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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139177/a-structural-overview-of-mycobacterial-adhesins-key-biomarkers-for-diagnostics-and-therapeutics
#1
REVIEW
Flavia Squeglia, Alessia Ruggiero, Alfonso De Simone, Rita Berisio
Adherence, colonization, and survival of mycobacteria in host cells require surface adhesins, which are attractive pharmacotherapeutic targets. A large arsenal of pilus and non-pilus adhesins have been identified in mycobacteria. These adhesins are capable of interacting with host cells, including macrophages and epithelial cells and are essential to microbial pathogenesis. In the last decade, several structures of mycobacterial adhesins responsible for adhesion to either macrophages or extra cellular matrix proteins have been elucidated...
November 15, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124475/pre-oxidation-of-low-density-polyethylene-ldpe-by-ultraviolet-light-uv-promotes-enhanced-degradation-of-ldpe-in-soil
#2
Prosun Tribedi, Samrat Dey
Polyethylene represents nearly 64% of all the synthetic plastics produced and are mainly used for domestic and industrial applications. Their extensive use poses a serious environmental threat because of their non-biodegradable nature. Among all the polyethylene remediation strategies, in situ bioremediation happens to be the safest and efficient one. In the current study, efforts had been given to compare the extent of LDPE degradation under UV-treated and UV-untreated conditions by soil microcosm. Landfill soil was collected and UV-treated and UV-untreated LDPE were added separately to the soil following incubation under similar conditions...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121673/influence-of-vitamin-d-on-key-bacterial-taxa-in-infant-microbiota-in-the-koala-birth-cohort-study
#3
Chris E Talsness, John Penders, Eugène H J M Jansen, Jan Damoiseaux, Carel Thijs, Monique Mommers
Vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties giving it the potential to affect microbial colonization of the intestinal tract. We investigated whether maternal vitamin D supplemention, maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, or direct supplementation of the infant influences key bacterial taxa within microbiota of one month old infants. Infant and maternal vitamin D supplement use was ascertained via questionnaires. Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D was determined at approximately the 36th week of pregnancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042186/bacterial-biofilm-and-associated-infections
#4
REVIEW
Muhsin Jamal, Wisal Ahmad, Saadia Andleeb, Fazal Jalil, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Asif Nawaz, Tahir Hussain, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Rafiq, Muhammad Atif Kamil
Microscopic entities, microorganisms that drastically affect human health need to be thoroughly investigated. A biofilm is an architectural colony of microorganisms, within a matrix of extracellular polymeric substance that they produce. Biofilm contains microbial cells adherent to one-another and to a static surface (living or non-living). Bacterial biofilms are usually pathogenic in nature and can cause nosocomial infections. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) revealed that among all microbial and chronic infections, 65% and 80%, respectively, are associated with biofilm formation...
October 14, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023718/backscattered-electron-imaging-and-electron-backscattered-diffraction-in-the-study-of-bacterial-attachment-to-titanium-alloy-structure
#5
Anqi Wang, Ian P Jones, Gabriel Landini, Junfa Mei, Yau Y Tse, Yue X Li, Linnan Ke, Yuanli Huang, L I Liu, Chunren Wang, Rachel L Sammons
The application of secondary electron (SE) imaging, backscattered electron imaging (BSE) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) was investigated in this work to study the bacterial adhesion and proliferation on a commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) and a Ti6Al4V alloy (Ti 64) with respect to substrate microstructure and chemical composition. Adherence of Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis 11047 and Streptococcus sanguinis GW2, and Gram-negative Serratia sp. NCIMB 40259 and Escherichia coli 10418 was compared on cp Ti, Ti 64, pure aluminium (Al) and vanadium (V)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976770/level-of-fimbriation-alters-the-adhesion-of-escherichia-coli-bacteria-to-interfaces
#6
Ryan B McLay, Hang N Nguyen, Yuly Andrea Jaimes-Lizcano, Narendra K Dewangan, Simone Alexandrova, Debora F Rodrigues, Patrick C Cirino, Jacinta C Conrad
Adhesion of bacteria to interfaces is the first step in pathogenic infection, in biofilm formation, and in bioremediation of oil spills and other pollutants. Bacteria use a variety of surface structures to promote interfacial adhesion, with the level of expression of these structures varying in response to local conditions and environmental signals. Here, we investigated how overexpression of type 1 fimbriae, one such appendage, modifies the ability of Escherichia coli to adhere to solid substrates, via biofilm formation and yeast agglomeration, and to oil/water interfaces, via a microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon assay...
October 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970909/engineering-microbial-physiology-with-synthetic-polymers-cationic-polymers-induce-biofilm-formation-in-vibrio-cholerae-and-downregulate-the-expression-of-virulence-genes
#7
Nicolas Perez-Soto, Lauren Moule, Daniel N Crisan, Ignacio Insua, Leanne M Taylor-Smith, Kerstin Voelz, Francisco Fernandez-Trillo, Anne Marie Krachler
Here we report the first application of non-bactericidal synthetic polymers to modulate the physiology of a bacterial pathogen. Poly(N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] methacrylamide) (P1) and poly(N-(3-aminopropyl)methacrylamide) (P2), cationic polymers that bind to the surface of V. cholerae, the infectious agent causing cholera disease, can sequester the pathogen into clusters. Upon clustering, V. cholerae transitions to a sessile lifestyle, characterised by increased biofilm production and the repression of key virulence factors such as the cholera toxin (CTX)...
August 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966069/biotimer-assay-a-reliable-and-rapid-method-for-the-evaluation-of-central-venous-catheter-microbial-colonization
#8
Luigi Rosa, Antimo Cutone, Monica Coletti, Maria Stefania Lepanto, Mellani Scotti, Piera Valenti, Giammarco Raponi, Maria Cristina Ghezzi, Francesca Berlutti
Adherent bacteria and biofilm frequently colonize central venous catheters (CVCs). CVC colonization is correlated to infections and particularly to bloodstream ones. The classical microbiological methods to determine of CVC colonization are not fully reliable and are time-consuming. BioTimer Assay (BTA) is a biological method already used to count bacteria adherent to abiotic surfaces and biofilm without sample manipulation. BTA employs specific reagents whose color changed according to bacterial metabolism...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966064/in%C3%A2-vitro-assessment-of-stainless-steel-orthodontic-brackets-coated-with-titanium-oxide-mixed-ag-for-anti-adherent-and-antibacterial-properties-against-streptococcus-mutans-and-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#9
Eman Jameel Fatani, Hamed H Almutairi, Ali O Alharbi, Yasser Obaidallah Alnakhli, Darshan Devang Divakar, Muzaheed, Abdulaziz Abdullah Alkheraif, Aftab Ahmed Khan
Orthodontic brackets made from stainless steel were introduced in dentistry, though they have less ability in reducing enamel demineralization and are not successful in preventing microbial as well as biofilm growth. In this study, we evaluated the significant role of different brackets in reducing enamel demineralization indirectly. Results from different tests indicate the significant reduction in adhesion, biofilm formation and slow growth of tested bacterial species on brackets coated with Ag + TiO2 and found to be statistically significant lower than control...
September 29, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960848/influence-of-thickness-color-and-polishing-process-of-ethylene-vinyl-acetate-sheets-on-surface-roughness-and-microorganism-adhesion
#10
Mariane Hemerly Almeida, Geovana Ventorim Ceschim, Natalia Lopes Pontes Póvoa Iorio, Helvécio Cardoso Corrêa Póvoa, Marlus Roberto Rodrigues Cajazeira, Glaucio Serra Gumaraes, Leonardo Santos Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves Antunes
BACKGROUND/AIM: The surface roughness of dental materials can make cleaning difficult, thus facilitating retention of food debris and accumulation of microorganisms. The aim of this study was to assess whether thickness, color and the polishing process influence the surface roughness of ethylene-vinyl-acetate (EVA) sheets and the amount of microorganisms that adhere to them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 180 samples of EVA (5x5mm) were divided into nine groups according to thickness (G1 = 2 mm; G2 = 3 mm; and G3 = 4 mm), color (G4 = black and G5 = white) and type of polishing (G6 = Scheu(™) ; G7 = Scheu(™) associated with hot-air burner; G8 = Erkodent(™) and G9 = Erkodent(™) associated with hot-air burner)...
September 28, 2017: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956407/-function-of-biofilms-in-phytopathogenic-bacterial-host-interactions
#11
Liyang Song, Rongxiang Fang, Yantao Jia
Biofilms are complex three-dimensional bacterial assemblages that attach to biotic or abiotic solid surfaces, and frequently embed within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Biofilm formation is a microbial defense response to biotic and abiotic stresses, and a key factor for survival in adverse environments. A wide variety of microorganisms can colonize distant tissues of higher plants, such as leaves, vascular network and roots, and adhere to the surface of the tissues to form biofilms...
September 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955629/biodegradation-of-thermally-treated-high-density-polyethylene-hdpe-by-klebsiella-pneumoniae-ch001
#12
Shraddha Awasthi, Pratap Srivastava, Pardeep Singh, D Tiwary, Pradeep Kumar Mishra
Biodegradation of plastics, which are the potential source of environmental pollution, has received a great deal of attention in the recent years. We aim to screen, identify, and characterize a bacterial strain capable of degrading high-density polyethylene (HDPE). In the present study, we studied HDPE biodegradation using a laboratory isolate, which was identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae CH001 (Accession No MF399051). The HDPE film was characterized by Universal Tensile Machine (UTM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) before and after microbial incubation...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949328/compliance-with-minimum-information-guidelines-in-public-metabolomics-repositories
#13
Rachel A Spicer, Reza Salek, Christoph Steinbeck
The Metabolomics Standards Initiative (MSI) guidelines were first published in 2007. These guidelines provided reporting standards for all stages of metabolomics analysis: experimental design, biological context, chemical analysis and data processing. Since 2012, a series of public metabolomics databases and repositories, which accept the deposition of metabolomic datasets, have arisen. In this study, the compliance of 399 public data sets, from four major metabolomics data repositories, to the biological context MSI reporting standards was evaluated...
September 26, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937854/probiotics-from-isolation-to-application
#14
Parisa Shokryazdan, Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi, Juan Boo Liang, Yin Wan Ho
Probiotics have become highly recognized as supplements for humans and animals because of their beneficial effects on health and well-being. The present review aims to provide an overview of different steps through which microbial strains become applicable probiotics in food and/or feed industries. Isolation of potential probiotic strains is the first step. Lactic acid bacteria are the most frequently used microorganisms as probiotics, which can be isolated from human, animal, plant, and environment. The next steps are identification of the isolates and characterization of them based on the main selection criteria for any potential probiotic microorganism, including resistance to gastric acidity and bile salt, adherence to mucus and/or intestinal epithelial cells and cell lines, and antimicrobial and antagonism activity against potentially pathogenic microbes...
September 22, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934240/microbial-characterization-of-bee-pollen-from-the-vesuvius-area-collected-by-using-three-different-traps
#15
Gianluigi Mauriello, Annachiara De Prisco, Gennaro Di Prisco, Antonietta La Storia, Emilio Caprio
Flower pollen is collected by honeybee foragers, adhered on their rear legs and transported into the hives in the form of pellets. Once in the hives, bee pollen is moisturised with nectar and bee mouth secretions and due to enzymatically modifications it becomes the so-called bee-bread, the protein reservoir of young bees. Bee pollen can be artificially removed from bee legs and collected by using specific systems, the bee pollen traps. Bee pollen is commercialized for human consumption as fresh product and after freezing or drying...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922800/changes-in-fibre-adherent-and-fluid-associated-microbial-communities-and-fermentation-profiles-in-the-rumen-of-cattle-fed-diets-differing-in-hay-quality-and-concentrate-amount
#16
Fenja Klevenhusen, Renee M Petri, Maria-Theresia Kleefisch, Ratchaneewan Khiaosa-Ard, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli, Qendrim Zebeli
The rumen microbiota enable important metabolic functions to the host cattle. Feeding of starch-rich concentrate feedstuffs to cattle has been demonstrated to increase the risk of metabolic disorders and to significantly alter the rumen microbiome. Thus, alternative feeding strategies like the use of high-quality hay, rich in sugars, as an alternative energy source need to be explored. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in rumen microbial abundances in the liquid and solid-associated fraction of cattle fed two hay qualities differing in sugar content with graded amounts of starchy concentrate feeds using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914579/a-polymicrobial-view-of-disease-potential-in-crohn-s-associated-adherent-invasive-e-coli
#17
Wael Elhenawy, Alexander Oberc, Brian K Coombes
The human gut is home to trillions of bacteria and provides the scaffold for one of the most complex microbial ecosystems in nature. Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease, involve a compositional shift in the microbial constituents of this ecosystem with a marked expansion of Enterobacteriaceae, particularly Escherichia coli. Adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) strains are frequently isolated from the biopsies of Crohn's patients, where their ability to elicit inflammation suggests a possible role in Crohn's pathology...
September 15, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906463/inhibition-of-adherence-of-mycobacterium-avium-to-plumbing-surface-biofilms-of-methylobacterium-spp
#18
Mari Carmen Muñoz Egea, Pan Ji, Amy Pruden, Joseph O Falkinham Iii
Both Mycobacterium spp. and Methylobacterium spp. are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens that are found on pipe surfaces in households. However, examination of data published in prior microbiological surveys indicates that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. tend not to coexist in the same household plumbing biofilms. That evidence led us to test the hypothesis that Methylobacterium spp. in biofilms could inhibit the adherence of Mycobacterium avium. Measurements of adherence of M. avium cells to stainless steel coupons using both culture and PCR-based methods showed that the presence of Methylobacterium spp...
September 14, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904999/linking-spatial-structure-and-community-level-biotic-interactions-through-cooccurrence-and-time-series-modeling-of-the-human-intestinal-microbiota
#19
Eric J de Muinck, Knut E A Lundin, Pål Trosvik
The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome is a densely populated ecosystem where dynamics are determined by interactions between microbial community members, as well as host factors. The spatial organization of this system is thought to be important in human health, yet this aspect of our resident microbiome is still poorly understood. In this study, we report significant spatial structure of the GI microbiota, and we identify general categories of spatial patterning in the distribution of microbial taxa along a healthy human GI tract...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888647/fibronectin-fibrinogen-binding-protein-fbps-is-not-a-critical-virulence-factor-for-the-streptococcus-suis-serotype-2-strain-zy05719
#20
Quan Li, Yang Fu, Yanan He, Yuhang Zhang, Yunyun Qian, Yanfei Yu, Huochun Yao, Chengping Lu, Wei Zhang
Fibronectin-/fibrinogen-binding protein (FBPS) of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an atypical anchorless microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM) for which the role in bacterial infection are not clearly established. To investigate the biological functions of FBPS, an fbps knockout mutant was constructed in SS2 strain ZY05719 to explore the phenotypic changes between the wild-type and mutant strains. Cell morphology analyses combined with the basic growth curves showed that deletion of fbps does not significantly influence neither the thickness of the capsule of SS2 nor the cell growth characteristic...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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