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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862685/topical-application-of-probiotics-in-skin-adhesion-antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-in-vitro-assays
#1
Elísia G Lopes, Diana A Moreira, Patricia Gullón, Beatriz Gullón, Alejandra Cardelle-Cobas, Freni K Tavaria
AIMS: When skin dysbiosis occurs as a result of skin disorders, probiotics can act as modulators, restoring microbial balance. Several properties of selected probiotics were evaluated so that their topical application could be considered. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adhesion, antimicrobial, quorum sensing and antibiofilm assays were carried out with several probiotic strains and tested against selected skin pathogens. All tested strains displayed significant adhesion to keratin...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833605/lactobacillus-fermentum-atcc-23271-displays-in-vitro-inhibitory-activities-against-candida-spp
#2
Monique S do Carmo, Francisca M F Noronha, Mariana O Arruda, Ênnio P da Silva Costa, Maria R Q Bomfim, Andrea S Monteiro, Thiago A F Ferro, Elizabeth S Fernandes, Jorge A Girón, Valério Monteiro-Neto
Lactobacilli are involved in the microbial homeostasis in the female genital tract. Due to the high prevalence of many bacterial diseases of the female genital tract and the resistance of microorganisms to various antimicrobial agents, alternative means to control these infections are necessary. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties of well-characterized Lactobacillus species, including L. acidophilus (ATCC 4356), L. brevis (ATCC 367), L. delbrueckii ssp. delbrueckii (ATCC 9645), L. fermentum (ATCC 23271), L...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818340/impact-of-oral-and-waterborne-administration-of-rhamnolipids-on-the-susceptibility-of-channel-catfish-ictalurus-punctatus-to-flavobacterium-columnare-infection
#3
Dongdong Zhang, Benjamin H Beck, Miles Lange, Honggang Zhao, Wilawan Thongda, Zhi Ye, Chao Li, Eric Peatman
Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease and causes tremendous morbidity and mortality of farmed fish globally. Previously, we identified a potential lectin-mediator (a rhamnose-binding lectin; RBL1a) of F. columnare adhesion and showed higher RBL1a expression in susceptible channel catfish under basal conditions and following infection. Exposure of challenged fish to the carbohydrate ligand l-rhamnose just prior to a challenge substantially decreased columnaris mortality and pathogen adherence via the down-regulation of RBL1a...
November 3, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813248/application-of-a-low-polyphenol-or-low-ellagitannin-dietary-intervention-and-its-impact-on-ellagitannin-metabolism-in-men
#4
Kristen M Roberts, Elizabeth M Grainger, Jennifer M Thomas-Ahner, Alice Hinton, Junnan Gu, Ken Riedl, Yael Vodovotz, Ronney Abaza, Steven J Schwartz, Steven K Clinton
SCOPE: Plant polyphenols are widespread in the American diet, yet estimated intake is uncertain. We examine the application of the Polyphenol Explorer® (PED) to quantify polyphenol and ellagitannin (ET) intake of men with prostate cancer and tested the implementation of diets restricted in polyphenols or ETs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four men enrolled in a 4-week trial were randomized to usual, low-polyphenol or low-ET diet. Estimated polyphenol and ET intakes were calculated from 3-day diet records utilizing the PED...
November 4, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812526/evaluation-and-selection-of-bacillus-species-based-on-enzyme-production-antimicrobial-activity-and-biofilm-synthesis-as-direct-fed-microbial-candidates-for-poultry
#5
Juan D Latorre, Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco, Ross E Wolfenden, Jose L Vicente, Amanda D Wolfenden, Anita Menconi, Lisa R Bielke, Billy M Hargis, Guillermo Tellez
Social concern about misuse of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGP) and generation of multidrug-resistant bacteria have restricted the dietary inclusion of antibiotics in livestock feed in several countries. Direct-fed microbials (DFM) are one of the multiple alternatives commonly evaluated as substitutes of AGP. Sporeformer bacteria from the genus Bacillus have been extensively investigated because of their extraordinary properties to form highly resistant endospores, produce antimicrobial compounds, and synthesize different exogenous enzymes...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803507/role-of-atypical-bacteria-in-hospitalized-patients-with-nursing-home-acquired-pneumonia
#6
Laura Meyer-Junco
Background: Nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) has been identified as one of the leading causes of mortality and hospitalization for long-term care residents. However, current and previous pneumonia guidelines differ on the appropriate management of NHAP in hospitalized patients, specifically in regard to the role of atypical bacteria such as Chlamydiae pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella. Objectives: The purpose of this review is to evaluate clinical trials conducted in hospitalized patients with NHAP to determine the prevalence of atypical bacteria and thus the role for empiric antibiotic coverage of these pathogens in NHAP...
October 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798799/response-of-microorganisms-and-enzymes-to-soil-contamination-with-a-mixture-of-terbuthylazine-mesotrione-and-s-metolachlor
#7
Agata Borowik, Jadwiga Wyszkowska, Jan Kucharski, Małgorzata Baćmaga, Monika Tomkiel
The research objective has been to evaluate the effect, unexplored yet, of a mixture of three active ingredients of the herbicide Lumax 537.5 SE: terbuthylazine (T), mesotrione (M), and S-metolachlor (S) on counts of soil microorganisms, structure of microbial communities, activity of soil enzymes as well as the growth and development of maize. The research was based on a pot experiment established on sandy soil with pHKCl 7.0. The herbicide was applied to soil once, in the form of liquid emulsion dosed as follows: 0...
October 31, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798599/microcins-mediate-competition-among-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-inflamed-gut
#8
Martina Sassone-Corsi, Sean-Paul Nuccio, Henry Liu, Dulcemaria Hernandez, Christine T Vu, Amy A Takahashi, Robert A Edwards, Manuela Raffatellu
The Enterobacteriaceae are Gram-negative bacteria and include commensal organisms as well as primary and opportunistic pathogens that are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although Enterobacteriaceae often comprise less than 1% of a healthy intestine's microbiota(1), some of these organisms can bloom in the inflamed gut(2,3,4,5); indeed, expansion of enterobacteria is a hallmark of microbial imbalance known as "dysbiosis"(6). Microcins are small secreted proteins that possess antimicrobial activity in vitro(7,8), but whose role in vivo has been unclear...
October 31, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768798/melimine-coated-antimicrobial-contact-lenses-reduce-microbial-keratitis-in-an-animal-model
#9
Debarun Dutta, Ajay K Vijay, Naresh Kumar, Mark D P Willcox
Purpose: To determine the ability of antimicrobial peptide melimine-coated contact lenses to reduce the incidence of microbial keratitis (MK) in a rabbit model of contact lens wear. Methods: In vitro antimicrobial activity of melimine-coated contact lenses was determined against Pseudomonas aeruginosa by viable count and a radiolabeled assay. The amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) associated with bacteria bound to melimine-coated and control lenses was determined...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756222/analysis-and-description-of-the-stages-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-biofilm-formation-using-scanning-electron-microscopy
#10
Alejandra Itzel González-Ramírez, Adrián Ramírez-Granillo, María Gabriela Medina-Canales, Aída Verónica Rodríguez-Tovar, María Angeles Martínez-Rivera
BACKGROUND: Biofilms are a highly structured consortia of microorganisms that adhere to a substrate and are encased within an extracellular matrix (ECM) that is produced by the organisms themselves. Aspergillus fumigatus is a biotechnological fungus that has a medical and phytopathogenic significance, and its biofilm occurs in both natural and artificial environments; therefore, studies on the stages observed in biofilm formation are of great significance due to the limited knowledge that exists on this specific topic and because there are multiple applications that are being carried out...
October 18, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755267/helicobacter-bilis-infection-alters-mucosal-bacteria-and-modulates-colitis-development-in-defined-microbiota-mice
#11
Todd Atherly, Curtis Mosher, Chong Wang, Jesse Hostetter, Alexandra Proctor, Meghan W Brand, Gregory J Phillips, Michael Wannemuehler, Albert E Jergens
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter bilis infection of C3H/HeN mice harboring the altered Schaedler flora (ASF) triggers progressive immune responsiveness and the development of colitis. We sought to investigate temporal alterations in community structure of a defined (ASF-colonized) microbiota in normal and inflamed murine intestines and to correlate microbiota changes to histopathologic lesions. METHODS: The colonic mucosal microbiota of healthy mice and ASF mice colonized with H...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729171/discrimination-and-divergence-among-lactobacillus-plantarum-group-lpg-isolates-with-reference-to-their-probiotic-functionalities-from-vegetable-origin
#12
Sundru Manjulata Devi, Subramanian Aishwarya, Prakash M Halami
The present study was aimed to evaluate the diversity and probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum-group cultures from vegetable origin. First, genotypic diversity of L. plantarum (n=34) was achieved by PCR of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and recA gene-specific multiplex PCR. The isolates were segregated into five groups namely, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus arizonensis, Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum and argentoratensis. Further discrimination was achieved by restriction fragment length polymorphism of probiotic adhesion genes viz...
December 2016: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725146/identification-of-an-intestinal-microbiota-signature-associated-with-severity-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#13
Julien Tap, Muriel Derrien, Hans Törnblom, Rémi Brazeilles, Stéphanie Cools-Portier, Joël Doré, Stine Störsrud, Boris Le Nevé, Lena Öhman, Magnus Simrén
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We have limited knowledge about the association between the composition of the intestinal microbiota and clinical features of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We collected information on the fecal and mucosa-associated microbiota of patients with IBS and evaluated whether these were associated with symptoms. METHODS: We collected fecal and mucosal samples from adult patients who met the Rome III criteria for IBS at secondary or tertiary care outpatient clinics in Sweden, as well as from healthy subjects...
October 7, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722537/multiplexed-and-spatiotemporal-measurements-of-glutamate-secreted-by-neurons-and-bacteria
#14
S Y Lee, E J Kim, J S Kim, I Hwang, T D Chung
By applying an in vivo biotinylation platform, glutamate-sensing protein can be easily immobilized on streptavidin-functionalized magnetic microbeads, which expands the detection modality for the spatiotemporal measurements of glutamate secreted by adherent neuronal cells and suspension microbial cells using fluorescence microscopy and microplate photometers.
September 27, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714625/drug-utilization-study-of-systemic-antifungal-agents-in-a-brazilian-tertiary-care-hospital
#15
Maria Clara Padovani de Souza, Andrezza Gouvêa Dos Santos, Adriano Max Moreira Reis
Background The inappropriate use of systemic antifungal agents can result in unnecessary exposure, adverse events, increased microbial resistance and increased costs. Aim This study analysed the use of systemic antifungal agents and adherence to treatment guidelines for fungal infections. Setting A Brazilian tertiary hospital. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated 183 patients who were treated with systemic antifungals. Antifungal drugs were classified according to the fourth level of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712009/broad-phylogeny-and-functionality-of-cellulosomal-components-in-the-bovine-rumen-microbiome
#16
Lizi Bensoussan, Sarah Moraïs, Bareket Dassa, Nir Friedman, Bernard Henrissat, Vincent Lombard, Edward A Bayer, Itzhak Mizrahi
The cellulosome is an extracellular multi-enzyme complex that is considered one of the most efficient plant cell wall-degrading strategies devised by nature. Its unique modular architecture, achieved by high affinity and specific interaction between protein modules (cohesins and dockerins) enables formation of various enzyme combinations. Extensive research has been dedicated to the mechanistic nature of the cellulosome complex. Nevertheless, little is known regarding its distribution and abundance among microbes in natural plant fiber-rich environments...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701454/microbiota-of-the-small-intestine-is-selectively-engulfed-by-phagocytes-of-the-lamina-propria-and-peyer-s-patches
#17
Masatoshi Morikawa, Satoshi Tsujibe, Junko Kiyoshima-Shibata, Yohei Watanabe, Noriko Kato-Nagaoka, Kan Shida, Satoshi Matsumoto
Phagocytes such as dendritic cells and macrophages, which are distributed in the small intestinal mucosa, play a crucial role in maintaining mucosal homeostasis by sampling the luminal gut microbiota. However, there is limited information regarding microbial uptake in a steady state. We investigated the composition of murine gut microbiota that is engulfed by phagocytes of specific subsets in the small intestinal lamina propria (SILP) and Peyer's patches (PP). Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences revealed that: 1) all the phagocyte subsets in the SILP primarily engulfed Lactobacillus (the most abundant microbe in the small intestine), whereas CD11bhi and CD11bhiCD11chi cell subsets in PP mostly engulfed segmented filamentous bacteria (indigenous bacteria in rodents that are reported to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells); and 2) among the Lactobacillus species engulfed by the SILP cell subsets, L...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694142/uncoupling-of-mucosal-gene-regulation-mrna-splicing-and-adherent-microbiota-signatures-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#18
Robert Häsler, Raheleh Sheibani-Tezerji, Anupam Sinha, Matthias Barann, Ateequr Rehman, Daniela Esser, Konrad Aden, Carolin Knecht, Berenice Brandt, Susanna Nikolaus, Sascha Schäuble, Christoph Kaleta, Andre Franke, Christoph Fretter, Werner Müller, Marc-Thorsten Hütt, Michael Krawczak, Stefan Schreiber, Philip Rosenstiel
OBJECTIVE: An inadequate host response to the intestinal microbiota likely contributes to the manifestation and progression of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, molecular approaches to unravelling the nature of the defective crosstalk and its consequences for intestinal metabolic and immunological networks are lacking. We assessed the mucosal transcript levels, splicing architecture and mucosa-attached microbial communities of patients with IBD to obtain a comprehensive view of the underlying, hitherto poorly characterised interactions, and how these are altered in IBD...
September 30, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692708/characterization-and-comparison-of-the-temporal-dynamics-of-ruminal-bacterial-microbiota-colonizing-rice-straw-and-alfalfa-hay-within-ruminants
#19
Junhua Liu, Mengling Zhang, Chunxu Xue, Weiyun Zhu, Shengyong Mao
Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to characterize the dynamics of bacterial colonization of rice straw and alfalfa hay and to assess the differences in the composition and inferred gene function of the colonized microbiota between these 2 forages. Nonincubated (0 h) rice straw and alfalfa hay samples and residues in nylon bags incubated for 0.5, 2, 6, 16, and 48 h were analyzed for dry matter and were used for DNA extraction and MiSeq (Illumina Inc. San Diego, CA) sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685314/effect-of-an-antibacterial-monomer-on-the-antibacterial-activity-of-a-pit-and-fissure-sealant
#20
Fan Yu, Haohan Yu, Pingting Lin, Yan Dong, Ling Zhang, Xiang Sun, Zhengya Liu, Huihui Guo, Li Huang, Jihua Chen
Resin-based pit-and-fissure sealants are often used to form a barrier on the occlusal surface of molars to treat caries lesions; however, bacteria can remain in the pit and fissures without detection, increasing the risk of secondary caries. Sealants with antimicrobial properties or microbial repellent actions might be advantageous. The aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effect of a 2-methacryloxylethyl dodecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-DB)-incorporated sealant against Streptococcus mutans. MAE-DB (4% wt) was incorporated into a commercially available sealant, Eco-S resin-based pit-and-fissure sealant (Vericom Co...
2016: PloS One
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