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Non-small cell lung cancer side effects

Sarah Fernandes Teixeira, Ricardo Alexandre de Azevedo, Arthur Carvalho Silva, Rodolpho Campos Braga, Salomão Dória Jorge, José Alexandre Marzagão Barbuto, Carolina Horta Andrade, Adilson Kleber Ferreira
Even with all improvements in both diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, lung cancer remains as the most lethal and prevalent cancer in the world. Therefore, new therapeutic drugs and new strategies of drug combination are necessary to provide treatments that are more efficient. Currently, standard therapy regimen for lung cancer includes platinum drugs, such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin, and carboplatin. Besides of the better toxicity profile of oxaliplatin when compared with cisplatin, peripheral neuropathy remains as a limitation of oxaliplatin dose...
October 18, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Aimi Huang, Rong Li, Jikai Zhao, Xiaofei Wang, Bo Jin, Yanjie Niu, Jie Zhang, Liyan Jiang, Baohui Han
This article demonstrates a case of a lung adenocarcinoma patient in stage IV harboring an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) 19 exon deletion mutation treated with 500 mg/m(2) pemetrexed and 75 mg/m(2) cisplatin on day 1, sequenced with 250 mg gefitinib on prescription on days 4-28 for six cycles as first-line, then by gefitinib combined with pemetrexed as maintenance therapy. The patient achieved a partial response. Performance status increased from grade 2 to 1. The progression-free survival period was 17 months...
September 2016: Thoracic Cancer
Chee Khoon Lee, Johnathan Man, Sally Lord, Matthew Links, Val Gebski, Tony Mok, James Chih-Hsin Yang
INTRODUCTION: We performed a meta-analysis to assess the role of immune-checkpoint inhibitors as second-line therapy in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Randomized trials comparing immune-checkpoint inhibitors against chemotherapy were identified. We retrieved the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for overall survival (OS) of the intention-to-treat population and EGFR mutation defined subgroups...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Xiaoyan Kang, Nan Zhu, Xia Song
In recent years, targeted drugs occupy a pivotal position in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), drugs targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been widely used in clinical practice, it is of milestone significance. V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) inhibitors targeted at BRAF gene have obviously clinical efficacy to specific advantages populations with little side-effect, and be well tolerated. It is discovered recently that drug resistance also exists in BRAF inhibitors like other targeted drugs, the mechanism of drug resistance is being studied...
October 20, 2016: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Glenwood Goss, Chun-Ming Tsai, Frances A Shepherd, Lyudmila Bazhenova, Jong Seok Lee, Gee-Chen Chang, Lucio Crino, Miyako Satouchi, Quincy Chu, Toyoaki Hida, Ji-Youn Han, Oscar Juan, Frank Dunphy, Makoto Nishio, Jin-Hyoung Kang, Margarita Majem, Helen Mann, Mireille Cantarini, Serban Ghiorghiu, Tetsuya Mitsudomi
BACKGROUND: Osimertinib (AZD9291) is an oral, potent, irreversible EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor selective for EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor sensitising mutations, and the EGFR Thr790Met resistance mutation. We assessed the efficacy and safety of osimertinib in patients with EGFR Thr790Met-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who had progressed after previous therapy with an approved EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor. METHODS: In this phase 2, open-label, single-arm study (AURA2), patients aged at least 18 years with centrally confirmed EGFR Thr790Met-positive mutations, locally advanced or metastatic (stage IIIB/IV) NSCLC who progressed on previous EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor therapy received osimertinib 80 mg orally once daily; treatment could continue beyond progression if the investigator observed a clinical benefit...
October 14, 2016: Lancet Oncology
Ankit Mangla, Nikki Agarwal, Chou Carmel, Thomas Lad
Erlotinib is one of the most widely used tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor. Since its introduction, it has revolutionized the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Skin rashes and diarrhea are the most often reported side effects of erlotinib however it is also associated with interstitial pneumonitis or interstitial lung disease, which often turns out to be fatal complication of using this medicine. Though reported scarcely in the western world, the association of interstitial lung disease with epidermal growth factor receptor has attracted a lot of attention in the recent times...
September 5, 2016: Rare Tumors
Corey J Langer, Shirish M Gadgeel, Hossein Borghaei, Vassiliki A Papadimitrakopoulou, Amita Patnaik, Steven F Powell, Ryan D Gentzler, Renato G Martins, James P Stevenson, Shadia I Jalal, Amit Panwalkar, James Chih-Hsin Yang, Matthew Gubens, Lecia V Sequist, Mark M Awad, Joseph Fiore, Yang Ge, Harry Raftopoulos, Leena Gandhi
BACKGROUND: Limited evidence exists to show that adding a third agent to platinum-doublet chemotherapy improves efficacy in the first-line advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) setting. The anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab has shown efficacy as monotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC and has a non-overlapping toxicity profile with chemotherapy. We assessed whether the addition of pembrolizumab to platinum-doublet chemotherapy improves efficacy in patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Oncology
Jie Xiao, Xiaobo Xu, Xiao Li, Yanli Li, Guobing Liu, Hui Tan, Hua Shen, Hongcheng Shi, Dengfeng Cheng
The malignant behaviors of solid tumors such as growth, infiltration and metastasis are mainly nourished by tumor neovascularization. Thus, anti-angiogenic therapy is key to controlling tumor progression. Bevacizumab, a humanized anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody, plus chemotherapy or biological therapy can prolong survival for cancer patients, but treatment-related mortality is a concern. To improve inhibitory effect and decrease side-effects on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we used Re-188, which is a β emitting radionuclide, directly labeled with bevacizumab for radioimmunotherapy in a human A549 tumor model...
September 30, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Hao Gu, Xin-Yu Wu, Rui-Tai Fan, Xin Wang, You-Zhong Guo, Rui Wang
The side population (SP) assay is a widely used method for isolating stem cell-like cells from cancer cell lines and primary cells. The cancer cells used in different laboratories have been passaged for different generations. Emerging evidence revealed that repeated passaging of cell lines for multiple generations frequently leads to change of characteristics. Thus, it is worth investigating the effects of repeated passaging on the biological and functional properties of the enriched SP fraction from early- and late-passage cells...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Ana Vanessa Nascimento, Amit Singh, Hassan Bousbaa, Domingos Ferreira, Bruno Sarmento, Mansoor M Amiji
: Efficiency of chemotherapy is often limited by low therapeutic index of the drug as well as emergence of inherent and acquired drug resistance in cancer cells. As a common strategy to overcome drug resistance, higher doses of chemo-agents are administered. However, adverse side effects are usually increased as a consequence. A potentially effective approach is to combine chemotherapy with other therapeutic strategies such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that allow the use of lower yet efficient doses of the anticancer drugs...
September 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Kangwook Lee, Yoon-Sik Kim, Chang-Gue Son, Jung-Hyo Cho, Hwa-Seung Yoo, Jonghoon Lee, Juyoung Ryu, Namhun Lee
ABSTRACT: HASH(0x4f936a8) ABSTRACT: Lung cancer has a high mortality rate and is often diagnosed at the metastatic stage. Gefitinib is a targeted molecular therapeutic drug used to treat patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Korean herbal medicines may also have therapeutic efficacy against lung cancer, reduce the side effects associated with chemotherapy, and improve patient quality of life (QOL). This case report describes the effects of a Korean herbal medicine regimen combined with gefitinib in a patient with NSCLC and bone metastasis...
September 2016: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
Tian-Qing Chu, Rong Li, Min-Hua Shao, Jun-Yi Ye, Bao-Hui Han
AIM: Although targeted therapy is very efficient for lung cancer, traditional platinum-based chemotherapies are still the principal strategy in the absence of positive biomarkers. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the contribution of RAD18 polymorphisms to platinum-chemotherapy response and its potential side effects in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: A total of 1021 Chinese patients with histological diagnosis of advanced NSCLC were enrolled...
September 26, 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Hongsheng Yu, Yong Qu, Qingjun Shang, Chao Yan, Peng Jiang, Xiang Wang, Donghai Liang, Tao Jiang
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the clinical effects of low-dose splenic irradiation on locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with stage III NSCLC were randomly divided into a control group and a combined treatment group. The control group only received chest three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, while the combined treatment group received low-dose splenic irradiation followed by chest three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy after 6 hours...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Gareth C Livingston, Andrew J Last, Thomas P Shakespeare, Patrick M Dwyer, Justin Westhuyzen, Michael J McKay, Lisa Connors, Stephanie Leader, Stuart Greenham
INTRODUCTION: For patients receiving radiotherapy for locally advance non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the probability of experiencing severe radiation pneumonitis (RP) appears to rise with an increase in radiation received by the lungs. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) provides the ability to reduce planned doses to healthy organs at risk (OAR) and can potentially reduce treatment-related side effects. This study reports toxicity outcomes and provides a dosimetric comparison with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT)...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Etienne Giroux Leprieur, Alexis B Cortot, Jacques Cadranel, Marie Wislez
The acquisition of a resistance EGFR mutation in exon 20 (T790M) occurs in half of the cases of secondary resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), given in first-line treatment in advanced EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Osimertinib (AZD9291, Tagrisso(®)) is a third-generation, irreversible EGFR TKI, active in case of T790M mutation. A large phase I trial showed the efficacy of osimertinib after failure of first-generation EGFR TKI (erlotinib, gefitinib), with response rate at 51% and up to 61% in case of T790M mutation...
September 15, 2016: Bulletin du Cancer
Paula Mulvenna, Matthew Nankivell, Rachael Barton, Corinne Faivre-Finn, Paula Wilson, Elaine McColl, Barbara Moore, Iona Brisbane, David Ardron, Tanya Holt, Sally Morgan, Caroline Lee, Kathryn Waite, Neil Bayman, Cheryl Pugh, Benjamin Sydes, Richard Stephens, Mahesh K Parmar, Ruth E Langley
BACKGROUND: Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and dexamethasone are widely used to treat brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), although there have been no randomised clinical trials showing that WBRT improves either quality of life or overall survival. Even after treatment with WBRT, the prognosis of this patient group is poor. We aimed to establish whether WBRT could be omitted without a significant effect on survival or quality of life. METHODS: The Quality of Life after Treatment for Brain Metastases (QUARTZ) study is a non-inferiority, phase 3 randomised trial done at 69 UK and three Australian centres...
September 2, 2016: Lancet
Hua Zheng, Hongmei Zhang, Tongmei Zhang, Qunhui Wang, Fanbin Hu, Baolan Li
Erlotinib is among the oral EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors used to treat non-small cell lung cancer. The common side effects of erlotinib include acne form rash and diarrhea. Eyelash trichomegaly and alterations of scalp hair are rarely observed symptoms. In the present study, we report changes in eyelash trichomegaly and scalp hair in six cases of pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients that had been administered erlotinib. The symptoms of eyelash trichomegaly include curly, irregular, excessively long and brittle eyelashes, and alterations of scalp hair include curly or straight, brittle, fine or rigid, reduced growth rate and volume...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
H Semper, F Muehlberg, J Schulz-Menger, M Allewelt, C Grohé
Immunotherapy such as nivolumab is a new promising therapeutic option for advanced stage non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Due to the interference with the immune system previously unknown side effects are observed both in clinical studies and experience. Autoimmune phenomena effecting skin, gastrointestinal tract, endocrine glands, kidney and lung have been described. Up to now there is only limited information regarding potential cardiac side effects. We present a case of symptomatic drug induced myocarditis after nine cycles of nivolumab in a patient with efficient anticancer response...
September 2016: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Igal Kushnir, Ido Wolf
Nivolumab, a programmed death 1 (PD1) inhibitor, belongs to a family of drugs known as immune checkpoint inhibitors that share a similar toxicity profile, which includes rash, pruritus, colitis, hepatitis, pneumonitis and thyroid dysfunction. Nivolumab has a proven efficacy in the treatment of malignant melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma. We present the case of a 67-year-old male patient with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the lung who suffered from a massive pericardial effusion secondary to treatment with nivolumab, which he began in June 2015...
August 24, 2016: Cardiology
Angelika Bickel, Irene Koneth, Annette Enzler-Tschudy, Jörg Neuweiler, Lukas Flatz, Martin Früh
BACKGROUND: Pembrolizumab is an anti- Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) antibody approved in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and investigated in malignant pleural mesothelioma. The most frequent immunotherapy related autoimmune reactions include dermatitis, pneumonitis, colitis, hypophysitis, uveitis, hypothyreodism, hepatitis and interstitial nephritis. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a 62-year old patient diagnosed with malignant pleural mesothelioma who experienced ten days after the second dose of third line therapy with pembrolizumab sudden onset of generalized edema including legs and eyelids and weight gain of 15 kg resulting from nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure...
2016: BMC Cancer
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