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Microbial adherence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329921/assessment-of-test-methods-for-evaluating-effectiveness-of-cleaning-flexible-endoscopes
#1
Rebecca E Washburn, Jennifer J Pietsch
BACKGROUND: Strict adherence to each step of reprocessing is imperative to removing potentially infectious agents. Multiple methods for verifying proper reprocessing exist; however, each presents challenges and limitations, and best practice within the industry has not been established. Our goal was to evaluate endoscope cleaning verification tests with particular interest in the evaluation of the manual cleaning step. The results of the cleaning verification tests were compared with microbial culturing to see if a positive cleaning verification test would be predictive of microbial growth...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327210/paired-blood-cultures-increase-the-sensitivity-for-detecting-pathogens-in-both-inpatients-and-outpatients
#2
Bansidhar Tarai, Dinesh Jain, Poonam Das, Sandeeep Budhiraja
The objective of this study was to show the differences between paired blood cultures (PBC) versus single blood cultures (SBC) in the microbiologic yield, the sensitivity to detect pathogens and the time to positivity (TTP). We performed a retrospective study examining 112,570 blood culture samples over a 5-year period from July 2011 to May 2016 in the BacT/ALERT® 3D automated blood culture system (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). Bacteria and yeasts were identified using the VITEK® 2 Compact system (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France)...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325130/emergent-heterogeneous-micro-environments-in-biofilms-substratum-surface-heterogeneity-and-bacterial-adhesion-force-sensing
#3
Yijin Ren, Can Wang, Zhi Chen, Elaine Allan, Henny C van der Mei, Henk J Busscher
Phenotypically-heterogeneous micro-environments emerge as biofilms mature across different environments. Phenotypic-heterogeneity in biofilm sub-populations not obeying quorum sensing-dictated, collective group-behavior, may be considered as a strategy allowing non-conformists to survive hostile conditions. Heterogeneous phenotype development has been amply studied with respect to gene expression and genotypic changes, but 'biofilm genes' responsible for pre-programmed development of heterogeneous micro-environments in biofilms have never been discovered...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304434/gold-nanoparticle-contact-point-density-controls-microbial-adhesion-on-gold-surfaces
#4
Carolin Dewald, Claudia Lüdecke, Izabela Firkowska-Boden, Martin Roth, Jörg Bossert, Klaus D Jandt
Surface structures in the nanometer range emerge as the next evolutionary breakthrough in the design of biomaterials with antimicrobial properties. However, in order to advance the application of surface nanostructuring strategies in medical implants, the very nature of the microbial repealing mechanism has yet to be understood. Herein, we demonstrate that the random immobilization of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a material's surface generates the possibility to explore microbial adhesion in dependence of contact point densities at the biointerface between the microbe, i...
December 20, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273919/microbial-diversity-of-saline-environments-searching-for-cytotoxic-activities
#5
Carolina Díaz-Cárdenas, Angela Cantillo, Laura Yinneth Rojas, Tito Sandoval, Susana Fiorentino, Jorge Robles, Freddy A Ramos, María Mercedes Zambrano, Sandra Baena
In order to select halophilic microorganisms as a source of compounds with cytotoxic activities, a total of 135 bacterial strains were isolated from water and sediment samples collected from the Zipaquirá salt mine in the Colombian Andes. We determined the cytotoxic effects of 100 crude extracts from 54 selected organisms on the adherent murine mammary cell carcinoma 4T1 and human mammary adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cell lines. These extracts were obtained from strains of Isoptericola, Ornithinimicrobium, Janibacter, Nesterenkonia, Alkalibacterium, Bacillus, Halomonas, Chromohalobacter, Shewanella, Salipiger, Martellela, Oceanibaculum, Caenispirillum and Labrenzia...
December 22, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259603/staphylococcal-adhesion-and-host-cell-invasion-fibronectin-binding-and-other-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
Jérôme Josse, Frédéric Laurent, Alan Diot
Opportunistic bacteria from the genus Staphylococcus can cause life-threatening infections such as pneumonia, endocarditis, bone and joint infections, and sepsis. This pathogenicity is closely related to their capacity to bind directly to the extracellular matrix or to host cells. Adhesion is indeed the first step in the formation of biofilm or the invasion of host cells, which protect the bacteria from the host immune system and facilitate chronic infection. Adhesion relies on the expression of a repertoire of surface proteins called adhesins, notably microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258349/genomic-identification-of-microbial-species-adhering-to-maxillofacial-prostheses-and-susceptibility-to-different-hygiene-protocols
#7
Juliana Barchelli Pinheiro, Marina Peris Vomero, Cássio do Nascimento, Evandro Watanabe, Helena de Freitas Oliveira Paranhos, Neide Pena Coto, Reinaldo Brito Dias, Viviane Cássia de Oliveira, Cláudia Helena Silva-Lovato
This study investigated the microbial colonization of maxillofacial prostheses and support tissues using the Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method, and the efficacy of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, 10% Ricinus communis solutions, or brushing, on colony forming unit (CFU) reduction in monospecies biofilms (Candida glabrata, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) formed on two silicones (MDX 4-4210 and Bio-Skin). Biofilm was harvested from 43 maxillofacial prosthesis wearers for detection of 38 species of microorganisms...
December 20, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232659/phytosphingosine-prevents-the-formation-of-young-salivary-biofilms-in-vitro
#8
Floris J Bikker, Michel A Hoogenkamp, Amine Malhaoui, Kamran Nazmi, Jessica Neilands, Bastiaan P Krom
Dental biofilms are formed in a multistep process that is initiated by the adhesion of oral bacteria to the dental hard surface. As dental biofilms are associated with oral diseases their control is necessary in order to maintain oral health. Recently, it was revealed that phytosphingosine (PHS)-treated hydroxyapatite discs showed anti-adhesive activity in a static in vitro biofilm model against Streptococcus mutans. The goal of the present study was to further unravel the anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm properties of PHS in both static and dynamic in vitro biofilm models against a full salivary inoculum...
December 13, 2017: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229289/expression-of-fibronectin-binding-protein-of-l-acidophilus-ncfm-and-in-vitro-refolding-to-adhesion-capable-native-like-protein-from-inclusion-bodies
#9
Sonu Bisht, Kumar Siddharth Singh, Ritu Choudhary, Sudarshan Kumar, Sunita Grover, Ashok Kumar Mohanty, Veena Pande, Jai Kumar Kaushik
The ability of Lactobacilli to adhere to host epithelial surface and intestinal tracts is important for colonization and persistence of bacteria in the host gut. Extracellular matrix components like fibronectin, mucin, collagen and other adhesion molecules serve as substratum for attachment of bacteria. However, the precise structure, function and mechanism of binding of microbial surface adhesion proteins such as Fibronectin-binding protein (FBP) with host molecules remains unclear. This is primarily due to limitations in high expression of these proteins in biologically active form...
December 8, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228818/evaluation-of-herbal-concoctions-sold-at-ga-maja-limpopo-province-in-south-africa-and-in-vitro-pharmacological-evaluation-of-plants-used-to-manufacture-the-concoctions
#10
Mash M Matotoka, Peter Masoko
The aim of the study was to evaluate the biological activities and safety of commercial herbal concoctions manufactured in Ga Maja (Limpopo province). Microbial contamination was evaluated by spread-plating the concoctions on agar plates. The VITEK 2 instrument was used for identification of the pure cultures. Nutritional content of the concoctions was determined. Thin layer chromatography was used to analyze the chemical constituents of the extracts. The microdilution assay and bioautography were used to evaluate antimicrobial activity against selected microorganisms...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225755/evaluation-of-anti-bacterial-effects-of-nickel-nanoparticles-on-biofilm-production-by-staphylococcus-epidermidis
#11
Morteza Vahedi, Nima Hosseini-Jazani, Saber Yousefi, Maryam Ghahremani
Background and Objectives: Staphylococcus epidermidis produces biofilm by extracellular polysaccharides, causing bacterial adherence to different surfaces. Anti-microbial effects of nickel nanoparticles on some bacterial strains such as S. aureus and Escherichia coli have been determined in limited studies. The aim of the present study is to examine the inhibitory effect of nickel nanoparticles on biofilm formation using clinical isolates of S. epidermidis and its hemolytic effect on human red blood cells...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222019/a-novel-use-of-cellulose-based-filter-paper-containing-silver-nanoparticles-for-its-potential-application-as-wound-dressing-agent
#12
Adnan Haider, Sajjad Haider, Inn-Kyu Kang, Anuj Kumar, Madhusudana Rao Kummara, Tahseen Kamal, Sung Soo Han
The frequent use of antibiotics against microbial infections may lead the emergence of antibiotic resistant microbial strains. To overcome these microbial strains, we need to fabricate alternative materials which can handle them. It is for this reason, we have fabricated cellulose (CE) based filter paper (FP) composite scaffolds comprising of adsorbed chitosan (CS) and sliver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs). The AgNPs are incorporated in the CS layer of the composite scaffold. Prior to evaluate the efficacy of the scaffolds against gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains, the scaffolds were characterized for the presence of the Ag NPs with field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffractometer (XRD)...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207531/microbial-and-plant-assisted-bioremediation-of-heavy-metal-polluted-environments-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Omena Bernard Ojuederie, Olubukola Oluranti Babalola
Environmental pollution from hazardous waste materials, organic pollutants and heavy metals, has adversely affected the natural ecosystem to the detriment of man. These pollutants arise from anthropogenic sources as well as natural disasters such as hurricanes and volcanic eruptions. Toxic metals could accumulate in agricultural soils and get into the food chain, thereby becoming a major threat to food security. Conventional and physical methods are expensive and not effective in areas with low metal toxicity...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201018/prevalence-of-flp-pili-encoding-plasmids-in-cutibacterium-acnes-isolates-obtained-from-prostatic-tissue
#14
Sabina Davidsson, Jessica Carlsson, Paula Mölling, Natyra Gashi, Ove Andrén, Swen-Olof Andersson, Elzbieta Brzuszkiewicz, Anja Poehlein, Munir A Al-Zeer, Volker Brinkmann, Carsten Scavenius, Seven Nazipi, Bo Söderquist, Holger Brüggemann
Inflammation is one of the hallmarks of prostate cancer. The origin of inflammation is unknown, but microbial infections are suspected to play a role. In previous studies, the Gram-positive, low virulent bacterium Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes was frequently isolated from prostatic tissue. It is unclear if the presence of the bacterium represents a true infection or a contamination. Here we investigated Cutibacterium acnes type II, also called subspecies defendens, which is the most prevalent type among prostatic C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197027/best-practices-for-detecting-and-mitigating-the-risk-of-cell-culture-contaminants
#15
Raymond W Nims, Paul J Price
A variety of biological and chemical contaminants can adversely impact cells in culture, ranging from outright destruction of the culture, mutation, phenotypic changes to relatively minor changes in morphology, or growth rate. There are various approaches to detecting and mitigating the risk of biological or microbial contaminants in cell cultures, and these are discussed in this article. Chemical contaminants typically arise from improper handling or sourcing of cell culture reagents, glassware, or other types of consumables...
December 1, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181009/crispri-induced-suppression-of-fimbriae-gene-fimh-of-a-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-an-approach-to-inhibit-microbial-biofilms
#16
Azna Zuberi, Nayeem Ahmad, Asad U Khan
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one the common infections caused by the recalcitrant nature of biofilms, developed after the pathogen has adhered to the inner lining of the urinary tract. Although significant research has been made in recent years to control these types of infection, but as of yet, no approach has sufficiently been able to reduce the prevalence of UTIs. The main objective of this study was to prevent UTIs through targeting the fimH gene, which is the major virulent factor responsible for biofilm formation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178764/initial-microbial-colonization-of-enamel-in-children-with-different-levels-of-caries-activity-an-in-situ-study
#17
Susann Hertel, Alexandra Wolf, Sabine Basche, Gabriele Viergutz, Stefan Rupf, Matthias Hannig, Christian Hannig
PURPOSE: To investigate patterns of overnight in situ microbial colonization of enamel in children. METHODS: Overall, 29 children (aged 5-9 years) participated in the study. Nine were caries-free with no decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT), 11 were caries-rehabilitated (DMFT ≥ 2, no active carious lesions), and nine were caries-active (DMFT ≥ 2, at least two carious lesions). Bovine enamel samples were fixed on individual upper jaw splints stored overnight in situ...
June 2017: American Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178590/meloxicam-inhibits-biofilm-formation-and-enhances-antimicrobial-agents-efficacy-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#18
Pengfei She, Yangxia Wang, Zhen Luo, Lihua Chen, Ruichen Tan, Yanle Wang, Yong Wu
Microbial biofilms are communities of surface-adhered cells enclosed in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Bacterial cells in biofilm are 10~1,000-fold more resistant to antimicrobials than the planktonic cells. Burgeoning antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm has necessitated the development of antimicrobial agents. Here, we have investigated the antibiofilm effect of meloxicam against P. aeruginosaPAO1 and its potential mechanisms. Further, we have explored whether meloxicam could enhance the susceptibility of bacterial biofilms to treatment with conventional antimicrobials...
November 27, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175074/staphylococcus-aureus-and-staphylococcus-epidermidis-infections-on-implants
#19
REVIEW
Weslley F Oliveira, Priscila M S Silva, Rayane C S Silva, Germana M M Silva, Giovanna Machado, Luana C B B Coelho, Maria T S Correia
BACKGROUND: Infections are one of the main reasons for removal of implants from patients, and usually need difficult and expensive treatments. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the most frequent pathogens. AIM: To review the epidemiology and pathogenesis of implant-related infections. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified by electronic searching of the following databases: PubMed, ScienceDirect, Academic Google and CAPES Journal Portal...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144049/characterization-of-children-with-recurrent-eczema-herpeticum-and-response-to-treatment-with-interferon-gamma
#20
Kavita Darji, Stephanie Frisch, Eric Adjei Boakye, Elaine Siegfried
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) has been used treat severe atopic dermatitis, with equivocal results. Recurrent eczema herpeticum is an underappreciated, therapeutically challenging complication of severe atopic dermatitis. Defects in IFN-γ and other cytokine pathways have been identified in individuals with confirmed eczema herpeticum. This suggests possible benefit from IFN-γ treatment for confirmed eczema herpeticum. The objective of the current study was to evaluate immunologic and microbial parameters and response to IFN-γ treatment in children with confirmed eczema herpeticum...
November 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
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