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Microbial adherence

Venkataseshan Jagannathan, Pragasam Viswanathan
Struvite or infection stones are one of the major clinical burdens among urinary tract infection, which occur due to the interaction between microbes and urine mineral components. Numerous urinary tract infection (UTI) causing microbes regulate through biofilm formation for survival from host defense, it is often found difficult in its eradication with simple anti-microbial agents and also the chance of recurrence and resistance development is significantly high. Cranberry consumption and maintenance of urinary tract health have been supported by clinical, epidemiological, and mechanistic studies...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Sreejata Bandopadhyay, Lluis Martin-Closas, Ana M Pelacho, Jennifer M DeBruyn
Agricultural plastic mulch films are widely used in specialty crop production systems because of their agronomic benefits. Biodegradable plastic mulches (BDMs) offer an environmentally sustainable alternative to conventional polyethylene (PE) mulch. Unlike PE films, which need to be removed after use, BDMs are tilled into soil where they are expected to biodegrade. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about long-term impacts of BDM incorporation on soil ecosystems. BDMs potentially influence soil microbial communities in two ways: first, as a surface barrier prior to soil incorporation, indirectly affecting soil microclimate and atmosphere (similar to PE films) and second, after soil incorporation, as a direct input of physical fragments, which add carbon, microorganisms, additives, and adherent chemicals...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Susan P Buchbinder, Albert Y Liu
At the 2018 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, trends in and risk factors for in HIV infection were highlighted. In the United States, new HIV diagnoses are highest in the South and among African Americans and are increasing in rural areas. Youth remain highly vulnerable to HIV infection globally. The epidemiology of HIV infections among people who inject drugs is changing, with overdose deaths, a major public health concern. Phylogenetics are being used to identify HIV transmission clusters and hotspots, which can inform prevention efforts...
May 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Indu Raj, Miran Mozetic, Jayachandran V Prabhu, Jiya Jose, Sabu Thomas, Nandakumar Kalarikkal
Antimicrobial, antibiofilm adherent, fracture resistant nano Zinc Oxide (ZnO NP) formulations based on poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix were developed by ex situ compression moulding technique in a facile manner. These formulations demonstrated potent, long-term biofilm-resisting effects against Candida Albicans (9000 CFU to 1000CFU) and Streptococcal Mutans. Proposed mechanism of biofilm resistance was the release of metallic ions/metal oxide by 'particle-corrosion'. MTT and cellular proliferation assays confirmed both qualitatively and quantitatively equal human skin fibroblast cell line proliferations (approximately 75%) on both PMMA/ZnO formulation and on neat PMMA...
May 4, 2018: Nanotechnology
G P Donaldson, M S Ladinsky, K B Yu, J G Sanders, B B Yoo, W C Chou, M E Conner, A M Earl, R Knight, P J Bjorkman, S K Mazmanian
The immune system responds vigorously to microbial infection, while permitting life-long colonization by the microbiome. Mechanisms that facilitate the establishment and stability of the gut microbiota remain poorly described. We discovered that a sensor/regulatory system in the prominent human commensal Bacteroides fragilis modulates its surface architecture to invite binding of immunoglobulin A (IgA). Specific immune recognition facilitated bacterial adherence to cultured intestinal epithelial cells and intimate association with the gut mucosal surface in vivo...
May 3, 2018: Science
Ravish Sharma, Kavita Sharma, Rajesh Sawhney
Background: Besides, other factors, the choice of materials used as orthodontic ligatures could be one of the many tools to counter the effects of microbial adhesion, that culminates into dental ailments. Therefore, we assessed bacterial adhesion on elastomeric ligatures with special reference to coloured elastomeric rings during orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: A split mouth study, involving 240 samples of different elastomeric ligatures from forty orthodontic patients possessing good oral hygiene was carried out...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Rajamani Lakshminarayanan, Enyi Ye, David James Young, Zibiao Li, Xian Jun Loh
The rapid growth of harmful pathogens and their multidrug-resistance poses a severe challenge for health professionals and for the development of new healthcare products. Various strategies are exploited for the development of effective antimicrobial agents, and nanoparticles are a particularly promising class of materials in this respect. This review summarizes recent advances in antimicrobial metallic, polymeric, and lipid-based nanoparticles such as liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and nanostructured lipid carriers...
May 2, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Kavita Sharma, Murugesan Pooranachithra, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan, Gunjan Goel
The present study aimed to analyze the colonization potential of indigenous probiotic strains and to assess their effects on physiology of Caenorhabditis elegans. The protective effect of probiotics was evaluated in terms of increase in life span of the worm through colonization in the intestine. A total of 15 probiotic cultures were evaluated for their effect on mean life span, pharyngeal pumping, and normal reproduction behavior in the worms. The chemotactic behavior in terms of binary choice index was also evaluated...
May 1, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Kamila Hrubanova, Jana Nebesarova, Filip Ruzicka, Vladislav Krzyzanek
In this study we present an innovative method for the preparation of fully hydrated samples of microbial biofilms of cultures Staphylococcus epidermidis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) and high-pressure freezing (HPF) rank among cutting edge techniques in the electron microscopy of hydrated samples such as biofilms. However, the combination of these techniques is not always easily applicable. Therefore, we present a method of combining high-pressure freezing using EM PACT2 (Leica Microsystems), which fixes hydrated samples on small sapphire discs, with a high resolution SEM equipped with the widely used cryo-preparation system ALTO 2500 (Gatan)...
April 22, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
C J Boyer, J Ambrose, S Das, A Humayun, D Chappidi, R Giorno, D K Mills
Introduction: Invasive medical devices are used in treating millions of patients each day. Bacterial adherence to their surface is an early step in biofilm formation that may lead to infection, health complications, longer hospital stays, and death. Prevention of bacterial adherence and biofilm development continues to be a major healthcare challenge. Accordingly, there is a pressing need to improve the anti-microbial properties of medical devices. Materials and Methods: Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was doped with halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), and the PDMS-HNT composite surfaces were coated with PDMS-b-polyethylene oxide (PEO) and antibacterials...
2018: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
Fábio C Carneiro, Simone S Weber, Osmar N Silva, Ana Cristina Jacobowski, Marcelo H S Ramada, Maria L R Macedo, Octávio L Franco, Nádia S Parachin
Protease inhibitors have a broad biotechnological application ranging from medical drugs to anti-microbial agents. The Inga laurina trypsin inhibitor (ILTI) previously showed a great in vitro inhibitory effect under the adherence of Staphylococcus species, being a strong candidate for use as an anti-biofilm agent. Nevertheless, this is found in small quantities in its sources, which impairs its utilization at an industrial scale. Within this context, heterologous production using recombinant microorganisms is one of the best options to scale up the recombinant protein production...
April 28, 2018: Microorganisms
Su Chen, Lin Chen, Lie Chen, Xueliang Ren, Hongjuan Ge, Baolei Li, Guanghui Ma, Xueqin Ke, Jun Zhu, Li Li, Yuhong Feng, Yanjun Li
The aim of this study was to select probiotic strains that could be used in drinkable yogurt to yield viable cells following storage at room temperature (RT). The uniquely high altitude conditions in Tibet and the alcoholic environment of certain products, such as the highland barley wine homemade in Tibet, may induce unusual characteristics of microbial strains. A total of 27 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from homemade highland barley wines. One strain, Lactobacillus reuteri WHH1689, demonstrated no ability for lactose utilization, exhibited a high survival rate during storage at RT in drinkable yogurts, and produced very weak post-acidification...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Hua Xu, Fayez K Ghishan, Pawel R Kiela
The Slc9 family of Na+ /H+ exchangers (NHEs) plays a critical role in electroneutral exchange of Na+ and H+ in the mammalian intestine as well as other absorptive and secretory epithelia of digestive organs. These transport proteins contribute to the transepithelial Na+ and water absorption, intracellular pH and cellular volume regulation as well as the electrolyte, acid-base, and fluid volume homeostasis at the systemic level. They also influence the function of other membrane transport mechanisms, affect cellular proliferation and apoptosis as well as cell migration, adherence to the extracellular matrix, and tissue repair...
March 26, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Samuele Sabbatini, Claudia Monari, Nathalie Ballet, Paolo Mosci, Amélie Cayzeele Decherfe Fanny Pélerin, Stefano Perito, Paolo Scarpelli, Anna Vecchiarelli
In this study, we demonstrate, for the first time, that Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based probiotic shows an inhibitory effect on Gardnerella vaginalis infection. This effect is likely due to several actions: direct interference with adherence to vaginal tissues, inhibition of sialidase activity, reduction of vaginal epithelial exfoliation. Gardnerella vaginalis does not induce vaginal inflammation and no inflammatory cytokines were, indeed, produced, by the mouse vagina, neither by Gardnerella vaginalis and by the probiotic...
April 23, 2018: Virulence
Natalia Gnatienko, Matthew S Freiberg, Elena Blokhina, Tatiana Yaroslavtseva, Carly Bridden, Debbie M Cheng, Christine E Chaisson, Dmitry Lioznov, Sally Bendiks, Glory Koerbel, Sharon M Coleman, Evgeny Krupitsky, Jeffrey H Samet
Background Russia continues to have an uncontrolled HIV epidemic and its per capita alcohol consumption is among the highest in the world. Alcohol use among HIV-positive individuals is common and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. Alcohol use and HIV each lead to microbial translocation, which in turn results in inflammation. Zinc supplementation holds potential for lowering levels of biomarkers of inflammation, possibly as a consequence of its impact on intestinal permeability. This paper describes the protocol of a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial of zinc supplementation in St...
April 17, 2018: HIV Clinical Trials
Silvestre Ortega-Peña, Edgar Hernández-Zamora
Biofilms are communities of microorganisms that grow aggregated and surrounded by an extracellular matrix, which they produce and favors them to adhere covalently to inert and living surfaces; it also helps them to develop high tolerance to molecules with antimicrobial activity. Moreover, biofilms are associated with chronic and persistent infections, which negatively impact different medical areas since they generate high costs to health care systems and patients every year because they are difficult to treat with conventional antimicrobial drugs...
2018: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
Abhrajyoti Tarafdar, Tarun Kanti Sarkar, Sourav Chakraborty, Alok Sinha, Reginald E Masto
Adsorption-synergic biodegradation of a model PAH (phenanthrene, Phe) on MWCNT buckypaper surface with a potential PAH biodegrading bacterial strain Bacillus thuringiensis AT.ISM.11 has been studied in aqueous medium. Adsorption of Phe on buckypaper follows Dubinin-Ashtakhov model (R2 = 0.9895). MWCNT generally exerts toxicity to microbes but adsorbed layer of Phe prevents the direct contact between MWCNT and bacterial cell wall. FESEM study suggests that formation of biofilms occurred on buckypaper. Lower layer cells are disrupted and flattened as they are in direct contact with MWCNT but the upper layer cells of the developed biofilm are fully intact and functional...
April 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Benoit Chassaing, Andrew T Gewirtz
BACKGROUND: Inability to maintain a stable and beneficial microbiota is associated with chronic gut inflammation, which classically manifests as colitis but may more commonly exist as low-grade inflammation that promotes metabolic syndrome. Alterations in microbiota, and associated inflammation, can originate from dysfunction in host proteins that manage the microbiota, such as the flagellin receptor TLR5. That the complete absence of a microbiota (i.e. germfree conditions) eliminates all evidence of inflammation in TLR5-deficient mice demonstrates that this model of gut inflammation is microbiota-dependent...
2018: PloS One
Elliot S Friedman, Kyle Bittinger, Tatiana V Esipova, Likai Hou, Lillian Chau, Jack Jiang, Clementina Mesaros, Peder J Lund, Xue Liang, Garret A FitzGerald, Mark Goulian, Daeyeon Lee, Benjamin A Garcia, Ian A Blair, Sergei A Vinogradov, Gary D Wu
The succession from aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria to obligate anaerobes in the infant gut along with the differences between the compositions of the mucosally adherent vs. luminal microbiota suggests that the gut microbes consume oxygen, which diffuses into the lumen from the intestinal tissue, maintaining the lumen in a deeply anaerobic state. Remarkably, measurements of luminal oxygen levels show nearly identical pO2 (partial pressure of oxygen) profiles in conventional and germ-free mice, pointing to the existence of oxygen consumption mechanisms other than microbial respiration...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
David F Chang, Nikki Hurley, Nick Mamalis, Jeffrey Whitman
PURPOSE: The common practice of short-cycle sterilization for ophthalmic surgical instrumentation has come under increased regulatory scrutiny. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of short-cycle sterilization processing for consecutive same-day cataract procedures. DESIGN: Testing of specific sterilization processing methods by an independent medical device validation testing laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Phaco handpieces from 3 separate manufacturers were tested along with appropriate biologic indicators and controls using 2 common steam sterilizers...
March 27, 2018: Ophthalmology
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