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Gut organoid

Sina Bartfeld
Advances in stem cell research have allowed the development of 3-dimensional (3D) primary cell cultures termed organoid cultures, as they closely mimic the in vivo organization of different cell lineages. Bridging the gap between 2-dimensional (2D) monotypic cancer cell lines and whole organisms, organoids are now widely applied to model development and disease. Organoids hold immense promise for addressing novel questions in host-microbe interactions, infectious diseases and the resulting inflammatory conditions...
September 14, 2016: Developmental Biology
Sung Noh Hong, James C Y Dunn, Matthias Stelzner, Martín G Martín
: : Intestinal failure is a rare life-threatening condition that results in the inability to maintain normal growth and hydration status by enteral nutrition alone. Although parenteral nutrition and whole organ allogeneic transplantation have improved the survival of these patients, current therapies are associated with a high risk for morbidity and mortality. Development of methods to propagate adult human intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and pluripotent stem cells raises the possibility of using stem cell-based therapy for patients with monogenic and polygenic forms of intestinal failure...
September 16, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Giulia Nigro, Melissa Hanson, Cindy Fevre, Marc Lecuit, Philippe J Sansonetti
The gut, particularly the colon, is the host of approximately 1000 bacterial species, the so-called gut microbiota. The relationship between the gut microbiota and the host is symbiotic and mutualistic, influencing many aspects of the biology of the host. This homeostatic balance can be disrupted by enteric pathogens, such as Shigella flexneri or Listeria monocytogenes, which are able to invade the epithelial layer and consequently subvert physiological functions. To study the host-microbe interactions in vitro, the crypt culture model, known as intestinal organoids, is a powerful tool...
September 15, 2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Nobuo Sasaki, Norman Sachs, Kay Wiebrands, Saskia I J Ellenbroek, Arianna Fumagalli, Anna Lyubimova, Harry Begthel, Maaike van den Born, Johan H van Es, Wouter R Karthaus, Vivian S W Li, Carmen López-Iglesias, Peter J Peters, Jacco van Rheenen, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Hans Clevers
Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-positive (Lgr5(+)) stem cells reside at crypt bottoms of the small and large intestine. Small intestinal Paneth cells supply Wnt3, EGF, and Notch signals to neighboring Lgr5(+) stem cells. Whereas the colon lacks Paneth cells, deep crypt secretory (DCS) cells are intermingled with Lgr5(+) stem cells at crypt bottoms. Here, we report regenerating islet-derived family member 4 (Reg4) as a marker of DCS cells. To investigate a niche function, we eliminated DCS cells by using the diphtheria-toxin receptor gene knocked into the murine Reg4 locus...
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sebastian R Merker, Jürgen Weitz, Daniel E Stange
The gastrointestinal tract is characterized by a self-renewing epithelium fueled by adult stem cells residing at the bottom of the intestinal crypt and gastric glands. Their activity and proliferation is strongly dependent on complex signaling pathways involving other crypt/gland cells as well as surrounding stromal cells. In recent years organoids are becoming increasingly popular as a new and powerful tool to study developmental or other biological processes. Organoids retain morphological and molecular patterns of the tissue they are derived from, are self-organizing, relatively simple to handle and accessible to genetic engineering...
August 10, 2016: Developmental Biology
Jason W Arnold, Jeffrey Roach, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril
Understanding the importance of the gut microbiome on modulation of host health has become a subject of great interest for researchers across disciplines. As an intrinsically multidisciplinary field, microbiome research has been able to reap the benefits of technological advancements in systems and synthetic biology, biomaterials engineering, and traditional microbiology. Gut microbiome research has been revolutionized by high-throughput sequencing technology, permitting compositional and functional analyses that were previously an unrealistic undertaking...
July 14, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
M Hohwieler, S Renz, S Liebau, Q Lin, A Lechel, J Klaus, L Perkhofer, M Zenke, T Seufferlein, A Illing, M Müller, A Kleger
Human pluripotent stem cells represent a powerful tool to study human embryonic development and disease but also open up novel strategies for cell replacement therapies. Their capacity to give rise to every cell type of the human body, meanwhile, enables researchers to generate high yields of mesodermal, ectodermal, but also endodermal-derived tissues such as hepatic, pancreatic, or intestinal cells. Another progress in the field came with the advent of 3-dimensional culture conditions, so-called organoids, which facilitate maturation of stem cells and in turn more faithfully recapitulate human tissue architecture...
August 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Hans Clevers
Recent advances in 3D culture technology allow embryonic and adult mammalian stem cells to exhibit their remarkable self-organizing properties, and the resulting organoids reflect key structural and functional properties of organs such as kidney, lung, gut, brain and retina. Organoid technology can therefore be used to model human organ development and various human pathologies 'in a dish." Additionally, patient-derived organoids hold promise to predict drug response in a personalized fashion. Organoids open up new avenues for regenerative medicine and, in combination with editing technology, for gene therapy...
June 16, 2016: Cell
Joana F S Pereira, Nikhil T Awatade, Cláudia A Loureiro, Paulo Matos, Margarida D Amaral, Peter Jordan
Cellular models are important tools in various research areas related to colorectal biology and associated diseases. Herein, we review the most widely used cell lines and the different techniques to grow them, either as cell monolayer, polarized two-dimensional epithelia on membrane filters, or as three-dimensional spheres in scaffold-free or matrix-supported culture conditions. Moreover, recent developments, such as gut-on-chip devices or the ex vivo growth of biopsy-derived organoids, are also discussed. We provide an overview on the potential applications but also on the limitations for each of these techniques, while evaluating their contribution to provide more reliable cellular models for research, diagnostic testing, or pharmacological validation related to colon physiology and pathophysiology...
November 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Federica Lorenzi, Roya Babaei-Jadidi, Jonathan Sheard, Bradley Spencer-Dene, Abdolrahman S Nateri
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the top three cancer-related causes of death worldwide. FBXW7 is a known tumor-suppressor gene, commonly mutated in CRC and in a variety of other epithelial tumors. Low expression of FBXW7 is also associated with poor prognosis. Loss of FBXW7 sensitizes cancer cells to certain drugs, while making them more resistant to other types of chemotherapies. However, is not fully understood how epithelial cells within normal gut and primary tumors respond to potential cancer therapeutics...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Takeshi Tsuruta, Shinichi Saito, Yosuke Osaki, Akihiro Hamada, Ayako Aoki-Yoshida, Kei Sonoyama
Intestinal organoids were recently established as an ex vivo model of the intestinal epithelium. The present study investigated the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system using organoids. Organoids from murine small intestinal and colonic crypts were successfully cultured. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that small intestinal and colonic organoids express mRNAs encoding tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) (the rate-limiting enzyme of 5-HT synthesis), serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT), 5-HT receptor (HTR)2A, HTR2B, and HTR4...
May 20, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jorik M van Rijn, Kerstin Schneeberger, Caroline L Wiegerinck, Edward E S Nieuwenhuis, Sabine Middendorp
In many intestinal diseases, the function of the epithelial lining is impaired. In this review, we describe the recent developments of in vitro intestinal stem cell cultures. When these stem cells are grown in 3D structures (organoids), they provide a model of the intestinal epithelium, which is closely similar to the growth and development of the in vivo gut. This model provides a new tool to study various diseases of malabsorption in functional detail and therapeutic applications, which could not be achieved with traditional cell lines...
April 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Peng-Yu Chang, Xing Jin, Yi-Yao Jiang, Li-Xian Wang, Yong-Jun Liu, Jin Wang
Intestinal stem cells are primitive cells found within the intestinal epithelium that play a central role in maintaining epithelial homeostasis through self-renewal and commitment into functional epithelial cells. Several markers are available to identify intestinal stem cells, such as Lgr5, CD24 and EphB2, which can be used to sort intestinal stem cells from mammalian gut. Here, we identify and isolate intestinal stem cells from C57BL/6 mice by using a cell surface antigen, CD44. In vitro, some CD44(+) crypt cells are capable of forming "villus-crypt"-like structures (organoids)...
May 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Alex Gregorieff, Yu Liu, Mohammad R Inanlou, Yuliya Khomchuk, Jeffrey L Wrana
The gut epithelium has remarkable self-renewal capacity that under homeostatic conditions is driven by Wnt signalling in Lgr5(+) intestinal stem cells (ISCs). However, the mechanisms underlying ISC regeneration after injury remain poorly understood. The Hippo signalling pathway mediates tissue growth and is important for regeneration. Here we demonstrate in mice that Yap, a downstream transcriptional effector of Hippo, is critical for recovery of intestinal epithelium after exposure to ionizing radiation. Yap transiently reprograms Lgr5(+) ISCs by suppressing Wnt signalling and excessive Paneth cell differentiation, while promoting cell survival and inducing a regenerative program that includes Egf pathway activation...
October 29, 2015: Nature
Shoichi Date, Toshiro Sato
In the adult mammalian body, self-renewal of tissue stem cells is regulated by extracellular niche environments in response to the demands of tissue organization. Intestinal stem cells expressing Lgr5 constantly self-renew in their specific niche at the crypt bottom to maintain rapid turnover of the epithelium. Niche-regulated stem cell self-renewal is perturbed in several mouse genetic models and during human tumorigenesis, suggesting roles for EGF, Wnt, BMP/TGF-β, and Notch signaling. In vitro niche reconstitution capitalizing on this knowledge has enabled the growth of single intestinal stem cells into mini-gut epithelial organoids comprising Lgr5(+) stem cells and all types of differentiated lineages...
2015: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Yuebang Yin, Marcel Bijvelds, Wen Dang, Lei Xu, Annemiek A van der Eijk, Karen Knipping, Nesrin Tuysuz, Johanna F Dekkers, Yijin Wang, Jeroen de Jonge, Dave Sprengers, Luc J W van der Laan, Jeffrey M Beekman, Derk Ten Berge, Herold J Metselaar, Hugo de Jonge, Marion P G Koopmans, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan
Despite the introduction of oral vaccines, rotavirus still kills over 450,000 children under five years of age annually. The absence of specific treatment prompts research aiming at further understanding of pathogenesis and the development of effective antiviral therapy, which in turn requires advanced experimental models. Given the intrinsic limitations of the classical rotavirus models using immortalized cell lines infected with laboratory-adapted strains in two dimensional cultures, our study aimed to model infection and antiviral therapy of both experimental and patient-derived rotavirus strains using three dimensional cultures of primary intestinal organoids...
November 2015: Antiviral Research
Ying Chen, Yinan Lin, Kimberly M Davis, Qianrui Wang, Jelena Rnjak-Kovacina, Chunmei Li, Ralph R Isberg, Carol A Kumamoto, Joan Mecsas, David L Kaplan
Intestinal functions are central to human physiology, health and disease. Options to study these functions with direct relevance to the human condition remain severely limited when using conventional cell cultures, microfluidic systems, organoids, animal surrogates or human studies. To replicate in vitro the tissue architecture and microenvironments of native intestine, we developed a 3D porous protein scaffolding system, containing a geometrically-engineered hollow lumen, with adaptability to both large and small intestines...
2015: Scientific Reports
Lina A Knudsen, Natalia Petersen, Thue W Schwartz, Kristoffer L Egerod
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are crucial for many biological processes, but their role in the enteroendocrine development and differentiation has been neglected due to the elusive nature of the enteroendocrine cells. However, transgenic mice expressing fluorescent reporter proteins under the control of promoters for Cck, Gpr41, and Lgr5, ie, two different enteroendocrine markers and a marker for the stem cells, now enables identification and FACS purification of enteroendocrine cells at different stages of their differentiation along the crypt-villus axis...
November 2015: Endocrinology
Kaisa Tamminen, Diego Balboa, Sanna Toivonen, Mikko P Pakarinen, Zoltan Wiener, Kari Alitalo, Timo Otonkoski
Wnt/beta-catenin signaling plays a central role in guiding the differentiation of the posterior parts of the primitive gut tube into intestinal structures in vivo and some studies suggest that FGF4 is another crucial factor for intestinal development. The aim of this study was to define the effects of Wnt and FGF4 on intestinal commitment in vitro by establishing conditions for differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) into posterior endoderm (hindgut) and further to self-renewing intestinal-like organoids...
2015: PloS One
Bing Zhao, Zhen Qi, Yehua Li, Chongkai Wang, Wei Fu, Ye-Guang Chen
Lgr5+ stem cells are crucial to gut epithelium homeostasis, and therapies targeting these cells hold promise for treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Here we report that the non-muscle-myosin-II (NMII) heavy chain Myh9 accumulates at epithelial injury sites in mice distal colon treated with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Gut-epithelium-specific Myh9 monoallelic deletion alleviates DSS-induced colonic crypt damage and acute colitis. Consistently, the NMII inhibitor blebbistatin can improve the survival of Lgr5+ stem cells and the growth of Lgr5 organoids...
2015: Nature Communications
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