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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418081/assessment-of-biofilm-removal-capacity-of-a-broad-host-range-bacteriophage-jhp-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#1
Muafia Shafique, Iqbal Ahmad Alvi, Zaigham Abbas, Shafiq Ur Rehman
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an efficient biofilm-dwelling microbial pathogen, associated with nosocomial infections. These biofilm-associated infections are resistant to antibiotics and immune defenses, therefore pose major problem against their treatment. This scenario demands alternative therapeutic regimens, and bacteriophage therapy is one among potential strategies for clinical management of multiple drug resistance. In this investigation, the efficacy of a bacteriophage, JHP, is evaluated to eradicate P...
April 18, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414173/affinity-interactions-drive-post-implantation-drug-filling-even-in-the-presence-of-bacterial-biofilm
#2
Erika L Cyphert, Sean T Zuckerman, Horst A von Recum, Julius N Korley
Current post-operative standard of care for surgical procedures, including device implantations, dictates prophylactic antimicrobial therapy, but a percentage of patients still develop infections. Systemic antimicrobial therapy needed to treat such infections can lead to downstream tissue toxicities and generate drug-resistant bacteria. To overcome issues associated with systemic drug administration, a polymer incorporating specific drug affinity has been developed with the potential to be filled or refilled with antimicrobials, post-implantation, even in the presence of bacterial biofilm...
April 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377905/host-response-to-staphylococcus-epidermidis-colonization-and-infections
#3
REVIEW
Thuan H Nguyen, Matthew D Park, Michael Otto
The majority of research in the Staphylococcus field has been dedicated to the understanding of Staphylococcus aureus infections. In contrast, there is limited information on infections by coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) and how the host responds to them. S. epidermidis, a member of the coagulase-negative Staphylococci, is an important commensal organism of the human skin and mucous membranes; and there is emerging evidence of its benefit for human health in fighting off harmful microorganisms. However, S...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377583/preventing-microbial-biofilms-on-catheter-tubes-using-ultrasonic-guided-waves
#4
Huanlei Wang, Fengmeng Teng, Xin Yang, Xiasheng Guo, Juan Tu, Chunbing Zhang, Dong Zhang
Biofilms on indwelling tubes and medical prosthetic devices are among the leading causes of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. In this work, a new anti-biofilm catheter prototype was proposed. By combining an endotracheal tube (ET) with a group of ultrasonic guided wave (UGW) transducers, the general idea was to prevent bacteria aggregation with UGW vibrations. Based on quantitative analysis of UGW propagation, detailed approach was achieved through (a) selection of ultrasonic frequency, wave modes and vibration amplitude; and (b) adoption of wave coupling and 45° wave incidence technique...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376133/consequences-of-lysine-auxotrophy-for-candida-albicans-adherence-and-biofilm-formation
#5
Iwona Gabriel, Michał Rychłowski
A number of factors are known to be involved in Candida albicans virulence, although biofilm development on the surfaces of indwelling medical devices is considered to promote superficial or systemic disease. Based on previously reported up-regulation of saccharopine and acetyllysine in biofilm cells and activation of the lysine biosynthesis/degradation pathway, we investigated the consequences of Candida albicans lysine auxotrophy on adhesion to host tissues and biofilm formation. Our data indicate that mutant strains lysΔ21/lysΔ22, defective in homocitrate synthase, and lysΔ4, defective in homoaconitase activity (the first two α-aminoadipate pathway enzymes), are able to adhere to mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (cell line NIH/3T3) to the same extent as a control strain SC5314...
April 3, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373261/how-we-treat-central-venous-access-device-related-upper-extremity-dvt
#6
Anita Rajasekhar, Michael B Streiff
Central venous access device (CVAD)-related thrombosis (CRT) is a common complication among patients requiring central venous access as part of their medical care. Complications of CRT include pulmonary embolism, recurrent deep venous thrombosis, loss of central venous access and post-thrombotic syndrome. Patient, device and treatment-related factors can influence the risk of CRT. Despite numerous randomized controlled trials, the clinical benefit of pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis for prevention of CRT remains to be established...
April 3, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345769/best-practice-policy-statement-on-urodynamic-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-the-non-index-patient
#7
REVIEW
Anne P Cameron, Lysanne Campeau, Benjamin M Brucker, J Quentin Clemens, Gregory T Bales, Michael E Albo, Michael J Kennelly
AIMS: Antibiotic prophylaxis before urodynamic testing (UDS) is widely utilized to prevent urinary tract infection (UTI) with only limited guidance. The Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine, and Urogenital Reconstruction (SUFU) convened a Best Practice Policy Panel to formulate recommendations on the urodynamic antibiotic prophylaxis in the non-index patient. METHODS: Recommendations are based on a literature review and the Panel's expert opinion, with all recommendations graded using the Oxford grading system...
March 27, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339623/the-molecular-and-clinical-epidemiology-of-extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-and-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-at-4-us-pediatric-hospitals
#8
Danielle M Zerr, Scott J Weissman, Chuan Zhou, Matthew P Kronman, Amanda L Adler, Jessica E Berry, Jaipreet Rayar, Jeff Myers, Wren L Haaland, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Alexis Elward, Jason Newland, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Kaede V Sullivan, Theoklis Zaoutis, Xuan Qin
Objective.: In this report, we aim to describe the epidemiology of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) and carbapenem-resistant (CR) Enterobacteriaceae infections in children. Methods.: ESC-R and CR Enterobacteriaceae isolates from normally sterile sites of patients aged <22 years from 4 freestanding pediatric medical centers were collected along with the associated clinical data. Results.: The overall frequencies of ESC-R and CR isolates according to hospital over the 4-year study period ranged from 0...
January 19, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320940/molecular-interactions-and-inhibition-of-the-staphylococcal-biofilm-forming-protein-sdrc
#9
Cécile Feuillie, Cécile Formosa-Dague, Leanne M C Hays, Ophélie Vervaeck, Sylvie Derclaye, Marian P Brennan, Timothy J Foster, Joan A Geoghegan, Yves F Dufrêne
Staphylococcus aureus forms biofilms on indwelling medical devices using a variety of cell-surface proteins. There is growing evidence that specific homophilic interactions between these proteins represent an important mechanism of cell accumulation during biofilm formation, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not well-understood. Here we report the direct measurement of homophilic binding forces by the serine-aspartate repeat protein SdrC and their inhibition by a peptide. Using single-cell and single-molecule force measurements, we find that SdrC is engaged in low-affinity homophilic bonds that promote cell-cell adhesion...
April 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279719/surgical-management-of-perforated-ivc-filters
#10
Miguel Manzur, Christian Ochoa, Sung Wan Ham, William Lee, Trevor Simcox, Vincent Rowe, Fred Weaver
OBJECTIVES: Management of complicated indwelling inferior vena cava (IVC) filters has increased due to low retrieval rates. Filter migration and perforation are infrequent complications and require explantation of the filter. We report our recent experience with endovascular retrieval and surgical explantation of IVC filters after caval perforation. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of patients who had IVC filter explantation between 2014-2015. Patient demographics, indication for filter placement, clinical presentation, surgical indication and technique, and outcomes were noted...
March 6, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268952/swallowable-sensing-device-for-long-term-gastrointestinal-tract-monitoring
#11
Ryota Nakamura, Shintaro Izumi, Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Hidetoshi Ohta, Masahiko Yoshimoto
This paper presents a swallowable sensor device that can be ingested orally, later arriving to the stomach, where the device can indwell for a long term and can be egested at any time after it is triggered using wireless communication. This device can inflate a silicone balloon in the gastrointestinal tract using a chemical reaction. The balloon can be deflated later using electrolysis of water at the time of egestion. A motorless chemical-reaction-based egestion method is proposed to minimize the sensor device size...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261188/marine-sponge-derived-streptomyces-sp-sbt343-extract-inhibits-staphylococcal-biofilm-formation
#12
Srikkanth Balasubramanian, Eman M Othman, Daniel Kampik, Helga Stopper, Ute Hentschel, Wilma Ziebuhr, Tobias A Oelschlaeger, Usama R Abdelmohsen
Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are opportunistic pathogens that cause nosocomial and chronic biofilm-associated infections. Indwelling medical devices and contact lenses are ideal ecological niches for formation of staphylococcal biofilms. Bacteria within biofilms are known to display reduced susceptibilities to antimicrobials and are protected from the host immune system. High rates of acquired antibiotic resistances in staphylococci and other biofilm-forming bacteria further hamper treatment options and highlight the need for new anti-biofilm strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256471/risk-factors-associated-with-fluoroquinolone-resistant-enterococcal-urinary-tract-infections-in-a-tertiary-care-university-hospital-in-north-india
#13
Tuhina Banerjee, Shampa Anupurba
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Fluoroquinolone resistance in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria has increased with the widespread use of fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Gram-negative bacilli has been widely studied, though staphylococci and enterococci are also notably resistant. Enterococci being the second most common cause of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs) fluoroquinolones are often the drug of choice. This study was undertaken to assess the risk factors associated with fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococcal UTI in a tertiary level health facility in north India...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251105/carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-risk-factors-for-infection-and-impact-of-resistance-on-outcomes
#14
Shanthi Mariappan, Uma Sekar, Arunagiri Kamalanathan
BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have increased in recent years leading to limitations of treatment options. The present study was undertaken to detect CPE, risk factors for acquiring them and their impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 111 clinically significant Enterobacteriaceae resistant to cephalosporins subclass III and exhibiting a positive modified Hodge test. Screening for carbapenemase production was done by phenotypic methods, and polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect genes encoding them...
January 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236355/influence-of-surface-roughness-on-silicone-rubber-voice-prostheses-on-in-vitro-biofilm-formation-and-clinical-lifetime-in-laryngectomized-patients
#15
Kevin J D A Buijssen, Janine J H Oosterhof, Leo Basil, Mark Waters, Mari-Anne Duits, Henk J Busscher, Henny C van der Mei, Bernard F A M van der Laan
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the influence of a smooth surface moulding technique of silicone rubber indwelling voice prostheses on in vitro biofilm formation and analysis of the clinical in situ lifetime. DESIGN: Biofilm formation on smooth and Groningen ultra-low resistance (URL) prostheses was studied in an artificial throat model. The clinical lifetime of smooth voice prostheses were compared to the previous lifetime of URL by counting the number of replacements in a consecutive 6 months period in the same patient...
February 25, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227159/swallowable-sensing-device-for-long-term-gastrointestinal-tract-monitoring
#16
Ryota Nakamura, Shintaro Izumi, Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Hidetoshi Ohta, Masahiko Yoshimoto, Ryota Nakamura, Shintaro Izumi, Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Hidetoshi Ohta, Masahiko Yoshimoto, Hidetoshi Ohta, Ryota Nakamura, Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Masahiko Yoshimoto, Shintaro Izumi
This paper presents a swallowable sensor device that can be ingested orally, later arriving to the stomach, where the device can indwell for a long term and can be egested at any time after it is triggered using wireless communication. This device can inflate a silicone balloon in the gastrointestinal tract using a chemical reaction. The balloon can be deflated later using electrolysis of water at the time of egestion. A motorless chemical-reaction-based egestion method is proposed to minimize the sensor device size...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146021/spinal-tissue-loading-created-by-different-methods-of-spinal-manipulative-therapy-application
#17
Martha Funabashi, François Nougarou, Martin Descarreaux, Narasimha Prasad, Gregory N Kawchuk
STUDY DESIGN: Comparative study using robotic replication of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) vertebral kinematics together with serial dissection. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify loads created in cadaveric spinal tissues arising from three different forms of SMT application. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There exist many distinct methods by which to apply SMT. It is not known presently whether different forms of SMT application have different effects on spinal tissues...
May 1, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144822/in-vitro-activity-of-berberine-alone-and-in-combination-with-antifungal-drugs-against-planktonic-forms-and-biofilms-of-trichosporon-asahii
#18
Lin Cong, Yong Liao, Suteng Yang, Rongya Yang
Trichosporon asahii (T. asahii) is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients, with high mortality rates up to 80% despite treated with antifungal drugs. The biofilms-forming ability of T. asahii on indwelling medical devices may account for the resistance to antifungal drugs. Berberine (BBR) has been demonstrated to have antifungal activity and synergistic effects in combination with antifungal drugs against pathogenic fungi. In the present study, the in vitro activities of BBR alone or combined with fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VRC), caspofungin (CAS) and amphotericin B (AMB) against planktonic forms and biofilms of 21 clinical T...
January 31, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144088/outcomes-cost-comparison-and-patient-satisfaction-during-long-term-central-venous-access-in-cancer-patients-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-cancer-institute-in-south-india
#19
K Govind Babu, M C Suresh Babu, D Lokanatha, Gita R Bhat
INTRODUCTION: Prolonged treatment, frequent administration of chemotherapy, antibiotics and blood products in cancer patients requires long term venous access. Central venous catheters (CVC) inserted into the subclavian vein or internal jugular vein, peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC) and chemoport (CP) are the commonly used central venous access devices (CVAD). AIM: This study was envisaged to review our experience of CVADs over a one year period and analyze the outcome with regard to catheter life, reasons for removal, complications, patient satisfaction and cost comparison between the CVAD types in the Indian setting...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142193/staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-a-complex-developmental-organism
#20
REVIEW
Derek E Moormeier, Kenneth W Bayles
Chronic biofilm-associated infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus often lead to significant increases in morbidity and mortality, particularly when associated with indwelling medical devices. This has triggered a great deal of research attempting to understand the molecular mechanisms that control S. aureus biofilm formation and the basis for the recalcitrance of these multicellular structures to antibiotic therapy. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of S. aureus biofilm development, focusing on the description of a newly-defined, five-stage model of biofilm development and the mechanisms required for each stage...
May 2017: Molecular Microbiology
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