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Microbial adherence

Debarun Dutta, Ajay K Vijay, Naresh Kumar, Mark D P Willcox
Purpose: To determine the ability of antimicrobial peptide melimine-coated contact lenses to reduce the incidence of microbial keratitis (MK) in a rabbit model of contact lens wear. Methods: In vitro antimicrobial activity of melimine-coated contact lenses was determined against Pseudomonas aeruginosa by viable count and a radiolabeled assay. The amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) associated with bacteria bound to melimine-coated and control lenses was determined...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Alejandra Itzel González-Ramírez, Adrián Ramírez-Granillo, María Gabriela Medina-Canales, Aída Verónica Rodríguez-Tovar, María Angeles Martínez-Rivera
BACKGROUND: Biofilms are a highly structured consortia of microorganisms that adhere to a substrate and are encased within an extracellular matrix (ECM) that is produced by the organisms themselves. Aspergillus fumigatus is a biotechnological fungus that has a medical and phytopathogenic significance, and its biofilm occurs in both natural and artificial environments; therefore, studies on the stages observed in biofilm formation are of great significance due to the limited knowledge that exists on this specific topic and because there are multiple applications that are being carried out...
October 18, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Todd Atherly, Curtis Mosher, Chong Wang, Jesse Hostetter, Alexandra Proctor, Meghan W Brand, Gregory J Phillips, Michael Wannemuehler, Albert E Jergens
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter bilis infection of C3H/HeN mice harboring the altered Schaedler flora (ASF) triggers progressive immune responsiveness and the development of colitis. We sought to investigate temporal alterations in community structure of a defined (ASF-colonized) microbiota in normal and inflamed murine intestines and to correlate microbiota changes to histopathologic lesions. METHODS: The colonic mucosal microbiota of healthy mice and ASF mice colonized with H...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Sundru Manjulata Devi, Subramanian Aishwarya, Prakash M Halami
The present study was aimed to evaluate the diversity and probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum-group cultures from vegetable origin. First, genotypic diversity of L. plantarum (n=34) was achieved by PCR of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and recA gene-specific multiplex PCR. The isolates were segregated into five groups namely, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus arizonensis, Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum and argentoratensis. Further discrimination was achieved by restriction fragment length polymorphism of probiotic adhesion genes viz...
October 5, 2016: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Julien Tap, Muriel Derrien, Hans Törnblom, Rémi Brazeilles, Stéphanie Cools-Portier, Joël Doré, Stine Störsrud, Boris Le Nevé, Lena Öhman, Magnus Simrén
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We have limited knowledge about the association between the composition of the intestinal microbiota and clinical features of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We collected information on the fecal and mucosa-associated microbiota of patients with IBS and evaluated whether these were associated with symptoms. METHODS: We collected fecal and mucosal samples from adult patients who met the Rome III criteria for IBS at secondary or tertiary care outpatient clinics in Sweden, as well as from healthy subjects...
October 7, 2016: Gastroenterology
S Y Lee, E J Kim, J S Kim, I Hwang, T D Chung
By applying an in vivo biotinylation platform, glutamate-sensing protein can be easily immobilized on streptavidin-functionalized magnetic microbeads, which expands the detection modality for the spatiotemporal measurements of glutamate secreted by adherent neuronal cells and suspension microbial cells using fluorescence microscopy and microplate photometers.
September 27, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Maria Clara Padovani de Souza, Andrezza Gouvêa Dos Santos, Adriano Max Moreira Reis
Background The inappropriate use of systemic antifungal agents can result in unnecessary exposure, adverse events, increased microbial resistance and increased costs. Aim This study analysed the use of systemic antifungal agents and adherence to treatment guidelines for fungal infections. Setting A Brazilian tertiary hospital. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated 183 patients who were treated with systemic antifungals. Antifungal drugs were classified according to the fourth level of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Lizi Bensoussan, Sarah Moraïs, Bareket Dassa, Nir Friedman, Bernard Henrissat, Vincent Lombard, Edward A Bayer, Itzhak Mizrahi
The cellulosome is an extracellular multi-enzyme complex that is considered one of the most efficient plant cell wall-degrading strategies devised by nature. Its unique modular architecture, achieved by high affinity and specific interaction between protein modules (cohesins and dockerins) enables formation of various enzyme combinations. Extensive research has been dedicated to the mechanistic nature of the cellulosome complex. Nevertheless, little is known regarding its distribution and abundance among microbes in natural plant fiber-rich environments...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Masatoshi Morikawa, Satoshi Tsujibe, Junko Kiyoshima-Shibata, Yohei Watanabe, Noriko Kato-Nagaoka, Kan Shida, Satoshi Matsumoto
Phagocytes such as dendritic cells and macrophages, which are distributed in the small intestinal mucosa, play a crucial role in maintaining mucosal homeostasis by sampling the luminal gut microbiota. However, there is limited information regarding microbial uptake in a steady state. We investigated the composition of murine gut microbiota that is engulfed by phagocytes of specific subsets in the small intestinal lamina propria (SILP) and Peyer's patches (PP). Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences revealed that: 1) all the phagocyte subsets in the SILP primarily engulfed Lactobacillus (the most abundant microbe in the small intestine), whereas CD11bhi and CD11bhiCD11chi cell subsets in PP mostly engulfed segmented filamentous bacteria (indigenous bacteria in rodents that are reported to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells); and 2) among the Lactobacillus species engulfed by the SILP cell subsets, L...
2016: PloS One
Robert Häsler, Raheleh Sheibani-Tezerji, Anupam Sinha, Matthias Barann, Ateequr Rehman, Daniela Esser, Konrad Aden, Carolin Knecht, Berenice Brandt, Susanna Nikolaus, Sascha Schäuble, Christoph Kaleta, Andre Franke, Christoph Fretter, Werner Müller, Marc-Thorsten Hütt, Michael Krawczak, Stefan Schreiber, Philip Rosenstiel
OBJECTIVE: An inadequate host response to the intestinal microbiota likely contributes to the manifestation and progression of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, molecular approaches to unravelling the nature of the defective crosstalk and its consequences for intestinal metabolic and immunological networks are lacking. We assessed the mucosal transcript levels, splicing architecture and mucosa-attached microbial communities of patients with IBD to obtain a comprehensive view of the underlying, hitherto poorly characterised interactions, and how these are altered in IBD...
September 30, 2016: Gut
Junhua Liu, Mengling Zhang, Chunxu Xue, Weiyun Zhu, Shengyong Mao
Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to characterize the dynamics of bacterial colonization of rice straw and alfalfa hay and to assess the differences in the composition and inferred gene function of the colonized microbiota between these 2 forages. Nonincubated (0 h) rice straw and alfalfa hay samples and residues in nylon bags incubated for 0.5, 2, 6, 16, and 48 h were analyzed for dry matter and were used for DNA extraction and MiSeq (Illumina Inc. San Diego, CA) sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Fan Yu, Haohan Yu, Pingting Lin, Yan Dong, Ling Zhang, Xiang Sun, Zhengya Liu, Huihui Guo, Li Huang, Jihua Chen
Resin-based pit-and-fissure sealants are often used to form a barrier on the occlusal surface of molars to treat caries lesions; however, bacteria can remain in the pit and fissures without detection, increasing the risk of secondary caries. Sealants with antimicrobial properties or microbial repellent actions might be advantageous. The aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effect of a 2-methacryloxylethyl dodecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-DB)-incorporated sealant against Streptococcus mutans. MAE-DB (4% wt) was incorporated into a commercially available sealant, Eco-S resin-based pit-and-fissure sealant (Vericom Co...
2016: PloS One
Hyun Jung Kim, Jaewon Lee, Jin-Ha Choi, Anthony Bahinski, Donald E Ingber
Here, we describe a protocol to perform long-term co-culture of multi-species human gut microbiome with microengineered intestinal villi in a human gut-on-a-chip microphysiological device. We recapitulate the intestinal lumen-capillary tissue interface in a microfluidic device, where physiological mechanical deformations and fluid shear flow are constantly applied to mimic peristalsis. In the lumen microchannel, human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells are cultured to form a 'germ-free' villus epithelium and regenerate small intestinal villi...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Sébastien Lacroix, Jennifer Cantin, Anil Nigam
In this article, we discuss certain contemporary and controversial topics in cardiovascular (CV) nutrition including recent data regarding the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet, the role of saturated fatty acids, red meat and the microbiome in CV disease and the current role of personalized CV nutrition. Findings from the PREDIMED study now demonstrate the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet even in the absence of heart disease. The study highlighted that even small, sustained and easily implementable changes to diet can provide significant health benefits even in Mediterranean regions...
September 15, 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Adam C Mumford, Irini J Adaktylou, David Emerson
: Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) is a major cause of damage to steel infrastructure in the marine environment. Despite their ability to grow directly on Fe(II) released from steel, comparatively little is known about the role played by neutrophilic iron oxidizing bacteria (FeOB). Recent work has shown that FeOB grow readily on mild steel (1018 MS) both incubated in situ or as substrate for pure cultures in vitro; however details of how they colonize steel surfaces are unknown, yet important for understanding their effects...
September 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
J Hurlow, E Blanz, J A Gaddy
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse wound biofilm from a clinical perspective. Research has shown that biofilm is the preferred microbial phenotype in health and disease and is present in a majority of chronic wounds. Biofilm has been linked to chronic wound inflammation, impairment in granulation tissue and epithelial migration, yet there lacks the ability to confirm the clinical presence of biofilm. This study links the clinical setting with microscopic laboratory confirmation of the presence of biofilm in carefully selected wound debridement samples...
September 2016: Journal of Wound Care
Eduardo D Penteado, Carmen M Fernandez-Marchante, Marcelo Zaiat, Ernesto R Gonzalez, Manuel A Rodrigo
The aim of this work was to evaluate three carbon materials as anodes in microbial fuel cells (MFC), clarifying their influence on the generation of electricity and on the treatability of winery wastewater, a highly organic-loaded waste. The electrode materials tested were carbon felt, carbon cloth and carbon paper and they were used at the same time as anode and cathode in the tests. The MFC equipped with carbon felt reached the highest voltage and power (72 mV and 420 mW m(-2), respectively), while the lowest values were observed when carbon paper was used as electrode (0...
September 7, 2016: Environmental Technology
James B Nardi, Charles M Bee, Steven J Taylor
The gut lumen of the arthropod detritivore provides hospitable and multifaceted environments for diverse assemblages of microbes. Many microbes, including trichomycetes fungi, bacteria, and archaea establish stable, adherent communities on the cuticular surface secreted by the hindgut epithelium. Regional differences in the surface topography within the hindgut of a given millipede are reflected in differing and diverse microbial assemblages. The spirostreptid millipede Cambala speobia is a detritivore found on the floors of Texas caves...
September 13, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Aftab Ahmad, Yun Wei, Fatima Syed, Kamran Tahir, Raheela Taj, Arif Ullah Khan, Muhammad Usman Hameed, Qipeng Yuan
New strategies are required to improve the efficacy of drugs and to treat the emerging microbial resistance. An effective strategy is to combine drugs with metal nanoparticles for the control of microbial infections and resistance. Keeping in view this fact, we developed a facile and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of amphotericin B-conjugated silver nanoparticles and their assessment as an antifungal agent. Phytochemicals from the aqueous extract of Maytenus royleanus and amphotericin B were used as capping agents to prepare two types of silver nanoparticles i...
October 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Mateus de Oliveira Negreiros, Ângela Pawlowski, Cláudia Alcaraz Zini, Geraldo Luiz Gonçalves Soares, Amanda de Souza Motta, Ana Paula Guedes Frazzon
CONTEXT: Baccharis psiadioides (Less.) Joch. Müller (Asteraceae) is considered as a producer of bioactive essential oils and is used in south Brazilian folk medicine for its proprieties as stimulant, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and as an antidote for snake bites. OBJECTIVE: To verify the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of the essential oil of B. psiadioides (EOBP) against antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The initial evaluation of EOBP activity was conducted by the agar and microdilution methods against 13 antibiotic-resistant E...
September 2, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
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