rescue of gut motility after ENSC transplantation in a mouse model of human enteric neuropathy, the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS(-/-)) deficient mouse model, which displays slow transit in the colon. We further show that transplantation of ENSC into the colon rescues impaired colonic motility with formation of extensive networks of transplanted cells, including the development of nNOS(+) neurons and subsequent restoration of nitrergic responses...
July 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661312/mixed-donor-chimerism-following-simultaneous-pancreas-kidney-transplant
#17
Armin Rashidi, Daniel C Brennan, Ina E Amarillo, Jason R Wellen, Amanda Cashen
OBJECTIVES: Graft-versus-host disease after solid-organ transplant is exceedingly rare. Although the precise pathogenetic mechanisms are unknown, a progressive increase in donor chimerism is a requirement for its development. The incidence of mixed donor chimerism and its timeline after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After encountering 2 cases of graft-versus-host disease after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant at our institution over a period of < 2 years, a collaborative pilot study was conducted by the bone marrow transplant, nephrology, and abdominal transplant surgery teams...
June 28, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648364/differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-colonic-organoids-via-transient-activation-of-bmp-signaling
#18
Jorge O Múnera, Nambirajan Sundaram, Scott A Rankin, David Hill, Carey Watson, Maxime Mahe, Jefferson E Vallance, Noah F Shroyer, Katie L Sinagoga, Adrian Zarzoso-Lacoste, Jonathan R Hudson, Jonathan C Howell, Praneet Chatuvedi, Jason R Spence, John M Shannon, Aaron M Zorn, Michael A Helmrath, James M Wells
Gastric and small intestinal organoids differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have revolutionized the study of gastrointestinal development and disease. Distal gut tissues such as cecum and colon, however, have proved considerably more challenging to derive in vitro. Here we report the differentiation of human colonic organoids (HCOs) from hPSCs. We found that BMP signaling is required to establish a posterior SATB2+ domain in developing and postnatal intestinal epithelium. Brief activation of BMP signaling is sufficient to activate a posterior HOX code and direct hPSC-derived gut tube cultures into HCOs...
July 6, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634937/establishment-of-3d-intestinal-organoid-cultures-from-intestinal-stem-cells
#19
Shinya Sugimoto, Toshiro Sato
The intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly renewed tissue in adult mammals, and its renewal is strictly controlled by intestinal stem cells. Extensive studies using genetic models of intestinal epithelium have revealed the mechanisms underlying the self-renewal of intestinal stem cells. Exploiting this knowledge, we developed a novel 3D culture system that enables the outgrowth of intestinal Lgr5(+) stem cells derived from mouse and human tissues into ever-expanding crypt-villus mini-guts, known as intestinal epithelial organoids...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625828/precision-monitoring-of-immunotherapies-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#20
Rose Diloreto, Kiran Khush, Iwijn De Vlaminck
Pharmacological immunotherapies are a key component of post-transplant therapy in solid-organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In current clinical practice, immunotherapies largely follow a one-size fits all approach, leaving a large portion of transplant recipients either over- or under-immunosuppressed, and consequently at risk of infections or immune-mediated complications. Our goal here is to review recent and rapid advances in precision and genomic medicine approaches to monitoring of post-transplant immunotherapies...
June 15, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
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