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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434261/strategies-to-prevent-infections-associated-with-cardiovascular-implantable-electronic-devices
#1
Bharath Raj Palraj, Saira Farid, M Rizwan Sohail
Infections involving cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) are associated with high morbidity and mortality and substantial financial cost. In the past two decades, the rate of CIED infections has increased disproportionate to the number of devices implanted, likely due to aging patient population with multiple comorbidities. Microbial contamination of the generator pocket and or leads by skin flora at the time of implantation is a major mechanism for early CIED infections. Due to resistance to host immune cells and antibiotics caused by biofilm formation, complete removal of the device generator and leads is required to achieve cure...
April 24, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407426/a-short-history-of-microbial-biofilms-and-biofilm-infections
#2
REVIEW
Niels Høiby
The observation of aggregated microbes surrounded by a self-produced matrix adhering to surfaces or located in tissues or secretions is old since both Leeuwenhoek and Pasteur have described the phenomenon. In environmental and technical microbiology, biofilms, 80-90 years ago, were already shown to be important for biofouling on submerged surfaces, for example, ships. The concept of biofilm infections and their importance in medicine was, however, initiated in the early 1970s by the observation of heaps of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells in sputum and lung tissue from chronically infected cystic fibrosis patients...
April 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403171/bacterial-biofilm-under-flow-first-a-physical-struggle-to-stay-then-a-matter-of-breathing
#3
Philippe Thomen, Jérôme Robert, Amaury Monmeyran, Anne-Florence Bitbol, Carine Douarche, Nelly Henry
Bacterial communities attached to surfaces under fluid flow represent a widespread lifestyle of the microbial world. Through shear stress generation and molecular transport regulation, hydrodynamics conveys effects that are very different by nature but strongly coupled. To decipher the influence of these levers on bacterial biofilms immersed in moving fluids, we quantitatively and simultaneously investigated physicochemical and biological properties of the biofilm. We designed a millifluidic setup allowing to control hydrodynamic conditions and to monitor biofilm development in real time using microscope imaging...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369412/molecular-mechanisms-of-biofilm-based-antibiotic-resistance-and-tolerance-in-pathogenic-bacteria
#4
Clayton W Hall, Thien-Fah Mah
Biofilms are surface-attached groups of microbial cells encased in an extracellular matrix that are significantly less susceptible to antimicrobial agents than non-adherent, planktonic cells. Biofilm-based infections are, as a result, extremely difficult to cure. A wide range of molecular mechanisms contribute to the high degree of recalcitrance that is characteristic of biofilm communities. These mechanisms include, among others, interaction of antimicrobials with biofilm matrix components, reduced growth rates and the various actions of specific genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance and tolerance...
March 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364222/siderophores-and-mussel-foot-proteins-the-role-of-catechol-cations-and-metal-coordination-in-surface-adhesion
#5
REVIEW
Greg P Maier, Alison Butler
Metal coordination, hydrogen bonding, redox reactions, and covalent crosslinking are seemingly disparate chemical and physicochemical processes that are all accomplished in natural materials by the catechol functional group. This review focuses on the reactivity of catechols in tris-2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-containing microbial siderophores and synthetic analogs, as well as Dopa-(3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine)-containing mussel foot proteins that adhere to surfaces in aqueous conditions. Mussel foot proteins with a high content of Dopa and cationic amino acids, Lys and Arg, adhere strongly to mica, an aluminosilicate mineral, in aqueous conditions...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358034/in-silico-identification-of-potential-inhibitors-targeting-streptococcus-mutans-sortase-a
#6
Hao Luo, Dan-Feng Liang, Min-Yue Bao, Rong Sun, Yuan-Yuan Li, Jian-Zong Li, Xin Wang, Kai-Min Lu, Jin-Ku Bao
Dental caries is one of the most common chronic diseases and is caused by acid fermentation of bacteria adhered to the teeth. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) utilizes sortase A (SrtA) to anchor surface proteins to the cell wall and forms a biofilm to facilitate its adhesion to the tooth surface. Some plant natural products, especially several flavonoids, are effective inhibitors of SrtA. However, given the limited number of inhibitors and the development of drug resistance, the discovery of new inhibitors is urgent...
March 2017: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351412/effect-of-pycnogenol%C3%A2-on-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Annelies A J Verlaet, Berten Ceulemans, Helene Verhelst, Dirk Van West, Tess De Bruyne, Luc Pieters, Huub F J Savelkoul, Nina Hermans
BACKGROUND: Methylphenidate (MPH), the first choice medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is associated with serious adverse effects like arrhythmia. Evidence on the association of ADHD with immune and oxidant-antioxidant imbalances offers potential for antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory nutritional supplements as ADHD therapy. One small randomised trial in ADHD suggests, despite various limitations, therapeutic benefit from Pycnogenol®, a herbal, polyphenol-rich extract...
March 28, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347177/new-mechanistic-insights-into-the-motile-to-sessile-switch-in-various-bacteria-with-particular-emphasis-on-bacillus-subtilis-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-a-review
#8
Faizan A Sadiq, Steve Flint, Yun Li, TongJie Liu, Yuan Lei, Hafiz Arbab Sakandar, GuoQing He
A biofilm is a complex assemblage of microbial communities adhered to a biotic or an abiotic surface which is embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Many transcriptional regulators play a role in triggering a motile-sessile switch and in consequently producing the biofilm matrix. This review is aimed at highlighting the role of two nucleotide signaling molecules (c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP), toxin antitoxin modules and a novel transcriptional regulator BolA in biofilm formation in various bacteria...
April 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343672/effect-of-titanium-and-zirconia-dental-implant-abutments-on-a-cultivable-polymicrobial-saliva-community
#9
Erica D de Avila, Carlos Eduardo Vergani, Francisco A Mollo Junior, Miguel Jafelicci Junior, Wenyuan Shi, Renate Lux
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Periimplantitis is considered the most important biological complication responsible for late implant failure. The physical chemical properties intrinsic to each material can affect the first step to biofilm development and is an important precursor to the adaptive behavior of pathogenic bacteria species. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of 2 commercially available implant abutment materials on the adhesion phase and biofilm formation...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334144/the-effects-of-plant-nutritional-strategy-on-soil-microbial-denitrification-activity-through-rhizosphere-primary-metabolites
#10
Julien P Guyonnet, Florian Vautrin, Guillaume Meiffren, Clément Labois, Amélie A M Cantarel, Serge Michalet, Gilles Comte, Feth El Zahar Haichar
The aim of this study was to determine (i) whether plant nutritional strategy affects the composition of primary metabolites exuded into the rhizosphere and (ii) the impact of exuded metabolites on denitrification activity in soil. We answered this question by analysing primary metabolite content extracted from the root-adhering soil (RAS) and the roots of three grasses representing different nutrient management strategies: conservative (Festuca paniculata), intermediate (Bromus erectus) and exploitative (Dactylis glomerata)...
April 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327522/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-shewanella-phage-host-system-from-the-gut-of-the-tunicate-ciona-intestinalis
#11
Brittany Leigh, Charlotte Karrer, John P Cannon, Mya Breitbart, Larry J Dishaw
Outnumbering all other biological entities on earth, bacteriophages (phages) play critical roles in structuring microbial communities through bacterial infection and subsequent lysis, as well as through horizontal gene transfer. While numerous studies have examined the effects of phages on free-living bacterial cells, much less is known regarding the role of phage infection in host-associated biofilms, which help to stabilize adherent microbial communities. Here we report the cultivation and characterization of a novel strain of Shewanella fidelis from the gut of the marine tunicate Ciona intestinalis, inducible prophages from the S...
March 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326079/differences-in-ureolytic-bacterial-composition-between-the-rumen-digesta-and-rumen-wall-based-on-urec-gene-classification
#12
Di Jin, Shengguo Zhao, Nan Zheng, Dengpan Bu, Yves Beckers, Stuart E Denman, Christopher S McSweeney, Jiaqi Wang
Ureolytic bacteria are key organisms in the rumen producing urease enzymes to catalyze the breakdown of urea to ammonia for the synthesis of microbial protein. However, little is known about the diversity and distribution of rumen ureolytic microorganisms. The urease gene (ureC) has been the target gene of choice for analysis of the urea-degrading microorganisms in various environments. In this study, we investigated the predominant ureC genes of the ureolytic bacteria in the rumen of dairy cows using high-throughput sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301290/production-of-a-halotolerant-biofilm-from-green-coffee-beans-immobilized-on-loofah-fiber-luffa-cylindrica-and-its-effect-on-phenanthrene-degradation-in-seawater
#13
Sonia Acosta-Rubí, Araceli Tomasini Campocosio, María Del Carmen Montes-Horcasitas, Liliana Quintanar-Vera, Fernando Esparza-García, Refugio Rodríguez-Vázquez
A biofilm developed from low quality green coffee beans was tested for its capacity to degrade the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), phenanthrene (Phe), in seawater. Microorganisms were immobilized on two types of Luffa cylindrica (with three and four placental cavities), and the effects of moisture content (20, 30 and 40% of water holding capacity) and particle size (<0.42 mm, 0.42-0.86 mm and 0.86-2.0 mm) of green coffee beans on microbial activity were considered. Biofilm growth determined by respirometry showed a highest microbial activity at a moisture content of 40% and particle size of 0...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295372/surface-charge-modification-decreases-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-adherence-in-vitro-and-bacterial-persistence-in-an-in-vivo-implant-model
#14
W Katherine Kao, Patricia M Gagnon, Joseph P Vogel, Richard A Chole
OBJECTIVE: Chronic, persistent infections complicate otologic procedures utilizing implantable devices such as cochlear implants or tympanostomy tubes. These infections are thought to be due to the establishment of microbial biofilms on implant surfaces. To address this issue, we hypothesized that surface charge modification may inhibit the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms on implant surfaces in vitro and in vivo. STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated the effect of surface charge modification on bacterial biofilm formation by assessing the effect of the surface charge on bacterial adhesion in vitro and bacterial persistence in vivo...
March 14, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246035/functional-gene-profiling-through-metarnaseq-approach-reveals-diet-dependent-variation-in-rumen-microbiota-of-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis
#15
Ankit T Hinsu, Nidhi R Parmar, Neelam M Nathani, Ramesh J Pandit, Anand B Patel, Amrutlal K Patel, Chaitanya G Joshi
Recent advances in next generation sequencing technology have enabled analysis of complex microbial community from genome to transcriptome level. In the present study, metatranscriptomic approach was applied to elucidate functionally active bacteria and their biological processes in rumen of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) adapted to different dietary treatments. Buffaloes were adapted to a diet containing 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0 forage to concentrate ratio, each for 6 weeks, before ruminal content sample collection...
April 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240279/specialized-activities-and-expression-differences-for-clostridium-thermocellum-biofilm-and-planktonic-cells
#16
Alexandru Dumitrache, Dawn M Klingeman, Jace Natzke, Miguel Rodriguez, Richard J Giannone, Robert L Hettich, Brian H Davison, Steven D Brown
Clostridium (Ruminiclostridium) thermocellum is a model organism for its ability to deconstruct plant biomass and convert the cellulose into ethanol. The bacterium forms biofilms adherent to lignocellulosic feedstocks in a continuous cell-monolayer in order to efficiently break down and uptake cellulose hydrolysates. We developed a novel bioreactor design to generate separate sessile and planktonic cell populations for omics studies. Sessile cells had significantly greater expression of genes involved in catabolism of carbohydrates by glycolysis and pyruvate fermentation, ATP generation by proton gradient, the anabolism of proteins and lipids and cellular functions critical for cell division consistent with substrate replete conditions...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229593/development-of-laser-structured-liquid-infused-titanium-with-strong-biofilm-repellent-properties
#17
Katharina Doll, Elena Fadeeva, Joern Schaeske, Tobias Ehmke, Andreas Winkel, Alexander Heisterkamp, Boris N Chichkov, Meike Stiesch, Nico S Stumpp
Medical implants are commonly used in modern medicine but still harbor the risk of microbial infections caused by bacterial biofilms. As their retrospective treatment is difficult, there is a need for biomedical materials that inhibit bacterial colonization from the start without using antibacterial agents, as these can promote resistance development. The promising concept of slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) possesses enormous potential for this purpose. In the present study, this principle was applied to titanium, a common material in implantology, and its biofilm-repellent properties were demonstrated...
March 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221885/antibacterial-and-antiadhesive-activities-of-extracts-from-edible-plants-against-soft-drink-spoilage-by-asaia-spp
#18
Hubert Antolak, Agata Czyzowska, Dorota Kregiel
This study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and antiadhesive activities of ethanol extracts from five edible plant parts: cinnamon bark ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum ), licorice root ( Glycyrrhiza radix ), nettle leaves ( Urtica dioica ), green tea leaves ( Camellia sinensis ), and elderberry flowers ( Sambucus nigra ). The chemical constituents of the extracts were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography plus mass spectrometry. Six strains of Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis bacteria isolated from spoiled commercial fruit-flavored noncarbonated mineral water were used...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207869/impact-of-wall-shear-stress-on-initial-bacterial-adhesion-in-rotating-annular-reactor
#19
Thibaut Saur, Emilie Morin, Frédéric Habouzit, Nicolas Bernet, Renaud Escudié
The objective of this study was to investigate the bacterial adhesion under different wall shear stresses in turbulent flow and using a diverse bacterial consortium. A better understanding of the mechanisms governing microbial adhesion can be useful in diverse domains such as industrial processes, medical fields or environmental biotechnologies. The impact of wall shear stress-four values ranging from 0.09 to 7.3 Pa on polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-was carried out in rotating annular reactors to evaluate the adhesion in terms of morphological and microbiological structures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193634/purified-streptococcus-pneumoniae-endopeptidase-o-pepo-enhances-particle-uptake-by-macrophages-in-a-toll-like-receptor-2-and-mir-155-dependent-manner
#20
Hua Yao, Hong Zhang, Kai Lan, Hong Wang, Yufeng Su, Dagen Li, Zhixin Song, Fang Cui, Yibing Yin, Xuemei Zhang
Insights into the host-microbial virulence factor interaction, especially the immune signaling mechanisms, could provide novel prevention and treatment options for pneumococcal diseases. Streptococcus pneumoniae endopeptidase O (PepO) is a newly discovered and ubiquitously expressed pneumococcal virulence protein. A PepO-mutant strain showed impaired adherence to and invasion of host cells compared with the isogenic wild-type strain. It is still unknown whether PepO is involved in the host defense response to pneumococcal infection...
April 2017: Infection and Immunity
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