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Microbial adherence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540585/antibiofilm-activity-and-mode-of-action-of-dmso-alone-and-its-combination-with-afatinib-against-gram-negative-pathogens
#1
Mohd Fakharul Zaman Raja Yahya, Zazali Alias, Saiful Anuar Karsani
Biofilms are complex microbial communities that tend to attach to either biotic or abiotic surface. Enclosed in a self-produced extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix, the biofilms often cause persistent infections. The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiofilm activity of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and afatinib against Gram-negative pathogens. Test microorganisms used in this study were Escherichia coli ATCC 1299, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145, and Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028...
May 24, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535857/functional-characterization-of-the-collagen-binding-protein-dip2093-and-its-influence-on-host-pathogen-interaction-and-arthritogenic-potential-of-corynebacterium-diphtheriae
#2
Renata Stavracakis Peixoto, Camila Azevedo Antunes, Liliane Simpson Lourêdo, Vanilda Gonçalves Viana, Cintia Silva Dos Santos, Jemima Fuentes Ribeiro da Silva, Raphael Hirata, Elena Hacker, Ana Luíza Mattos-Guaraldi, Andreas Burkovski
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is typically recognized as the a etiological agent of diphtheria, a toxaemic infection of the respiratory tract; however, both non-toxigenic and toxigenic strains are increasingly isolated from cases of invasive infections. The molecular mechanisms responsible for bacterial colonization and dissemination to host tissues remain only partially understood. In this report, we investigated the role of DIP2093, described as a putative adhesin of the serine-aspartate repeat (Sdr) protein family in host-pathogen interactions of C...
May 23, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535747/in-vitro-assessment-of-pediococcus-acidilactici-kp10-for-its-potential-use-in-the-food-industry
#3
Sahar Abbasiliasi, Joo Shun Tan, Fatemeh Bashokouh, Tengku Azmi Tengku Ibrahim, Shuhaimi Mustafa, Faezeh Vakhshiteh, Subhashini Sivasamboo, Arbakariya B Ariff
BACKGROUND: Selection of a microbial strain for the incorporation into food products requires in vitro and in vivo evaluations. A bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacterium (LAB), Pediococcus acidilactici Kp10, isolated from a traditional dried curd was assessed in vitro for its beneficial properties as a potential probiotic and starter culture. The inhibitory spectra of the bacterial strain against different gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, its cell surface hydrophobicity and resistance to phenol, its haemolytic, amylolytic and proteolytic activities, ability to produce acid and coagulate milk together with its enzymatic characteristics and adhesion property were all evaluated in vitro...
May 23, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529865/hyaluronic-acid-and-its-composites-as-a-local-antimicrobial-antiadhesive-barrier
#4
REVIEW
C L Romanò, E De Vecchi, M Bortolin, I Morelli, L Drago
Living in biofilms is probably the most common condition for bacteria and fungi and biofilm-related infections account for the majority of bacterial infectious diseases worldwide. Among others biofilm-related infections, those associated with implanted biomaterials have an enormous and still largely underestimated impact in orthopaedics and trauma, cardio-surgery and several other surgical disciplines. Given the limited efficacy of existing antibiotics in the prevention and treatment of bacterial biofilms, new strategies are needed to protect implants and host tissues, overcoming the striking ability of the microorganisms to adhere on different surfaces and to immediately protect themselves by forming the biofilm matrix...
2017: J Bone Jt Infect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504817/biofilm-formation-in-catheter-related-infections-by-panton-valentine-leukocidin-producing-staphylococcus-aureus
#5
Giorgio Silva-Santana, Kátia C Lenzi-Almeida, Vânia G S Lopes, Fábio Aguiar-Alves
The use of invasive techniques, such as intravascular catheter insertion, and the formation of biofilms in several devices by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have contributed to the increased number of septic patients, morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the virulence of strains through catheter colonization and identification of microbial biofilm, as well as pathological changes on the colonized skin. An experimental biofilm formation model utilized catheter fragments implanted subcutaneously in 25 Swiss mice...
December 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493331/pilus-biogenesis-of-gram-positive-bacteria-roles-of-sortases-and-implications-for-assembly
#6
REVIEW
Baldeep Khare, Sthanam Vl Narayana
Successful adherence, colonization, and survival of Gram-positive bacteria require surface proteins, and multi-protein assemblies called pili. These surface appendages are attractive pharmacotherapeutic targets and understanding their assembly mechanisms is essential for identifying a new class of 'anti-infectives' that do not elicit microbial resistance. Molecular details of the Gram-negative pilus assembly are available in-depth, but the Gram-positive pilus biogenesis is still an emerging field and investigations continue to reveal novel insights into this process...
May 10, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483964/towards-elimination-of-pin-tract-infections-novel-antibacterial-coating-on-orthopaedic-wires
#7
Dmitry Gil, Sergey Shuvaev, Anastasia Frank-Kamenetskii, Vladimir Reukov, Christopher Gross, Alexey Vertegel
Novel approaches to prevention of microbial infections after insertion of orthopedic external fixators are in great demand because of extremely high incidence rate of such infections, which can reach up to 100% for longer implant residence times. Monolaurin is an antimicrobial agent with known safety record, broadly used in food and cosmetic industries; however, its use in antimicrobial coatings of medical devices has not been studied in much detail. Here, we report the use of monolaurin as an antibacterial coating on external fixators for the first time...
May 8, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472099/microbiomes-associated-with-infective-stages-of-root-knot-and-lesion-nematodes-in-soil
#8
Ahmed Elhady, Ariadna Giné, Olivera Topalovic, Samuel Jacquiod, Søren J Sørensen, Francisco Javier Sorribas, Holger Heuer
Endoparasitic root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) and lesion (Pratylenchus spp.) nematodes cause considerable damage in agriculture. Before they invade roots to complete their life cycle, soil microbes can attach to their cuticle or surface coat and antagonize the nematode directly or by induction of host plant defenses. We investigated whether the nematode-associated microbiome in soil differs between infective stages of Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus penetrans, and whether it is affected by variation in the composition of microbial communities among soils...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468513/biofouling-of-reverse-osmosis-membranes-effects-of-cleaning-on-biofilm-microbial-communities-membrane-performance-and-adherence-of-extracellular-polymeric-substances
#9
Ashraf Al Ashhab, Amer Sweity, Bihter Bayramoglu, Moshe Herzberg, Osnat Gillor
Laboratory-scale reverse osmosis (RO) flat-sheet systems were used with two parallel flow cells, one treated with cleaning agents and a control (ie undisturbed). The cleaning efforts increased the affinity of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to the RO membrane and altered the biofilm surface structure. Analysis of the membrane biofilm community composition revealed the dominance of Proteobacteria. However, within the phylum Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria dominated the cleaned membrane biofilm, while β-Proteobacteria dominated the control biofilm...
May 4, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465519/the-conidial-mucilage-natural-film-coatings-is-involved-in-environmental-adaptability-and-pathogenicity-of-hirsutella-satumaensis-aoki
#10
Jiaojiao Qu, Xiao Zou, Jianping Yu, Yeming Zhou
The Hirsutella genus is very special asexually-reproducing pathogens of insects by reduced sporulation, host specificity and spores covered by a thick mucilage layer. However, the ecological function of conidial mucilage remains elusive. In this study, the possible ecological role of conidial mucilage from the entomopathogenic fungus Hirsutella satumaensis was functionally investigated through tolerance, adherence and insect bioassays involving aerial conidia (AC) and mucilage-free conidia (MFC). Measurements of hydrophobicity using microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) indicated that mucilage is main contributor to the surface hydrophobicity of AC...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454613/back-to-basics-sterile-technique
#11
Lisa Spruce
Sterile technique is an essential patient safety principle that reduces the risk of microbial transmission to patients during surgery. The ability to establish and maintain a sterile environment is an important skill for all perioperative team members. Understanding the principles of sterile technique is crucial for anyone entering the perioperative environment. This Back to Basics article reviews sterile technique and the importance of all perioperative team members adhering to aseptic principles.
May 2017: AORN Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452021/biodegradation-of-thermally-treated-low-density-polyethylene-by-fungus-rhizopus-oryzae-ns-5
#12
Shraddha Awasthi, Neha Srivastava, Tripti Singh, D Tiwary, Pradeep Kumar Mishra
Polythene is considered as one of the important object used in daily life. Being versatile in nature and resistant to microbial attack, they effectively cause environmental pollution. In the present study, biodegradation of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) have been performed using fungal lab isolate Rhizopus oryzae NS5. Lab isolate fungal strain capable of adhering to LDPE surface was used for the biodegradation of LDPE. This strain was identified as Rhizopus oryzae NS5 (Accession No. KT160362). Fungal growth was observed on the surface of the polyethylene when cultured in potato dextrose broth at 30 °C and 120 rpm, for 1 month...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438965/radiation-induces-proinflammatory-dysbiosis-transmission-of-inflammatory-susceptibility-by-host-cytokine-induction
#13
Shiran Gerassy-Vainberg, Alexandra Blatt, Yael Danin-Poleg, Katya Gershovich, Edmond Sabo, Alex Nevelsky, Shahar Daniel, Aviva Dahan, Oren Ziv, Rishu Dheer, Maria T Abreu, Omry Koren, Yechezkel Kashi, Yehuda Chowers
OBJECTIVE: Radiation proctitis (RP) is a complication of pelvic radiotherapy which affects both the host and microbiota. Herein we assessed the radiation effect on microbiota and its relationship to tissue damage using a rectal radiation mouse model. DESIGN: We evaluated luminal and mucosa-associated dysbiosis in irradiated and control mice at two postradiation time points and correlated it with clinical and immunological parameters. Epithelial cytokine response was evaluated using bacterial-epithelial co-cultures...
April 24, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434261/strategies-to-prevent-infections-associated-with-cardiovascular-implantable-electronic-devices
#14
Bharath Raj Palraj, Saira Farid, M Rizwan Sohail
Infections involving cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) are associated with high morbidity and mortality and substantial financial cost. In the past two decades, the rate of CIED infections has increased disproportionate to the number of devices implanted, likely due to aging patient population with multiple comorbidities. Microbial contamination of the generator pocket and or leads by skin flora at the time of implantation is a major mechanism for early CIED infections. Due to resistance to host immune cells and antibiotics caused by biofilm formation, complete removal of the device generator and leads is required to achieve cure...
May 4, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407426/a-short-history-of-microbial-biofilms-and-biofilm-infections
#15
REVIEW
Niels Høiby
The observation of aggregated microbes surrounded by a self-produced matrix adhering to surfaces or located in tissues or secretions is old since both Leeuwenhoek and Pasteur have described the phenomenon. In environmental and technical microbiology, biofilms, 80-90 years ago, were already shown to be important for biofouling on submerged surfaces, for example, ships. The concept of biofilm infections and their importance in medicine was, however, initiated in the early 1970s by the observation of heaps of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells in sputum and lung tissue from chronically infected cystic fibrosis patients...
April 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403171/bacterial-biofilm-under-flow-first-a-physical-struggle-to-stay-then-a-matter-of-breathing
#16
Philippe Thomen, Jérôme Robert, Amaury Monmeyran, Anne-Florence Bitbol, Carine Douarche, Nelly Henry
Bacterial communities attached to surfaces under fluid flow represent a widespread lifestyle of the microbial world. Through shear stress generation and molecular transport regulation, hydrodynamics conveys effects that are very different by nature but strongly coupled. To decipher the influence of these levers on bacterial biofilms immersed in moving fluids, we quantitatively and simultaneously investigated physicochemical and biological properties of the biofilm. We designed a millifluidic setup allowing to control hydrodynamic conditions and to monitor biofilm development in real time using microscope imaging...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369412/molecular-mechanisms-of-biofilm-based-antibiotic-resistance-and-tolerance-in-pathogenic-bacteria
#17
Clayton W Hall, Thien-Fah Mah
Biofilms are surface-attached groups of microbial cells encased in an extracellular matrix that are significantly less susceptible to antimicrobial agents than non-adherent, planktonic cells. Biofilm-based infections are, as a result, extremely difficult to cure. A wide range of molecular mechanisms contribute to the high degree of recalcitrance that is characteristic of biofilm communities. These mechanisms include, among others, interaction of antimicrobials with biofilm matrix components, reduced growth rates and the various actions of specific genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance and tolerance...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364222/siderophores-and-mussel-foot-proteins-the-role-of-catechol-cations-and-metal-coordination-in-surface-adhesion
#18
REVIEW
Greg P Maier, Alison Butler
Metal coordination, hydrogen bonding, redox reactions, and covalent crosslinking are seemingly disparate chemical and physicochemical processes that are all accomplished in natural materials by the catechol functional group. This review focuses on the reactivity of catechols in tris-2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-containing microbial siderophores and synthetic analogs, as well as Dopa-(3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine)-containing mussel foot proteins that adhere to surfaces in aqueous conditions. Mussel foot proteins with a high content of Dopa and cationic amino acids, Lys and Arg, adhere strongly to mica, an aluminosilicate mineral, in aqueous conditions...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358034/in-silico-identification-of-potential-inhibitors-targeting-streptococcus-mutans-sortase-a
#19
Hao Luo, Dan-Feng Liang, Min-Yue Bao, Rong Sun, Yuan-Yuan Li, Jian-Zong Li, Xin Wang, Kai-Min Lu, Jin-Ku Bao
Dental caries is one of the most common chronic diseases and is caused by acid fermentation of bacteria adhered to the teeth. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) utilizes sortase A (SrtA) to anchor surface proteins to the cell wall and forms a biofilm to facilitate its adhesion to the tooth surface. Some plant natural products, especially several flavonoids, are effective inhibitors of SrtA. However, given the limited number of inhibitors and the development of drug resistance, the discovery of new inhibitors is urgent...
March 2017: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351412/effect-of-pycnogenol%C3%A2-on-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Annelies A J Verlaet, Berten Ceulemans, Helene Verhelst, Dirk Van West, Tess De Bruyne, Luc Pieters, Huub F J Savelkoul, Nina Hermans
BACKGROUND: Methylphenidate (MPH), the first choice medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is associated with serious adverse effects like arrhythmia. Evidence on the association of ADHD with immune and oxidant-antioxidant imbalances offers potential for antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory nutritional supplements as ADHD therapy. One small randomised trial in ADHD suggests, despite various limitations, therapeutic benefit from Pycnogenol®, a herbal, polyphenol-rich extract...
March 28, 2017: Trials
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