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Non-small cell lung cancer side effects

Liping Sun, Jing Liu, Yanggang Yuan, Xinzhou Zhang, Zheng Dong
As a potent chemotherapy drug, cisplatin is also notorious for its side effects including nephrotoxicity in kidneys, presenting a pressing need to identify renoprotective agents. Cisplatin nephrotoxicity involves epigenetic regulations, including changes in histone acetylation. Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins are "readers" of the epigenetic code of histone acetylation. Here, we investigated the potential renoprotective effects of JQ1, a small molecule inhibitor of BET proteins. We show that JQ1 significantly ameliorated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice as indicated by the measurements of kidney function, histopathology, and renal tubular apoptosis...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Yuming Wan, Jing Huang, Feng Xu
A few study has proven that about 90% of local control rates might be benefit from stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with medically inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it is reported SBRT associated overall survival and tumor specific survival is comparable with those treated with surgery. SBRT has been accepted as the first line treatment for inoperable patients with peripheral located stage I NSCLC. However, the role of SBRT in centrally located lesions is controversial for potential toxic effects from the adjacent anatomical structure...
May 20, 2018: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Yu-Chun Chang, Yan Ding, Lingsheng Dong, Lang-Jing Zhu, Roderick V Jensen, Li-Li Hsiao
Background: Using DNA microarrays, we previously identified 451 genes expressed in 19 different human tissues. Although ubiquitously expressed, the variable expression patterns of these "housekeeping genes" (HKGs) could separate one normal human tissue type from another. Current focus on identifying "specific disease markers" is problematic as single gene expression in a given sample represents the specific cellular states of the sample at the time of collection. In this study, we examine the diagnostic and prognostic potential of the variable expressions of HKGs in lung cancers...
2018: PeerJ
Y Zhang, X Q Wang, H Liu, J Liu, W Hou, H S Lin
Objective: To observe the efficacy of the combination of chemotherapy and Ginseng Rg3 on advanced non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC). Methods: In the multi-center, large-sample, randomized, double blind trial, 414 patients with Ⅲ-Ⅳ NSCLC were enrolled.199 were in the experimental group and 215 the control group. The patients in the experimental group were treated with the standard first-line chemotherapy combined with Ginseng Rg3. The patients in the control group were treated with the same chemotherapy combined with placebo...
April 23, 2018: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
Ying Zhao, Wenfei Liu, Ying Tian, ZhenLu Yang, Xiaofen Wang, Yunlei Zhang, Yuxia Tang, Shuang Zhao, Chunyan Wang, Ying Liu, Jing Sun, Zhaogang Teng, Shouju Wang, Guangming Lu
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is difficult to cure since the high recurrence rate and the side effects of current treatments. It is urgent to develop a new treatment that is safer and more effective than current treatments against NSCLC. Herein, we constructed anti-EGFR peptide conjugated PEGylated triangular gold nanoplates (TGN-PEG-P75) as a targeting photothermal therapy (PTT) agent to treat NSCLC under the guidance of computed tomography (CT) and photoacoustic imaging (PAI). The surface of TGNs is successfully conjugated with a novel peptide P75 that has the specific affinity with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)...
May 3, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xinyu Song, Xiaoyue Han, Fabiao Yu, Xiaoyu Zhang, Lingxin Chen, Changjun Lv
The therapy of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is challenging because of poor prognosis. There are urgent demands for targeting anti-tumor drugs with reliable efficacy and clear pharmacokinetics. Methods : We designed and synthesized an active tumor-targeting prodrug for the precision therapy of NSCLC. The prodrug polyamine analog Gefitinib (PPG) was derived from the conjugation between a tumor-targeting ligand polyamine analog (PA) and an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor Gefitinib via a cleavable disulfide linker...
2018: Theranostics
Ichiro Sakanoue, Hiroshi Hamakawa, Reiko Kaji, Yukihiro Imai, Nobuyuki Katakami, Yutaka Takahashi
Afatinib, the second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), has been postulated to be associated with improved inhibition of EGFR-dependent tumor growth compared with first-generation EGFR-TKIs for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We present a case of lung adenocarcinoma (cT3N0M0) treated with neoadjuvant afatinib and sleeve lobectomy. Because of the location of the tumor, reduced FEV1 value, and the presence of EGFR mutation, the patient was planned to be prescribed afatinib (30 mg daily) for 3 weeks as neoadjuvant therapy and underwent sleeve lobectomy to avoid pneumonectomy as much as possible...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Sabine Visser, Mark de Mol, Kiki Cheung, Jermo J van Toor, Nico C van Walree, Bruno H Stricker, Brenda L Den Oudsten, Joachim G J V Aerts
INTRODUCTION: In patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, the treatment benefits and risks need to be constantly weighed. We explored patient-reported satisfaction with therapy (SWT) and assessed its value in addition to quality of life (QoL) and adverse events (AEs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a prospective multicenter cohort study, patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer received platinum-pemetrexed chemotherapy. They completed the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQoL-BREF) and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) before and during chemotherapy...
March 17, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Hang-Lung Chang, Hsin-An Chen, Oluwaseun Adebayo Bamodu, Kwai-Fong Lee, Yew-Min Tzeng, Wei-Hwa Lee, Jo-Ting Tsai
The cancer stem cells (CSCs) theory recently became a focus of heightened attention in cancer biology, with the proposition that CSCs may constitute an important therapeutic target for effective anticancer therapy, because of their demonstrated role in tumor initiation, chemo-, and radio-resistance. Liver CSCs are a small subpopulation of poorly- or undifferentiated liver tumor cells, implicated in tumorigenesis, metastasis, resistance to therapy and disease relapse, enriched with and associated with the functional markers corresponding to the CSCs-enriched side population (SP), high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, and enhanced formation of in vitro liver CSCs models, referred to herein as hepatospheres...
April 23, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Shaakir Hasan, Athanasios Colonias, Timothy Mickus, Matthew VanDeusen, Rodney E Wegner
BACKGROUND: There is emerging reliance on clinical imaging for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment evaluation of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients deemed too high risk for biopsy. We report our experience of clinically diagnosed NSCLC treated empirically with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to validate the imaging parameters used for management in this high-risk population. METHODS: We reviewed 101 empiric lung SBRT cases and profiled imaging specifics of computed tomography and positron emission tomography for diagnosis and follow-up...
April 26, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Mary R Zhang, Sichuan Xi, Vivek Shukla, Julie A Hong, Haobin Chen, Yin Xiong, R Taylor Ripley, Chuong D Hoang, David S Schrump
Previously we reported that mithramycin represses multiple pathways critical for stem cell signaling and pluripotency in lung cancer cells. This phenomenon coincided with decreased side population fraction and dramatic dose-dependent growth arrest of lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, microarray, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot experiments were performed to further examine the effects of mithramycin on stem cell gene expression in lung cancer cells...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Sandy El Bitar, Chanudi Weerasinghe, Elie El-Charabaty, Marcel Odaimi
Immune checkpoint blockade therapy is gaining popularity among oncologists for treatment of solid and hematologic malignancies. The widespread use of these agents resulted in increasing incidence of renal immune-related adverse events. Reported renal toxicity described so far includes acute interstitial nephritis, minimal change disease, and immune complex glomerulonephritis. We report the case of a 79-year-old female with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer on anti-PD-1 therapy nivolumab. After the 4th administration of nivolumab, the treatment course was complicated with normal anion gap metabolic acidosis...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Sagun Parakh, Jonathan Cebon, Oliver Klein
Treatment with anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) antibodies has demonstrated clinical efficacy in a whole range of malignancies including advanced melanoma, renal cell cancer, bladder cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer. Immune-related adverse events are a unique side effect of checkpoint regulator therapy including anti-PD-1 antibodies. Treatment-related autoimmunity can occur in any organ system, with the median onset usually within 5-15 weeks from the commencement of therapy, depending on the organ system involved...
April 17, 2018: Oncologist
Patrick M Forde, Jamie E Chaft, Kellie N Smith, Valsamo Anagnostou, Tricia R Cottrell, Matthew D Hellmann, Marianna Zahurak, Stephen C Yang, David R Jones, Stephen Broderick, Richard J Battafarano, Moises J Velez, Natasha Rekhtman, Zachary Olah, Jarushka Naidoo, Kristen A Marrone, Franco Verde, Haidan Guo, Jiajia Zhang, Justina X Caushi, Hok Yee Chan, John-William Sidhom, Robert B Scharpf, James White, Edward Gabrielson, Hao Wang, Gary L Rosner, Valerie Rusch, Jedd D Wolchok, Taha Merghoub, Janis M Taube, Victor E Velculescu, Suzanne L Topalian, Julie R Brahmer, Drew M Pardoll
Background Antibodies that block programmed death 1 (PD-1) protein improve survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but have not been tested in resectable NSCLC, a condition in which little progress has been made during the past decade. Methods In this pilot study, we administered two preoperative doses of PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab in adults with untreated, surgically resectable early (stage I, II, or IIIA) NSCLC. Nivolumab (at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight) was administered intravenously every 2 weeks, with surgery planned approximately 4 weeks after the first dose...
April 16, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Yanjie Wei, Chenhao Li, Yuan Zhang, Hailan He, Guozhi Zhang, Xiaohui Hao, Heliang Liu, Hongli Wang, Wei Tian
Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) represents a new generation of anticancer drugs, with almost no side effects when used for the treatment of a number of types of cancer. Autophagy is becoming recognized as an important biological mechanism in human cancer, including lung cancer. However, the involvement of autophagy in the antiproliferative effects of HCPT on lung cancer remains unclear. In the present study, A549 cells, an accepted model of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, were employed. It was demonstrated that HCPT was able to suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis and autophagy in A549 cells...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
Naoyuki Matsumoto, Akira Kumasaka, Tomohiro Ando, Kazuo Komiyama
BACKGROUND/AIM: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a target of molecular therapeutics for non-small cell lung cancer. EGFR gene mutations at codons 746-753 promote constitutive EGFR activation and result in worst prognosis. However, these mutations augment the therapeutic effect of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Therefore, the detection of EGFR gene mutations is important for determining treatment planning. The aim of the study was to establish a method to detect EGFR gene mutations at codons 746-753...
April 2018: Anticancer Research
Benjamin Chaucer, Abriella Stone, Augustus Demanes, Shawn M Seibert
The treatment of cancer is a rapidly evolving field. As more chemotherapeutic agents become available, reporting the side effects of these agents in clinical practice becomes increasingly important. Nivolumab is one of the chemotherapeutic agents commonly used for treatment of renal cell carcinoma, metastatic melanoma, and metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. While common side effects are known and well documented, encephalitis is documented as an extremely rare side effect. We present the case of an extremely rare side effect to a common chemotherapeutic agent...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Mokwena Mpho Gift, Kruger Cherie Ann, Mfouo-Tynga Ivan, Abrahamse Heidi
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide and so current research is focused on trying to improve treatment modalities, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT has 3 fundamental factors, namely a photosensitizer (PS) drug, light and oxygen. When a PS drug is administered to a patient, it can either passively or actively accumulate within a tumour site and once exposed to a specific wavelength of light, it is stimulated to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in tumour destruction...
March 24, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Tae Hoon Kong, Sung Min Han, Young Joon Seo
Docetaxel, derived from the yew tree, belongs to the taxane family of medications. It works by disrupting the normal function of microtubules, thereby stopping cell division. Docetaxel is used in the treatment of ovarian, breast, esophageal, gastric, prostate, lung, and head and neck cancers. Common side effects include hair loss, low blood cell counts, peripheral neuropathy, vomiting, and muscle pain. Auricular chondritis with ear deformity has not been reported previously as a side effect of docetaxel. In this paper, we present the case of a 64-year-old male patient with chondritis accompanied by ear deformity that developed due to docetaxel-carboplatin chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Uri Barash, Moshe Lapidot, Yaniv Zohar, Cynthia Loomis, Andre Moreira, Sari Feld, Chandra Goparaju, Haining Yang, Edward Hammond, Ganlin Zhang, Jin-Ping Li, Neta Ilan, Arnon Nagler, Harvey I Pass, Israel Vlodavsky
Background: Mammalian cells express a single functional heparanase, an endoglycosidase that cleaves heparan sulfate and thereby promotes tumor metastasis, angiogenesis, and inflammation. Malignant mesothelioma is highly aggressive and has a poor prognosis because of the lack of markers for early diagnosis and resistance to conventional therapies. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mode of action and biological significance of heparanase in mesothelioma and test the efficacy of heparanase inhibitors in the treatment of this malignancy...
March 21, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
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