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Microbial adherence

Mohammad Sadekuzzaman, Md Furkanur Rahaman Mizan, Sungdae Yang, Hyung-Suk Kim, Sang-Do Ha
Microbial biofilms pose a serious threat to food industry, as they are difficult to inactivate or remove owing to their inherent resistance to traditional physical and antimicrobial treatments. Bacteriophages have been suggested as promising biocontrol agents for eliminating biofilms within the food industry. The efficacy of phages (BP 1369 and BP 1370) was evaluated against Salmonella spp. in biofilms. Biofilms were grown on food (lettuce), food contact surfaces (stainless steel and rubber), and MBEC biofilm devices...
January 1, 2018: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Piera Valenti, Luigi Rosa, Daniela Capobianco, Maria Stefania Lepanto, Elisa Schiavi, Antimo Cutone, Rosalba Paesano, Paola Mastromarino
The innate defense system of the female mucosal genital tract involves a close and complex interaction among the healthy vaginal microbiota, different cells, and various proteins that protect the host from pathogens. Vaginal lactobacilli and lactoferrin represent two essential actors in the vaginal environment. Lactobacilli represent the dominant bacterial species able to prevent facultative and obligate anaerobes outnumber in vaginal microbiota maintaining healthy microbial homeostasis. Several mechanisms underlie the protection exerted by lactobacilli: competition for nutrients and tissue adherence, reduction of the vaginal pH, modulation of immunity, and production of bioactive compounds...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sandra Schulz, Manfred Maitz, Stefanie Hänsel, Lars D Renner, Carsten Werner
Advanced blood contacting biomaterials are designed to combine antiseptic and anticoagulant functionalities. Here, we present a new in vitro methodology for the analysis of bacterial adhesion and growth after the preceding human whole blood incubation of the tested materials. Poly(styrene) surfaces as well as thrombin-responsive and non-responsive poly(ethylene glycol)-heparin hydrogel coatings, with and without silver functionalization, were analyzed with this approach using freshly drawn human whole blood and various human pathogens (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli)...
March 15, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Christoph A Thaiss, Maayan Levy, Inna Grosheva, Danping Zheng, Eliran Soffer, Eran Blacher, Sofia Braverman, Anouk C Tengeler, Oren Barak, Maya Elazar, Rotem Ben-Zeev, Dana Lehavi-Regev, Meirav N Katz, Meirav Pevsner-Fischer, Arieh Gertler, Zamir Halpern, Alon Harmelin, Suhail Aamar, Patricia Serradas, Alexandra Grosfeld, Hagit Shapiro, Benjamin Geiger, Eran Elinav
Obesity, diabetes and related manifestations are associated with an enhanced, but poorly understood risk for mucosal infection and systemic inflammation. Here, we show in mouse models of obesity and diabetes that hyperglycemia drives intestinal barrier permeability, through GLUT2-dependent transcriptional reprogramming of intestinal epithelial cells and alteration of tight and adherence junction integrity. Consequently, hyperglycemia-mediated barrier disruption leads to systemic influx of microbial products and enhanced dissemination of enteric infection...
March 8, 2018: Science
Wiesława Grzesińska, Marzena Tomaszewska, Beata Bilska, Joanna Trafiałek, Michał Dziadek
Background: Providing safe food products to the consumer depends on the material and technology used and adherence to hygienic practices, throughout the production process. The degree of microbial contamination of a surface is an important indicator of equipment cleanliness and effectiveness of cleaning and disinfection. Used material, construction solutions and quality of the applied devices also have an effect on hygienic status. Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the design and construction material of selected food storage racks, available on the Polish market, on their hygienic status...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Jaime Moreno-García, Teresa García-Martínez, Juan C Mauricio, Juan Moreno
Yeast immobilization is defined as the physical confinement of intact cells to a region of space with conservation of biological activity. The use of these methodologies for alcoholic fermentation (AF) offers many advantages over the use of the conventional free yeast cell method and different immobilization systems have been proposed so far for different applications, like winemaking. The most studied methods for yeast immobilization include the use of natural supports (e.g., fruit pieces), organic supports (e...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sergio Villalpando-Guzmán, Carlos Ramón Vázquez-Quiñones, Iván Natividad-Bonifacio, Everardo Curiel-Quesada, Elsa Irma Quiñones-Ramírez, Carlos Vázquez-Salinas
BACKGROUND: Food of animal origin is often involved in salmonellosis outbreaks. AIM: To evaluate the frequency of Salmonella enterica in chicken, beef and pork ground meat (a total of 2,592 samples) obtained from travelling markets and supermarkets at the Iztapalapa area of Mexico City, in order to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and adherence capacity of isolated strains. METHODS: Isolation of S. enterica was carried out according to the BAM-FDA, the microbial susceptibility according with CLSI and adherence assay on HEp-2 cell line according with Baffone et al...
October 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Xiaomin Chen, David A Sullivan, Amy Gallant Sullivan, Wendy R Kam, Yang Liu
Cosmetic products, such as mascara, eye shadow, eyeliner and eye makeup remover are used extensively to highlight the eyes or clean the eyelids, and typically contain preservatives to prevent microbial growth. These preservatives include benzalkonium chloride (BAK) and formaldehyde (FA)-releasing preservatives. We hypothesize that these preservatives, at concentrations (BAK = 1 mg/ml; FA = 0.74 mg/ml) approved for consumer use, are toxic to human ocular surface and adnexal cells. Accordingly, we tested the influence of BAK and FA on the morphology, survival, and proliferation and signaling ability of immortalized human meibomian gland (iHMGECs), corneal (iHCECs) and conjunctival (iHConjECs) epithelial cells...
February 24, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Guangshun Yi, Yuan Yuan, Xiukai Li, Yugen Zhang
ZnO nanopillars coated on various surfaces are able to kill adhered bacteria and fungi due to their physical structure through a rupturing mechanism. Remarkably, zinc foil and galvanized steel surfaces with ZnO nanopillar coatings demonstrate an excellent remote bacteria-killing property. Their bacterial killing efficacy is several orders higher than ZnO nanopillars coated on other surfaces as well as ZnO nanoparticles themselves. Mechanistic study shows that the nanostructure surface kills adhered microbial cells by rupturing the cell wall, while superoxide (• O2 - ) released from the ZnO coating with electrons donated from zinc via the Zn/ZnO interface rather than photoirritation is responsible for the superior remote killing...
February 22, 2018: Small
Surabhi Singh, Amlan Gupta, Deepika Sharma, Bhuvanesh Gupta
Dextran based bionanocomposite membranes encapsulating clove oil (CO) and sandalwood oil (SO) that are capable of preventing infection due to their inherent virtue of antibacterial activity and modifying the wound healing cascade for accelerated scar free healing, were developed. A facile solvent casting technique was used to fabricate dextran/nanosoy/glycerol/chitosan (DNG/Ch) nanocomposite membranes followed by subsequent addition of CO and SO to obtain DNG/Ch/CO and DNG/Ch/SO herbal nanodressings. Dressings exhibited >98% antibacterial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus (S...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Abdulrahman M Saadalla, Abu Osman, Michael F Gurish, Kristen L Dennis, Nichole R Blatner, Abdulmohammad Pezeshki, Kelly M McNagny, Hilde Cheroutre, Fotini Gounari, Khashayarsha Khazaie
Mast cells (MCs) are tissue resident sentinels that mature and orchestrate inflammation in response to infection and allergy. While they are also frequently observed in tumors, the contribution of MCs to carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that sequential oncogenic events in gut epithelia expand different types of MCs in a temporal-, spatial-, and cytokine-dependent manner. The first wave of MCs expands focally in benign adenomatous polyps, which have elevated levels of IL-10, IL-13, and IL-33, and are rich in type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s)...
February 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mai O Kadry, Rehab Abdel Megeed
Cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant that causes a variety of disturbances in biological systems, including brain dysfunction and testicular tissue degeneration. On the other hand, it is supposed that beneficial properties of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus and Acidobacillus) are related to their capacity to adhere or bind different targets, thus leading to improved intestinal microbial balance and other benefits to the host. Bearing aforementioned in mind, the present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of probiotic supplementation against cadmium chloride-induced brain and testis toxicity in mice model...
February 9, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Maryam Momeni, Mohammad Zarehaghighi, Mirhamed Hajimiri, Ghasemali Khorasani, Rassoul Dinarvand, Abdolhossein Nekookar, Niloofar Sodeifi, Pardis Khosravani, Niloofar Shayanasl, Marzieh Ebrahimi
It is more than a decade that amniotic membrane has been used as a wound dressing because of its anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-fibrotic, anti-scaring properties, as well as its pain relieving and epithelialization promoting features. However, amniotic membrane had limited applications because it needs to suture in surgery, is highly fragile, firmly adhere to the wound and may cause bleeding and pain when changing the bandage. This study investigated the possibility of development of a novel amniotic-based chitosan gel dressing as a potential wound repair substrate with marked efficacy...
February 9, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Géssica A Costa, Fernanda C P Rossatto, Aline W Medeiros, Ana Paula F Correa, Adriano Brandelli, Ana Paula G Frazzon, Amanda DE S DA Motta
The adhesion ability of bacteria to abiotic surfaces has important implications in food industries, because these organisms can survive for long periods through the biofilm formation. They can be transferred from one place to another in the industry causing contamination of the food processing environment. In this study, the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of the antimicrobial peptide P34, characterized as a bacteriocin-like substance (BLS P34) were tested against planktonic and sessile cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis isolated from foods...
February 1, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Ee Lin Tek, Joanna F Sundstrom, Jennie M Gardner, Stephen G Oliver, Vladimir Jiranek
Commercially available active dried wine yeasts are regularly used by winemakers worldwide to achieve reliable fermentations and obtain quality wine. This practice has led to increased evidence of traces of commercial wine yeast in the vineyard, winery and uninoculated musts. The mechanism(s) that enables commercial wine yeast to persist in the winery environment and the influence to native microbial communities on this persistence is poorly understood. This study has investigated the ability of commercial wine yeasts to form biofilms and adhere to plastic...
January 31, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Nikolai V Ravin, Andrey L Rakitin, Anastasia A Ivanova, Alexey V Beletsky, Irina S Kulichevskaya, Andrey V Mardanov, Svetlana N Dedysh
Members of the bacterial order Planctomycetales have often been observed in associations with Crustacea. The ability to degrade chitin, however, has never been reported for any of the cultured planctomycetes, although utilization of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) as sole carbon and nitrogen source is well-recognized for these bacteria. Here, we demonstrate the chitinolytic capability of a member of the family Gemmataceae, Fimbriiglobus ruber SP5T, which was isolated from a peat bog. As revealed by metatranscriptomic analysis of chitin-amended peat, the pool of 16S rRNA reads from F...
January 26, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Caroline B Costa-Orlandi, Janaina C O Sardi, Nayla S Pitangui, Haroldo C de Oliveira, Liliana Scorzoni, Mariana C Galeane, Kaila P Medina-Alarcón, Wanessa C M A Melo, Mônica Y Marcelino, Jaqueline D Braz, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida, Maria José S Mendes-Giannini
Biofilm formation is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi. Both yeasts and filamentous fungi can adhere to biotic and abiotic surfaces, developing into highly organized communities that are resistant to antimicrobials and environmental conditions. In recent years, new genera of fungi have been correlated with biofilm formation. However, Candida biofilms remain the most widely studied from the morphological and molecular perspectives. Biofilms formed by yeast and filamentous fungi present differences, and studies of polymicrobial communities have become increasingly important...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Anna L Casey, Tarja J Karpanen, Peter Nightingale, Tom Sj Elliott
BACKGROUND: needle-free connectors are widely used in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to identify any differences between microbial ingress into six different connectors (three neutral-displacement, one negative-displacement and two anti-reflux connectors). METHODS: each connector underwent a 7-day clinical simulation involving repeated microbial contamination of the connector's injection ports with Staphylococcus aureus followed by decontamination and then saline flushes through each connector...
January 25, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Rebecca E Washburn, Jennifer J Pietsch
BACKGROUND: Strict adherence to each step of reprocessing is imperative to removing potentially infectious agents. Multiple methods for verifying proper reprocessing exist; however, each presents challenges and limitations, and best practice within the industry has not been established. Our goal was to evaluate endoscope cleaning verification tests with particular interest in the evaluation of the manual cleaning step. The results of the cleaning verification tests were compared with microbial culturing to see if a positive cleaning verification test would be predictive of microbial growth...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Bansidhar Tarai, Dinesh Jain, Poonam Das, Sandeeep Budhiraja
The objective of this study was to show the differences between paired blood cultures (PBC) versus single blood cultures (SBC) in the microbiologic yield, the sensitivity to detect pathogens and the time to positivity (TTP). We performed a retrospective study examining 112,570 blood culture samples over a 5-year period from July 2011 to May 2016 in the BacT/ALERT® 3D automated blood culture system (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). Bacteria and yeasts were identified using the VITEK® 2 Compact system (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France)...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
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